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Sample records for cestodes

  1. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

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    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  2. Innovative fluorescence detection technique for metals in cestode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent work in the field of parasitology has drawn attention to the application of parasites as pollution-accumulation indicators, particularly cestodes. A discrepancy in metal concentrations within cestode posterior and anterior tissue has led researchers to attribute this phenomenon to metals binding to the shells of their ...

  3. Polycystic echinococcosis in Colombia: the larval cestodes in infected rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, G A; Guzman, V H; Wells, E A; Angel, D

    1979-07-01

    Described are the characteristics of the polycystic larval cestodes found in an endemic area of echinococcosis in the Easter Plains of Colombia and the tissue reaction evoked in infected rodents. Of 848 free-ranging animals examined, polycystic hydatids were found in 44/93 Cuniculus paca and 1/369 Proechimys sp. None of 20 Dasyprocta fuliginosa examined was infected, but hunters provided a heart with hydatid cysts and information about two additional animals with infected livers. Recognition of an endemic area of polycystic echinococcosis provides a means to investigate the life cycle of the parasites and to study the histogenesis of the larval cestodes in susceptible laboratory animals.

  4. Detailed transcriptome description of the neglected cestode Taenia multiceps.

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    Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and

  5. Detailed transcriptome description of the neglected cestode Taenia multiceps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam. We identified 26,110 (83.47% unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8% coding sequences (CDS. Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of

  6. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Trematodes and cestodes.

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    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased international travel for vacation, work, and medical missions and immigration into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. It has been estimated that 20% to 70% of international travelers suffer from some travel-related health problem. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on cutaneous diseases caused by helminth infections. Part I of the review focused on nematode infections; part II will focus on trematode and cestode infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of the cestode fauna in spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias (Squaliformes: Squalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Maria; Caira, Janine N

    2014-06-01

    This study furthers understanding of cestode infections in a marine environment through time and space by following seasonal fluctuations in infection parameters of three cestode species (Gilquinia squali, Trilocularia gracilis and Phyllobothrium squali) parasitizing spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the northwest Atlantic and comparing them to work previously published from the northeast Atlantic on T. gracilis. For each cestode species, host size, season and presence of the other cestode species were analysed using generalized linear models to determine if they were good predictors of prevalence and intensity. Infection parameters differed across season for the three cestode species. However, within T. gracilis seasonal trends were found to be remarkably similar on both sides of the Atlantic, differing only in a somewhat delayed decline in prevalence in the northwest Atlantic. The differences seen in infection measures across cestode species likely reflect the unique life history strategies of different parasite species. While general trends appear to be maintained across disparate localities, variation seen is likely due to differences in accessibility to intermediate hosts and host diet across sites. The knowledge gained from understanding cestode infections in the vast ocean environment allows us to speculate about the factors driving fluctuations in parasite infections in elasmobranchs.

  8. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

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    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

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    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  10. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

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    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

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    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  12. [Activities and properties of phosphorylases of turbellariae Phagocata sibirica and cestodes Bothriocephalus scorpii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Activities and properties of phosphorylases of cytosol and mitochondrial fractions are studied in free-living turbellaria Phagocata sibirica and cestodes Bothriocephalus scorpii. The phosphorylase activities in P. sibirica and B. scorpii differ significantly both in form and the total activity of this enzyme. Dependence of the phosphorylase reaction rate on substrate concentration is studied. The high activity of phosphorylase as compared with that of hexokinase suggests glycogen to be the main energy source of the studied flatworms. Effects of various effectors on activities of cytosol and mitochondrial phosphorylases are studied.

  13. [Activities and properties of glucose-6-phosphatase of turbellaria Phagocata sibirica and cestodes Bothriocephalus scorpii].

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    Burenina, E A

    2009-01-01

    There were studied activities and properties of mitochondrial and microsomal glucose-6-phosphatases (G6Pases) in free living turbellaria Phagocata sibirica and cestodes Bothriocephalus scorpii. Action of various effectors (sodium fluoride, glucose, HCO3-, citrate, Cu2+, DTT, EDTA, ATP, AFP) on the enzyme activity was studied. The obtained results and literature data demonstrate that G6Pase is present in various muscles of representatives of the animal kingdom. The conclusion can be made that invertebrate G6Pase releases glucose from glycogen and gluconeogenic precursors.

  14. Evolutionary characterization of Ty3/gypsy-like LTR retrotransposons in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An

    2016-11-01

    Cyclophyllidean cestodes including Echinococcus granulosus have a smaller genome and show characteristics such as loss of the gut, a segmented body plan, and accelerated growth rate in hosts compared with other tissue-invading helminths. In an effort to address the molecular mechanism relevant to genome shrinkage, the evolutionary status of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which are known as the most potent genomic modulators, was investigated in the E. granulosus draft genome. A majority of the E. granulosus LTR retrotransposons were classified into a novel characteristic clade, named Saci-2, of the Ty3/gypsy family, while the remaining elements belonged to the CsRn1 clade of identical family. Their nucleotide sequences were heavily corrupted by frequent base substitutions and segmental losses. The ceased mobile activity of the major retrotransposons and the following intrinsic DNA loss in their inactive progenies might have contributed to decrease in genome size. Apart from the degenerate copies, a gag gene originating from a CsRn1-like element exhibited substantial evidences suggesting its domestication including a preserved coding profile and transcriptional activity, the presence of syntenic orthologues in cestodes, and selective pressure acting on the gene. To my knowledge, the endogenized gag gene is reported for the first time in invertebrates, though its biological function remains elusive.

  15. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Khawia sinensis belongs among platyhelminths, cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Feng, Han-Li; Fang, Yi-Hui; Su, Ying-Bing

    2017-06-01

    Khawia sinensis is an important species in freshwater fish causing considerable economic losses to the breeding industry. This is the first mt genome of a caryophyllidean cestode characterised. The entire mt genome of K. sinensis is 13,759 bp in length. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the K. sinensis mt genome is the same as other tapeworms, however, the incomplete stop codon (A) is more frequent that other species. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino-acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes of 17 tapeworms including K. sinensis were conducted to assess the relationship of K. sinensis with other species, the result indicated K. sinensis was closely related with cestode species. This complete mt genome of K. sinensis will enrich the mitochondrial genome databases of tapeworms and provide important molecular markers for ecology, diagnostics, population variation and evolution of K. sinensis and other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  17. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, R.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2002), s. 171-182 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestodes * parasites of birds * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002

  18. High-throughput identification of miRNAs of Taenia ovis, a cestode threatening sheep industry.

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    Zheng, Yadong

    2017-07-01

    Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep or goats and has an adverse effect on sheep industry. miRNAs are short regulatory non-coding RNAs, involved in parasite development and growth as well as parasite infection. The miRNA profile of T. ovis remains to be established. Herein, 33 known miRNAs belonging to 23 different families were identified in T. ovis metacestodes using deep sequencing approach. Of them, expression of some miRNAs such as tov-miR-10 and -let-7 was absolutely predominant. Moreover, comparative analysis revealed the presence of a miR-71/2b/2c cluster in T. ovis, which was also completely conserved in other 6 cestodes. The study provides rich data for further understandings of T. ovis biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

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    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch.

  20. Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

  1. Gene expression profiles of the small intestinal mucosa of dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kouguchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented in this article is related to a previous research article entitled “ The timing of worm exclusion in dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis” (Kouguchi et al., 2016 [1]. This article describes the genes >2-fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2 Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379. The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE105098. Keywords: E. multilocularis, Microarray, Dog, Echinococcosis, Vaccine

  2. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Cyclophyllidean cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924), an endoparasite of domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. T...

  3. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

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    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effects on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the

  6. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Cyclophyllidean cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924), an endoparasite of domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. The A + T and G + C contents were obtained as 49.82 and 50.18 % respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that C. cuneata branched with its closest cluster comprising of Raillietina tunetensis, Raillietina australis, Fuhrmannetta malakartis and Raillietina sonini with 99 % bootstrap support.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.

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    Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

    2005-10-01

    Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections.

  8. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  9. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery against cestode infection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Ivan A; Sadov, Konstantin M; Limova, Yulia V; Sadova, Alexandra K; Varlamova, Anastasiya I; Khalikov, Salavat S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Chistyachenko, Yulia S

    2017-11-15

    Niclosamide is an anthelmintic that is widely used to treat cestode infection of animals. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery was studied in hymenolepiosis of mice and monieziosis of sheep. The efficacy of new substances of niclosamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer in different ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:2) was determined by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestine of sheep and mice. Pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) were not significantly different (P>0.1) among groups. The controlled test was used to evaluate the efficacy. A high efficacy (>95% efficacy) of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide with PVP (SCoNwPVP) was shown in different ratios (1:10; 1:5 and 1:2) at a dose of 20mg/kg of body weight at oral administration against Hymenolepis nana in mice and Moniezia expansa in sheep. Whereas the basic drug - substance of niclosamide was effective at a dose of 100mg/kg of b/w. No adverse effects of the drugs on animal health were detected during the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel

  11. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from the equine nematode, Parascaris equorum, and the canine cestode, Dipylidium caninum, helminths exhibiting anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, F; Komuniecki, R W

    1994-10-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has been purified to apparent homogeneity from 2 parasitic helminths exhibiting anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism, the equine nematode, Parascaris equorum, and the canine cestode, Dipylidium caninum. The P. equorum PDC yielded 7 major bands when separated by SDS-PAGE. The bands of 72, 55-53.5, 41 and 36 kDa corresponded to E2, E3, E1 alpha and E1 beta, respectively. The complex also contained additional unidentified proteins of 43 and 45 kDa. Incubation of the complex with [2-14C]pyruvate resulted in the acetylation of only E2. These results suggest that the P. equorum PDC lacks protein X and exhibits an altered subunit composition, as has been described previously for the PDC of the related nematode, Ascaris suum. In contrast, the D. caninum PDC yielded only four major bands after SDS-PAGE of 59, 58, 39 and 34 kDa, which corresponded to E3, E2, E1 alpha and E1 beta, respectively. Incubation of the D. caninum complex with [2-14C]pyruvate resulted in the acetylation of E2 and a second protein which comigrated with E3, suggesting that the D. caninum complex contained protein X and had a subunit composition similar to PDCs from other eukaryotic organisms. Both helminth complexes appeared less sensitive to inhibition by elevated NADH/NAD+ ratios than complexes isolated from aerobic organisms, as would be predicted for PDCs from organisms exploiting microaerobic habitats. These results suggest that although these helminths have similar anaerobic mitochondrial pathways, they contain significantly different PDCs.

  12. Two new species and a new phyllobothriid cestode genus from sharks of the genus Negaprion Whitley (Carcharhiniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, T R; Workman, R E

    2013-05-01

    Alexandercestus n. g. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) is erected for two cestode species found parasitising the two known species of lemon sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Negaprion spp.). This new genus differs from all other phyllobothriid genera except for Hemipristicola Cutmore, Theiss, Bennett & Cribb, 2011, Marsupiobothrium Yamaguti, 1952, Nandocestus Reyda, 2008, Orectolobicestus Ruhnke, Caira & Carpenter 2006, Orygmatobothrium Diesing, 1863, Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 and Phyllobothrium van Beneden, 1849 in possessing uniloculate bothridia with an apical sucker and neck scutes. Alexandercestus differs from Orectolobicestus and Nandocestus in lacking marginal loculi on the bothridia, from Paraorygmatobothrium in possessing uninterrupted vitelline follicles at the level of the ovary and from Phyllobothrium in being euapolytic as opposed to anapolytic and in lacking posteriorly bifid bothridia. The new genus lacks the central accessory bothridial organ seen in specimens of Orygmatobothrium, and lacks the central bothridial accessory sucker of specimens of Marsupiobothrium. Alexandercestus spp. compare most favourably with specimens of Hemipristicola, especially with respect to aspects of proglottid morphology, but differ in possessing aristate gladiate spinitriches rather than serrate gladiate spinitriches on the proximal bothridial surface. In addition, the bothridia of Alexandercestus spp. are comparatively more fleshy and foliose than those in specimens of Hemipristicola. Two new species of Alexandercestus n. g. are described, Alexandercestus gibsoni n. sp. from Negaprion acutidens, collected from off northern Australia and the Marshall Islands, and Alexandercestus manteri n. sp. from N. brevirostris, collected off the islands of Bimini and the Florida Keys. The two new species differ in total length and vitelline follicle distribution. Bayesian inference and parsimony analysis of the D1-D3 region of the large nuclear ribosomal DNA of 17 published and seven

  13. Plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta: substantial increase in infection after establishment of European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstrøm, R; Trømborg, J; Haugen, T O; Rosseland, B O

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta from the subalpine lake Øvre Heimdalsvatn in south-central Norway. Salmo trutta was the only fish species in this lake until European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus was registered in 1969. The P. phoxinus population increased substantially in the following years. In contrast with the 1969-1972 period, when plerocercoids of D. ditremum were practically absent in S. trutta, there was a high prevalence and intensity of infection in the 2013 S. trutta samples. Because the life cycle of D. ditremum involves two larval stages, in copepods and salmonids and mature worms in piscivorous birds, such as mergansers and loons, a change in feeding ecology of S. trutta or changes in population densities of copepods, fish or birds might have influenced the infection pattern. No relationships between D. ditremum infection and muscle-tissue δ 15 N signature or Hg concentration were found, indicating that infection is not a result of piscivory or cannibalism. Furthermore, consumption of copepods by S. trutta during summer and autumn was low. On the other hand, the number of piscivorous birds has increased, probably due to the presence of P. phoxinus as a new and numerous prey. An increased number of final D. ditremum hosts may have produced a higher output of cestode eggs, resulting in more infected copepods that in turn are consumed by S. trutta. Indirectly, P. phoxinus may therefore have caused the observed increased infection in S. trutta and thereby imposed further negative effects on S. trutta in high mountain areas. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999, 158.8 (December 1999, 96.4 (February 2000, 400.7 (April 2000, 215.6 (October 2000 and 136.4 (December 2000 were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05 between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.

  15. Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elden T Holldorf

    Full Text Available Multiple host introductions to the same non-native environment have the potential to complete life cycles of parasites incidentally transported with them. Our goal was to identify a recently detected parasitic flatworm in the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis on the remote Pacific island of Guam. We considered possible factors influencing parasite transmission, and tested for correlations between infection status and potential indicators of host fitness. We used genetic data from the parasite and information about the native ranges of other possible non-native hosts to hypothesize how it arrived on Guam and how its life cycle may be currently supported.We identified the parasite by comparing larval morphology and mtDNA sequences with other Pseudophyllid tapeworms. We assessed probability of infection in individual snakes using logistic regression and examined different factors influencing presence of parasites in hosts.We identified the parasite as the pseudophyllid cestode Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, with all sampled worms from multiple snakes sharing a single mtDNA haplotype. Infection appears to be limited to the only freshwater watershed on the island, where infection prevalence was high (77.5%. Larger snakes had a higher probability of being infected, consistent with the chronic nature of such infections. While infection status was positively correlated with body condition, infected snakes tended to have lower intra-peritoneal fat body mass, potentially indicating a negative effect on energy stores.We discovered that B. irregularis inhabiting a small area of forested habitat in a freshwater watershed on Guam are often infected by a novel parasite of Asian origin. While further work is needed, this species of Spirometra, itself a non-native species, likely depends on a suite of recently introduced hosts from different parts of the world to complete the life cycle. This baseline study provides little evidence of any effects on host

  16. Excretory products of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, modulate in vitro responses of leukocytes from its specific host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsack, Jörn Peter; Gossens, Anabel; Franke, Frederik; Kurtz, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Helminth parasites have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate the immune system of their hosts. During infections of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus prominent immunological changes occur, presumably due to manipulative activity of the parasite. We hypothesise that excretory/secretory products of the parasite are involved in the manipulation of the stickleback's immune system and that this may depend on the individual parasite and its origin. We therefore produced S. solidus conditioned cell culture media (SSCM) with parasites from different origins (Norway, Spain and Germany) and exposed head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from un-infected sticklebacks in cell cultures to SSCM. After in vitro culture, HKL were subjected to differential cell counts (granulocytes/lymphocytes) by means of flow cytometry. Leukocyte sub-populations were analysed for cell viability and changes in cell morphology. The respiratory burst activity was measured with a luminescence assay. Exposure of HKL to SSCM induced an up-regulation of respiratory burst activity after already 1 h, which was still elevated at 24 h, but which was in some cases significantly down-regulated after 96 h. Respiratory burst was positively correlated with the number of live granulocytes in the culture, suggesting that the respiratory burst activity was changed by SSCM effects on granulocyte viability. After 1 h and 24 h of HKL culture, no lymphocyte responses to SSCM were detectable, but after 96 h lymphocyte viability was significantly decreased with SSCM from Spanish S. solidus. In these cultures, residual lymphocytes increased in size, suggesting that cell death and activation might have occurred in parallel. The highest respiratory burst activity was induced by SSCM from Spanish parasites, in particular when they were grown in sympatric sticklebacks. The in vitro HKL responses to SSCM depended on the individual parasite and its population of origin

  17. Morphology meets molecules: a new genus and two new species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei, from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lauren McKenna; Caira, Janine N

    2014-06-01

    Two morphologically disparate undescribed species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei , from South Africa were included in a recent molecular phylogenetic study aimed at revising diphyllidean classification. From a molecular standpoint, these species were determined to be only distantly related to one another. One (originally referred to as Echinobothrium n. sp. 2) showed affinities with species of the batoid-parasitizing Echinobothrium sensu stricto and is described here as Echinobothrium marquesi n. sp. This species most closely resembles Echinobothrium joshuai, an affinity supported by the previous molecular study, but differs in the form of its "B" hooks and degree of overlap between bothria and cephalic peduncle. The other species (originally referred to as New genus n. sp. 1), although exhibiting the full complement of scolex armature, grouped among primarily shark-hosted genera, most of which lack or exhibit reduced scolex armatures. That unexpected result suggested that erection of a novel genus might be warranted, but morphological grounds supporting the action were not apparent at that time. The present study aimed to explore the morphology of this taxon in more detail. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed this taxon to be exceptional in that its lateral hooklets, which are arranged in 2 clusters like those of Echinobothrium and Coronocestus, are unique in being arranged in anterior and posterior rows, rather than in a single row. Andocadoncum n. gen. is erected, with Andocadoncum meganae n. sp. as its type, to accommodate this taxon. A minor adjustment to the existing hook formula by presenting counts for the anterior hooklets (a) separately from the posterior hooklets (b) readily accommodates this new form. Leucoraja wallacei is distinctive among skates in hosting 2 different genera of diphyllideans. In the context of the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, it appears that the presence of

  18. Vitellogenesis of diphyllobothriidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Bruňanská, M.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 3 (2015), s. 169-179 ISSN 1631-0691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Vitellogenesis * Ultrastructure * Cestoda * Diphyllobothriidea * Cephalochlamys namaquensis * Duthiersia expansa * Schistocephalus solidus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2015

  19. Spermiogenesis in the proteocephalidean cestode Proteocephalus torulosus (Batsch, 1786)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Nebesářová, Jana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2003), s. 318-324 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314; GA ČR GA206/03/1317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestoda * spermiogenesis * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  20. Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2003), s. 65-75 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  1. Taenia multiceps: a rare human cestode infection in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mony Benifla MD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain infestation caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps is a rare phenomenon in humans, but is fairly common among sheep in Mediterranean countries. No more than 150 human cases have been reported. In this present study, we report an unusual case of a huge intra-parenchymal cyst in a four-year-old girl caused by T. multiceps. No cross-reactivity between Echinococcus granulosus and T. multiceps antigens was demonstrated. After surgical removal of the cyst, followed by chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazole combined with praziquantel, the child recovered completely.

  2. Vitellogenesis in the cestode Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Caryophyllidea: Lytocestidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Drobníková, P.; Oros, Mikuláš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2009), s. 647-654 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : vitellogenesis * Atractolytocestus huronensis * AMPHILINIDEA CESTODA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  3. Annotated checklist of fish cestodes from South America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, P.V.; de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 650, February 1 (2017), s. 1-205 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * marine ecoregions * river basins * species richness * tapeworms Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016

  4. Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  5. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjit Thanchomnang

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  6. Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of the pseudophyllidean cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Marchand, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2005), s. 26-33 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA206/03/1317 Grant - others:Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Triaenophorus nodulosus * spermiogenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2005

  7. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the paruterinid cestode Notopentorchis sp. (Cyclophyllidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, A.; Levron, Céline; NIkolov, P. N.; Mizinska, Y.; Mariaux, J.; Georgiev, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2012), s. 135-142 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : INTESTINAL PARASITE * MATURE SPERMATOZOON * SPERMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS * TAPEWORMS PLATYHELMINTHES * COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY * SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE * ELECTRON MICROSCOPY * GOLDEN-HAMSTERS * FINE-STRUCTURE * VON LINSTOW Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  8. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the proteocephalidean cestode Proteocephalus torulosus (Batsch, 1786)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Nebesářová, Jana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2003), s. 345-351 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestoda * spermatozoon * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  9. Genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes at a continental scale in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Knapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe helminth disease affecting humans, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE represents a serious public health issue in larger regions of China, Siberia, and other regions in Asia. In Europe, a significant increase in prevalence since the 1990s is not only affecting the historically documented endemic area north of the Alps but more recently also neighbouring regions previously not known to be endemic. The genetic diversity of the parasite population and respective distribution in Europe have now been investigated in view of generating a fine-tuned map of parasite variants occurring in Europe. This approach may serve as a model to study the parasite at a worldwide level.The genetic diversity of E. multilocularis was assessed based upon the tandemly repeated microsatellite marker EmsB in association with matching fox host geographical positions. Our study demonstrated a higher genetic diversity in the endemic areas north of the Alps when compared to other areas.The study of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Europe, based on 32 genetic clusters, suggests that Europe can be considered as a unique global focus of E. multilocularis, which can be schematically drawn as a central core located in Switzerland and Jura Swabe flanked by neighbouring regions where the parasite exhibits a lower genetic diversity. The transmission of the parasite into peripheral regions is governed by a "mainland-island" system. Moreover, the presence of similar genetic profiles in both zones indicated a founder event.

  10. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmina, T.A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, E.T.; Spraker, T.R.; Kornyushyn, V.V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2015), s. 256-263 ISSN 2213-2244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothrium pacificum) * Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis * Cestoda * Diphyllobothridea * Diplogonoporus tetrapterus * Otariidae, North Pacific * Tapeworms * Tetrabothriidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  12. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-01-01

    14 C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  13. Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to ...

  14. Ultrastructure of embryonated eggs of the cestode Gyrocotyle urna (Gyrocotylidea) using cryo-methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Scholz, Tomáš; Vancová, Marie; Kuchta, Roman; Conn, D. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 3 (2016), s. 279-289 ISSN 0720-213X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Gyrocotylidea * Ultrastructure * Embryonic * Cryo-technique * Cestoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caira, J. N.; Marques, F.P.L.; Jensen, K.; Kuchta, Roman; Ivanov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2013), s. 621-639 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Elasmobranchs * 28S rDNA * 18S rDNA * Ahamulina * Coronocestus * Ditrachybothridium * Echinobothrium * Halysioncum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

  16. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Cephalochlamys namaquensis (Cohn, 1906)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Matey, V.; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 3 (2012), s. 1037-1043 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GLARIDACRIS-CATOSTOMI COOPER * WENYONIA-VIRILIS WOODLAND * SPERMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS * MATURE SPERMATOZOON * ALAPTERURUS-ELECTRICUS * SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE * CRASSUM BLOCH * SPERMIOGENESIS * PARASITE * SPERMATOGENESIS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-012-2928-4

  17. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...

  18. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; López-González, Mercedes; Hernández, Mariano; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Feliu, Carlos

    2011-09-26

    In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human.

  19. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human.

  20. CESTODES (CARYOPHYLLIDEA) OF THE STINGING CATFISH HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (SILURIFORMES: HETEROPNEUSTIDAE) FROM ASIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, M.; Levron, Céline; Kar, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 5 (2011), s. 899-907 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GAP506/10/1994; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Indomalayan zoogeographical region * redescription Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011

  1. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii) Limitations...

  2. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda:Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Kuchta, Roman; Salgado-Madonado, Guillermo

    2002-07-01

    A survey of adults of dilepidid tapeworms (Cyclophyllidea) from piscivorous birds from Mexico is presented on the basis of the taxonomic evaluation of freshly collected and voucher specimens. The following species are reported (first records from Mexico marked with an asterisk): Cyclustera capito (Rudolphi, 1819); *C. ibisae (Schmidt & Bush, 1972); *Dendrouterina ardeae Rausch, 1955; *D. herodiae Fuhrmann, 1912; *D. papillifera (Fuhrmann, 1908); Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1819); *Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855); Paradilepis caballeroi Rysavy & Macko, 1973; Paradilepis sp.; Parvitaenia cochlearii Coil, 1955; and Valipora mutabilis Linton, 1927. Dendrouteria herodiae is reported from America for the first time. New definitive hosts are Phalacrocorax olivaceus for C. capito, N. cheilancristrotus and P. caballeroi; Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula for G. auritus; and E. thula for D. herodiae. Data on the morphology of the rostellar hooks of all species, their hosts and distribution in Mexico are provided.

  3. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  4. Mechanistic insights into EgGST1, a Mu class glutathione S-transferase from the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbildi, Paula; Turell, Lucía; López, Verónica; Alvarez, Beatriz; Fernández, Verónica

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a major detoxification system in helminth parasites, displaying both catalytic and non-catalytic activities. The kinetic mechanism of these enzymes is complex and depends on the isoenzyme which is being analyzed. Here, we characterized the kinetic mechanism of rEgGST1, a recombinant form of a cytosolic GST from Echinococcus granulosus (EgGST1), which is related to the Mu-class of mammalian enzymes, using the canonical substrates glutathione (GSH) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Initial rate and product inhibition studies were consistent with a steady-state random sequential mechanism, where both substrates are bound to the enzyme before the products are released. Kinetic constants were also determined (pH 6.5 and 30 °C). Moreover, rEgGST1 lowered the pK a of GSH from 8.71 ± 0.07 to 6.77 ± 0.08, and enzyme-bound GSH reacted with CDNB 1 × 10 5 times faster than free GSH at pH 7.4. Finally, the dissociation of the enzyme-GSH complex was studied by means of intrinsic fluorescence, as well as that of the complex with the anthelminth drug mebendazole. This is the first report on mechanistic issues related to a helminth parasitic GST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sandonella sandoni (Lynsdale, 1960), an enigmatic and morphologically unique cestode parasitic in the osteoglossiform fish Heterotis niloticus in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Mariaux, J.; Sène, A.; Mahmoud, Z. N.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2008), s. 202-211 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tapeworms * systematics * morphology * phylogeny * geographical distribution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008

  6. Analysis of lead pollution levels within an urban ecosystem using the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta and its rat hosts as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, M A; Hancke, D; Suarez, O V

    2017-10-11

    The overall goal of this study was to use the Rattus spp./Hymenolepis diminuta model to assess environmental lead pollution in different landscape units of an urban ecosystem. Rats of the genus Rattus were collected from three shanty towns and three residential neighbourhoods of the city of Buenos Aires. Concentrations of lead in the livers of wild rats and in their parasite H. diminuta were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The landscape unit and tissue type had a significant effect on lead concentration, being higher in residential neighbourhoods as well as in H. diminuta tissue. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found for the mean lead concentration in livers between uninfected and infected rats. Since the available information describing heavy-metal pollution within the city of Buenos Aires is scarce, the results of this study allow us to update data about the extent of biologically available lead contamination. Considering that rats and H. diminuta are distributed worldwide, this monitoring system for lead pollution might be applied successfully in other urban ecosystems.

  7. Origin, differentiation and functional ultrastructure of egg envelopes in the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świderski, Zdzisław; Miquel, Jordi; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2017-07-01

    The origin, differentiation and functional ultrastructure of oncospheral or egg envelopes in Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cytochemistry. The purpose of our study is to describe the formation of the four primary embryonic envelopes, namely vitelline capsule, outer envelope, inner envelope and oncospheral membrane, and their transformation into the oncospheral or egg envelopes surrounding the mature hexacanth. This transformation takes place in the preoncospheral phase of embryonic development. The vitelline capsule and oncospheral membrane are thin membranes, while the outer and inner envelopes are thick cytoplasmic layers formed by two specific types of blastomeres: the outer envelope by cytoplasmic fusion of two macromeres and the inner envelope by cytoplasmic fusion of three mesomeres. Both outer and inner envelopes are therefore cellular in origin and syncytial in nature. During the advanced phase of embryonic development, the outer and inner envelopes undergo great modifications. The outer envelope remains as a metabolically active layer involved in the storage of glycogen and lipids for the final stages of egg development and survival. The inner envelope is the most important protective layer because of its thick layer of embryophoric blocks that assures oncospheral protection and survival. This embryophore is the principal layer of mature eggs, affording physical and physiological protection for the differentiated embryo or oncosphere, since the outer envelope is stripped from the egg before it is liberated. The embryophore is very thick and impermeable, consisting of polygonal blocks of an inert keratin-like protein held together by a cementing substance. The embryophore therefore assures extreme resistance of eggs, enabling them to withstand a wide range of environmental temperatures and physicochemical conditions.

  8. Where are the sensory organs of Nybelinia surmenicola (Trypanorhyncha)? A comparative analysis with Parachristianella sp. and other trypanorhynchean cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserova, Natalia M; Gordeev, Ilya I; Korneva, Janetta V

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs in tegument of two trypanorhynchean species--Nybelinia surmenicola (plerocercoid) and adult Parachristianella sp. (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha)--were studied with the aim of ultrastructural description and a comparative analysis. The Nybelinia surmenicola plerocercoid lacks papillae with sensory cilia on the bothria adhesive surface. We found an unciliated sensory organ within the median bothria fold. This unciliated free nerve ending contains the central electron-dense disc, three dense supporting rings, and broad root. The nerve ending locates in the basal matrix under the tegument. The tegument of N. surmenicola has a number of ultrastructural features which make it significantly different from other Trypanorhyncha: (i) the tegumental cytoplasm has a plicated constitution in a form of high apical and deep basal folds, (ii) numerous layers of the basal matrix are presented in the subtegument, and (iii) the squamiform and bristlelike microtriches N. surmenicola lack the base and the basal plate. In contrast, numerous ciliated and unciliated receptors were found in Parachristianella sp.: six types on the bothria and one type in the strobila tegument. Ultrastructural constitution of sensory organs in the form of ciliated free nerve endings as well as unciliated basal nerve endings of Parachristianella sp. has many common features inside Eucestoda. In comparison with other Trypanorhyncha, all Nybelinia species studied have less quantity of the bothrial sensory organs. This fact may reflect behavioral patterns of Nybelinia as well as phylogenetic position into Trypanorhyncha. Our observations of living animals conventionally demonstrate the ability of N. surmenicola plerocercoids to locomote in forward direction on the Petri dish surface. The participation of the bothrial microtriches in a parasite movement has been discussed.

  9. Ultrastructural particularities of the spermatozoon of the cestode Electrotaenia malopteruri (Fritsch, 1886) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), a parasite of Malapterurus electricus (Siluriformes: Malapteruridae) from the river Nile, Egypt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš; Ibraheem, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2004), s. 114-120 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA206/03/1317 Grant - others:GA SR(SK) VEGA2/1020/21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalidea * spermatozoon Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  10. In vitro effects of prostaglandin E2 on leucocytes from sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected and not infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Ivan A; Franke, Frederik; Büscher, Janine; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-12-01

    Many helminth parasites have evolved strategies to evade the immune response of their hosts, which includes immunomodulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the best-described immunomodulators in mammalian helminth parasite infections. We hypothesized that also in teleost fish anti-helminthic immune responses are regulated via PGE2. We used a model system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), to investigate in vitro effects of PGE2 on head kidney leucocytes (HKL) derived from sticklebacks that were experimentally infected with S. solidus. PGE2 was tested alone or in combination with either S. solidus antigens or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After in vitro culture, cell viability and changes in leucocyte subpopulations (granulocytes to lymphocytes ratios) were monitored by flow cytometry and HKL were tested for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a chemiluminescence assay. In short term (2 h) HKL cultures PGE2 did not change the total numbers of live HKL, but the production of ROS decreased significantly with high (0.1 μmol L(-1)) PGE2 concentrations. In long-term (96 h) cultures high PGE2 concentrations induced a sharp decrease of leucocytes viability, while low (0.1 pmol L(-1)) and intermediate (0.1 nmol L(-1)) concentrations of PGE2 caused elevated leucocyte viability compared to controls. This coincided with reduced ROS production in cultures with high PGE2 and elevated ROS production in cultures with low PGE2. Granulocyte to lymphocyte ratios increased with high PGE2 concentrations alone and in combination with S. solidus antigens and LPS, most prominently with HKL from S. solidus infected sticklebacks. The present study supports the hypothesis that PGE2 might be an immunomodulator in tapeworm-fish parasite-host interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Profound activity of the anti-cancer drug bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes identifies the proteasome as a novel drug target for cestodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ, a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors.

  12. Ontogenetic dynamics of infection with Diphyllobothrium spp. cestodes in sympatric Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Eirik H.; Knudsen, Rune; Kristoffersen, Roar; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2016-01-01

    The trophic niches of Arctic charr and brown trout differ when the species occur in sympatry. Their trophically transmitted parasites are expected to reflect these differences. Here, we investigate how the infections of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and D. ditremum differ between charr and trout. These tapeworms use copepods as their first intermediate hosts and fish can become infected as second intermediate hosts by consuming either infected copepods or infected fish. We examined 767 charr and 368 trout for Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in a subarctic lake. The prevalence of D. ditremum was higher in charr (61.5%) than in trout, (39.5%), but the prevalence of D. dendriticum was higher in trout (31.2%) than in charr (19.3%). Diphyllobothrium spp. intensities were elevated in trout compared to charr, particularly for D. dendriticum. Large fish with massive parasite burdens were responsible for the high Diphyllobothrium spp. loads in trout. We hypothesize that fish prey may be the most important source for the Diphyllobothrium spp. infections in trout, whereas charr predominantly acquire Diphyllobothrium spp. by feeding on copepods. Our findings support previous suggestions that the ability to establish in a second piscine host is greater for D. dendriticum than for D. ditremum.

  13. Ultrastructure of the proglottid tegument (neodermis) of the cestode Echinophallus wageneri (Pseudophyllidea: Echinophallidae), a parasite of the bathypelagic fish Centrolophus niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman; Levron, Céline; Bruňanská, Magdaléna

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 2 (2007), s. 373-383 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Vedecká grantová agentúra Ministerstva školstva Slovenskej republiky a Slovenskej akadémie vied(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ultrastructure * microtriches * tapeworms Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  14. Reciprocal cross infection of sticklebacks with the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reveals consistent population differences in parasite growth and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Martin; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Scharsack, Jörn P; Jakobsen, Per J

    2016-03-08

    In host-parasite evolutionary arms races, parasites are generally expected to adapt more rapidly, due to their large population sizes and short generation times. There exist systems, though, where parasites cannot outpace their hosts because of similar generation times in both antagonists. In those cases concomitant adaptation is expected. We tested this hypothesis in the three-spined stickleback-Schistocephalus solidus tapeworm system, where generation times are comparable in both organisms. We chose two populations of sticklebacks which differ prominently in the prevalence of S. solidus and consequently in its level of selective pressure. We performed a full factorial common garden experiment. Particularly, Norwegian (NO) and German (DE) sticklebacks, as well as hybrids between both stickleback populations and in both parental combinations, were exposed each to a single S. solidus originating from the same two host populations. We found the infection phenotype to depend on the host population, the parasite population, but not their interaction. NO-parasites showed higher infectivity than DE-parasites, with NO-sticklebacks also being more resistant to DE-parasites than to the sympatric NO-parasite. Reciprocally, DE-hosts were more susceptible to the allopatric NO-parasite while DE-parasites grew less than NO-parasites in all stickleback groups. Despite this asymmetry, the ratio of worm to host weight, an indicator of parasite virulence, was identical in both sympatric combinations, suggesting an optimal virulence as a common outcome of parallel coevolved systems. In hybrid sticklebacks, intermediate infection rates and growth of S. solidus from either origin suggests a simple genetic basis of resistance. However, comparison of infection phenotypes in NO-maternal and DE-maternal hybrid sticklebacks indicates local adaptation to the sympatric counterpart in both the host and the parasite. Host-parasite systems with similar generation time show evidence for concomitant reciprocal adaptation resulting in parasite optimal virulence and host parasite specific resistance.

  15. Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Godehardt, Saskia; Nachev, Milen; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms – commonly referred to as biomarkers – to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 μg/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. -- Highlights: •We show how parasites and pollutant affect biomarkers. •Metallothioneins were not influenced by parasites. •Heat shock proteins are modulated by parasites. •Biomarker levels of organisms are dependent on infection status. •Infection with parasites has to be considered in ecotoxicology. -- Parasites are capable of affecting host physiology and therefore modulate biomarker responses

  16. Diphyllidean cestodes from the bigeye houndshark Iago omanensis (Norman) (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae) in the Gulf of Oman, with the description of Coronocestus ehsanentezarii sp. nov. (Echinobothriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseli, Mohammad; Azad, Samira

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Coronocestus Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta and Ivanov, 2013 is described from Iago omanensis (Norman) from the Gulf of Oman. Coronocestus ehsanentezarii sp. nov. differs from C. musteli (Pintner, 1889) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta and Ivanov, 2013 in that its ovary is H- rather than U-shape. The new species is easily distinguished from C. diamanti (Ivanov and Lipshitz, 2006) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta and Ivanov, 2013 by the number of spines per column on the cephalic peduncle (24-36 vs 95-118). It differs from C. hormozganiense (Haseli, Malek, Palm and Ivanov, 2012) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta and Ivanov, 2013 based on a greater number of spines per column on the cephalic peduncle (24-36 vs 18-21). The new species differs from C. notoguidoi (Ivanov 1997) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta and Ivanov, 2013 in that of its scolex is craspedote rather than acraspedote. Unlike C. coronatum (Robinson 1959) Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta and Ivanov, 2013, C. ehsanentezarii sp. nov. possesses 29-35 rather than 20 apical hooks in each dorso-ventral group. The new species possesses lateral hooklets with two rows (a and b designations) in each cluster. This character had been presented earlier only for Andocadoncum Abbott and Caira, 2014. Furthermore, a new locality record is presented for C. diamanti from Iago omanensis in the Gulf of Oman. Thus, I. omanensis certainly hosts two diphyllidean species simultaneously in the Gulf of Oman. The generic diagnosis of Coronocestus is also revised to include new data.

  17. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of the cestode Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of the electric catfish Malapterurus electricus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš; Ibraheem, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2004), s. 421-426 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA206/03/1317 Grant - others:GA SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalidea * spermatozoon Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  18. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode Echinococcus...) Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (iii...

  19. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of the proteocephalidean cestode Barsonella lafoni de Chambrier et al., 2009, a parasite of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Siluriformes, Clariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marigo, A. M.; Levron, Céline; Bâ, Ch. T.; Miquel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 2 (2012), s. 147-159 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Spermiogenesis * Spermatozoon * Ultrastructure * Barsonella lafoni * Proteocephalinae * Proteocephalidae * Proteocephalidea * Cestoda Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2012

  20. Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid cestode infections of trade dogs, in Dawaki, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... and the control of these cestode infections requires improved management practices and public education.

  1. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. Removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia... of feline cestodes D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis. (3) Limitations. For oral use only as a single...

  2. Nematoides anisaquídeos e cestoides Trypanorhyncha de importância em saúde pública em Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758 no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Larvae of Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of public health importance in Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758 in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Jesus Esteves Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre maio e agosto de 2006, foram adquiridos 100 espécimes de peixe-porco, Aluterus monoceros em estabelecimentos de pescado nos municípios de Niterói e Rio de Janeiro. Os peixes foram medidos, necropsiados, filetados e seus órgãos analisados. Foram encontrados 16 peixes parasitados por larvas de nematoides anisaquídeos pertencentes às espécies Anisakis sp. e Contracaecum sp., com prevalência de 1 e 16%, intensidade média de 2 e 3,31 e abundância média de 0,02 e 0,53, respectivamente. Duas larvas de Anisakis sp. foram encontradas no mesentério de um peixe; e de Contracaecum sp. no fígado e mesentério, com amplitude de variação da intensidade de infecção de 1 a 9. Cinquenta e um peixes mostravam-se parasitados no fígado e mesentério por cestoides da ordem Trypanorhyncha. As espécies colhidas foram Floriceps saccatus e a Callitetrarhynchus speciosus, com a prevalência de 45 e 6%, intensidade média de 3,17 e 2,83, variando de 1 a 20 e 1 a 5, e abundância média de 1,43 e 0,06, respectivamente. Larvas de Anisakis sp. e essas duas espécies de Trypanorhyncha foram registradas pela primeira vez parasitando A. monoceros.One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time.

  3. First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Zaheri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

  4. Infection in ecosystems: Data, Models and Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, S.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents are ubiquitous in nature. They can be broadly distinguished into microparasites (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa), macroparasites (nematodes, trematodes and cestodes), ectoparasites (fleas and ticks), parasitic castrators and parasitoids. Although these types of infectious

  5. Parasites of mammals species abundance near zone Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kevich, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    In wildlife reserve parasitize various types of parasites: arachnids (mites) parasitic insects (horseflies, keds, mosquitoes, gnats, midges), helminths (trematodes, cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans) and parasitic protozoa. In quantity: 3 (beaver) to 25 species (wolf). (authors)

  6. Ultrastructure of the sperm of Adelobothrium sp (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cielocha, J.J.; Yoneva, Aneta; Cantino, M.E.; Daniels, S.; Jensen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 4 (2013), s. 315-325 ISSN 1077-8306 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : spermatozoa * lecanicephalidean * cestode * elasmobranch Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2013

  7. PARASITIC INFECTION OF SYNODONTIS BATENSODA (RÜPPELL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IYAJI

    2013-05-15

    Trichodinids), two ... Key words: Parasites, protozoan, helminths, nematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, Synodontis batensoda,. Rivers Niger-Benue ... including food and feeding habits have been carried out by several ...

  8. A predictable suite of helminth parasites in the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, from the Chihuahua desert in Texas and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, Albert G; Ortiz, Rafael; Canaris, Gay J

    2010-12-01

    Eighty-eight long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were examined for helminth parasites, 62 from Texas and 26 from Mexico. In total, 3,558 helminth parasites were obtained from this host, 2,273 from Texas birds and 1,285 from birds from Mexico. The component communities consisted of 22 species of helminths in Texas, and 19 in Mexico. Of a total of 26 helminth species recorded from the 2 localities, 15 were common to both, 7 found only in Texas, and 4 only in Mexico. Fifty-nine of 62 Texas birds and 25 of 26 birds from Mexico were infected. The most prevalent helminth for Texas was the cestode Shipleya inermis. The cestode Aploparaksis retroversa was the most abundant, accounting for 37% of the total abundance, and was second highest in prevalence. Five species of cestodes, A. retroversa, Aploparaksis diagonalis, Aploparaksis occidentalis, Aploparaksis rissae, and Shipleya inermis accounted for 79% of total abundance. In the sample from Mexico, S. inermis was also highest in prevalence, followed by the nematode Hystrichis tricolor. The cestode A. retroversa was highest in abundance at 50% of the total, and was third highest in prevalence. Mean species richness, diversity, and evenness were similar among the component communities of Texas and Mexico. A predictable suite of aploparaksid cestodes, together with the cestode S. inermis, constituted 79%, and 61%, of total abundance for the component communities of Texas and Mexico, respectively, and were present in all component communities for locality, season, and year. The cestodes, A. retroversa and S. inermis, were the dominant species in all component communities. Differences among component communities and low similarities for all other comparisons were largely caused by less predictable suites of helminth species. A checklist of helminth parasites reported for long-billed dowitchers is included.

  9. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere.

  11. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  12. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  13. Endohelminth parasites of the leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788) (Squaliformes:Centrophoridae) off Madeira Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Graça; Chada, Tomás; Melo-Moreira, Egberto; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The endohelminth parasite fauna of a deep water shark, the leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus, examined from Madeiran waters, from September 2009 to January 2010, consisted of larval and juvenile cestodes of two orders, namely Trypanorhyncha and Tetraphyllidea, and L3 stages of Anisakis spp. Infection with Anisakis spp. could be due to the shark's opportunistic feeding on squids and black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo, which is heavily parasitized by Anisakis spp. in Madeira waters. The occurrence of larval and juvenile cestodes only, in this shark, suggests that the leafscale gulper shark features as a paratenic or a dead-end host for the parasites.

  14. Helminth Fauna Of Tadarida (Chaeraphon) Nigeriae (Thomas, 1913 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A checklist of helminth parasites isolated from Tadarida (Chaeraphon) nigeriae is presented. Out of 857 bats examined 658 (76.78%) were infected by helminth parasites. Details of the taxa presented show that 2 were trematodes; 2 were cestodes; and 5 were nematodes. Observation on the distribution of the worms within ...

  15. Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of two species of Duthiersia, parasites of monitors, with a review of spermatological characters in the Diphyllobothriidea (Cestoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 4 (2013), s. 486-494 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Spermatozoon * TEM * Duthiersia expansa * Duthiersia fimbriata * Scyphocephalidae * Varanidae * Africa * Asia * Basal cestodes Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2013

  16. Influence of parasitism on the use of small terrestrial rodents in environmental pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovska, Ivana, E-mail: jankovska@af.czu.c [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Miholova, Daniela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Langrova, Iva [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Bejcek, Vladimir [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Vadlejch, Jaroslav [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Kolihova, Dana; Sulc, Miloslav [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic)

    2009-08-15

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in small terrestrial rodents - voles and their cestode parasite Paranoplocephala dentata was studied. Contents of Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn in the parasite were found to be higher than in the kidney and liver of the parasitized animals. Lead level in the cestode was 37 fold higher than in the liver of the infected rodents. Bioaccumulation factors of zinc, nickel and manganese in the cestode are mostly in the range from 2 to 4.5. Considering the different contents of manganese and zinc in livers of non-parasitized and parasitized rodents, kidney tissue was found to be more reliable than liver as an indicator of environmental pollution by manganese and zinc; the kidneys of parasitized animals showed no significant change in the concentrations of those elements that are accumulated in the cestode. - Liver tissue from voles infected by Paranoplocephala dentata was less suitable as a biomonitor for metal contamination than kidney tissue.

  17. Ultrastructure of the anterior organ and posterior funnel-shaped canal of Gyrocotyle urna Wagener, 1852 (Cestoda: Gyrocotylidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Kuchta, Roman; Bristow, G.A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, 2015 May 22 (2015), 027 ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : scanning electron microscopy * transmission electron microscopy * basal cestodes * ultrastructural characters * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  18. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of rift valley goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence, mean intensity, relative density of helminth species and the effects of environmental factors, sex and maturity of host on seasonal dynamics in relative density of helminthes ova in Rift Valley goats were investigated from July 1997 to June 1998. Ten nematode and three cestode species were identified.

  19. Wild cyclic voles maintain high neutral and MHC diversity without strong evidence for parasite-mediated selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Wares, J. P.; Yabsley, M. J.; Altizer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2014), s. 957-975 ISSN 0269-7653 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Major histocompatibility complex * Host-parasite relationship * Balancing selection * Microtus montanus * Cestodes * Eimeria * Microsatellites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2014

  20. C:\\BACKUP 21.01.2015\\All 5d1a\\BAJOPAS\\Bajopas 8(1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... organism (the host) and from which it gains it food supply and other means of lively hood Henderson,. (1990), reported that most parasites of intestinal worms are classified as cestodes (Tape worms),. Trematode (flukes) nematodes (round worms) and protozoans. It has been discovered that parasites of ...

  1. The first data on the vitellogenesis of paruterinid tapeworms: an ultrastructural study of Dictyterina cholodkowskii (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Kuchta, Roman; Mariaux, J.; Georgiev, B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2017), s. 327-334 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ultrastructure * vitellocytes * vitelline vesicles * Cestode * Cyclophyllidean * Dictyterina cholodkowskii Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  2. Dipylidium caninum (Cyclophyllidea, Dipylidiidae) in a wild carnivore from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L; Lima, Sueli de Souza; Neto, Antonio H A de Moraes; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C

    2012-01-01

    We report Dipylidium caninum for the first time in a wild carnivore in Brazil, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Presence of the cestode could be the consequence of anthropogenic expansion into natural habitats of this host, as this parasite has only previously been reported in domestic hosts in Brazil.

  3. Development of an Epidemiological Database Management, Extraction, and Analysis System (EPISYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Cestode Infections 106 11 Trichiniasis 107 11 Filarial Infections 108 11 Ancylostomiasis 109 11 Other Intestinal Helminthiasis 110 11 Other and...UnspecifiMd Helminthiasis 111 II Unspecified Intestinal Parasitism 112 9 Toxoplasmosis 113 6 Urogenital Trichomoniasis 114 10 Pediculosis 115 10 Acariasis 116

  4. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we studied the gastrointestinal parasites of nonhuman mammalian hosts living in 10 rainforest patches of the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, India. We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 ...

  5. AND LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ITS DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Musaeva

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of helminthofauna of the striped lizard in Lankaran natural region. The landscape and ecological analysis of distribution of the helminthofauna is provided. As a result of studies on 99 individuals of striped lizard totally 14 species of helminthes, including 1 trematode species, 1 species of cestode, 3 species of akantocefals and 9 species of nematodes were found.

  6. Fred Chibwana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred Chibwana

    both from the stagnation or decline of marine and freshwater capture fisheries has resulted in increased search for ..... scavenger. In the present study marabous have been found feeding in human garbage. Thus the results may ... 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Baer JD 1957 Trématodes et cestodes ...

  7. 6 - 9_Abubakar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    (dysuria), followed by damage to the bladder, ureter and kidney. Bladder cancer is common in advanced case (Chitsulo et al., 2000). Parazoquantel is a drug used for the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis that infect human as well as against other Trematodes and Cestodes infection. Previously irreversible damage by ...

  8. The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Viljoen

    Full Text Available The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae. This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp. and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp. being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted.

  9. Diagnostics of intestinal parasites in light microscopy among the population of children in eastern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-09-01

    The variety of detected intestinal pathogens in examined children’s population has required the use of combination of multiple diagnostic methods in light microscopy, and finally improved the detection rates of intestinal parasites and helped eliminate infections with nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and protozoa using appropriate treatment in the study population.

  10. Towards a robust systematic baseline of Neotropical fish tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae): amended diagnoses of two genera from the redtail catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, Philippe Vieira; de Chambrier, A.; Luque, J.L.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4370, č. 4 (2018), s. 363-380 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cestodes * Ephedrocephalus * Zygobothrium * taxonomy * morphology * phylogenetic relationships * Amazon River basin * South America * Neotropical region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of resident wildlife at the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of feeding category, carnivorous species namely the (Aquila spilogaster) and Royal python (P. regius) have the highest species richness count of parasites. Non-nematode helminths detected include protozoons (Isospora and Eimeria) and Cestodes segments suspected to be Echinococcus proglotids. Knowledge ...

  12. Insights on the identities of sharks of the Rhizoprionodon acutus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhiniformes) species complex based on three new species of Phoreiobothrium (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, J N; Jensen, K

    2015-12-22

    Recent molecular work on milk sharks (Rhizoprionodon acutus [Rüppell]) suggests that, rather than a single widely distributed species, R. acutus represents a complex of four narrowly distributed cryptic species. Examination of the cestodes in three of the four members of that complex globally led to the discovery and description of three new species in the onchoproteocephalidean genus Phoreiobothrium Linton, 1889. The host associations and geographic distributions of the new species are fully congruent with the geographic distributions and species boundaries inferred for the sharks from molecular data: Phoreiobothrium jahki n. sp. parasitizes Rhizoprionodon cf. acutus 3 off Borneo, P. nadiae n. sp. parasitizes R. cf. acutus 1 off Senegal, and P. swaki n. sp. parasitizes R. cf. acutus 2 off northern Australia. The new cestodes differ from one another and from their 11 valid congeners in morphological features such as sublocular configuration and number, hook size, and testis number. Given the notoriously oioxenous nature of elasmobranch-hosted onchoproteocephalidean cestodes, these results provide further support for recognition of the milk shark species complex. This work also raises questions about the Phoreiobothrium species reported in cursory descriptions from India; further examination of these cestodes is key because they are potentially hosted by the fourth member of the R. acutus complex. To encourage future taxonomic work on the morphology of sharks in this complex, comparative photographs of representatives of the four potential host species are provided.

  13. First case of canine peritoneal larval cestodosis caused by Mesocestoides lineatus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtherle, N; Wiemann, A; Ottenjann, M; Linzmann, H; van der Grinten, E; Kohn, B; Gruber, A D; Clausen, P-H

    2007-12-01

    A 13-year-old Dalmatian dog was presented with a history of abdominal enlargement and reduced appetite for several months. Acute clinical signs were anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea. During exploratory laparotomy, acute intestinal perforation due to a foreign body and peritonitis was diagnosed. In addition, the abdominal cavity was filled with multiple small (0.5 cm), white, cyst-like structures. Histopathology revealed typical cestode structures of the cyst walls but no protoscolices were found. PCR was performed with cestode specific primers of the mitochondrial 12S rDNA. The sequence showed a 99.75% identity with a Mesocestoides lineatus isolate published in the NCBI GenBank. This is the first case of canine peritoneal larval cestodosis (CPLC) in Germany and the first evidence of M. lineatus as causal agent for CPLC.

  14. Helminth parasites of the digestive tract of the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, in the Wadden Sea, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Van den Broek, E.; Swennen, C.

    The digestive tracts of 90 oystercatchers (equal numbers of males and females and of juveniles, subadults and adults) wintering in the Dutch Wadden Sea were examined for helminth parasites. The nematodes Capillaria sp. (36.7%) and Streptocara crassicauda (7.8%) were found in the stomach. Unidentified cestodes (76.7%) and the trematodes Psilostomum brevicolle (42.2%), Notocotylus sp. (81.1%), and unidentified gymnophallids (100%) were found in the intestine and caeca. Two birds were infected with Gymnophallidae only, while all other birds contained additional helminth species. Compared with subadult and adult birds, the juveniles had significantly more infections with Capillaria sp. and cestodes. Moreover, the juveniles were infected with a greater variety of species. No further relation was found between the presence of helminths or worm numbers and age groups or sexes of birds.

  15. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Resiko Infeksi Cacing Pita pada Ayam Ras Petelur Komersial di Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Budi Retnani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bogor Region, West Java for two months from June to July2006. The aim of this research was to identify the risk factors of cestode infection in commercial cagedlayer chickens. A total of 202 chicken samples were collected from ten commercial caged layer chickenfarms. The risk factors assumption included host factors, farm environment and management characteristic.Logistic regression model showed that cestode infection risk association (P<0,01 to host age, (P<0,05 todry climate condition and open house farm management characteristic. This suggests that >50 monthshave higher risk (OR=5.6 than <20 months host age, dry climate condition have higher risk (OR=3.75than wet, and open house farm management have higher risk (OR=27.24 than close house on the cestodesinfection.

  16. [Helminthic fauna of commercial fishes from the Saya-de-Malya bank (Indian Ocean)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parukhin, A M

    1988-01-01

    The data on infestation of 8 species of commercial fishes from Saya-de-Malya bank (the Indian Ocean) are presented. 43 helminth species were identified: 10 Monogenea species, 18 trematode, 7 cestode and 8 nematode species. The mature worms are observed to be related to a certain host, whereas the nematode and cestode larvae have wide specificity. High infestation degree by Anisakis larvae is found in fishes, especially in Carangidae. At the bank area fishes are found to be free from Acanthocephala while those Acanthocephala are found in fishes from other areas of the Indian Ocean which may be attributed to the specific diet at the Saya-de-Malya bank. On the whole the helminth fauna of fishes examined at the Saya-de-Malya bank does not demonstrate the endemic pattern. The most specific helminth species were found in some fish species.

  17. Sperm transfer in monogenean (platyhelminth) parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, Graham; Whittington, Ian

    2015-12-01

    There are three major groups of parasitic platyhelminths (flatworms). The digeneans and cestodes are endoparasites, while the monogeneans are ectoparasites mostly on the gills or skin of fishes. Monogeneans are hermaphrodite and, with the exception of the gyrodactylids, mostly protandrous, the male reproductive system maturing before the female system. Their ectoparasitic life-style provides unique opportunities to observe the reproductive biology of living platyhelminths, opportunities restricted in digeneans and cestodes by their endoparasitic habits. Moreover, the male copulatory organs (MCOs) of monogeneans are of special interest because of their perplexing diversity, ranging from sclerotised penis tubes, many with accessory sclerites, to cirruses and genital atrium armature (hooks and spines). The relatively few accounts in the literature of mating in monogeneans are reproduced in this review, together with consideration of the following aspects of sperm transfer: structure and function of MCOs; self-insemination; spermatophores and pseudospermatophores; "hypodermic" and transtegumental insemination; tissue fusion; glands associated with MCOs and vaginae; finding a mating partner.

  18. Predictors of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in definitive and intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a pathogenic and potentially fatal cestode causing human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). A meta-analysis was conducted using a generalized estimation equation approach (GEE) to assess the effect of taxonomic, environmental and diagnostic variables on EM prevalenc...... there was some indication of publication bias in this dataset. This study also highlights the possible importance of temperature and precipitation to EM transmission. This implies the possibility of a changing climate affecting the future distribution of the parasite.......Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a pathogenic and potentially fatal cestode causing human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). A meta-analysis was conducted using a generalized estimation equation approach (GEE) to assess the effect of taxonomic, environmental and diagnostic variables on EM prevalence...

  19. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie M.S.,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli. Heterakis gallinarum was not affected by the pumpkin oil. Parazitol have a moderate efficacy (36%, while levamisole and albendazole were very efficient (100%. The treatments with albendazole upon the cestods belonging to the genus Raillietina have had a 100% efficacy. In cestods, Parazitol had a better efficacy (57% than the pumpkin oil (14%.

  20. The impact of globalisation on the distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Romig, Thomas; Jenkins, Emily; Tryland, Morten; Robertson, Lucy J

    2012-06-01

    In the past three decades, Echinococcus multilocularis, the cause of human alveolar echinococcosis, has been reported in several new countries both in definitive hosts (canids) as well as in people. Unless treated, infection with this cestode in people is fatal. In previously endemic countries throughout the Northern Hemisphere, geographic ranges and human and animal prevalence levels seem to be increasing. Anthropogenic influences, including increased globalisation of animals and animal products, and altered human/animal interfaces are thought to play a vital role in the global emergence of this pathogenic cestode. Molecular epidemiological techniques are a useful tool for detecting and tracing introductions, and differentiating these from range expansions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. © G. Salgado-Maldonado et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  2. Annotation of the Transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and Its Comparative Analysis with Three Taeniidae Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and

  3. Cysticercosis of masseter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.

  4. Human Dipylidiasis: A Case Report of Dipylidium caninum Infection from Karimnagar

    OpenAIRE

    KV Ramana; Sanjeev D Rao; Ratna Rao; SK Mohanty; CG Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum also refered to as the double-pored tapeworm is a cyclophyllidean cestode that commonly infects dogs and cats. Mammals act as definite hosts with intermediate hosts being dog and cat flea, the Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides catis respectively. The dog lice, Trichodectes canis and human flea (Pulex irritans) also transmit Dipylidium caninum infection. Infants and young children are at high risk of acquiring infection. Majority of the infections are due to close as...

  5. Diagnosis and therapeutic management of Dipylidium caninum in dogs: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Vijesh Kumar; Gupta, Snehil; Kasondra, Arjun; Rakesh, R. L.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is related to Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs. Three dogs about 1 year of age with the history of scooting behaviour and passing diarrhoeic stool containing white specks were presented before the clinicians. Physical examination of dogs revealed flea infestation and faecal examination revealed the presence of gravid segments, which were confirmed microscopically to be of cestode, D. caninum. Dogs were treated with Praziquantel@5 mg/kg body wt. orally. Dogs showed marked...

  6. The Effects of Nitroscanate on Ascarid and Dipylidium caninum Infections in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    SARIMEHMETOĞLU, H. Oğuz; GÖNENÇ, Bahadır; ADANIR, Ramazan; KOZAN, Esma

    2002-01-01

    In this study, nitroscanate (Lopatol tablets, Novartis) was tested for its efficacy against Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dipylidium caninum in naturally infected dogs. Dogs that had mixed infections of cestodes and nematodes were divided into two groups: the treatment group (10 dogs) and the control group (5 dogs). Dogs in the treatment group were treated orally with a single dose of 1 tablet/10 kg of nitroscanate (50 mg/kg). After the treatment, fecal samples were examined 5 time...

  7. Hydatid disease: A rare cause of fracture nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Aggarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is an infrequent parasitic infestation caused by cestode, most commonly, Echinococcus granulosus. Bone involvement is distinctly uncommon. We would like to share our experience of a rare case of hydatid disease of femur in a 24-year-old male who presented with nonunion of subtrochanteric fracture. Histopathology showed typical lamellated wall and dagger-shaped hooklets. In view of its rarity, hydatid disease often remains an unsuspected infection of the bone.

  8. First record of Crepidobothrium gerrardii (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae in Peru Primer registro de Crepidobothrium gerrardii (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is the first record of cestode Crepidobothrium gerrardii in Peru, parasitizing the intestine of a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor from Loreto. Four tapeworms were studied and identified as C. gerrardii.Se registra por primera vez la presencia en el Perú del cestodo Crepidobothrium gerrardii parasitando el intestino de una boa constrictora (Boa constrictor procedente del departamento de Loreto. Cuatro especímenes fueron estudiados e identificados como C. gerrardii.

  9. AND LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ITS DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Musaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of helminthofauna of the striped lizard in Lankaran natural region. The landscape and ecological analysis of distribution of the helminthofauna is provided. As a result of studies on 99 individuals of striped lizard totally 14 species of helminthes, including 1 trematode species, 1 species of cestode, 3 species of akantocefals and 9 species of nematodes were found.

  10. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Farsad-Hamdi, S

    1992-04-01

    Fifty-seven wild boars (Sus scrofa) from protected regions of Iran were examined for helminths. Sixteen species of helminths were collected; there were ten nematodes, one acanthocephalan, two trematodes and three larval cestodes. New host and distribution records were established for all helminths except of Taenia solium cysticerci. Wild boar shared nine of these helminths with domestic pigs, six with ruminants and three with human beings in Iran. Metastrongylus pudendotectus and M. salmi are reported for the first time from Iran.

  11. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-01-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of ...

  12. New host, geographical records, and factors affecting the prevalence of helminths infection from synanthropic rodents in Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Panti-May J. A.; Palomo-Arjona E.; Gurubel-González Y.; Torres-Castro M. A.; Vidal-Martínez V. M.; Machain-Williams C.; Hernández-Betancourt S. F.; Del Rosario Robles M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the occurrence of helminths in Mus musculus and Rattus rattus from urban, suburban and rural settlements in Yucatán, Mexico; and to analyse the host factors (e.g. sex) related to helminths’ distribution. Helminths in a total of 279 rodents were surveyed by visual examination of the liver for metacestodes and faecal examination for helminth eggs using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The cestodes Hydatigera taeniaeformis (metacestodes detec...

  13. INCIDENCE OF NAMATODE PARASITES IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS IN SWAT

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Sayyed, M.S. Phulan1, W.M. Bhatti1, M. Pardehi and Shamsher Ali

    2000-01-01

    Research was conducted on 400 guts of commercial layers collected from various shops at District Swat during April to September 1998. Out of 400 guts, 36 per cent were positive for nematodes, Mixed infestation of nematodes and cestodes was found in 4.75 per cent layers. Incidence rate of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Subulura brumpli was 25.75, 8.25 and 2 per cent, respectively.

  14. INCIDENCE OF NAMATODE PARASITES IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS IN SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Sayyed, M.S. Phulan1, W.M. Bhatti1, M. Pardehi and Shamsher Ali

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted on 400 guts of commercial layers collected from various shops at District Swat during April to September 1998. Out of 400 guts, 36 per cent were positive for nematodes, Mixed infestation of nematodes and cestodes was found in 4.75 per cent layers. Incidence rate of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Subulura brumpli was 25.75, 8.25 and 2 per cent, respectively.

  15. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  16. An unusual case of urinary sparganosis in the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Trupti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirometra is a genus of pseudophyllidean cestode that reproduces in canines and felines but can cause pathology in humans. When humans harbour plerocercoids of these tapeworms outside the intestine, it can cause sparganosis. We report a case of urinary sparganosis in a young woman, passing multiple spargana worms in her urine. The worm was identified as the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra spp., and the case was managed successfully.

  17. New metacestodes of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) from Mozambique, Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Boane, C.; Saraiva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2008), s. 315-320 ISSN 1525-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cestode larvae * Gryporhynchidae * morphology * freshwater fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2008

  18. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  19. Molecular identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in small mammals from Northeast, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many species of small mammals, including arvicolid rodents or Ochotona spp., are natural intermediate hosts of the cestode. The main aim of this study was to identify natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, where the prevalence of infected wild and domestic carnivores is high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A program of trapping was carried out in five villages in which this cestode was reported in carnivores. The livers of 85 small mammals were investigated for the presence of E. multilocularis infection using multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. Infections were identified in 30 specimens: 23 Microtus transcaspicus, three Ochotona rufescens, two Mus musculus, one Crocidura gmelini, and one Apodemus witherbyi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of small mammals therefore act as natural intermediate hosts for the transmission of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, and the prevalence suggested that E. multilocularis infection is endemic in this region. The existence of the life cycle of this potentially lethal cestode in the vicinity of human habitats provides a significant risk of human infection.

  20. Aspects of the ecology of the Asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in yellowfish in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bertasso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal surveys were conducted at the Vaal Dam between April 2000 and January 2001. Twenty smallmouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus aeneus and 20 largemouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected with the aid of gill nets. Surface water quality variables were included. The cestodes were identified as either Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 or "other cestode spp.". The majority (99.8 % of the cestodes found in both yellowfish species were identified as B. acheilognathi (Asian tapeworm. The prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of B. acheilognathi in both yellowfish species were calculated. Ecological parameters including species specificity, seasonality, gender specificity and relationships between fish size and the Asian tapeworm prevalence were also included. In this study, B. acheilognathi preferred L. kimberleyensis over L. aeneus although a low intensity was observed in smallmouth yellowfish. Furthermore, the infection (in terms of prevalence, abundance and mean intensity in largemouth yellowfish was markedly higher. Seasonal patterns observed in the Asian tapeworm's infection of smallmouth yellowfish are attributed to breeding and subsequent feeding patterns of this fish species with relatively high infections recorded in winter and spring. For L. kimberleyensis no explanation can be given regarding the seasonal patterns observed for the mean intensity and abundance of B. acheilognathi. The maximum and minimum mean intensity and abundance values in largemouth yellowfish were recorded in autumn and spring, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of B. acheilognathi was consistently high in all four seasons.

  1. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

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    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  2. The parasites of the invasive Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii (Fam. Odontobutidae, with the first report of Nippotaenia mogurndae in Ukraine

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    Kvach Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasites of the Asian invasive fish, Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii, were studied in 6 localities in different parts of Ukraine. In total, 15 taxa of parasites were registered; among them were 1 species of Microsporidia, 5 species of ciliates, 2 species of cestodes, 2 species of trematodes, 2 species of nematodes, 1 species of acanthocephalan, 1 species of parasitic crustacean and 1 mollusk (glochidia. The invasive Chinese sleeper is included as a paratenic host in the life cycle of the parasites of indigenous reptiles in Europe. The non-indigenous cestode Nippotaenia mogurndae occurred in the intestine of the Chinese sleeper from the Ivachiv Reservoir (Dniester River basin. This cestode is recorded for Ukrainian fauna for the first time. In addition, 3 species of parasites were recorded in the Chinese sleeper for the first time: Nicolla skrjabini, Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Pomphorhynchus laevis. We note the low similarity among the different localities and the low parasite richness, that suggest that the parasite fauna of the Chinese sleeper in Ukraine is in transition.

  3. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  4. Helminth parasite communities in anuran amphibians of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary (Haryana), India.

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    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2010-10-01

    Helminth parasite fauna in anuran amphibia were investigated during the general faunistic surveys of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in Haryana state. Three species of amphibian hosts were found to harbour 12 genera of helminth parasites. The prevalence, intensity and abundance were studied. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis harboured maximum parasite species followed by Fejervarya limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In E. cyanophlyctis, among nematode parasites, the genus Camallanus was most prevalent followed by Cosmocerca and Cosmocercoides, whereas, Rhabdias and Aplectana were the least prevalent genera. Among trematode parasites, Ganeo was the most prevalent genus and least was Diplodiscus. Acanthocephalus was recovered only once and no cestode infection was found. In F. limnocharis, the most prevalent nematode genus was Oxysomatium, followed by Cosmocerca and the only trematode recorded was Ganeo, whereas, cestode Proteocephalus was also recovered once. In D. melanostictus, only two nematode genera were recovered of which Oxysomatium was dominant followed by Cosmocerca. The helminth parasite community in anuran amphibia of Kalesar WLS comprised 52.9% of nematodes, 46.2% of trematodes, 0.58% cestodes and 0.29% acanthocephala.

  5. Helminth associations in white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula (Insectivora: Soricidae) from the Albufera Natural Park, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, Enrique; Granel, Pedro; Esteban, J Guillermo; Cabaret, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    The helminths of 218 white-toothed shrews from 29 sites in 2 biotopes in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) were examined from July 1990 to August 1991. An association analysis of helminths occurring at a prevalence of more than 4% was carried out for 4 species of cestodes located in the intestine (Hymenolepis pistillum, H. scalaris, H. tiara, and Pseudhymenolepis redonica) and 3 species of nematodes (Pseudophysaloptera sp. located in the stomach, Stammerinema rhopocephala larvae in the intestine and abdominal cavity, and Porrocaecum sp. in the thoracic and abdominal cavities). Bivariate (species pairs) versus multivariate analyses (associations within the entire set of species) were performed of presence-absence and of quantitative records (influence of intensity on associations). The associations were evaluated with respect to the sex and age of the host and to the sampling date and sites. The host and environment played a limited role, and the major determinant of species assemblage was phylogenetic. Positive associations were found among both the cestodes and the nematodes, whereas negative associations were found between cestodes and nematodes. The type of life cycle was probably the second greatest determinant of species associations. Nematodes using shrews as a paratenic host or as their definitive host were both positively associated.

  6. Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae

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    Sayyaf Dezfuli Bahram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the European cyprinids, tench, Tinca tinca (L., and the pathological effects their cestodes may effect, have received very little or no attention. Most literature relating to Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922, a common intestinal cestode of tench, for example, has focused on aspects of its morphology rather than on aspects of the host-parasite interaction. Results Immunopathological and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of 28 tench, collected from Lake Piediluco, of which 16 specimens harboured tight clusters of numerous M. wageneri attached to the intestinal wall. The infection was associated with the degeneration of the mucosal layer and the formation of raised inflammatory swelling surrounding the worms. At the site of infection, the number of granulocytes in the intestine of T. tinca was significantly higher than the number determined 1 cm away from the site of infection or the number found in uninfected fish. Using transmission electron microscopy, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in close proximity to, and inside, the intestinal capillaries; often these cells were in contact with the cestode tegument. At the host-parasite interface, no secretion from the parasite's tegument was observed. Intense degranulation of the mast cells was seen within the submucosa and lamina muscularis, most noticeably at sites close to the tegument of the scolex. In some instances, rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa. In histological sections, hyperplasia of the mucous cells, notably those giving an alcian blue positive reaction, were evident in the intestinal tissues close to the swelling surrounding the worms. Enhanced mucus secretion was recorded in the intestines of infected tench. Conclusions The pathological changes and the inflammatory cellular response induced by the caryophyllidean monozoic tapeworm M. wageneri within the intestinal tract of an Italian population of wild

  7. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognise the integrated nature of one undescribed and 10 described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously placed in the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterised by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for eight additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose that these 17 genera remain in the "Tetraphyllidea". Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e. Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with

  8. Diagnosis and therapeutic management of Dipylidium caninum in dogs: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vijesh Kumar; Gupta, Snehil; Kasondra, Arjun; Rakesh, R L; Latchumikanthan, A

    2016-12-01

    The present study is related to Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs. Three dogs about 1 year of age with the history of scooting behaviour and passing diarrhoeic stool containing white specks were presented before the clinicians. Physical examination of dogs revealed flea infestation and faecal examination revealed the presence of gravid segments, which were confirmed microscopically to be of cestode, D. caninum. Dogs were treated with Praziquantel@5 mg/kg body wt. orally. Dogs showed marked recovery post treatment. On re-examination after a week, faeces were found negative for any parasitic eggs/gravid segments.

  9. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

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    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  10. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  11. Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India.

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in young camels in Bahrain

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    M. I. Abubakr

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in young camels in Bahrain is reported for the first time. Six genera of parasites were found. The nematodes observed were Haemonchus contortus (36.47%, Nematodirus spathiger (30.59% and Trichuris sp. (10.6%; the only cestode recorded was Moniezia expansa (2.4%. The incidence of Eimeria dromedarii was 20%. Single, double, triple and quadruple parasitic infestation occurred in 41.2, 33.5, 19.4 and 5.9% of the infected animals, respectively. Balantidium coli, a protozoan parasite, was occasionally seen in young camels suffering from diarrhea at the time of sampling.

  13. Hepatic hidatidic Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, German; Cordoba, Ernesto; Cordoba, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    The helminths or vermes can be the agents infectious more prevalent in the world; it has even been ended up thinking that so many helminthiasis like people exist if they are kept in mind the multiple infections. Inside this group of organisms the Taenia echinococcus can be, kind of a cestode that takes place in the man the equinococosis or hidatidic disease in its larvary state that although in our country it is not disseminated in great measure, in other latitudes it produces a morbidity and important mortality

  14. Parasitic infections of the external eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Shivani; Puranik, Charuta; Jelliti, Bechir; Khairallah, Moncef; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-08-01

    To review the published literature on parasitic infections of external eye. Published articles and case reports on parasitic infections of external eye were reviewed and relevant information was collected. Parasitic infections of the eye are rare. However, being more commonly seen in developing nations, they require active measures for screening, diagnosis, and therapy. Parasites of importance causing external ocular disease are protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania; metazoans, such as nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flatworms); or ectoparasites, such as Phthirus pubis and Demodex.

  15. [Role of helminth antigens in the abnormal mitosis of bone marrow cells in laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkova, T N; Tatarnikova, N A; Berezhko, V K; Benediktov, I I

    2013-01-01

    The intraabdominal administration of somatic extracts of the cestodes Hydatigera taeniaformis Batsch 1786, Lamarck, 1816 and Diphyllobothrium latum Linnaeus, 1758 and the nematodes Anisakis simplex larva Rudolphi 1809, Toxocara canis Railliet et Henry, 1912 in albino mice proved that these helminths had a karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of the animals. The antigenic composition of these extracts was investigated using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The antigenic composition of the parasites was ascertained to affect their karyopathic properties. The amount of antigens and their foreignness caused a marked karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of laboratory animals during intraabdominal administration.

  16. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran

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    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

  17. Effects of a parasite, Eubothrium salvelini (Cestoda:Pseudophyllidea), on the resistance of juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, N.P.; Yamada, S.B.

    1977-05-01

    Most research to date on the tolerance of natural populations to physical and chemical stressors appears to have overlooked that parasites may themselves be stressors, and that they may be capable of modifying the resistance of the host to other applied stressors. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts trapped at the outlet of Babine Lake, central British Columbia, were subjected to 1 mg/l dissolved zinc under laboratory conditions. Smolts infected with the intestinal cestode Eubothrium salvelini proved to be significantly more susceptible to zinc than were noninfected smolts. We recommend that future investigations of environmental effects, especially on wild populations, include consideration of the state of parasitism of the test organisms.

  18. Effect of parasitism on the toxicity of cadmium to the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D.; Cram, P.

    1977-03-25

    The toxicity of cadmium to sticklebacks was determined over a wide range of concentrations. The 96 h LC50 was found to be 6.5 mg Cd 1/sup -1/. The shape of the time-concentration curve suggests that cadmium may have two toxic mechanisms. The median period of survival for fish infected with the plerocercoids of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, was found to be considerably shorter than for non-parasitized fish. This observation is considered in the light of the known effects of S. solidus on its host.

  19. Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from weasel sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae) of Australia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Timothy R; Healy, Claire J; Shapero, Scot

    2006-02-01

    Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994, P. janineae n. sp. and P. kirstenae n. sp., are described from the spiral intestine of 2 shark species of the Family Hemigaleidae: Hemigaleus microstoma and Hemipristis elongata. The 2 new cestode species differ from other members of Paraorygmatobothrium in vitelline follicle distribution and possession of a cephalic peduncle. The 2 new species differ from 1 another in total length, maximum width, scolex size, number of proglottids per strobila, and number of testes per proglottid. The generic diagnosis of Paraorygmatobothrium is emended to include the new species. The results of this study extend the distribution of Paraorygmatobothrium to include the carcharhinid shark family Hemigaleidae.

  20. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  1. The helminth community of the skink Chalcides sexlineatus from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, V; Carretero, M A; Jorge, F; Perera, A; Ferrero, A; Rodríguez-Reina, S

    2012-06-01

    A survey of the gastrointestinal helminth communities of a population of Chalcides sexlineatus Steindachner, a small skink endemic to Gran Canaria island (Canary Archipelago, Spain), was conducted to determine the prevalence, abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites in these reptiles. Only three parasite species were found, one cestode, Oochoristica agamae Baylis, 1919 and two nematodes, Parapharyngodon micipsae (Seurat, 1917) and Pharyngodonidae gen. sp. Helminth infracommunities of C. sexlineatus showed low values of abundance and species richness and diversity, being more similar to the helminth community of Tarentola boettgeri boettgeri (Steindachner) rather than those of Gallotia stehlini (Schenkel), both syntopic with the sampled host.

  2. Helminth parasites of amphibians and reptiles from the Ucayali Region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    Twenty individual amphibians representing 9 species within 6 families and 44 individual reptiles representing 15 species within 8 families from the Ucayali Region, Peru, were examined for helminths. Seven (35%) of the amphibian species and 15 (34%) of the reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 5 (25%) of the amphibians and 4 (9%) of the reptiles harbored multiple infections. A cyclophyllidean cestode and 14 taxa of nematodes within 7 families were found in the herpetofauna surveyed. Thirteen new host and 6 new geographic distribution records are documented.

  3. The effect of gamma radiation on the cysticeri of Taenia Solium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verster, A.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Van den Heever, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day +24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

  4. A Common Eurasian Fish Tapeworm, Caryophyllaeides fennica (Cestoda), in Western North America: Further Evidence of 'Amphi-Pacific' Vicariance in Freshwater Fish Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    The freshwater fish faunas of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions show similarities but also notable differences, resulting in diverse distributions of their parasites. Relatively few parasite species occur in both regions and fewer still have been examined using molecular data. We report a rare example of 'amphi-Pacific' distribution, involving the common Palaearctic parasite, the caryophyllidean cestode Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902), in the chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus Agassiz and Pickering, 1855, an endemic cyprinid in northwestern Nearctic, Oregon. Available information on nonnative fish species in Oregon suggests that the parasite is native to the area and not introduced. Molecular data (18S ribosomal [r]DNA, 28S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer 2, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene) indicate very little genetic divergence between representatives from the Palaearctic and Nearctic, and possibly a relatively more recent colonization of the Nearctic region by this cestode via the Beringian land bridge. This is remarkable considering that Acrocheilus has reportedly been in Oregon since the Miocene.

  5. Identification of Zoonotic Parasites isolated from Stray Dogs in Bojnurd County Located in North-East of Iran

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    Kourosh Arzamani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dog can represent as an important source of zoonotic disease and important health problem for human. They can carry dangerous parasitic diseases such as hydatidosis, toxocariasis and Coenurus cerebralis to humans and animals. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of zoonotic parasites among stray dogs from Bojnurd, the capital city of North Khorasan province in North West of Iran. During a program performing by Bojnurd municipal on the slow killing of stray dogs, 32 dogs from Jun 2013 till March 2015 were selected. At necropsy their alimentary canals were removed and to identify the species of helminthes, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Intestinal protozoan parasites were detected with parasitological methods. 28 (87.5% of 32 stray dogs infected at least with one helminth. Seven species of cestodes were isolated from examined dogs and three species of nematode were detected. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. detected from fecal samples. This is the first study of the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs in this area. It seems control of bearing stray dogs can help human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dog’s zoonotic parasites.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

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    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  7. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities.

  8. Control of tapeworms by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verster, A.; Van den Heever, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day + 24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the unirradiated cysticerci is 173,8 mm, while those resulting from cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

  9. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  10. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jordi; Peig, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Borras, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats

  11. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  12. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  13. A dual PCR-based sequencing approach for the identification and discrimination of Echinococcus and Taenia taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Marinova, Irina; Gori, Francesca; Hizem, Amani; Müller, Norbert; Casulli, Adriano; Jerez Puebla, Luis Enrique; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and rapid molecular tools for the genetic identification and differentiation of Echinococcus species and/or genotypes are crucial for studying spatial and temporal transmission dynamics. Here, we describe a novel dual PCR targeting regions in the small (rrnS) and large (rrnL) subunits of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, which enables (i) the specific identification of species and genotypes of Echinococcus (rrnS + L-PCR) and/or (ii) the identification of a range of taeniid cestodes, including different species of Echinococcus, Taenia and some others (17 species of diphyllidean helminths). This dual PCR approach was highly sensitive, with an analytical detection limit of 1 pg for genomic DNA of Echinococcus. Using concatenated sequence data derived from the two gene markers (1225 bp), we identified five unique and geographically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that allowed genotypes (G1 and G3) of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto to be distinguished, and 25 SNPs that allowed differentiation within Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7/8/10). In conclusion, we propose that this dual PCR-based sequencing approach can be used for molecular epidemiological studies of Echinococcus and other taeniid cestodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the fatty acid-binding protein gene from the protoscolex of Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-05-01

    Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis.

  15. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  16. In vitro ovicidal and cestocidal effects of toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis on the canine and human parasite Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Guadalupe; Aguilar Jiménez, Fortino Agustín; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive soil-dwelling bacterium that is commonly used as a biological pesticide. This bacterium may also be used for biological control of helminth parasites in domestic animals. In this study, we evaluated the possible ovicidal and cestocidal effects of a total protein extract of B. thuringiensis native strains on the zoonotic cestode parasite of dogs, Dipylidium caninum (D. caninum). Dose and time response curves were determined by coincubating B. thuringiensis proteins at concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 μ g/mL along with 4000 egg capsules of D. caninum. Egg viability was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion test. The lethal concentration of toxins on eggs was 600 μ g/ml, and the best incubation time to produce this effect was 3 h. In the adult stage, the motility and the thickness of the tegument were used as indicators of damage. The motility was inhibited by 100% after 8 hours of culture compared to the control group, while the thickness of the cestode was reduced by 34%. Conclusively, proteins of the strain GP526 of B. thuringiensis directly act upon D. caninum showing ovicidal and cestocidal effects. Thus, B. thuringiensis is proposed as a potential biological control agent against this zoonosis.

  17. In Vitro Ovicidal and Cestocidal Effects of Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis on the Canine and Human Parasite Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Peña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive soil-dwelling bacterium that is commonly used as a biological pesticide. This bacterium may also be used for biological control of helminth parasites in domestic animals. In this study, we evaluated the possible ovicidal and cestocidal effects of a total protein extract of B. thuringiensis native strains on the zoonotic cestode parasite of dogs, Dipylidium caninum (D. caninum. Dose and time response curves were determined by coincubating B. thuringiensis proteins at concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 μg/mL along with 4000 egg capsules of D. caninum. Egg viability was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion test. The lethal concentration of toxins on eggs was 600 μg/ml, and the best incubation time to produce this effect was 3 h. In the adult stage, the motility and the thickness of the tegument were used as indicators of damage. The motility was inhibited by 100% after 8 hours of culture compared to the control group, while the thickness of the cestode was reduced by 34%. Conclusively, proteins of the strain GP526 of B. thuringiensis directly act upon D. caninum showing ovicidal and cestocidal effects. Thus, B. thuringiensis is proposed as a potential biological control agent against this zoonosis.

  18. Echinococcus spp.: Tapeworms that Pose a Danger to Both Animals and Humans – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brožová A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda; Taeniidae are minute tapeworms of carnivores. Their larvae are known as hydatids (metacestode, which proliferate asexually in various mammals. Like the majority of cestodes, Echinococcus spp. require two different host species to complete their life cycle. Definitive hosts harbouring the adult cestodes in the small intestine are exclusively carnivores of the Canidae and Felidae families. A wide range of mammal species including humans is susceptible to infection by the metacestode of Echinococcus spp., which develops in their viscera. The disease, caused by species of the genus Echinococcus, is called echinococcosis, and it is one of the most dangerous zoonoses in the world. The traditional species Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis are agents of significant diseases due to the high number of cases and the wide geographical species range. The taxonomy of the genus is controversial; in the current state of ongoing complex revisions, the agent of cystic echinococcosis E. granulosus sensu lato is divided into five species (E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. felidis, E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis, in addition to the agents of alveolar echinococcosis (E. multilocularis, E. shiquicus and polycystic/unicystic echinococcosis (E. vogeli, E. oligarthrus. Here we provide an overview of the current situation, which continues to develop.

  19. Use of FTA® card methodology for sampling and molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Franck; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; El Mamy, Ahmed Bezeid; Traore, Abdallah; Fihri, Ouafaa Fassi; Petavy, Anne-Françoise; Dakkak, Allal; Umhang, Gérald

    2017-02-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus widely distributed in Africa. Monitoring of this parasite requires access to cyst samples on intermediate hosts observed at the slaughterhouse. In order to facilitate sampling in the field and analysis, the French National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp. has developed a tissue derived from DNA sampling with FTA ® card technology. The DNA samples were taken by applying the FTA ® paper on the germinal layer after opening the cysts. The sampling technique was validated using frozen cysts (n = 76) stored in the laboratory and from field samples (n = 134) taken at the slaughterhouse by veterinarian technicians during meat inspection in Morocco, Mali and Mauritania. DNA was extracted after several weeks of storage at room temperature. PCR assays were performed using primers for generic cestode (cox1) and amplified fragments were sequenced. All samples taken in the lab and 80% of field samples were capable of molecular characterization. Cyst-derived DNA from FTA ® samples can be useful for easy sampling, storage and rapid, safe and cheap shipment. The use of the FTA methodology will facilitate studies in the field to investigate the presence and genetic characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in African countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  1. Platynosomum fastosum-induced chronic intrahepatic cholangitis and Spirometra spp. infections in feral cats from Grand Cayman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, S A; Gillen, M A; Sanches, A W D; Satti, M Z

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of platynosomiasis and intestinal sparganosis is described in feral cats from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. Spirometra spp. was observed within the intestine of 18.18% (10/55) of cats; 1.18% (1/55) of cats demonstrated gross and histological manifestation of parasitism by Platynosomum fastosum, but 14.5% (8/55) of cats had the characteristic pathological manifestations of P. fastosum-induced intrahepatic cholangitis without the concomitant presence of the intraductal trematode. Combined parasitism (Spirometra spp. and P. fastosum) was observed in 9.09% (5/55) of feral cats. Significant pathological findings were only associated with the hepatic fluke, P. fastosum, and were grossly characterized by moderate hepatomegaly with enlarged and dilated bile ducts. Examples of cestodes with morphological features characteristic of Spirometra spp. were observed within the small intestine without any associated pathological lesion. The histopathological evaluation of liver fragments revealed chronic intrahepatic cholangitis with and without the associated intraductal trematode, and was characterized by marked periductal fibrosis, adenomatous proliferation of bile duct epithelium, dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts and portal accumulations of inflammatory cells. The occurrence of the cestode in feral cats coupled with factors that are unique to Grand Cayman makes this island the ideal location for sporadic cases of human sparganosis.

  2. Intestinal helminths of feral cat populations from urban and suburban districts of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Prabhaker, K S; Al-Ibrahim, Roda; Lewis, John W

    2010-03-25

    A survey of the helminths of 658 adult cats from feral urban and suburban populations in Qatar was conducted across all months in 2006 and 2007. Six species of helminths were identified, comprising two cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis [73.6%] and Diplopylidium acanthotetra [47.1%]) and four nematodes (Ancylostoma tubaeforme [14.7%], Physaloptera praeputialis [5.2%], Toxocara cati [0.8%] and Toxascaris leonina [0.2%]), and 83% of cats were infected with at least one of these. The average number of species harboured was 1.4 and the average worm burden was 55.8 worms/cat. The vast majority of worms (97.6%) were cestodes, nematodes being relatively rare. Prevalence and abundance of infections were analyzed, taking into consideration four factors: year (2006 and 2007), site (urban and suburban), season (winter and summer) and sex of the host. Analyses revealed marked year effects, female host bias in some species and interactions involving combination of factors, but especially sex and season of the year. The results indicate that whilst the majority of adult feral cats in Qatar carry helminth infections, infections are variable between years and subject to annual changes that may reflect climatic and other environmental changes in the rapidly developing city of Doha and its suburban surroundings. Only two species have the potential to infect humans and both were rare among the sampled cats (A. tubaeforme and T. cati).

  3. Lineage-specific expansion and loss of tyrosinase genes across platyhelminths and their induction profiles in the carcinogenic oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Bae, Young-An

    2017-09-01

    Tyrosinase provides an essential activity during egg production in diverse platyhelminths by mediating sclerotization of eggshells. In this study, we investigated the genomic and evolutionary features of tyrosinases in parasitic platyhelminths whose genomic information is available. A pair of paralogous tyrosinases was detected in most trematodes, whereas they were lost in cyclophyllidean cestodes. A pseudophyllidean cestode displaying egg biology similar to that of trematodes possessed an orthologous gene. Interestingly, one of the paralogous tyrosinases appeared to have been multiplied into three copies in Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. In addition, a fifth tyrosinase gene that was minimally transcribed through all developmental stages was further detected in these opisthorchiid genomes. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the tyrosinase gene has undergone duplication at least three times in platyhelminths. The additional opisthorchiid gene arose from the first duplication. A paralogous copy generated from these gene duplications, except for the last one, seemed to be lost in the major neodermatans lineages. In C. sinensis, tyrosinase gene expressions were initiated following sexual maturation and the levels were significantly enhanced by the presence of O2 and bile. Taken together, our data suggest that tyrosinase has evolved lineage-specifically across platyhelminths related to its copy number and induction mechanism.

  4. A new anoplocephalid (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from Gallotia atlantica (Reptilia, Lacertidae) in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Casanova, Juan Carlos; Ribas, Alexis; Valladares, Basilio

    2009-06-01

    A new species of anoplocephalid cestode is described from Gallotia atlantica (Reptilia, Lacertidae) on the Canary Islands, Spain. Oochoristica feliui n. sp. belongs to the group of Oochoristica spp. having circular suckers and fewer than 25 testes in a single cluster: O. lygosomae Burt, 1933; O. lygosomatis Skinker, 1935; O. elongata Dupouy et Kechemir, 1973; O. jonnesi Bursey, McAllister and Freed, 1997; O. junkea Johri, 1950; O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996; O. novaezelandae Schmidt and Allison, 1985; O. parvogenitalis Dupouy and Kechemir, 1973; and O. sobolevi (Spasskii, 1948) Spaskii, 1951. Oochoristica feliui n. sp. differs from these species in a variety of characters such as the number of proglottids, size of the scolex and suckers, presence of a neck, size and shape of the ovary (divided into 5-6 lobules), ovoid shape of the vitelline gland, a spined cirrus, size of eggs, oncosphere and oncosphere hooks, and the presence of 2 osmoregulatory canals. Gallotia spp. are endemic to the Canary Islands. This is the first report of an adult cestode species in this lizard.

  5. Host social rank and parasites: plains zebra (Equus quagga) and intestinal helminths in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazzola, M C; Stancampiano, L

    2012-08-13

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the social hierarchy of plain zebra, Equus quagga, and the level of parasitism. For the study 141 fecal samples from the same number of animals were collected within the two major populations of E. quagga of Uganda (Lake Mburo Conservation Area and Kidepo Valley National Park). Quantitative (eggs per gram of feces) and qualitative parasite assessment were performed with standard methods. The relationship between parasite burden and individual host features was analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. Strongyles, cestodes, Strongyloides sp. and oxiurids where present in the examined samples. Social rank and age class significantly affect all parasites' abundance with dominant individuals being less parasitized than subordinate individuals, regardless of the parasite groups excluding oxiurids. Sex could not been shown to be related with any of the found parasites. Age was positively related with strongyles and oxiurids abundance and negatively related with cestodes and Strongyloides sp. The main result of the present study was the evidence that social status influences parasite level with dominant zebras shedding less parasite eggs than subordinate ones. Social rank appears, therefore, as an important factor giving rise to parasite aggregation in plain zebras. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagerup, Kjetil, E-mail: kjetil.sagerup@uit.n [Tromso University Museum, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Kuklin, Vadim [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Muir, Derek C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2009-08-15

    The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Cupper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. - Consistent relationships between contaminant level and parasite intensity, as an immunotoxic endpoint unit, were not found in the present study.

  7. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  8. Longitudinal study of parasite-induced mortality of a long-lived host: the importance of exposure to non-parasitic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hilary M-H; Luong, Lien T; Shostak, Allen W

    2017-12-01

    Hosts face mortality from parasitic and environmental stressors, but interactions of parasitism with other stressors are not well understood, particularly for long-lived hosts. We monitored survival of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) in a longitudinal design incorporating cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection, starvation and exposure to the pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). We found that cestode cysticercoids exhibit increasing morphological damage and decreasing ability to excyst over time, but were never eliminated from the host. In the presence of even mild environmental stressors, host lifespan was reduced sufficiently that extensive degradation of cysticercoids was never realized. Median host lifespan was 200 days in the absence of stressors, and 3-197 days with parasitism, starvation and/or DE. Early survival of parasitized hosts was higher relative to controls in the presence of intermediate concentrations of DE, but reduced under all other conditions tested. Parasitism increased host mortality in the presence of other stressors at times when parasitism alone did not cause mortality, consistent with an interpretation of synergy. Environmental stressors modified the parasite numbers needed to reveal intensity-dependent host mortality, but only rarely masked intensity dependence. The longitudinal approach produced observations that would have been overlooked or misinterpreted if survival had only been monitored at a single time point.

  9. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  10. Nilonema gymnarchi Khalil, 1960 and N. senticosum (Baylis, 1922) (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea): Gondwana relicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cláudia Portes; Gibson, David I

    2007-07-01

    Data-base searches of records of the helminth parasites of South American and African freshwater fishes revealed only two pairs of species from genera endemic to the two regions. One pair, species of the primitive amphilinid cestode genus Nesolecithus Dönges & Harder, 1966, has already been designated as likely Gondwana relicts. The second pair are the philometrid nematodes Nilonema gymnarchi Khalil, 1960 from Gymnarchus niloticus Cuvier (Gymnarchidae) in Africa and N. senticosum (Baylis, 1922) from the South American fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) (Arapaimidae). Both species are partly redescribed on the basis of light and scanning electron microscopical observations of the type-specimens, and their relationships are discussed. In view of the fact that both hosts are basal teleosts of the order Osteoglossiformes and they are the same two fish which harbour the amphilinid cestodes already indicated as Gondwana relics, the nematode pair is also deemed to be relictual. However, these species are suggested as being of limited potential value for calibrating a molecular clock.

  11. Proliferative peritoneal and pleural cestodiasis in a cat caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides sp. anatomohistopathological findings and genetic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni C.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old female cat was brought to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana for post-mortem examination. The animal used to live, together with 26 other cats, in the big terrace of an apartment at the 8th floor in Rome, and was always fed with industrial pet food. Anamnesis referred balance troubles, vomit and convulsions, during a couple of days, followed by sudden death. At necropsy, the cat presented mucoid rhinitis, purulent tracheitis, small areas of pneumonia, dark spots in the liver, catarrhal-hemorrhagic gastritis, fibrinous enteritis and meningeal hyperemia. Thoracic and abdominal cavities were completely invaded by hundreds of larval stages of cestodes. The same parasites were also included in nodules in pancreatic, lung and kidney parenchyma. Microscopic examination of parasites allowed their identification as larval stages (metacestodes of cestodes of the genus Mesocestoides. The molecular genotyping of the metacestodes indicates a close relationship with members of the genus Mesocestoides, although a significant variation was found with respect to the available sequences of other species of the genus.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerup, Kjetil; Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana; Kuklin, Vadim; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Cupper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. - Consistent relationships between contaminant level and parasite intensity, as an immunotoxic endpoint unit, were not found in the present study.

  13. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  14. The parasite assemblage in the spiral intestine of the shark Mustelus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislo, P R; Caira, J N

    1993-12-01

    The parasite assemblage in the 8 chambers of the spiral intestine of 49 specimens of the shark Mustelus canis collected from Long Island Sound and off the coast of Virginia was investigated. Assemblages within host individuals were composed of up to 3 of 4 species of cestodes: the trypanorhynch species Prochristianella tumidula and Lacistorhynchus tenuis and the hooked tetraphyllidean species Calliobothrium verticillatum and Calliobothrium lintoni. Each individual shark hosted 1-3 (mean = 2.17) tapeworm species and 1-166 (mean = 34.3) tapeworm individuals. The assemblage consisted of 2 core species, 1 secondary species, and 1 satellite species. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the areas of the 8 intestinal chambers. ANOVAs of worm density among chambers revealed that each of the 4 species exhibited site specificity within the spiral intestine. Least significant difference analysis revealed that each of the species, except C. verticillatum, was usually found in the anterior 3 chambers. Calliobothrium verticillatum was more commonly found in the middle region of the organ, centered around chamber 4. Horn's information index indicated that L. tenuis and C. lintoni had the greatest amount of overlap within the spiral intestine and the congeners C. lintoni and C. verticillatum had the least amount of overlap. No evidence of interaction among the species in this assemblage was found. In cases where observations could be made, neither cestode total length nor location within the spiral intestine appeared to be affected by the presence of other individuals or species respectively. There was some evidence of underutilized space; the posteriormost chamber was vacant in all 49 sharks examined and 91.8% of sharks had at least 2 vacant chambers. Linear regression revealed no relationship between shark total length and either total number of worms or total number of individuals of each of the 4 species of cestodes. The chi-square test revealed

  15. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Stages: Implications for Parasite Biology and Host Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John; Wasmuth, James D.; Salinas, Gustavo; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Sanford, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Blaxter, Mark L.; Maizels, Rick M.; Fernández, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background The cestode Echinococcus granulosus - the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide - is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated ∼10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs) prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces), and pepsin/H+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i) a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep) that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs); (ii) an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii) highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv) candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v) a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi) a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. Conclusions/Significance This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the parasite genome

  16. US and CT Findings of Splenic Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Han, Jong Kyu [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of the cestode worms Echinococcus. In humans, the most commonly affected organ is the liver, the next second common organ is the lung. The third common affected organ is the spleen. In the case of splenic hydatid cyst, most cysts remain clinically silent and are diagnosed incidentally or when complications occur. We experienced a case of splenic hydatid cyst in a 28-year-old man. The patient complained of abdominal pain for 1 month. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a cystic lesion with daughter cysts in the spleen. The CT imaging also showed a cystic lesion with daughter cysts. We diagnosed it as a splenic hydatid cyst which was confirmed by pathology after surgery

  17. US and CT Findings of Splenic Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Han, Jong Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of the cestode worms Echinococcus. In humans, the most commonly affected organ is the liver, the next second common organ is the lung. The third common affected organ is the spleen. In the case of splenic hydatid cyst, most cysts remain clinically silent and are diagnosed incidentally or when complications occur. We experienced a case of splenic hydatid cyst in a 28-year-old man. The patient complained of abdominal pain for 1 month. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a cystic lesion with daughter cysts in the spleen. The CT imaging also showed a cystic lesion with daughter cysts. We diagnosed it as a splenic hydatid cyst which was confirmed by pathology after surgery

  18. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

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    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  19. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbonnier Amandine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA, connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language. The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries.

  20. Endo-parasite fauna of rodents caught in five wet markets in Kuala Lumpur and its potential zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasvaran, S; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Hanjeet, K; Krishnasamy, M; John, J; Santhana, R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H

    2009-04-01

    Rodents were collected from five wet markets (Chow Kit, Dato Keramat, Setapak, Jinjang and Kepong) in Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory between March to April 2006. Ninety seven rats were trapped using wire traps measuring 29 x 22 x 50 cm baited with fruits, coconuts, dried fish or sweet potatoes. A total of 17 different species of parasites were identified from three species of rats out of which 11 (65%) were identified to be zoonotic. The helminths identified from the urban rats were nematodes- Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Heterakis spumosa, Heterakis sp., Masterphorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Physolaptera sp., Pterogodermatis sp., Rictularia tani and Syphacia muris; cestodes- Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis sabnema, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and acanthocephalan- Moniliformis moniliformis. The following parasites are of potential medical importance: C. hepatica, G. neoplasticum, R. tani, S. muris, H. diminuta, H. nana, Raillietina sp. and T. taeniaeformis.

  1. Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, B

    1988-07-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were collected monthly over a 10-yr period and the incidence of myxomatosis and the size of helminth populations were recorded. Myxomatosis occurred annually, always as an epidemic in the latter half of the year and was associated with both an increase in the percentage of animals infected and the size of the infections of the nematodes Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus and the cestode Mosgovoyia pectinata. It is suggested that myxomatosis had the effect of reducing the rabbits' overall immune response to infection and that due to the regular annual occurrence of myxomatosis, the resulting increase in the size of helminth infections must be considered an integral part of the population dynamics of these parasites.

  2. Helminthic infections mimicking malignancy: a review of published case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, Florian H

    2010-08-04

    Infectious diseases, including infections with helminths, can initially present similarly to malignancies. The goal of the article is to review reports of helminthic infections that are initially diagnosed as malignancy. The database PubMed was searched for English language references published as of July 2009. The following published case reports and case series, mainly from Asia and Africa, were identified: Nematodes: 8 publications (1 patient with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 2 Stronglyloides stercoralis, 1 Toxocara species, 1 Dioctophyma renale, 1 Ascaris species, 1 Gnathostoma spinigerum, 1 Dirofilaria repens); Trematodes: 7 publications (46 patients with Schistosoma species, 2 Fasciola hepatica, 1 Paragonimus westermani); Cestodes: 6 publications (10 patients with Echinococcus species, 1 Sparganum mansoni). To avoid unnecessary investigations and treatment, physicians should be aware when diagnosing patients from Asia or Africa that a large number of helminthic infections can present similar to malignancies.

  3. Gene Expression Contributes to the Recent Evolution of Host Resistance in a Model Host Parasite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Lohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heritable population differences in immune gene expression following infection can reveal mechanisms of host immune evolution. We compared gene expression in infected and uninfected threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from two natural populations that differ in resistance to a native cestode parasite, Schistocephalus solidus. Genes in both the innate and adaptive immune system were differentially expressed as a function of host population, infection status, and their interaction. These genes were enriched for loci controlling immune functions known to differ between host populations or in response to infection. Coexpression network analysis identified two distinct processes contributing to resistance: parasite survival and suppression of growth. Comparing networks between populations showed resistant fish have a dynamic expression profile while susceptible fish are static. In summary, recent evolutionary divergence between two vertebrate populations has generated population-specific gene expression responses to parasite infection, affecting parasite establishment and growth.

  4. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...

  5. Zoonotic helminths parasites in the digestive tract of feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Jian; Huang, Tengfei; Guillot, Jacques; Huang, Weiyi

    2015-08-16

    In Guangxi, a province of southern China, an important number of dogs and cats roam freely in rural settings, and the presence of these animals in proximity of people may represent a risk of parasitic zoonoses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and identify gastrointestinal helminths in feral carnivores in Guangxi province. Therefore, post mortem examination was performed in 40 dogs and in 39 cats. The Gastrointestinal helminths were found in all the necropsied dogs and in 37 out of 39 cats. Fifteen species were identified including 7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 5 nematodes. Most of them may be responsible for zoonotic infections. Major zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths, including liver and intestinal flukes, Toxocara spp., and Ancylostoma spp., are present in feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, and may represent a significant risk for public health.

  6. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...... to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation...... affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy...

  7. Helminth parasites of the Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, United States with a summary of helminths of this host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    One hundred-thirty six Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus, were collected between December 1986 and March 2016 in Hardin (n = 7), Harris (n = 57), and Tom Green (n = 72) counties, Texas, USA., and examined for helminth parasites. Fifty-two H. turcicus (38%) were infected with at least one helminth species. Found were a trematode, Mesocoelium meggitti, three cestodes, Mesocestoides sp. (tetrathyridia), Oochoristica ameivae and Oochoristica scelopori, and four nematodes, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Parapharyngodon cubensis, and larvae of Physaloptera sp. Oochoristica ameivae, O. scelopori, P. cubensis, Physaloptera sp., and Os. pipiens represent new host records for H. turcicus and M. meggitti is reported from Texas for the first time. A summary of the helminth parasites of both native and non-native H. turcicus is presented.

  8. Cross sectional epidemiological investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free range chickens in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, T.; Hasan, Mohammed Tabaruk; Golam Kadir, A. K. M.

    2016-01-01

    of susceptibility to many diseases including higher burden of parasitic infection. Therefore this cross sectional epidemiological investigation was done to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. To conduct this study a total of 150 chickens from...... three different villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh (50 chickens per village) were collected by random sampling method and killed by cervical disarticulation. Thereafter, all the chickens were necropsied and gastrointestinal tracts were examined macroscopically for the presence helminth infection....... In total two nematode (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum,) and one cestode (Raillietina spp.) were identified by post mortem examination. Raillietina spp. was detected as the most prevalent helminth species (86–92 %) followed by A. galli (70–86 %), and H. gallinarum (70–76 %) in studied villages...

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – Seasonal, geographical and host related variations in the parasite burdens of two distinct Danish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Stengaard; Chriél, Mariann; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    Due to a recent decline in number of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Denmark, prevalence, intensity and composition of the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of Common Eiders from two distinct colonies were examined to establish reference data of the helminth fauna of apparently healthy birds....... Furthermore, seasonal, geographical and host related variations in helminth composition were studied. The birds were collected November 2010 to January 2012. Included were a total of 157 eiders from Jutland (N=103) and Zealand (N=54) respectively, comprising 54 males and 102 females of which 20 were gathered...... during the nesting period. The study is ongoing, and so far most parasites have only been identified to the family level. Eight trematode families, two nematode families, one acanthocephala and one cestode family were identified. Intensities of infections were primarily influenced by age of the birds...

  10. Molecular characterization and detection of variants of Taenia multiceps in sheep in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Betul; Koroglu, Ergun; Simsek, Sami

    2017-02-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals. A total of 20 C. cerebralis isolates collected from naturally infected sheep in Mardin province of Turkey were characterized through the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene. The results showed that the CO1 gene sequences were highly conserved in C. cerebralis isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial CO1 gene sequences revealed that C. cerebralis isolates were composed of three different variants.

  11. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature.

  12. An unusual case of cycticercosis of the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles.

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    Sharat Agarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm, especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larvae become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, the vitreous humor, or other tissues. We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the the tendon sheath of the tendoachilles that presented as a swelling of the tendoachilles. Upon Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC that were conducted preoperatively, the possibility of villonodular synovitis was identified. However, the cysticercosis diagnosis was confirmed later after an excisional biopsy was performed. We could find no reports in the literature concerning an occurrence of cysticercosis in the tendon sheath of tendoachilles.

  13. Designing a Minimal Intervention Strategy to Control Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell

    2017-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible. Logical models are presented which reflect changes in the risk that age cohorts of animals have for their potential to transmit T. solium. Interventions that include a combined application of vaccination, plus chemotherapy in young animals, are the most effective. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis of Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Dipylidiidae), an intestinal parasite of Canis familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J; Bâ, C T; Marchand, B

    1998-09-01

    We describe for the first time the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis of a representative of the family Dipylidiidae, Dipylidium caninum. Spermiogenesis begins with the formation of a differentiation zone. This conical area presents two centrioles with associated striated roots. One of the centrioles develops a flagellum and posteriorly a proximodistal fusion is produced between the axoneme and a median cytoplasmic process. In a final stage of spermiogenesis a condensation of electron-dense material between cortical microtubules is observed in the anterior part of the differentiation zone. This is the origin of the crest-like body that appears at the end of spermiogenesis. The presence of striated roots associated with centrioles constitutes the first report of these structures in the spermiogenesis of a cyclophyllidean cestode.

  15. Helminth parasites of dogs from two resource-limited communities in South Africa : research communication

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    W.N. Minnaar

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples were collected from dogs in resource-limited communities in the North-West and Gauteng Provinces of South Africa to assess the prevalence of helminth parasitism. These samples included adhesive tape peri-anal skin swabs and fresh faecal samples for helminth examination, and thick and thin blood films (smears and whole-blood samples in anticoagulant for examination of filarial nematode microfilariae and haemoprotozoa. The eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dipylidium caninum and taeniids were identified. None of the blood samples and smears tested positive for microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis or Dipetalonema spp. or for haemoprotozoa. The adhesive tape swabs were negative for cestode eggs and segments. Most of the helminth parasites identified in this study are zoonotic and consequently are regarded as a public health hazard.

  16. Effects on the development of Dipylidium caninum and on the host reaction to this parasite in the adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R E

    1987-01-01

    Temperature was found to be a major factor affecting the development of Dipylidium caninum and the presence of a host reaction of adult Ctenocephalides felis felis to D. caninum. Adult fleas reared at 30-32 degrees C contained fully developed metacestodes when they emerged from their cocoons. However at lower temperatures, D. caninum could not complete development until the flea hosts had spent some time on their mammalian hosts. It was the surface temperature of the mammals (31-36 degrees C) and not the fleas' blood meals which resulted in the metacestodes completing their development. This development of D. caninum was therefore independent of the flea development. At 20 degrees C, a larger and more prolonged host reaction was mounted than at higher temperatures. The larval flea diet had a small effect on the subsequent cestode development and the adult fleas' reaction to it.

  17. Niclosamide as a treatment for Hymenolepis diminuta and Dipylidium caninum infection in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W E

    1979-03-01

    In the 5-year period 1973-1977, 43 patients infected with Dipylidium caninum and 43 patients infected with Hymenolepis diminuta were treated with Yomesan (niclosamide) in the dosages recommended by the Parasitic Disease Drug Service, Center for Disease Control. The first post-treatment stool specimen and 1-week and 3-month specimens were examined in 13 patients with D. caninum and 19 patients with H. diminuta. One hundred percent (13/13) of those with D. caninum and 89% (17/19) of those with H. diminuta had negative examinations at 3 months and were considered cured. Two patients with persistent H. diminuta were cured with a second course of drug without changing the dosage or time schedule. Four of these cases had been unresponsive to an initial course of quinacrine hydrochloride. Thus, niclosamide seems to be an effective, relatively nontoxic drug for the initial therapy of these cestode infections.

  18. Identification of an expressed gene in Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rodrigo R C; Costa-Júnior, Livio M; Campos, Artur K; Santos, Hudson A; Rabelo, Elida M L

    2004-10-01

    Recombinant DNA studies have been focused on developing vaccines to different cestodes. But few studies involving Dipylidium caninum molecular biology and genes have been done. Only partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA and ribosomal RNA gene are available in databases. Any molecular work with this parasite, including epidemiology, study of drug-resistant strains, and vaccine development, is hampered by the lack of knowledge of its genome. Thus, the knowledge of specific genes of different developmental stages of D. caninum is crucial to locate potential targets to be used as candidates to develop a vaccine and/or new drugs against this parasite. Here we report, for the first time, the sequencing of a fragment of a D. caninum expressed gene.

  19. Human Dipylidiasis: A Case Report of Dipylidium caninum Infection from Karimnagar

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    KV Ramana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipylidium caninum also refered to as the double-pored tapeworm is a cyclophyllidean cestode that commonly infects dogs and cats. Mammals act as definite hosts with intermediate hosts being dog and cat flea, the Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides catis respectively. The dog lice, Trichodectes canis and human flea (Pulex irritans also transmit Dipylidium caninum infection. Infants and young children are at high risk of acquiring infection. Majority of the infections are due to close association with pet dog and cats. Humans are accidental hosts who acquire infection by ingestion of infected dog and cat fleas. We report a rare case of Dipylidium caninum infection in a 9 year old girl who could have acquired infection by consuming food contaminated with infected fleas.

  20. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

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    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  1. Echinococcus granulosus: Evidence of a heterodimeric glutathione transferase built up by phylogenetically distant subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbildi, Paula; La-Rocca, Silvana; Lopez, Veronica; Da-Costa, Natalia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    In the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, three phylogenetically distant cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) (EgGST1, 2 and 3) were identified. Interestingly, the C-terminal domains of EgGST3 and EgGST2 but not EgGST1, exhibit all amino acids involved in Sigma-class GST dimerization. Here, we provide evidence indicating that EgGST2 and EgGST3 naturally form a heterodimeric structure (EgGST2-3), and also we report the enzymatic activity of the recombinant heterodimer. EgGST2-3 might display novel properties able to influence the infection establishment. This is the first report of a stable heterodimeric GST built up by phylogenetically distant subunits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of immunization with protoscolices antigens of hydatid cysts on growth of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs

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    M. A. Aljawady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the immune response of puppies, injected by different protein fractions extracted from protoscolieces, obtained from ovine hydatid cyst. Indirect heamagglutination revealed a remarkable increase in the antibody titers for the immunized groups (A1.5, A3, B1.5, and B3 before and after challenge when compared with the control. Biological variations showed decline in numbers of adult Echinococcus granulosus in the immunized groups when compared with the control. Other variations proved dropping in numbers of the worms within the same immunized groups. Subsequent reductions of cestodes were reported which were 83.8%, 81.3%, 78.2% and 74.6% for the groups A3, A1.5, B3, and B1.5, respectively.

  3. Molecular identification and characterization of prohibitin from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiuqin; Song, Xingju; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Liu, Tinayu; Wang, Tao; Gu, Xiaobin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2016-02-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) is a widely distributed protein that functions as a molecular chaperone, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle, and maintains mitochondrial structure and functions of the anti-apoptosis, senescence, and proliferation. The aim of this study was to characterize PHB in Echinococcus granulosus (EgPHB), a harmful cestode parasite of humans, many livestock species, and wild animals. We found that EgPHB is a conserved SPFH (stomatin, prohibitin, flotillin, and HflK/C) domain-containing protein, consisting of 289 amino acids, which shares 42.66-99.31% identity with PHBs from other parasites and mammals. EgPHB was located mainly in the tegument issue of protoscoleces, in the inner body of adult worms, and was expressed widely in the germinal layer. This is the first report on prohibitin from E. granulosus, and EgPHB is considered to be a valuable protein to study more in the future.

  4. Unusual presentation of hydatid cyst – ruptured intraventricular hydatid

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    Sneha H Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis in humans occurs as a result of infection by the larval stages of taenid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. Most of the intracranial hydatids develop in brain parenchyma. Hydatid cyst within the cerebral ventricle is quite unusual. Literature review showed few case reports of childhood as well as adult intraventricular hydatid cysts. None of these cases presented for the first time with features of ruptured intraventricular cyst. This is a very rare presentation of a common disease. The possibility of infestation with E. granulosus should be included in the differential diagnosis of raised intracranial tension in patients reporting from endemic areas, because the prognosis following surgical intervention is excellent, especially in the pediatric age group.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  6. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIII. Helminths of grey rhebuck, Pelea capreolus, and of bontebok, Damaliscus dorcas dorcas, in the Bontebok National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G

    1992-09-01

    A total of 25 grey rhebuck, Pelea capreolus, and 16 bontebok, Damaliscus dorcas dorcas, were shot for parasite recovery at bi-monthly intervals in the Bontebok National Park, south-western Cape Province, from February 1983 to December 1983 and February 1983 to February 1984, respectively. The grey rhebuck and the bontebok each harboured 9 nematode species and the latter animals 1 cestode species. Ostertagia hamata was most abundant and most prevalent in the grey rhebuck and Longistrongylus curvispiculum and Nematodirus spathiger in the bontebok. Longistrongylus schrenki is recorded for the first time in grey rhebuck, and Trichostrongylus falculatus and Moniezia expansa in bontebok. The total nematode burdens of the bontebok were considerably larger than those of the grey rhebuck. No clear pattern of seasonal abundance for the helminths of either host species was evident.

  7. Parasites of the raccoon dog – an invading species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hammer, A. S.; Chriél, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species have a marked negative influence on the biodiversity of ecosystems and may contribute to the transmission of diseases. During the 1920s until 1950s, thousands of Raccoon dogs were deliberately introduces to the eastern European countries from the Far East, in order to enrich...... the wild with this new valuable fur animal. The Raccoon dog is considered the most successful invading mammal in Europe, and in the last 20 years, it has invaded the western part of Denmark, namely Jutland. The Danish ministry of Environment reacted to the new threat by deciding to eradicate this species...... species were isolated from both hosts; however, foxes harboured more helminth species per infected animal (average 3,1 helminth species/fox) than raccoon dogs (average 1,7 helminth species/raccoon dog). Prevalences of nematodes (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonine) and cestodes...

  8. Clinical disorders observed in anteaters (Myrmecophagidae, Edentata) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, L S; Costa, E O; Oliveira, P M

    1995-01-01

    The major health problems found in 103 captive lesser anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) and giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), family Myrmecophagidae, are presented and correlated with management. The most common of 200 recorded clinical disorders involved the digestive system (26%), nutritional deficiency (20%), injury (15.5%), respiratory system (10%), skin (7%) and circulatory system (4.5%), but 13% of the cases were inconclusive. Parasites were identified in 48.5% of faecal samples, mainly the eggs of nematodes (40%), of which the commonest were Trichuris spp (28%) and Strongyloides spp (11%); protozoa (16%), of which the commonest were Eimeria spp (10%), Entamoeba spp (5%) and Giardia spp (1%); and cestodes (8%) and acanthocephalids (1%). Bacteria cultured from the various materials included Salmonella enteritidis, S. cholerasuis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp. The ectoparasites found were Amblyomma spp and Otodectis spp (Arthropoda, Acaridae).

  9. Metazoan parasites of Brama australis from southern Chile: a tool for stock discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Espinola, J F; Ñacari, L A

    2016-03-01

    The metazoan parasites of 403 specimens of the southern ray's bream Brama australis from three localities in southern Chile (Lebu 36° 70' S; 73° 40' W, Calbuco 41° 50' S; 73° 08' W and Punta Arenas 53° 10' S; 70° 50' W) were recorded. More than 23 400 parasite specimens belonging to 12 taxa were registered. Metazoan parasites were dominated by the copepod Hatschekia conifera, constituting 97% of the total number of parasites; the larval cestode Hepatoxylon trichiuri was the second most important parasite (2·1% of the total number of parasites). The remaining 10 species constituted parasites. Parasitological evidence, based on univariate and multivariate analysis, does not support the existence of discrete stocks in the studied zone. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasyrhynchidae description of the adult form Descrição da forma adulta de Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasynrhynchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona de São Clemente

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available One out of four specimens of sharks, Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, captured off the southern Brazilian Coast, harboured cestodes identified as Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965, of which the adult form is now described and referred as ocurring in Brazil.Um entre quatro espécimes de Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, coletados na costa sul brasileira, estava parasitado por cestóides pertencentes ao gênero Dasyrhynchus Pintner, 1928. Os espécimes foram identificados como D. pacificus Ribinson, 1965, sendo este o primeiro registo da ocorrência desta espécie no Brasil. Nesta oportunidade, é pela primeira vez apresentada a descrição da forma adulta, embora sem o proglotide grávido.

  11. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  12. Diversity and distribution of parasites from potentially cultured freshwater fish in Nakhon Si Thammarat

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    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species from 16 genera of potentially cultured freshwater fish were examined for external and internal parasites. Ten individuals of each fish species were sampled from various places in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Eight groups, 72 species were identified and the majority was external (52 spp.. The parasites found were ciliated protozoan (2 spp., myxozoan (2 spp., monogenean (44 spp., digenean (7 spp., cestode (6 spp., nematode (6 spp., acanthocephalan (2 spp. and crustacean (3 spp.. Monogenean was regarded as a major group of parasites with 44 species. Dactylogyrus (Monogenea had the highest number of species (12 spp., whereas Trichodina pediculus (Ciliophora was the most widely distributed species observed from at least 7 fish species (7 families. Most of the parasites (72 % found in this study were specific to their host species.

  13. Case Record of a Teaching Hospital in Karaj; A 35-Year Old Man With Taenia saginata Infection Treated With Niclosamide

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    Aliehsan Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasaginata can cause severe health and economic problems particularly in endemic areas. The disease cause by this cestode is related to poor sanitary conditions, inadequate hygiene, open defecation, inadequately cooked beef and poverty. A 35 years man found yellowish white tapeworm proglottids moving in his feces and consulted to the Department of Emergency, ShahidRajaei hospital, Karaj, Iran. He complained of lower abdominal discomfort, anal itching and moving something in the stomach. He was given wrong prescription. The patients had the history of eating undercooked beef. We report one case of T. saginata infection based on adult tapeworm recovery from the patients. The specific identification of the worm was based on based on standard procedures. Three months after expelling the tapeworm, the man felt better and returned to his normal life.

  14. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  15. A study on endoparasitic and ectoparasitic fauna of snakes in Mizoram, India

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    Gautam Patra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the prevalence of parasitic fauna of snakes from different parts of Mizoram, India. Methods: Collected fecal samples of different snakes were examined by sedimentation and floatation techniques. Similarly, blood samples were examined for presence of any haemoprotozoa following Giemsa staining technique. Ectoparasites were identified on the basis of morphological keys. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was performed for detailed surface structure studies of few parasites. Results: Sixty one percent (40/65 snakes examined were found positive for parasitic infection. The predominant endoparasites included five species of nematodes, one species of cestodes, one species of tissue protozoa, and two species of haemoprotozoa. Ectoparasites recorded were ticks of the genera Aponomma and Amblyomma. The most abundant nematode recorded was Kalicephalus species. Conclusions: The study indicates that parasitic infection of snakes is quite common in this part of India and deserves attention for zoological studies.

  16. Helminth parasite communities of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus from the Mexican Pacific

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    Morales-Serna F. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of L. guttatus from Mazatlan Bay (MB and Banderas Bay (BB, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, were studied during two consecutive years. A total of 536 fish were collected and 19 parasite taxa registered (six digeneans, two cestodes, nine nematodes, and two monogeneans. Infection levels of common helminth species (Helicometrina nimia, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Ancyrocephalidae gen. sp. and Microcotyloides incisa as well as the infracommunity indices varied significantly between MB and BB, and among dry and rainy seasons; however, no clear seasonal patterns were observed. Pseudoterranova larvae appeared frequently in MB, possibly because of the presence of the California sea lion in this locality. Similarity analysis did not show a clear separation of parasite species composition between both localities, which suggest that fish samples came from a single population of L. guttatus.

  17. Parasites of skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis, from Madeira, Eastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cavaleiro, Bárbara; Gouveia, Lídia; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2018-04-01

    Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a tropical species of economic importance for fisheries around the world. It occurs seasonally in subtropical waters around Madeira archipelago, in the warmer months. In this study, a parasitological analysis was carried out on a sample of 30 skipjack caught near Madeira Island. A total of 24 parasite taxa were found in this sample. The skipjack parasite community detected was characterized by a wide diversity of parasites, with a predominance of adult didymozoid trematodes, and high prevalences of Tentacularia coryphaenae cestode larvae and Anisakis sp. larvae. Microhabitat distribution of gill parasites was assessed for the most prevalent species, and correlations between parasite abundance and various host features such as size, condition, and fat content were investigated. Parasite taxa which might be useful as biological tags in future studies of skipjack migrations in the Eastern Atlantic were selected.

  18. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  19. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

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    Motamedi, G.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Department. Samples were collected between 19.02.2010 and 20.05.2011. The samples and animals were examined by dissection and flotation methods. In this study only one species of nematodes (Passalorus ambiguus: 6.9%; one species of protozoa (Eimeria spp.: 21.8% in rabbits and one species of nematodes (Paraspidodera Uncinata: 24.7%; one species of protozoa (Balantidium coli: 11.4% in guinea pigs were identified. However, there was not any cestodes or trematodes identified from this group of laboratory animals.

  20. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  1. Un caso de infeccion humana por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localizacion parenquimatosa en Valdivia, Chile A case of human cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus in Valdivia, Chile

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    Eduardo Ortega

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de infección por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localización parenquimatosa en un paciente de la ciudad de Valdivia (Chile cuyo diagnóstico definitivo se efectuó a través del estudio morfológico del parásito. Se discute brevemente la escasa frecuencia de la localización parenquimatosa del cisticerco racemoso, así como su diagnóstico diferencial con otros estados larvarios de cestodos que desarrollan en el sistema nervioso.A clinical case of cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus, diagnosed by means of morphological characteristics in a patient of Valdivia city is described. The rare frequency of parenquimal location of racemose cysticercus as well as its differential diagnosis with other larval stages of cestodes that develop in the brain and its treatment are discussed.

  2. The component helminth community in six sympatric species of Ardeidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Lluch, Javier; Font, Enrique

    2005-08-01

    We studied the helminth communities in 6 sympatric species of Ardeidae (Ixobrychus minutus (Linnaeus, 1766), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758), Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758), Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766), Ardea cinerea (Linnaeus, 1758), and Ardea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1766)) from "La Albufera de Valencia," Spain. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites: 5 digeneans, 2 cestodes, and 6 nematodes. The component helminth communities of the Ardeidae examined are depauperate and conform to the pattern typically found in isolationist communities, probably because of their high trophic dependence on a few prey species. Evenness was positively correlated with richness and abundance, but host body weight was not correlated with the number of helminth species or with the total number of helminths. Ardea cinerea is more heavily infected than E. garzetta by Apharyngostrigea cornu, and B. ibis is more heavily infected than both Ardea cinerea and E. garzetta by Desportesius spinulatus. Apharyngostrigea cornu was positively associated with Desmidocercella numidica and D. spinulatus in A. cinerea.

  3. [Helminth burden of slaughter sheep in Upper Bavaria. 1: Species spectrum, infestation extent and infestation intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Kollmannsberger, M; Visser, M; Winter, R

    1996-05-01

    The helminth fauna of 136 slaughtered sheep (99 lambs or = 1 year) from Upper Bavaria, Germany, was examined. In all 2 species of trematodes, 3 species of cestodes and 24 species of nematodes were found. All the animals harboured gastrointestinal nematodes, 9 of them liver flukes, 33 Moniezia spp., 19 Cysticercus tenuicollis, and one sheep Setaria sp. Lungworms were not seen. The most prevalent species were Cooperia curticei (74.3%), Trichuris ovis (69.1%), Ostertagia circumcincta (68.4%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (63.2%) and Chabertia ovina (61.8%). The highest mean wormburden was seen in Cooperia curticei (12471) followed by Trichostrongylus axei (1856), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (1752), Nematodirus filicollis (1551) and Nematodirus battus (1238). In both lambs and older sheep the small intestine harboured the highest wormburden followed by abomasum and large intestine. The total nematode counts were much higher in lambs than in older sheep. The lambs harboured more intestinal nematodes than older sheep but fewer abomasal worms.

  4. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

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    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  5. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-01-17

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  6. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

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    Yanagida Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  7. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

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    Vedantam Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.

  8. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues. PMID:28139530

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid and Adult Stages

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    Anna Sulima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cestodiases are common parasitic diseases of animals and humans. As cestodes have complex lifecycles, hexacanth larvae, metacestodes (including cysticercoids, and adults produce proteins allowing them to establish invasion and to survive in the hostile environment of the host. Hymenolepis diminuta is the most commonly used model cestode in experimental parasitology. The aims of the present study were to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of two consecutive developmental stages of H. diminuta (cysticercoid and adult and to distinguish proteins which might be characteristic for each of the stages from those shared by both stages. Somatic proteins of H. diminuta were isolated from 6-week-old cysticercoids and adult tapeworms. Cysticercoids were obtained from experimentally infected beetles, Tenebrio molitor, whereas adult worms were collected from experimentally infected rats. Proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS (one dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally protein samples were digested in-liquid and identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified proteins were classified according to molecular function, cellular components and biological processes. Our study showed a number of differences and similarities in the protein profiles of cysticercoids and adults; 233 cysticercoid and 182 adult proteins were identified. From these proteins, 131 were present only in the cysticercoid and 80 only in the adult stage samples. Both developmental stages shared 102 proteins; among which six represented immunomodulators and one is a potential drug target. In-liquid digestion and LC-MS/MS complemented and confirmed some of the GeLC-MS/MS identifications. Possible roles and functions of proteins identified with both proteomic approaches are discussed.

  10. Use of Gamma Rays to Control of Internal Parasites and Pathogenic Bacteria in Silver side Fish (Bissaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawki, H.A.; El-Hanafy, A.E.A.; Shagar, G.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of Gamma irradiation to control of internal parasites and pathogenic bacteria found in silver side fish (Atherina) (Bissaria) was investigated. The detected parasites and the prevalence were adult Trematode (37.5%); Cestodes (95%) and Nematode (22.5%) for control silver side fish. The counts of detected microorganisms, (Total bacterial count; Psychrophilic bacteria; Mold and yeast; E.coli and Staphyloccous aureus ) were 4.89 ; 2.30; 2.32; 2.31 and 2.04 log 10 cfu/g for control silver side fish, respectively. Applied irradiation doses reduce the infected rate by Trematode, Cestodes and Nematode, furthermore, gamma irradiation with different doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 5 kGy) reduce the microorganisms count of silver side fish (Bissaria) samples and the rate of decrement increase with the dose increase. Total bacterial count was not detected by using dose 5 kGy while Psychrophilic bacteria were completely eliminated using dose 1 kGy. On the other hand mold and yeast; E.coli and Staph aureus in silver side fish samples were not detected after subjected to gamma irradiation with dose 4 kGy. The results suggest that the applied doses completely elimination different internal parasites and pathogenic bacteria found in silver side fish. Thus, it could be conclude that the irradiation dose of 4 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of internal parasites and pathogenic bacteria found in silver side fish (Atherina) (Bissaria) with regards to these harmful parasites and pathogenic bacteria

  11. Study of Intestinal Helminthes of Stray Dogs and Thir Public Heath Importance in Hamadan City

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    Kh. Rahmati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal helminthesof dogs are a serious threat to human health and may cause dangerous diseases such as: hydatidosis and visceral larva migrans, that which cause severe complications in human. Th aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof intestinal helminthes of stray dogs in Hamadan city, Iran.. Methods: A total of 103 stray dogswere shot in the inner and around of the city in year 2015. Following necropsy, the intestines' contents of dogs were examined for helminthes macroscopically. Thn, the collected worms, aftr washing with saline,were counted and identifid according to being Nematode, Cestodeor Acantcephala. Thn, collected Nematodes were put in glass containers containing 70% ethanol-glycerine and Cestodes aftr processing on slides were put in the 10% formalin. To identify the species of helminthes, the Cestodes were stained using carmine acid and Nematodes were cleared in lacto-phenol. Results: Result indicated that, 74(71.8%stray dogs were infected at least by one species of intestinal helminthes. Th species of parasites were as follows: Echinococcus granulosus 37.9%, Dipylidium caninum 51.5%, Toxocara canis 19.4%, Taenia hydatigena 24.3%, T. multiceps 2.9%, T. ovis 1.9%, Mesocest oideslineatus 4.9%, and Acantho cephala 5.8%. Thre was no association between insex, season and region with prevalence of intestinal helminthes (P 0.05 between the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and dogs' age. Conclusions: Ths study indicatesd that,infection rate of helminthes in stray dogs is washigh in Hamadan city. Thse parasites are important in terms of human health and economic aspects. Threfore, it is more essential that public health authoritiesto develop control strategies for stray dogs population.

  12. Potentilla fulgens (Family Rosaceae), a medicinal plant of north-east India: a natural anthelmintic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bishnupada; Swargiary, Ananta; Syiem, D; Tandon, V

    2010-10-01

    The cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida and the trematode, Gastrothylax crumenifer were exposed to the ethanolic root peel extract of Potentilla fulgens, an antiparasitic local medicinal plant of Meghalaya, India, to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of the plant. The parasites were incubated in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg crude alcoholic extract per ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at a temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Paralysis and death were observed at 2.00 ± 0.05 and 2.80 ± 0.06 h for the cestode and 1.21 ± 0.06 and 2.18 ± 0.04 h for the trematode parasites at the highest test concentration of the plant extract. The commercial anthelmintic, Praziquantel (PZQ) showed higher activity at the tested concentration (0.02 mg/ml). To further investigate the efficacy of the plant extract, vital tegumental enzymes of the parasite viz. Acid phosphatase (AcPase), Alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase) and Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were studied. Quantitatively, the total enzyme activity of AcPase, AlkPase and ATPase was found to be reduced significantly by 69.20, 66.43 and 29.63% for R. echinobothrida and 47.96, 51.79 and 42.63% for G. crumenifer, respectively compared to the respective controls; histochemical study also showed reduction in the visible staining of the enzymes. The reference drug, PZQ also showed more or less similar effect like that of the plant extract. The result suggests that phytochemicals of P. fulgens have anthelmintic potential.

  13. microRNA analysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci under praziquantel treatment and genome-wide identification of Taenia solium miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Matías Gastón; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Lichtenstein, Gabriel; Conti, Gabriela; Asurmendi, Sebastián; Milone, Diego Humberto; Stegmayer, Georgina; Kamenetzky, Laura; Cucher, Marcela; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and perform critical functions in development and disease. In spite of the increased interest in miRNAs from helminth parasites, no information is available on miRNAs from Taenia solium, the causative agent of cysticercosis, a neglected disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs from Taenia crassiceps, a laboratory model for T. solium studies, and identified miRNAs in the T. solium genome. Moreover, we analysed the effect of praziquantel, one of the two main drugs used for cysticercosis treatment, on the miRNA expression profile of T. crassiceps cysticerci. Using small RNA-seq and two independent algorithms for miRNA prediction, as well as northern blot validation, we found transcriptional evidence of 39 miRNA loci in T. crassiceps. Since miRNAs were mapped to the T. solium genome, these miRNAs are considered common to both parasites. The miRNA expression profile of T. crassiceps was biased to the same set of highly expressed miRNAs reported in other cestodes. We found a significant altered expression of miR-7b under praziquantel treatment. In addition, we searched for miRNAs predicted to target genes related to drug response. We performed a detailed target prediction for miR-7b and found genes related to drug action. We report an initial approach to study the effect of sub-lethal drug treatment on miRNA expression in a cestode parasite, which provides a platform for further studies of miRNA involvement in drug effects. The results of our work could be applied to drug development and provide basic knowledge of cysticercosis and other neglected helminth infections. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Helminth Fauna Associated with Three Neotropical Bat Species (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae) in Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Crespo, Emilio; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Montiel-Ortega, Salvador; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths. Six parasite species representing 3 types of intestinal helminths were found: 1 cestode Vampirolepis elongatus; 2 trematodes Maxbraunium tubiporum and Ochoterenatrema labda; and 3 nematodes Linustrongylus pteronoti, Molineidae gen. sp., and Capillaria sp. Overall, trematodes were the most abundant parasite group (72.4%), followed by nematodes (20.7%) and cestodes (6.9%). Species-accumulation curves suggest that the worms collected (n = 1,331) from these 6 parasite species comprise the helminth fauna associated with the 3 bat populations studied. The only species shared by the 3 bat species was Capillaria sp. Most (5/6) of the helminth species recorded use Lepidoptera and Diptera as intermediate hosts; therefore, diet is likely the main source of infection. Although insectivorous bats are considered dietary generalist species, the differences found in helminth diversity in these sympatric populations of closely related bat species, suggest that diet partitioning occurs in mormoopid bat communities. Helminths tend to exploit the food chain to reach their final hosts; therefore, studying these parasites can provide useful information to further understand the biology of bats.

  16. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    N. Shit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestation is a major constraint of livestock and causes great economic loss to animal husbandry by the way of retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. In view of the parasitism, the present study was aimed to elucidate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Bankura district, West Bengal. A total of 1200 fecal samples (200 samples/ species/season were collected directly from the farmers’ end in three different seasons namely winter, summer and rainy seasons. The stool samples were examined initially by direct smear followed by sedimentation and floatation techniques within 24h of collection. All three major parasites i.e. nematode (Toxocara, Strongyloides, Strongyle and Trichuris, cestode (Moniezia and trematode (Paramphistomes and Fasciola were observed and analyzed based on the morphology of eggs. The degree of incidence was superior in buffaloes compared to the cattle irrespective of the seasonal variations. The rainy season showed the highest degree of parasitic occurrence (67.00% compared to winter (52.25 and summer (38.75% seasons. The study of species-wise incidence demonstrated a highest peak of Paramphistomes (32.17% where very few samples were positive for Trichuris sp. (2.42%. Among the sub-divisions, Bishnupur represented the maximum occurrence of helminth parasites (62.05% as compared to Bankura sadar (58.47% and Khatra (40.16%. Significantly (P<0.05 higher percent of trematode and nematodes were prevalent in Bishnupur though the same observation was manifested for cestodal infection in Khatra. It can be concluded that a favorable hot and humid condition during rainy season favors the growth of propagation of developmental stages which would be the reason of peak prevalence. It can also be focused that a micro level agro-climatic disparity may lead to the variation within the study sites.

  17. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic Moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    A. S. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW and 23º05'S, 44º30'W, Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91% specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957 was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955 showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species.

  18. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos parasitos de peixes do litoral do Estado da Guanabara - parte II Contribution to the knowledge of the parasites of fishes in Guanabara State

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    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho os autores criam uma nova espécie para o gênero Lecithochirium Luehe, 1901, ficando no 3º grupo de distribuição de Freitas & Gomes (1971, mais se aproximando de L. manteri Freitas & Gomes, 1971, distinguindo-se principalmente por possuir saco genital aberto, vesícula ejaculadora externa ausente, vesícula seminal trilobada e ovos maiores. Apresentam Promatomus saltatrix (L. como novohospedador para Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910 Yamaguti, 1938 ressaltando as variações encontradas nas medidas. Para Acanthocollaritrema umbilicatum Trav., Freitas e Bührnheim, 1965, acusam a presença do gonotil, e por esta razão acham que provavelmente Acanthocollaritrematinae Trav., Freitas e bührnheim, 1965, deva pertencer à família Cryptogonimidae Ciurea, 1933. Referem ainda a presença de Bucephalopsis callicotyle Kohn, 1962, Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 (polistomata e larvas de Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863 (Cestoda0, em Pomatomus saltatrix (L..In the present work the authors propose a new species under the genus Lecithochirium Luehe, 1901, wich is enclosed in the third group of Freitas & Gomes distribuition (1971, nearest to L. manteri Freitas & Gomes, 1971, differing from it mainly by possessing open type sinus sac, externai ejaculatory vesicle lacking, seminal vesicle divided into 3 parts and bigger eggs. The authors present Pomatomus saltatrix (L. as a new host record for Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910 Yamaguti, 1938, giving the variations they found in measurements. To Acanthocollaritrema umbilicatum Trav., Freitas & Bührnheim, 1965 they add the presence of complex genital atrium and for this reason suggest that probably Acanthocollaritrematinae Trav., Freitas & Bührnheim, 1965 must be put under Cryptogonimidae Ciurea, 1933. They also refer Bucephalopsis callicotyle Kohn, 1962, Microcotyle pomatomus Goto, 1899 (Polystomata and some immature cestode under Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863 (Cestode, in Pomatomus

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Cyclophyllidea (Cestoda: Eucestoda): an in-silico analysis based on mtCOI gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Lyngdoh, Damanbha; Roy, Bishnupada; Tandon, Veena

    2016-09-01

    Order Cyclophyllidea (of cestode platyhelminths) has a rich diversity of parasites and includes many families and species that are known to cause serious medical condition in humans and domestic and wild animals. Despite various attempts to resolve phylogenetic relationships at the inter-family level, uncertainty remains. In order to add resolution to the existing phylogeny of the order, we generated partial mtCO1 sequences for some commonly occurring cyclophyllidean cestodes and combined them with available sequences from GenBank. Phylogeny was inferred taking a total 83 representative species spanning 8 families using Bayesian analysis. The phylogenetic tree revealed Dilepididae as the most basal taxon and showed early divergence in the phylogenetic tree. Paruterinidae, Taeniidae and Anoplocephalidae showed non-monophyletic assemblage; our result suggests that the family Paruterinidae may represent a polyphyletic group. The diverse family Taeniidae appeared in two separate clades; while one of them included all the members of the genus Echinococcus and also Versteria, the representatives of the genera Taenia and Hydatigera clubbed in the other clade. A close affinity of Dipylidiidae with Taenia and Hydatigera was seen, whereas existence of a close relationship between Mesocestoididae and Echinococcus (of Taeniidae) is also demonstrated. The crown group comprised the families Anoplocephalidae, Davaineidae, Hymenolepididae and Mesocestoididae, and also all species of the genus Echinococcus and Versteria mustelae; monophyly of these families (excepting Anolplocephalidae) and the genus Echinococcus as well as its sister-taxon relation with V. mustelae is also confirmed. Furthermore, non-monophyly of Anoplocephalidae is suggested to be correlated with divergence in the host selection.

  20. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

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    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %, Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %, Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 % and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 % and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona(16.7-40 % and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 % were the most prevalent in that order.Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens acrossall the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata, Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  1. Coproantigens in taeniasis and echinococcosis.

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    Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    The application of modern immunodiagnostic or molecular diagnostic techniques has improved the diagnosis of the taeniid cestode infections, echinococcosis and taeniasis. One particularly promising approach is the detection of parasite-specific antigens in faeces (coproantigens). This approach has been applied to both Echinoccocus and Taenia species and it has gained increasingly widespread use. Taeniid coproantigen tests are based on either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against adult tapeworm antigens. These tests have the following common characteristics; they are largely genus-specific, specificity is high (>95%), parasite antigen can be detected in faeces weeks prior to patency, levels of coproantigen are independent of egg output, coproantigen is stable for days at a range of temperatures (-80 degrees C to 35 degrees C), for several months in formalin-fixed faecal samples, and coproantigen levels drop rapidly (1-5 days) following successful treatment. In the genus Taenia, most work has been done on Taenia solium and coproantigen tests have reliably detected many more tapeworm carriers than microscopy. For Echinococcus species, there is a broad positive correlation between test sensitivity and worm burden with a reliable threshold level for the test of >50 worms. Characterisation of taeniid coproantigens in order to further improve the tests is ongoing. Studies indicate taeniid coproantigens to include high molecular weight (>150 kDa), heavily glycosylated molecules with carbohydrate moieties contributing substantially to the levels of antigen detected in faeces. Application of the existing coproantigen tests in epidemiological and control programmes for Echinococcus and Taenia species infection has begun to contribute to an improved understanding of transmission and of surveillance of these important zoonotic cestodes.

  2. The Echinococcus canadensis (G7) genome: a key knowledge of parasitic platyhelminth human diseases.

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    Maldonado, Lucas L; Assis, Juliana; Araújo, Flávio M Gomes; Salim, Anna C M; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Camicia, Federico; Fox, Adolfo; Rosenzvit, Mara; Oliveira, Guilherme; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-02-27

    The parasite Echinococcus canadensis (G7) (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Cestoda) is one of the causative agents of echinococcosis. Echinococcosis is a worldwide chronic zoonosis affecting humans as well as domestic and wild mammals, which has been reported as a prioritized neglected disease by the World Health Organisation. No genomic data, comparative genomic analyses or efficient therapeutic and diagnostic tools are available for this severe disease. The information presented in this study will help to understand the peculiar biological characters and to design species-specific control tools. We sequenced, assembled and annotated the 115-Mb genome of E. canadensis (G7). Comparative genomic analyses using whole genome data of three Echinococcus species not only confirmed the status of E. canadensis (G7) as a separate species but also demonstrated a high nucleotide sequences divergence in relation to E. granulosus (G1). The E. canadensis (G7) genome contains 11,449 genes with a core set of 881 orthologs shared among five cestode species. Comparative genomics revealed that there are more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between E. canadensis (G7) and E. granulosus (G1) than between E. canadensis (G7) and E. multilocularis. This result was unexpected since E. canadensis (G7) and E. granulosus (G1) were considered to belong to the species complex E. granulosus sensu lato. We described SNPs in known drug targets and metabolism genes in the E. canadensis (G7) genome. Regarding gene regulation, we analysed three particular features: CpG island distribution along the three Echinococcus genomes, DNA methylation system and small RNA pathway. The results suggest the occurrence of yet unknown gene regulation mechanisms in Echinococcus. This is the first work that addresses Echinococcus comparative genomics. The resources presented here will promote the study of mechanisms of parasite development as well as new tools for drug discovery. The availability of a high

  3. microRNA profiling in the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus canadensis using a high-throughput approach.

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    Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Maldonado, Lucas; Kamenetzky, Laura; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2015-02-06

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in fundamental biological processes such as development and metabolism. The particular developmental and metabolic characteristics of cestode parasites highlight the importance of studying miRNA gene regulation in these organisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus canadensis G7, one of the causative agents of the neglected zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis. Small RNA libraries from protoscoleces and cyst walls of E. canadensis G7 and protoscoleces of E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 were sequenced using Illumina technology. For miRNA prediction, miRDeep2 core algorithm was used. The output list of candidate precursors was manually curated to generate a high confidence set of miRNAs. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs between stages or species was estimated with DESeq. Expression levels of selected miRNAs were validated using poly-A RT-qPCR. In this study we used a high-throughput approach and found transcriptional evidence of 37 miRNAs thus expanding the miRNA repertoire of E. canadensis G7. Differential expression analysis showed highly regulated miRNAs between life cycle stages, suggesting a role in maintaining the features of each developmental stage or in the regulation of developmental timing. In this work we characterize conserved and novel Echinococcus miRNAs which represent 30 unique miRNA families. Here we confirmed the remarkable loss of conserved miRNA families in E. canadensis, reflecting their low morphological complexity and high adaptation to parasitism. We performed the first in-depth study profiling of small RNAs in the zoonotic parasite E. canadensis G7. We found that miRNAs are the preponderant small RNA silencing molecules, suggesting that these small RNAs could be an essential mechanism of gene regulation in this species. We also

  4. Is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) a competent definitive host for Taenia multiceps?

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    Varcasia, Antonio; Tamponi, Claudia; Tosciri, Gabriele; Pipia, Anna Paola; Dore, Francesco; Schuster, Rolf Karl; Kandil, Omnia Mohamed; Manunta, Maria Lucia; Scala, Antonio

    2015-09-25

    Shepherd and stray dogs are thought to represent the primary definitive hosts of Coenurosis by Taenia multiceps, due to their feeding habits which translate into high chances of coming into contact with infected intermediate hosts. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the epidemiology of coenurosis. In fact a knowledge gap exists on the role played by red foxes in the epidemiology of Taenia multiceps and the capability of this parasite to produce fertile and viable eggs in this wild canid, i.e. on the occurrence of a sylvatic cycle. This study investigates the role of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the epidemiology of T. multiceps and related metacestodoses. The small intestine of 63 red foxes was macroscopically examined for the presence of cestodes. Adult parasites were identified morphologically as being T. multiceps. Tapeworm eggs were counted and stored at 4 °C in physiological saline solution prior to experimental infection of four sheep and one goat. Sheep were inoculated orally on Day 0 with 3000 (sheep 1), 5000 (sheep 2 and 3) or 7000 eggs (sheep 4), while the goat was infected with 5000 eggs of T. multiceps. The animals were followed-up regularly by MRI and underwent surgical treatment between days 180 to day 240 post infection. Collected coenuri were identified using morphological and molecular methods. A total of 6.3 % of red foxes were found infected with T. multiceps and the eggs obtained from the worms were determined to have a viability of 45.4 %. Two of the challenged sheep and the goat developed disease compatible with T. multiceps. Morphometrical features of the cysts were consistent with those of T. multiceps; nucleotide amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial genes (i.e., cox1 and Nd1) from the metacestode material confirmed the identification. The present study is the first to provide evidence of the role of the red fox as a competent definitive host for T. multiceps, thus changing

  5. Genome-wide analysis of regulatory proteases sequences identified through bioinformatics data mining in Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Bin; Lou, Zhong-Zi; Li, Li; Brindley, Paul J; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-06-04

    Cysticercosis remains a major neglected tropical disease of humanity in many regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and elsewhere. Owing to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drugs to prevent re-infection, identification of novel vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against Taenia solium and related helminth pathogens is a public health priority. The T. solium genome and the predicted proteome were reported recently, providing a wealth of information from which new interventional targets might be identified. In order to characterize and classify the entire repertoire of protease-encoding genes of T. solium, which act fundamental biological roles in all life processes, we analyzed the predicted proteins of this cestode through a combination of bioinformatics tools. Functional annotation was performed to yield insights into the signaling processes relevant to the complex developmental cycle of this tapeworm and to highlight a suite of the proteases as potential intervention targets. Within the genome of this helminth parasite, we identified 200 open reading frames encoding proteases from five clans, which correspond to 1.68% of the 11,902 protein-encoding genes predicted to be present in its genome. These proteases include calpains, cytosolic, mitochondrial signal peptidases, ubiquitylation related proteins, and others. Many not only show significant similarity to proteases in the Conserved Domain Database but have conserved active sites and catalytic domains. KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) analysis indicated that ~60% of these proteases share strong sequence identities with proteins of the KEGG database, which are involved in human disease, metabolic pathways, genetic information processes, cellular processes, environmental information processes and organismal systems. Also, we identified signal peptides and transmembrane helices through comparative analysis with classes of important regulatory proteases

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa

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    Whitni K. Redman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95% closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%. The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic

  7. Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Whitni K.; Bryant, Jay E.; Ahmad, Gul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95%) closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%). The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species

  8. Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yan, Hong-Bin; Blair, David; Lei, Meng-Tong; Cai, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Yan-Lei; Li, Jian-Qiu; Fu, Bao-Quan; Yang, Yu-Rong; McManus, Donald P.; Jia, Wan-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate the Echinococcus species responsible for infections in intermediate and definitive hosts. Primers specific for E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus were designed based on sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes, respectively. This multiplex PCR accurately detected Echinococcus DNA without generating nonspecific reaction products. PCR products were of the expected sizes of 219 (nad1), 584 (nad5) and 471 (cox1) bp. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR enabled diagnosis of multiple infections using DNA of protoscoleces and copro-DNA extracted from fecal samples of canine hosts. Specificity of the multiplex PCR was 100% when evaluated using DNA isolated from other cestodes. Sensitivity thresholds were determined for DNA from protoscoleces and from worm eggs, and were calculated as 20 pg of DNA for E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, 10 pg of DNA for E. multilocularis, 2 eggs for E. granulosus, and 1 egg for E. multilocularis. Positive results with copro-DNA could be obtained at day 17 and day 26 after experimental infection of dogs with larval E. multilocularis and E. granulosus, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The multiplex PCR developed in this study is an efficient tool for discriminating E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus from each other and from other taeniid cestodes. It can be used for the detection of canids infected with E. granulosus s.s. and E. multilocularis using feces collected from these definitive hosts. It can also be used for the identification

  9. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized strobila (length 26-32 mm) composed of about 70 proglottids, which are only slightly wider than they are long (ratio 1:1-3), rectangular, or even longer than wide in the last proglottids in B. pearsei. Bothriocephalus formosus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932, described from Percopsis omiscomaycus (Walbaum) in the USA, can be distinguished from B. pearsei, besides the different shape of the scolex, by the distribution of vitelline follicles, which are not separated into 2 lateral fields and are present along the midline of proglottids in the former species. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a widely distributed parasite of fishes of many families, in particular of cyprinids

  10. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems.

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    Sánchez, Marta I; Paredes, Irene; Lebouvier, Marion; Green, Andy J

    2016-01-01

    Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa) and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity). In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are likely to reduce

  11. Redescription and Molecular Assessment of Relationships Among Three Species of Echeneibothrium (Rhinebothriidea: Echeneibothriidae) Parasitizing the Yellownose Skate, Dipturus chilensis, in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Veronica M; Caira, Janine N

    2017-06-01

    Much progress has recently been made in revising the taxonomic assignments of genera originally classified in the polyphyletic "Tetraphyllidea." Many of these genera, including Echeneibothrium, were accommodated in the order Rhinebothriidea. However, beyond this larger taxonomic action, little work has been conducted on this genus over the past 50 yr. Consequently, the criteria used for characterizing species of Echeneibothrium have lagged behind those typically used in more modern descriptions of elasmobranch-hosted cestode taxa. A series of collecting trips to Chile to obtain cestodes from the yellownose skate, Dipturus chilensis , provided a unique opportunity to apply modern morphological and molecular methods to investigate the 3 species of Echeneibothrium reported parasitizing this skate, specifically Echeneibothrium megalosoma, Echeneibothrium multiloculatum, and Echeneibothrium williamsi. In addition to redescribing all 3 species, using morphological data from light and scanning electron microscopy, maximum likelihood and bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses of the D1-D3 regions of the 28S rDNA gene were conducted to assess their relationships among other echeneibothriids for which comparable data are available. Sequencing of 59 specimens representing these 3 species of Echeneibothrium allowed us to assess the intra- and interspecific variation in the 28S rDNA gene. The redescriptions use standardized terminology for scolex morphology, proglottid anatomy, and microthrix forms and pattern; they also expand on the original descriptions to include data on scolex size, ovary size, vas deferens and vaginal configurations, testes arrangement, and genital pore position. Our morphological work led to a major reinterpretation of the scolex morphology with the recognition that all 3 species bear an apical bothridial sucker, rather than an apical loculus, prompting emendation of the diagnosis for the family Echeneibothriidae. The presence of a band of spinitriches

  12. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  13. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

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    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  14. Characterisation of the Native Lipid Moiety of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Gonzalo; Ramos, Ana Lía; Silva, Valeria; Lima, Analía; Batthyany, Carlos; Bessio, María Inés; Ferreira, Fernando; Salinas, Gustavo; Ferreira, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Antigen B (EgAgB) is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5). In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40–50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters) and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine) lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9) are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding both lipid

  15. Characterisation of the native lipid moiety of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B.

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    Gonzalo Obal

    Full Text Available Antigen B (EgAgB is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5. In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40-50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9 are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding

  16. Rangelia vitalii in a free-ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Julia Angélica Gonçalves; D'Elia, Mirella Lauria; de Oliveira Avelar, Isabela; de Almeida, Lara Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; Ecco, Roselene

    2016-12-01

    An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine. The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, dermis, lungs and kidney had similar protozoal forms but with mild or moderate intensity. Rangelia vitalii was confirmed by molecular assays. Hepatozoon sp., Leishmania sp., and Entamoeba spp., apparently not related to the clinical signs were also detected. The myriad parasites found in the intestines included nematodes ( Ancylostoma caninum , A . braziliensis ,, Molineus sp., Pterygodermatites sp., and Trichuris sp.), cestodes ( Spirometra sp.) and (acanthocephalans. To our knowledge, R . vitalii was identified in C . brachyurus for the first time. These findings emphasize the fragility of Brazilian ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas, reinforcing the necessity of efforts to preserve these areas and wild carnivores, some of which are threatened with extinction, such as the maned wolf.

  17. Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

    2012-11-01

    Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans.

  18. Parasitic and fungal infections in synanthropic rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19760

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    Adriana Oliveira Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the prevalence of parasitic and fungal infections in rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Brazil. Traps were placed in the area from December 2011 to January 2013. Blood samples, faeces and hair were collected from the animals. We collected a total of 47 rodents; 44 were Rattus rattus, and 3 were Mus musculus. Parasitological evaluation revealed the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta infection in both rodent species. The nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata were found in M. musculus, and the commensal Entamoeba coli was found in R. rattus. We observed that 69.2% of the R. rattus and 33.3% of the M. musculus were infected with the haemoparasite Babesia sp. The differential leukocyte count revealed normal (72.3%, neutrophilic (15.9% and lymphocytic (11.4% profiles. The evaluation showed the following species of fungi in the rodents: Aspergillus sp. (77.1%, Penicillium sp. (28.6%, Cladosporium sp. (14.3%, Mucor sp. (14.3%, Curvularia sp. (8.6%, Acremonium sp. (8.6%, Chrysosporium sp. (2.9%, Syncephalostrum sp. (2.9%, Alternaria sp. (2.9%, Trichophyton sp. (2.9% and Scopulariopsis sp. (2.9%. The parasites and fungi found in rodents are potentially zoonotic, and the presence of these household animals demonstrates their potential role as reservoirs and disseminators of fungal and parasitic infections.

  19. Parasitic helminth infections in native sheep (Mehraban in Hamedan, Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep play an important role in national economy and social economy in rural areas in Iran. The main goal of this study was to investigate the fauna and frequency of parasitic helminth infections prevalent in native sheep in Hamedan, western Iran. From April 2010 to March 2011, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of 100-sheep were examined using conventional parasitological methods. The overall infection rate was found as 69%. No infection was found in esophagus and rumens. Parabronema skerjabini (22% and Ostertagia circumcincta (1% were recorded as the maximum and minimum cases for the presence of nematode, respectively. On the other hand, the most dominant of trematode and cestode were Fasciola hepatica (13% and Monezia expansa (13%, respectively. The highest infection rate was reported in summer (84%. The prevalence of helminth infection was varied among gender, seasons and age groups. In conclusion, this is the first report of parasitic helminth infections in sheep in Hamedan province in western Iran. Our results provide baseline information for the future studies.

  20. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

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    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  1. Endohelminths in Cichla piquiti(Perciformes, Cichlidae from the Paraná River, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lidiane Franceschini

    Full Text Available Fifty specimens of Cichla piquiti were collected from the Paraná River downstream of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Power Station in Brazil and surveyed for endohelminth parasites. All fish were parasitised by at least one helminth species (overall prevalence [P] = 100%. Eight parasite taxa were present: the nematode Procamallanus(Procamallanus peraccuratus in the intestines; third-stage larvae of the anisakids Contracaecumsp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in the visceral cavity, mesentery and serosa of the stomach and intestines and on the liver and spleen; the trematodes Austrodiplostomum compactum in the eye (metacercariae and Genarchella genarchella in the stomach; and the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus, Proteocephalus microscopicus, and Sciadocephalus megalodiscus in the intestines. Hysterothylaciumsp. larvae (P = 86% and P. microscopicus (P = 74% were the most prevalent parasites. Anisakids were more prevalent and abundant in the dry season. A negative correlation between the abundances of Hysterothylacium sp. and P. microscopicuswas observed, suggesting a competitive/antagonistic relationship between these parasites. Cichla piquiti represents a new host for four parasite species. These new records significantly increase the list of parasites of C. piquiti, contributing to the knowledge of the host-parasite relationship and the geographical distribution of these helminths.

  2. Site selection by intestinal helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R D; Pung, O J; Richardson, D J

    1999-02-01

    Digestive tract helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) were examined for site specificity and interspecific interactions. Thirty opossums were live-trapped at 2 localities in Georgia, killed, and their digestive tracts removed and divided into the following sections; esophagus, stomach, small intestine (20 equal sections), cecum, and large intestine (5 equal sections). Helminths present in each section were identified and counted. Three trematode, 1 cestode, 2 acanthocephala, and 6 nematode species were found. Two parasites (the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus spinosus and the nematode Viannaia hamata) are new state records for Georgia and this is the first report of C. spinosus from an opossum. There was considerable overlap between the spatial distributions of many of the helminth species found in the small intestine though most species had different modal locations. Helminth species locations were unaffected by host sex or trapping locality. There was no evidence that the presence, absence, or intensity of any helminth species affected the location or intensity of other helminth species in the digestive tract.

  3. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  4. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  5. Efficacy of condensed tannins against larval Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) in vitro and in the intermediate host Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Suraj; Meyling, Nicolai V; Williams, Andrew R; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Fryganas, Christos; Kapel, Christian M O; Fredensborg, Brian L

    2015-01-15

    Natural anti-parasitic compounds in plants such as condensed tannins (CT) have anthelmintic properties against a range of gastrointestinal nematodes, but for other helminths such effects are unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of CT from three different plant extracts in a model system employing the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, in its intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor. An in vitro study examined infectivity of H. diminuta cysticercoids (excystation success) isolated from infected beetles exposed to different concentrations of CT extracts from pine bark (PB) (Pinus sps), hazelnut pericarp (HN) (Corylus avellana) or white clover flowers (WC) (Trifolium repens), in comparison with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (positive control). In the in vitro study, praziquantel and CT from all three plant extracts had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cysticercoid excystation. The HN extract was most effective at inhibiting excystation, followed by PB and WC. An in vivo study was carried out on infected beetles (measured as cysticercoid establishment) fed different doses of PB, HN and praziquantel. There was a highly significant inhibitory effect of HN on cysticercoid development (p=0.0002). Overall, CT showed a promising anti-cestodal effect against the metacestode stage of H. diminuta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-09-01

    A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (90 μm in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum).

  7. Expression of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ during the strobilation process of Mesocestoides corti (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline B; Monteiro, Karina M; Teichmann, Aline; da Silva, Edileuza D; Lorenzatto, Karina R; Cancela, Martín; Paes, Jéssica A; Benitz, André de N D; Castillo, Estela; Margis, Rogério; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2015-08-01

    The histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ is implicated in processes of chromatin remodelling and gene expression regulation. It has been associated with the control of developmental processes, but little is known about its function in helminth parasites. In Mesocestoides corti, a partial cDNA sequence related to SET/TAF-Iβ was isolated in a screening for genes differentially expressed in larvae (tetrathyridia) and adult worms. Here, the full-length coding sequence of the M. corti SET/TAF-Iβ gene was analysed and the encoded protein (McSET/TAF) was compared with orthologous sequences, showing that McSET/TAF can be regarded as a SET/TAF-Iβ family member, with a typical nucleosome-assembly protein (NAP) domain and an acidic tail. The expression patterns of the McSET/TAF gene and protein were investigated during the strobilation process by RT-qPCR, using a set of five reference genes, and by immunoblot and immunofluorescence, using monospecific polyclonal antibodies. A gradual increase in McSET/TAF transcripts and McSET/TAF protein was observed upon development induction by trypsin, demonstrating McSET/TAF differential expression during strobilation. These results provided the first evidence for the involvement of a protein from the NAP family of epigenetic effectors in the regulation of cestode development.

  8. Genetic polymorphism and population structure of Echinococcus ortleppi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, F; Wassermann, M; Banda, F; Mbaya, H; Aschenborn, J; Aschenborn, O; Koskei, P; Umhang, G; DE LA Rue, M; Elmahdi, I E; Mackenstedt, U; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2017-04-01

    The zoonotic cestode Echinococcus ortleppi (Lopez-Neyra and Soler Planas, 1943) is mainly transmitted between dogs and cattle. It occurs worldwide but is only found sporadically in most regions, with the notable exception of parts of southern Africa and South America. Its epidemiology is little understood and the extent of intraspecific variability is unknown. We have analysed in the present study the genetic diversity among 178 E. ortleppi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and South America using the complete mitochondrial cox1 (1608 bp) and nad1 (894 bp) DNA sequences. Genetic polymorphism within the loci revealed 15 cox1 and six nad1 haplotypes, respectively, and 20 haplotypes of the concatenated genes. Presence of most haplotypes was correlated to geographical regions, and only one haplotype had a wider spread in both eastern and southern Africa. Intraspecific microvariance was low in comparison with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, despite the wide geographic range of examined isolates. In addition, the various sub-populations showed only subtle deviation from neutrality and were mostly genetically differentiated. This is the first insight into the population genetics of the enigmatic cattle adapted Echinococcus ortleppi. It, therefore, provides baseline data for biogeographical comparison among E. ortleppi endemic regions and for tracing its translocation paths.

  9. Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Taeniidae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The present study establishes the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon of Echinococcus multilocularis, which is essential for future research on the location of specific proteins involved in the sperm development in this species and also in Echinococcus granulosus. Thus, the ultrastructural characteristics of the sperm cell are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon of E. multilocularis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, crested bodies, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other characteristics observed in the male gamete are the presence of a >900-nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of E. multilocularis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. The most interesting finding concerns the presence of two helical crested bodies in E. multilocularis while in the studied species of Taenia, there is only one crested body. Future ultrastructural studies of other species of the genus Echinococcus would be of particular interest in order to confirm whether or not the presence of two crested bodies is a characteristic of this genus.

  10. Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans

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    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  11. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  12. Tropical veterinary parasites at Harvard University's Museum of Comparative Zoology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, David Bruce

    2008-12-01

    Tropical veterinary parasites have been maintained by the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard University since the mid 1800s. Most of these are maintained by the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, but many vectors and intermediate hosts are maintained by the Departments of Entomology and Malacology. The largest collections are of avian and mammalian ticks (Acarina) that are important as both parasites and vectors. Nematodes are second in numbers, followed by cestodes, trematodes, and several minor helminth groups, crustacean parasites of fish, and protozoan parasites of various hosts. The MCZ directed or participated in several major expeditions to tropical areas around the globe in the early 1900s. Many of these expeditions focused on human parasites, but hundreds of veterinary and zoonotic parasites were also collected from these and numerous, smaller, tropical expeditions. Host sources include companion animals, livestock, laboratory species, domestic fowl, reptiles, amphibians, exotics/zoo animals, commercially important fishes, and other wildlife. Specimens are curated, either fixed whole in vials or mounted on slides as whole mounts or histopathological sections. The primary emphasis of MCZ's current work with tropical veterinary parasites is on voucher specimens from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical research.

  13. Rangelia vitalii in a free-ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Angélica Gonçalves Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine. The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, dermis, lungs and kidney had similar protozoal forms but with mild or moderate intensity. Rangelia vitalii was confirmed by molecular assays. Hepatozoon sp., Leishmania sp., and Entamoeba spp., apparently not related to the clinical signs were also detected. The myriad parasites found in the intestines included nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliensis,, Molineus sp., Pterygodermatites sp., and Trichuris sp., cestodes (Spirometra sp. and (acanthocephalans. To our knowledge, R. vitalii was identified in C. brachyurus for the first time. These findings emphasize the fragility of Brazilian ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas, reinforcing the necessity of efforts to preserve these areas and wild carnivores, some of which are threatened with extinction, such as the maned wolf.

  14. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

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    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia in Brazil

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    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144 and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7% presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae. The birds’ weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%. The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Silva, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da; Ferreira, Vivian Lindmayer; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia) living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144) and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7%) presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae) and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae). The birds' weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%). The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  17. Fleas and flea control

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    Dautović Živomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fleas as hemeatophagous arthropodes take part in the spreading of certain diseases such as bubonic plague, murine typhus, tick-borne typhus tularaemia, or can be transitory hosts for certain species of cestodes for dogs and cats. Depending on the type of host on which fleas persist and the habitat, measures that can be taken to control them can be only sanitary-hygiene, individual, or treatment of the habitat. Sanitary-hygiene measures mostly consist of regular cleaning. Individual protection implies the use of insecticides for re-impregnating clothing, spraying clothing and the use of repellents. Treatment of habitats comprises the use of insecticides of the group of organophosphates, metyl-carbamates, pyrethroids and organo-chlorine compounds, instruments for dusting and spraying. In addition to these compounds, preparations based on imidaclopride, fipronyl and inhibitors of insect growth (IGRs and development (IDIs are also used. Flea control in household pets is implemented using measures of individual protection and treatment of their habitats.

  18. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

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    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  19. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

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    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

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    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  1. First palaeoparasitological record of a dioctophymatid egg in an archaeological sample from Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, Martín H; Gonzalez Olivera, Elvira A; Petrigh, Romina S

    2013-10-01

    The collection of parasitological information from ancient material requires an exhaustive study of samples. In 2005, cestode and nematode eggs were found in a coprolite sample tentatively assigned to a canid. The sample was obtained from the layer of the archaeological site located in Cerro Casa de Piedra, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and dated from 6540±110 years before present. The aim of the present work was to reexamine this fixed sample in order to confirm the presence of these parasites. The palaeoparasitological results support our previous findings. Interestingly, another parasite was also confirmed: a dioctophymatid nematode. Dioctophyma renale has been reported in several modern carnivores in the Southern Hemisphere but in ancient materials, it has only been reported in human coprolites from Switzerland. This report constitutes the first evidence of the presence of a dioctophymatid nematode parasite dioctophymatid nematode in American pre-Columbian times. The results obtained in this work show the importance of revising earlier palaeoparasitological results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Abattoir survey on extra-cerebral coenurosis in goats

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    Schuster R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.

  3. Isolation and purification of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B from hydatid cyst fluid using three different methods

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    Shirazi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst, the larval stage of cestodes Echinococcus spp., is recognized as a zoonotic infection in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently classified echinococcosis in a group of neglected tropical diseases. The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection is high in Iran due to the presence of various intermediate hosts in this country. Considering the rising trend of this zoonotic parasitic disease based on national epidemiological studies, diagnosis is of great significance. WHO has suggested the use of specific antigens, especially antigen B (AgB for serological diagnostic tests. In general, AgB is a polymeric lipoprotein, which disintegrates into 8.12, 16, and 20.24 kDa subunits. In the present study, we applied three different methods for AgB isolation from hydatid cyst fluid (HCF and compared their efficacy in AgB isolation. Finally, the protein concentration of this antigen was measured by Bradford assay and confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the application of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000 as a thickener agent beside purification of HCF in dialysis bag and filtering and also dialysis against acetate buffer leading to the best quantity in purified antigen B.

  4. Parasites gastro-intestinaux d'antilopes et de buffles (Syncerus caffer brachyceros du ranch de gibier de Nazinga au Burkina Faso

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    Belem AMG.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal parasites of antelopes and buffalos (Syncerus caffer brachyceros from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso. Parasitological survey done on the digestive tracts of antelopes [roans (Hippotragus equinus koba, hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus major, defassa waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, oribis (Ourebia ourebi quadriscopa] and buffalos (Syncerus caffer brachyceros from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso allowed the identification of gastrointestinal parasites and the estimation of their prevalence and load. Nine different nematode species and three cestode species were found. Females and larvae of Cooperia were not identified up to the species level and were recognized as Cooperia spp. The nematode species found were: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia spatulata, Skrjabinema sp., Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichuris ovis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, and Oesophagostomum sp. Cestodes’ species were: Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata, and Stilesia globipunctata. It was also noted without a thorough investigation the presence of Setaria labiato-papillosa in the abdominal cavity and paramphistomes in the rumen. In spite of the presence of parasites on the antelopes and buffalos, their killing out percentages (47.5 to 54.7% indicated a good physical status.

  5. Gastrointestinal helminths (Cestoda, Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae) of Pogonomys loriae and Pogonomys macrourus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, L R

    2014-11-28

    Pieces of cestode, not indentified further, and 12 species of nematode including 1 new genus, 3 new species and 7 putative new species from the Families Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae were collected from the digestive tracts of 16 Pogonomys loriae and 19 P. macrurous (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi and the heligmonellid Odilia mackerrasae have been described previously from endemic murids. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of ridges in the synlophe, length of spicules and having a vagina with a dorsal diverticulum. Odilia dividua n. sp. is larger than its congeners, has a longer oesophagus, relatively shorter spicules and larger eggs. Pogonomystrongylus domaensis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 7-10 ridges oriented sub frontally with a single left ventral ridge hypertrophied. Species richness of the nematode assemblages of P. loriae and P. macrourus are comparable to those of Abeomelomys sevia, Chiruromys vates and Coccymys rummleri when numbers of hosts examined are considered. Species composition was distinctive with 12, including the 7 putative species, of 14 species presently known only from species of Pogonomys. Similarities between the nematode fauna of endemic rodent hosts from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea were noted.

  6. The gastrointestinal nematodes of Paramelomys lorentzii and Mammelomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of a new genus and three new species (Heligmonellidae) from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, Lesley R

    2017-12-20

    Unidentified cestodes and 14 species of nematode and larvae that could not be placed to family level, were collected from the digestive tracts of 27 individuals of Paramelomys lorentzii, four of Mammelomys lanosus and a single M. rattoides from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia. Of these three were new species. Hughjonestrongylus woolleyae sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in having up to 26 ridges in the synlophe and a dissymmetric dorsal ray. Parvinema bafunminensis gen. nov., sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other genera in the family by the combination of features in the synlophe; with a carene, up to 17 ridges, and the pattern of ridge sizes. Parvinema helgeni sp. nov. differs from P. bafunminensis in the length of the spicule and the number of eggs in the uterus. The nematode assemblage of P. lorentzii had similar species richness to, and was also dominated by heligmonellids, as that of Paramelomys rubex, although the two assemblages differed in species composition.

  7. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  8. A quick and simple method, usable in the field, for collecting parasites in suitable condition for both morphological and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Briand, Marine J; Bray, Rodney A

    2012-07-01

    Many methods have been proposed for collecting and fixing parasites, but most were written before the molecular age, and were intended to be practised by experienced parasitologists in well-equipped laboratories. We describe here a very simple method, illustrated by photographs, for collecting helminths from the digestive tract of vertebrates. It only requires a few plastic vials, some ethanol and a means to heat water. Basically, the method consists of: (a) the extraction of all organs from the abdominal cavity; (b) opening the digestive system longitudinally; (c) agitate gut and contents in a saline solution (i.e. ca. 9% NaCl or 1/4 sea water in tap water); (d) decant in saline as many times as needed to clean contents; (e) immediately fix parasites in near-boiling saline; (f) discard saline and keep specimens in 95% ethanol. Additional information is given for collecting parasites from fish gills with a similar process. The method will collect most helminths (digeneans, larval cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans) from the digestive tract, and monogeneans and isopod and copepod crustaceans from fish gills. The specimens will be suitable for both morphological study and DNA sequencing. The method is simple, fast, inexpensive and can be used by untrained personnel, even in the field without electricity and without a binocular microscope. It can also be used by trained parasitologists who need to expedite treatment of abundant samples.

  9. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, BL; Martin, C; Turner, JD; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host´s immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections. PMID:22360486

  11. Factors affecting helminths community structure of the Egyptian lizard Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775

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    Ibrahim M.M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The variation in the component community structure of intestinal helminths in the lizard Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775 was studied in relation to the seasonal variation and host weight and sex. 120 lizards were collected seasonally during year 2004, from Al Firdan, Ismailia governorate, Egypt. The helminths community consisted of six species (five nematodes and one cestode. The various helminths differed according to host sex. The prevalence of total helminths infection was 67.6 % while the prevalences of Thelandros schusteri, Pharyngodon mamillatus, Parapharyngodon bulbosus, Cosmocerca vrcibradici, Spauligodon petersi and Oochoristica maccoyi were 43.4 %, 3.9 %, 13.2 %, 5.3 %, 6.6 %, and 14.3 %, respectively. The results showed that the season was the main factor affecting infracommunity species richness and parasite abundance. Moreover, there was interaction between season and host sex on abundance of P. bulbosus. The prevalence of intestinal helminths varied significantly in relation to host weight classes and sex in some species. Helminths abundance and intensity were independent from host sex. In addition, correlations were found between total helminths abundance and host weight. In conclusion, the helminths community of C. ocellatus was depauperate and the influence of the studied factors varied from species to another one. We cannot say if the low species richness and infection rates observed in the present study are typical of the host species or if they are due to characteristics of the study area, since no available data on parasite assemblages exist for other C. ocellatus populations.

  12. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J C; Levengood, J M; Osborn, J M; Yetter, A P; Kinsella, J M; Cole, R A; Suski, C D; Hagy, H M

    2017-07-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014-2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2-23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  13. A Survey of Intestinal Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Central Queensland

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    Simone Gillespie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a very high rate of dog ownership, which in some circumstances may lead to exposure to zoonotic parasitic diseases from those companion animals. Domestic dog faecal samples (n = 300 were collected from public spaces and private property in the greater Rockhampton (Central Queensland region and tested for intestinal helminths and protozoa by direct microscopy, two flotation methods and a modified acid-fast stain for cryptosporidia. Intestinal parasites detected included hookworms (25%, Cystoisospora ohioensis complex (9%, Blastocystis hominis (3%, Giardia duodenalis (3%, Spirometra erinacei (1% and Toxocara canis (1%, Sarcocystis spp. (2%, Cryptosporidium spp. (2% and Cystoisospora canis (1%. One infection each with Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum and a protozoa belonging to the Entamoeba histolytica complex were identified. Sheather’s sucrose centrifugal flotation was more sensitive than saturated salt passive flotation, but no single test detected all cases of parasitic infection identified. The test methodologies employed are poor at recovering larva of Strongyloides stercoralis, Aleurostrongylus abstrussis and eggs of cestodes such as Echinococcus granulosis, so the potential presence of these parasites in Central Queensland domestic dogs cannot be excluded by this survey alone.

  14. Secretory products of helminth parasites as immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, William

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic helminths release molecules into their environment, which are generally referred to as excretory-secretory products or ES. ES derived from a wide range of nematodes, trematodes and cestodes have been studied during the past 30-40 years, their characterization evolving from simple biochemical procedures such as SDS-PAGE in the early days to sophisticated proteomics in the 21st century. Study has incorporated investigation of ES structure, potential as vaccines, immunodiagnostic utility, functional activities and immunomodulatory properties. Immunomodulation by ES is increasingly the area of most intensive research with a number of defined helminth products extensively analyzed with respect to the nature of their selective effects on cells of the immune system as well as the molecular mechanisms, which underlie these immunomodulatory effects. As a consequence, we are now beginning to learn the identities of the receptors that ES employ and are increasingly acquiring detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways that they interact with and subvert. Such information is contributing to the growing idea that the anti-inflammatory properties of a number of ES products makes them suitable starting points for the development of novel drugs for treating human inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parasitic helminths: a pharmacopeia of anti-inflammatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M J G; MacDonald, J A; McKay, D M

    2009-02-01

    Infection with parasitic helminths takes a heavy toll on the health and well-being of humans and their domestic livestock, concomitantly resulting in major economic losses. Analyses have consistently revealed bioactive molecules in extracts of helminths or in their excretory/secretory products that modulate the immune response of the host. It is our view that parasitic helminths are an untapped source of immunomodulatory substances that, in pure form, could become new drugs (or models for drug design) to treat disease. Here, we illustrate the range of immunomodulatory molecules in selected parasitic trematodes, cestodes and nematodes, their impact on the immune cells in the host and how the host may recognize these molecules. There are many examples of the partial characterization of helminth-derived immunomodulatory molecules, but these have not yet translated into new drugs, reflecting the difficulty of isolating and fully characterizing proteins, glycoproteins and lipid-based molecules from small amounts of parasite material. However, this should not deter the investigator, since analytical techniques are now being used to accrue considerable structural information on parasite-derived molecules, even when only minute quantities of tissue are available. With the introduction of methodologies to purify and structurally-characterize molecules from small amounts of tissue and the application of high throughput immunological assays, one would predict that an assessment of parasitic helminths will yield a variety of novel drug candidates in the coming years.

  16. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-07-01

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  17. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  18. Diversity of helminth parasites in aquatic invertebrate hosts in Latin America: how much do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; May-Tec, A L; Martínez-Aquino, A; Cremonte, F; Martorelli, S R

    2017-03-01

    Helminths in aquatic invertebrate hosts have been overlooked in comparison with vertebrate hosts. Therefore, the known diversity, ecology and distribution of these host-parasite systems are very limited in terms of their taxonomic diversity, habitat and geographic regions. In this study we examined the published literature on helminth parasites of aquatic invertebrates from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to identify the state of the knowledge in the region and to identify patterns of helminth diversity. Results showed that 67% of the literature is from Argentina, Mexico and Brazil. We found records for 772 host-parasite associations. Most records relate to medically or economically important hosts. Molluscs were the most studied host group with 377 helminth records (80% trematodes). The lymnaeids and planorbids were the most studied molluscs across LAC. Arthropods were the second most studied host group with 78 helminth records (trematodes 38%, cestodes 24% and nematodes 20%), with shrimps and crabs being the most studied hosts. Host species with the largest number of helminth taxa were those with a larger sampling effort through time, usually in a small country region. No large geographical-scale studies were identified. In general, the knowledge is still too scarce to allow any zoogeographical or helminth diversity generalization, as most hosts have been studied locally and the studies on invertebrate hosts in LAC are substantially uneven among countries.

  19. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2014-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari-Tafti, M; Sazmand, A; Hekmatimoghaddam, S; Moobedi, I

    2013-03-01

    Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.

  1. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  2. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  3. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  4. Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

    2012-11-23

    Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalized Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Rütten, Maja; Deplazes, Peter; Grimm, Felix

    2014-01-17

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite that uses carnivores as definitive hosts and rodents and rabbits as main intermediate hosts, but other animal species and humans may also get infected. One adult male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) from an animal shelter in Switzerland presented widespread subcutaneous fluctuant swellings extended over the forehead, nose, face and thoracic regions with a progressive growth over 3 months. The thoracic swelling was surgically resected, and it consisted of numerous 3-4mm small transparent vesicles, mainly confined to the subcutaneous tissue, which were morphologically identified as cysticerci of T. crassiceps. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis of fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. After 1.5 months, due to enlargement of the swollen areas and deterioration of the general health condition, the chinchilla was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. Thousands of small cysticerci were observed widespread in the subcutis, involving underlying musculature of the whole body, in the thoracic cavity, larynx, pharynx and in the retropharyngeal region. Additionally, three larger metacestodes were detected in the liver and morphologically and molecularly identified as Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocerci. The present case represents an indicator of the environmental contamination with Taenia eggs, highlighting the risk of infection for susceptible animals and humans. Besides the clinical relevance for pets, T. crassiceps is a zoonotic parasite and can be also cause of severe cysticercosis in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spermatological characteristics of the genus Taenia inferred from the ultrastructural study on Taenia hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish the sperm ultrastructure baseline for Taenia hydatigena, which is essential for the future research on the location of specific proteins involved in spermatogenesis in this species. Thus, the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live tapeworms were obtained from an experimentally infected dog in the Department of Pathology and Public Health of the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II of Rabat (Morocco). The spermatozoon of T. hydatigena is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, a crested body, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other interesting characteristics are the presence of a 2000 nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of T. hydatigena are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia.

  7. Molecular characterization of enolase gene from Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Qu, Z G; Zhang, N Z; Yue, L; Jia, W Z; Luo, J X; Yin, H; Fu, B Q

    2015-10-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite with its larval stage, known as Coenurus cerebralis, mainly encysts in the central nervous system of sheep and other livestocks. Enolase is a key glycolytic enzyme and represents multifunction in most organisms. In the present study, a 1617bp full-length cDNA encoding enolase was cloned from T. multiceps and designated as TmENO. A putative encoded protein of 433 amino acid residues that exhibited high similarity to helminth parasites. The recombinant TmENO protein (rTmENO) showed the catalytic and plasminogen-binding characteristics after the TmENO was subcloned and expressed in the pET30a(+) vector. The TmENO gene was transcribed during the adult and larval stages and was also identified in both cyst fluid and as a component of the adult worms and the metacestode by western blot analysis. Taken together, our results will facilitate further structural characterization for TmENO and new potential control strategies for T. multiceps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  9. Proteomic analysis of Taenia ovis metacestodes by high performance liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2017-03-15

    Taenia ovis metacestodes reside in the muscle of sheep and goats, and may cause great economic loss due to condemnation of carcasses if not effectively controlled. Although advances have been made in the control of T. ovis infection, our knowledge of T. ovis biology is limited. Herein the protein profiling of T. ovis metacestodes was determined by liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 966 proteins were identified and 25.1% (188/748) were annotated to be associated with metabolic pathways. Consistently, GO analysis returned a metabolic process (16.27%) as one of two main biological process terms. Moreover, it was found that 24 proteins, including very low-density lipoprotein receptor, enolase, paramyosin and endophilin B1, were abundant in T. ovis metacestodes. These proteins may be associated with motility, metabolism, signaling, stress, drug resistance and immune responses. Furthermore, comparative analysis of 5 cestodes revealed the presence of Taenia-specific enolases. These data provide clues for better understanding of T. ovis biology, which is informative for effective control of infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of the Tpanxb1 gene from Taenia pisiformis and its potential diagnostic value by dot-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xuhang; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Mei; Chen, Zuqin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2014-04-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in rabbits that results in economic losses. To date, there has been limited information available on the early detection of infection by this parasite. This study describes a dot-ELISA method based on an autologous antigen annexin B1 (Tpanxb1). Its potential for serodiagnosis of rabbit cysticercosis was also evaluated. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tpanxb1 (rTpanxb1) protein could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-sera. In serum trials, the antibodies could be detected by dot-ELISA using rTpanxb1 at 14 days post-infection. The positive response was present for up to 49 days post-infection. Based on the necropsy results of 169 rabbit samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-ELISA were 94.55% and 92.86%, respectively. This study provides a foundation for studying the immunological function of annexin and its application to control Taenia cestodes.

  12. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

  13. Porcine Cysticercosis: Possible Cross-Reactivity of Taenia hydatigena to GP50 Antigen in the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Claudio; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Flecker, Robert H; Gamboa, Ricardo; Barreto, Percy Vilchez; Dorny, Pierre; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E; For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru

    2017-12-01

    The lentil lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB, reported sensitivity 99% and specificity 100%) is used as a serologic marker of exposure to Taenia solium in pigs. However, only a limited number of parasites have been evaluated for cross reactivity. Pigs may host other related cestode infections, including Taenia hydatigena, which have not been formally evaluated for cross-reactions. We investigated a corral in Tumbes, Peru, a region where a cysticercosis elimination demonstration project was completed in 2012. In this corral, 14/19 (73.7%) 6-8-week-old piglets were reactive to GP50 on LLGP EITB, and all had circulating Taenia sp. antigens. From eight necropsied piglets; four were infected with T. hydatigena metacestodes whereas none had evidence of T. solium infection. Two resident dogs were subsequently confirmed to have T. hydatigena taeniasis. These results suggest GP50 cross-reactivity in T. hydatigena- infected pigs, although controlled experimental infection is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1μM, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the α3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  16. [Prokaryotic expression and histological localization of the Taenia solium CDC37 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Dai, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Ai-Hua

    2013-02-01

    To express Taenia solium gene encoding cell division cycle 37 protein (TsCDC37) and investigate its antigenicity and localization in adults of Taenia solium. The complete coding sequence of TsCDC37 was amplified by PCR based on the recombinant plasmid clone from the cDNA library of adult Taenia solium. The PCR product was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+). The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant TsCDC37 formulated in Freund's adjuvant. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein was examined by Western blotting. The localization of TsCDC37 in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. The recombinant expression vector was constructed successfully. The recombinant protein was about M(r) 52 000, it was then purified and specifically recognized by immuno sera of SD rats and sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TsCDC37 located at the tegument of T. solium adult and the eggs. TsCDC37 gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity. The recombinant protein is mainly expressed in tegument and egg, and is a common antigen of the three human taenia cestodes.

  17. Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

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    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  19. Survey of helminth parasites of cats from the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos

    Full Text Available Besides presenting zoonotic potential, helminths of cats are responsible for gastrointestinal, hepatic, and pulmonary diseases. In order to identify the helminthic fauna, prevalence, mean intensity of parasitism (MIP, and mean abundance population (MAP, 146 cats from the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, Midwestern Brazil, were necropsied. In 98 these animals, 12 species of helminths were identified, comprising (species, prevalence, MIP, and MAP, respectively: nematodes (Ancylostoma braziliense[50,68% - 53,64 - 27,18], Ancylostoma tubaeforme [10,27% - 3,6 - 0,37],Toxocara cati [4,11% - 28,33 - 1,16],Physaloptera praeputialis [2,05% - 6,67 - 0,14], Capillaria feliscati [3,42% - 7,4 - 0,25], and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus[1,37%]; cestodes (Spirometra mansonoides[4,11% - 2,0 - 0,08], Dipylidium caninum[3,42% - 5,2 - 0,18], and Taenia taeniformis[0,68% - 1,0 - 0,01]; trematodes (Platynosomum fastosum [26,03% - 179,53 - 46,73]; acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus erraticus [3,42% - 3,2 - 0,11]. Ancylostoma spp., and P. fastosum were the most prevalent with the highest MIP and MAP. We observed the presence of species of helminths with zoonotic potential. This is the first time cats parasitized with Centrorhynchus erraticusare reported in the Americas. That genus is commonly observed in wild animals.

  20. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

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    Germinal J Cantó

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53% cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30% cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23% cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45% cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13% with nematodes, 145 (40% with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05. The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094.

  1. [Dipylidium caninum infection in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Naoki; Koga, Hiroyasu; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Mukai, Fumiko; Ikenaga, Masaaki; Otsu, Yasushi; Masunaga, Kenji; Nagai, Kensuke; Yoneda, Yutaka; Fukuma, Toshihide; Ishimoto, Koji

    2007-07-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common intestinal cestode of domestic dogs and cats, but few cases have been reported of human infection by this parasite in Japan. We repot a case of D. caninum infection in a 17 month-old girl, who sometimes had symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and dysphoria at night. Her mother noted the appearance of small white worms in her stool, and she was seen by a local pediatrician. Despite antiparasitic therapy wiht pyrantel pamoate, the problem persisted and was eventually referred for further workup to Kurume University Hospital. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of the excreted proglottids, which contained characteristic egg capsules. She was successfully treated with a singledose of praziquantel and four adult parasites were recovered. The longest intact worm was 32cm. Her family had household pets (a dog and a cat). The pets were seen by the local veterinary and both were evidenced D. caninum. Humans, primarily children, become infected when they accidentally ingest fleas. Parents usually find proglottids as multiple white objects, often described as cucumber, melon, or pumpkin seeds, in stool, diapers, or on the perineum. Most general practitioners and pediatricians may treat children with enterobiasis (pinworm) infection, and in case the treatment fails, other parasite infection should be considered such as this worm. A history of dog or cat pets, fleas, and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis. Pets found to be infected should also be treated.

  2. Estructura comunitaria de helmintos de perros vagabundos de San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Perú Community structure of helminths in stray dogs from San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru

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    José O. Iannacone

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty stray dogs Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 were collected in San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru, between January and March 1997 and necropsied for helminths. Three species were collected: the cestodes Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758 Railliet, 1892 and Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and the nematode Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782 Stiles, 1905. Fifty per cent of the examined dogs showed one or two parasites. A total of 303 (0-116 helminths were recovered and the intensity of infection was 30,3. The Simpson index (C for all parasite species was 0,414, indicating a dominance by one species in the parasite community. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of C. familiaris was H' = 0,038 and uniformity index of Pielou J = 0,207. Dipylidium caninum, T. pisiformis, and T. canis presented a prevalence of infection of 33,30%, 10% and 16,6% respectively. Dipylidium caninum presented the highest frequency and mean intensity of infection. Dipylidium caninum was the helminth with the highest dominance (94% whereas the lowest was due to T. pisiformis (4% and T. canis (2%. Helminths were not related to the age of the hosts, prevalence and mean intensity of infection. Out of the 10 equally divided segments of the intestinal gut, D. caninum was found from the 6th to the 9th segment. T canis preferred almost exclusively the 1st segment while T. pisiformis was randomly distributed.

  3. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M; Bokaie, S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production. Methods During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Results Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80%) harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80%) followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%), Toxocara canis (22%), Mesocestoides lineatus (12%), Taenia multiceps (10%) and Dipylidium caninum (4%). The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1–3) except for that of E. granulosus (645). No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001) as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001). Conclusion Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes. PMID:22347264

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Helminth Fauna in Necropsied Stray Cats (Felis catus in Beni-Suef, Egypt

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    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of endoparasites, particularly helminths, due to predating a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, often of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Therefore, a total of 62 stray cats were necropsied in Beni-Suef province, Egypt and examined for helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 87.0%. The recovered helminths consisted of 10 species of trematodes (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, H. nocens, Echinochasmus liliputanus, Alaria sp., Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp., Haplorchis sp., Prohemistomum vivax, Euparadistomum herpestesi, five cestodes (Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium acanthoterta, D. nolleri, Joyeuxiella sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and two nematodes (Toxascaris leonina and larvae of Anisakis simplex. The most prevalent helminths were Dipylidium caninum (62.9%, Toxascaris leonina (33.8%, Diplopylidium nolleri (22.5% and Echinochasmus liliputanus (6.45%. Thirty (48.39% cats were co-infected by one species, 22 (35.48% by two and three (4.84% by more than two species. It has been found that cats aged more than 3 years were the most infected. Both male and female cats were parasitized. The infection was the most prevalent in both summer and autumn. In conclusion, veterinarians must highlight more attention towards both stray and domestic cats, as they are considered reservoir hosts for a wide host range of parasites, particularly helminths, and the zoonotic importance of such parasites should be taken on consideration.

  5. Activity of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia, Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on egg capsules of Dipylidium caninum.

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    Araujo, Juliana Milani; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo

    2009-12-03

    Nematophagous fungi are potential biological control agents of helminths. The in vitro ovicidal effect of four isolates of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4), Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) was evaluated on egg capsules of Dipylidium caninum, a cestode parasite of dogs, cats and humans. One thousand egg capsules of D. caninum were plated on 2% water-agar with the grown isolates and control without fungus. The ovicidal activity of these fungi was evaluated 5, 10 and 15 days after incubation. Only P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity (pcaninum egg capsules, of 19.6% (VC1) and 20% (VC4) on the 5th day; 44.2% (VC1) and 31.5% (VC4) on the 10th day; and 49.2% (VC1) and 41.9% (VC4) on the 15th day. D. flagrans and M. thaumasium caused no morphological damage to egg capsules. The results demonstrated that P. chlamydosporia was in vitro effective against capsules and eggs of D. caninum, and can be considered as a potential biological control agent for this helminth.

  6. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Dilepididae), an intestinal parasite of Canis familiaris.

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    Miquel, J; Marchand, B

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of a Dilepididae cestode. The mature spermatozoa of Dipylidium caninum is filiform and tapered at both ends and lacks mitochondria. The anterior extremity exhibits an apical cone of electron-dense material measuring about 600 nm in length and a single helicoidal crested-like body that is 150 nm thick. This single crested-like body is spiralized at an angle of about 40 degrees to the spermatozoon axis. The axoneme, showing the 9 + "l" pattern of the Platyhelminthes, lacks a periaxonemal sheath. The cortical microtubules constitute a continuous, submembranous, electron-dense material, and they are also twisted at an angle of about 40 degrees to the spermatozoon axis. Moreover, the nucleus is coiled in a helix around the axoneme, which is centrally located throughout its length. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of peripheral microtubules twisted to the spermatozoon axis up to the posterior extremity of the gamete.

  7. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  8. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

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    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  9. Intestinal parasites of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) from eight populations in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica L; Miller, Elizabeth A; Norton, Terry M; Raphael, Bonnie L; Spratt, Jeffrey S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), one of five tortoise species endemic in the USA, was recently classified as a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. Fecal samples collected from 117 tortoises from eight sites in Georgia were examined for endoparasites using a combination of sedimentation and flotation. Samples from an island population were examined for parasitic oocysts and ova only by flotation, protozoan cysts by trichrome-stained direct smear, and Cryptosporidium by direct immunofluorescence assay and ProSpecT rapid assay. A total of 99 tortoises (85, range 0-100%) was infected with pinworms (Alaeuris spp.), 47 (40, 0-86%) with cestodes (Oochorstica sp.), 34 (41, 0-74%) with Chapiniella spp., 2 (3, 0-33%) with Eimeria paynei, and a single tortoise each with a capillarid and ascarid (1%). On the island, Entamoeba was detected in one tortoise (2%) while Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in eight (17%). In conclusion, at least eight species of parasites were detected including Cryptosporidium, a possible pathogen of tortoises. Interestingly, we detected spatial variation in the distribution of several parasites among populations suggesting additional work should be conducted across a gradient of tortoise densities, land use, and habitat characteristics.

  10. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus in Bangladesh

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    Mizanur Rahman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus, a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (S. murinus in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86, with six species including nematodes (3, cestodes (2, and trematodes (1. Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp. (59%, followed by Strongyloides spp. (17%, Capillaria spp. (10%, Physaloptera spp. (3%, and Echinostoma spp. (3%. Conclusion: The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp. in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis.

  11. The genus Biuterina Fuhrmann, 1902 (Cestoda, Paruterinidae) in the Old World: redescriptions of three species from Palaearctic Passeriformes.

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    Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Bray, Rodney A; Gibson, David I

    2004-01-01

    The syntypes of Biuterina passerina Fuhrmann, 1908 from Alauda arvensis and Galerida cristata (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) from an unknown locality are redescribed. B. fuhrmanni Schmelz, 1941 is redescribed on the basis of its syntypes from Emberiza aureola from China; its type-material contains, in addition to a scolex and pre-gravid and gravid fragments of Biuterina, fragments of mature proglottides from a dilepidid cestode, which were erroneously used in the original description. Specimens, which correspond morphologically to B. clerci Spasskii, 1946, from Miliaria calandra, E. citrinella and E. cirlus from Bulgaria and from E. citrinella from the Czech Republic, are studied. The synonymy of B. clerci with B. passerina is rejected; however, it is recognised as a synonym of B. fuhrmanni. Available data suggest that B. passerina is a specific parasite of birds of the family Alaudidae, while B. fuhrmanni is specific to the Emberizidae. B. collurionis Matevosyan, 1950 is considered a species inquirenda, pending confirmation of apparent differences from B. passerina and B. fuhrmanni based on further material. Biuterina cordifera Murai & Sulgostowska, 1983 is redescribed on the basis of specimens, previously identified by Rysavý (1965) as B. triangula (Krabbe, 1869), from Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Muscicapidae, Sylviinae) in the Czech Republic (new geographical record) and from Erithacus megarhynchos (Muscicapidae, Turdinae) in Bulgaria (new host and geographical records).

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Tamoxifen against Larval Stage Echinococcus granulosus

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    Nicolao, María Celeste; Elissondo, María Celina; Denegri, Guillermo M.; Goya, Alejandra B.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Chemotherapy currently employs benzimidazoles; however, 40% of cases do not respond favorably. With regard to these difficulties, novel therapeutic tools are needed to optimize treatment in humans. The aim of this work was to explore the in vitro and in vivo effects of tamoxifen (TAM) against E. granulosus. In addition, possible mechanisms for the susceptibility of TAM are discussed in relation to calcium homeostasis, P-glycoprotein inhibition, and antagonist effects on a putative steroid receptor. After 24 h of treatment, TAM, at a low micromolar concentration range (10 to 50 μM), inhibited the survival of E. granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes. Moreover, we demonstrated the chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive pharmacological effects of the drug. At a dose rate of 20 mg/kg of body weight, TAM induced protection against the infection in mice. In the clinical efficacy studies, a reduction in cyst weight was observed after the administration of 20 mg/kg in mice with cysts developed during 3 or 6 months, compared to that of those collected from control mice. Since the collateral effects of high TAM doses have been largely documented in clinical trials, the use of low doses of this drug as a short-term therapy may be a novel alternative approach for human cystic echinococcosis treatment. PMID:24936598

  13. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus taeniasis in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohil, K; Benchikh El Fegoun, M C; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-01

    In North Africa, the domestic dog is regarded as the main reservoir for infection by Echinococcus granulosus of domestic livestock and man. In Algeria, there is very little data on the rate of infestation of dogs, while the prevalence of E. granulosus in the definitive host is a very reliable marker of the potential risk of transmission of cystic tapeworm to humans and livestock. To find out this information, a survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of infection with E. granulosus in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria). We autopsied and examined 120 stray dogs, 22 (18.3%) of which were infected with E. granulosus, with an average intensity of infestation of 249 worms. The prevalence in the area of survey was evaluated: 15.5% (14/90) and 26.6% (8/30) dogs were parasitized by E. granulosus in urban and rural areas respectively. The influence of age on the rate of infection was very marked. In addition, the appreciation of the prevalence of parasitism by cestodes as a whole showed that 56 (46.6%) animals out of 120 were infected. Facing such a situation of endemic tapeworm parasitism, with a potential risk of transmission to humans, there is an urgent need to take measures to control and break the epidemiological cycles of the parasite.

  14. The effect of Echinococcus granulosus on spleen cells and TGF-β expression in the peripheral blood of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S; Chen, X; Zhang, J; Xu, F; Fang, H; Hou, J; Zhang, X; Wu, X; Chen, X

    2017-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a zoonotic parasitic disease. The effective immune evasion mechanisms of E. granulosus allow it to parasitize its hosts. However, the status of the innate and adaptive immune cells and their contributions to E. granulosus progression remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of E. granulosus infection on T cells, NK cell responses and TGF-β expression during the early infection phase in BALB/c mice. In E. granulosus infections, there was an increasing tendency in the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + T cells and CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells and peripheral blood TGF-β levels and relative expression of the Foxp3 gene. Moreover, there were a decreasing tendency in the percentage of NK cells and NK cell cytotoxicity and the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. The TGF-β1/Smad pathway was activated by E. granulosus in mice. Above results can be reversed by the inhibitor SB-525334 (potent activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor). These results suggest that the TGF-β/Smad pathway plays an important role in changes of T-cell or NK cell responses. These results may contribute to revealing the preliminary molecular mechanisms in establishing hydatid infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2016-08-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Construction of In Vivo Fluorescent Imaging of Echinococcus granulosus in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibo; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xuyong; Xia, Jie; Guo, Jun; Wang, Xiaoyi; Hou, Jixue; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Xueling; Wu, Xiangwei

    2016-06-01

    Human hydatid disease (cystic echinococcosis, CE) is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. As the disease mainly affects the liver, approximately 70% of all identified CE cases are detected in this organ. Optical molecular imaging (OMI), a noninvasive imaging technique, has never been used in vivo with the specific molecular markers of CE. Thus, we aimed to construct an in vivo fluorescent imaging mouse model of CE to locate and quantify the presence of the parasites within the liver noninvasively. Drug-treated protoscolices were monitored after marking by JC-1 dye in in vitro and in vivo studies. This work describes for the first time the successful construction of an in vivo model of E. granulosus in a small living experimental animal to achieve dynamic monitoring and observation of multiple time points of the infection course. Using this model, we quantified and analyzed labeled protoscolices based on the intensities of their red and green fluorescence. Interestingly, the ratio of red to green fluorescence intensity not only revealed the location of protoscolices but also determined the viability of the parasites in vivo and in vivo tests. The noninvasive imaging model proposed in this work will be further studied for long-term detection and observation and may potentially be widely utilized in susceptibility testing and therapeutic effect evaluation.

  17. Cystic echinococcosis in South America: a call for action

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    Carlos F. Pavletic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cystic echinococcosis (CE or hydatidosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by a cestode of the family Taeniidae, species Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. This report presents CE figures for these five countries in 2009 – 2014 and proposes indicators to measure national control programs. Nearly 5 000 new CE cases were diagnosed annually in the five countries during the study period. The average case fatality rate was 2.9%, which suggests that CE led to approximately 880 deaths in these countries during the 6-year period. CE cases that required secondary or tertiary health care had average hospital stays of 10.6 days, causing a significant burden to health systems. The proportion of new cases (15% in children less than 15 years of age suggests ongoing transmission. Despite figures showing that CE is not under control in South America, the long-standing implementation of national and local control programs in three of the five countries has achieved reductions in some of the indicators. The Regional Initiative for the Control of CE, which includes the five countries and provides a framework for networking and collaboration, must intensify its efforts.

  18. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

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    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  19. Host specificity and the structure of helminth parasite communities of fishes in a Neotropical river in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Novelo-Turcotte, María Teresa; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vazquez-Hurtado, Gabriela; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamin; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Favila, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. Most autogenic helminth species are numerically and reproductively successful in relatively few host species. Autogenic helminths common in one host species are not common in others. Our findings give empirical support to the idea that low levels of sharing of parasites favor animal coexistence and high species richness, because large phylogenetic differences allow potentially competing animals to consume the same resources without being sensitive of another’s parasites. PMID:28004635

  20. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths in raccoons in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, Amy E; Henke, Scott E; Pence, Danny B

    2009-01-01

    Raccoons (n=590) were collected from October 1999 to August 2003 from 35 counties across Texas, and gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth parasites. Prevalence was calculated and differences in mean abundance were examined among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes. Twenty different species of helminths (13 nematodes, two cestodes, two acanthocephalans, and three trematodes) were positively identified in the gastrointestinal tracts of 590 raccoons in Texas. Five of the 20 helminth species collected (Physaloptera rara, Placoconus lotoris, Molineus barbatus, Atriotaenia procyonis, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens) had a prevalence >20%. The total number of individuals of these five species (n=22,777) accounted for over 86% of the total number of individuals of all helminth species (n=26,426) collected. Subsequent analyses were based on these five helminths. Mean abundance differed among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes for all five parasites evaluated. This study is the most comprehensive statewide survey ever done of gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons across Texas. The five most prevalent helminths identified have all been reported in at least one previous survey, indicating that these parasites are not new to Texas and that raccoons are not naïve to the effects these parasites have on them. It may be helpful to wildlife rehabilitators, trappers, wildlife biologists, and other professionals to be aware of parasite abundance in raccoons from different areas of the state, as frequent human-raccoon interactions occur, and some of these parasites could be harmful to humans and domestic animals.

  2. Granulomatous responses in larval taeniid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Á; Sagasti, C; Casaravilla, C

    2018-05-01

    Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the Taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues. The intensity of inflammation around live parasites spans a spectrum from minimal to high, parasite vitality correlating with low inflammation. The low end of the inflammatory spectrum features collagen capsules proximal to the parasites and moderate distal infiltration. The middle of the spectrum is dominated by classical granulomatous responses, whereas the high end features massive eosinophil invasions. Across the range of parasite species, much observational evidence suggests that eosinophils are highly effective at killing larval taeniids in solid tissues, before and during chronic granulomatous responses. The evidence available also suggests that these parasites are adapted to inhibit host granulomatous responses, in part through the exacerbation of host regulatory mechanisms including regulatory T cells and TGF-β. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mizanur; Islam, Shariful; Masuduzzaman, Md.; Alam, Mahabub; Chawdhury, Mohammad Nizam Uddin; Ferdous, Jinnat; Islam, Md. Nurul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Islam, Ariful

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aim Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (S. murinus) in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae. Results The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86), with six species including nematodes (3), cestodes (2), and trematodes (1). Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp.(59%), followed by Strongyloides spp.(17%), Capillaria spp. (10%), Physaloptera spp. (3%), and Echinostoma spp.(3%). Conclusion The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp.) in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling) in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis. PMID:29805224

  4. Helminth communities of two populations of Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae from Argentinean Patagonia

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    Antonella C. Falconaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies on chiropteran endoparasites in Argentina come from the Central and Northeast regions of the country, and there is only one parasitological study of bats from the Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study is to describe the helminth fauna of 42 Myotis chiloensis, comparing the composition and the structure of the endoparasite communities between two populations, inhabiting different environments in Andean humid forest and the ecotone between forest and Patagonian steppe. A total of 697 helminths were recovered from 33 bats: five species of trematodes, Ochoterenatrema sp., Paralecithodendrium sp., Parabascus limatulus, Parabascus sp., and Postorchigenes cf. joannae, two species of cestodes, Vampirolepis sp. 1 and Vampirolepis sp. 2, and three species of nematodes, Allintoshius baudi, Physaloptera sp., and Physocephalus sp. All the helminths, but Physocephalus sp., were recovered from the small and large intestine. This is the first survey of M. chiloensis’ helminth fauna. All the species, but A. baudi, represent new records of helminths in Patagonian bats. There were differences of parasite species richness between localities and both bat populations share almost half of the endoparasite species. Different preferences for intestinal regions were found for three species of trematodes in the bats from the site in the humid forest. Myotis chiloensis serves as both a definitive and intermediate host for endoparasites in the Patagonian ecosystem. Keywords: Bats, Parasites, South America

  5. A new species of Acanthobothrium (Eucestoda: Onchobothriidae) in Aetobatus cf. narinari (Myliobatidae) from Campeche, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Erick; Pulido-Flores, Griselda; Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott

    2018-01-01

    The helminthological examination of nine individuals of Aetobatus cf. narinari (spotted eagle ray; raya pinta; arraia pintada) revealed the presence of an undescribed species of cestode of the genus Acanthobothrium. The stingrays were collected from four locations in México: Laguna Términos, south of Isla del Carmen and the marine waters north of Isla del Carmen and Champotón, in the State of Campeche, and Isla Holbox, State of Quintana Roo. The new species, nominated Acanthobothrium marquesi, is a category 3 species (i.e, the strobila is long, has more than 50 proglottids, the numerous testicles greater than 80, and has asymmetrically-lobed ovaries); at the present, the only category 3 species that has been reported in the Western Atlantic Ocean is Acanthobothrium tortum. Acanthobothrium marquesi n. sp. can be distinguished from A. tortum by length (26.1 cm vs. 10.6 cm), greater number of proglottids (1,549 vs. 656), a larger scolex (707 µm long by 872 µm wide vs. 699 µm long by 665 µm wide), larger bothridia (626 µm long by 274 µm wide vs. 563 µm long by 238 µm wide). This is the first report of a species of Acanthobothrium from the Mexican coast of the Gulf México.

  6. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Farash, Bibi Razieh; Teimoori, Salma; Hasanpour, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran. The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene. Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database. Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  7. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, in the Chihuahuan Desert of Mexico: inventory and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    As part of an ongoing inventory of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes in Mexico, 570 individual fish were collected between Apr 2008 and Oct 2011 in 26 localities along the Cuatro Ciénegas region in Coahuila State, northern Mexico. Seventeen species of hosts, mostly corresponding to Nearctic freshwater elements, were studied. A total of 8324 individual worms were collected during this survey, representing 25 species of helminths, of which 9 were digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, 9 nematodes and 1 cestode. Most of the records in this checklist represent new host or locality records. The information provided in this checklist may be helpful for our understanding of the biodiversity and historical biogeography of this host-parasite system, because in the Cuatro Ciénegas region occur a Nearctic freshwater fish fauna, along with Neotropical and endemic elements, and from a biogeographical point of view, this may represent a transitional area. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

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    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  9. The influence of geographical location, host maturity and sex on intestinal helminth communities of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, K L; Hanson-Dorr, K C; Dorr, B S; Yarrow, G K; Johnson, R J

    2017-09-01

    Here the intestinal helminth infracommunities of 218 double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from 11 locations in Alabama, Minnesota, Mississippi and Vermont are documented. Trematode infections were present in 98% of hosts; 65% of cormorants carried cestode infections, 4% were infected with acanthocephalans and 66% had nematode intestinal parasites. Parasite infracommunities of hosts collected on wintering grounds had higher richness and diversity than did birds collected on breeding grounds. Differences in parasite richness and diversity between male and female P. auritus were also detected, but not between immature and mature bird hosts. Parasite intensity did not differ by sex, maturity, or between breeding and wintering season. The most common parasite was Drepanocephalus auritus (spathans), which is recognized as a disease agent that negatively impacts the catfish aquaculture industry in the US. Echinochasmus sp. in double-crested cormorants is documented for the first time in the United States. We suggest that the differences observed among parasite infracommunities could be associated with the foraging distances travelled by P. auritus during breeding and wintering seasons, which is limited by allocation of parental care during the breeding season.

  10. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Compared to Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Test for the Detection of Fasciola hepatica in Human Stool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Malaga, Jose L.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Bagwell, Kelli A.; Naeger, Patrick A.; Rogers, Hayley K.; Maharsi, Safa; Mbaka, Maryann; White, A. Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the most widely distributed trematode infection in the world. Control efforts may be hindered by the lack of diagnostic capacity especially in remote endemic areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods offer high sensitivity and specificity but require expensive technology. However, the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an efficient isothermal method that eliminates the need for a thermal cycler and has a high deployment potential to resource-limited settings. We report on the characterization of RPA and PCR tests to detect Fasciola infection in clinical stool samples with low egg burdens. The sensitivity of the RPA and PCR were 87% and 66%, respectively. Both tests were 100% specific showing no cross-reactivity with trematode, cestode, or nematode parasites. In addition, RPA and PCR were able to detect 47% and 26% of infections not detected by microscopy, respectively. The RPA adapted to a lateral flow platform was more sensitive than gel-based detection of the reaction products. In conclusion, the Fasciola RPA is a highly sensitive and specific test to diagnose chronic infection using stool samples. The Fasciola RPA lateral flow has the potential for deployment to endemic areas after further characterization. PMID:27821691

  11. Epidemiology of an intestinal parasite (Spirometra spp.) in two populations of African lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Graf, C D; Woolhouse, M E; Packer, C

    1999-04-01

    Infection with the cestode Spirometra spp. was studied in 2 populations of lions in the Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania, East Africa. These 2 lion populations lived in different habitats and were known to differ genetically: lions in the Serengeti were outbred, whereas lions in the Ngorongoro Crater were inbred. Faecal samples were collected from 112 individually known lions between March 1991 and November 1992. Over 60% of lions were infected and the median intensity of infection was 975 eggs per g of faeces. The distribution of egg counts was overdispersed. There was variability through time, though this was unrelated to seasons delimited by rainfall. There were no significant differences in levels of infection between age classes; cubs less than 9 months were already heavily infected. Sex and reproductive status did not have a significant effect. However, there were significant differences in intensities of infection between the Crater and the Serengeti populations--Spirometra spp. showed a higher level of infection intensity in the Crater population--with some variation between prides within these populations. Allozyme heterozygosity scores were available for a subset of 28 lions but were unrelated to levels of Spirometra infection. It was not possible to ascribe differences in levels of parasite infection to genetic rather than ecological factors.

  12. Community-based surveillance of zoonotic parasites in a ‘One Health’ world: A systematic review

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    JM Schurer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The One Health (OH concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure. Study sites spanned 23 countries, and research teams brought together an average of seven authors from two countries. Surveillance of blood-borne and gastrointestinal protozoa were most frequently reported (19 of 32; 59%, followed by trematodes, nematodes, and cestodes. Laboratory techniques varied greatly between studies, and only 16 identified parasites using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in all three OH domains. Our review identified important gaps in parasitology research operating under an OH framework. We recommend that investigators working in the realm of zoonotic disease strive to evaluate all three OH domains by integrating modern molecular tools as well as techniques provided by economists and social scientists.

  13. A new species of Acanthobothrium (Eucestoda: Onchobothriidae in Aetobatus cf. narinari (Myliobatidae from Campeche, México

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    Erick Rodríguez-Ibarra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The helminthological examination of nine individuals of Aetobatus cf. narinari (spotted eagle ray; raya pinta; arraia pintada revealed the presence of an undescribed species of cestode of the genus Acanthobothrium. The stingrays were collected from four locations in México: Laguna Términos, south of Isla del Carmen and the marine waters north of Isla del Carmen and Champotón, in the State of Campeche, and Isla Holbox, State of Quintana Roo. The new species, nominated Acanthobothrium marquesi, is a category 3 species (i.e, the strobila is long, has more than 50 proglottids, the numerous testicles greater than 80, and has asymmetrically-lobed ovaries; at the present, the only category 3 species that has been reported in the Western Atlantic Ocean is Acanthobothrium tortum. Acanthobothrium marquesi n. sp. can be distinguished from A. tortum by length (26.1 cm vs. 10.6 cm, greater number of proglottids (1,549 vs. 656, a larger scolex (707 µm long by 872 µm wide vs. 699 µm long by 665 µm wide, larger bothridia (626 µm long by 274 µm wide vs. 563 µm long by 238 µm wide. This is the first report of a species of Acanthobothrium from the Mexican coast of the Gulf México.

  14. Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon Mok; Chai, Jong Yil

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea.

  15. Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Park, Jae-Hwan; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2009-06-01

    Four feral cats and a raccoon dog purchased from a local collector on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, where human Gymnophalloides seoi infections are known to be prevalent, were examined for their intestinal helminth parasites. From 2 of 4 cats, a total of 310 adult G. seoi specimens were recovered. Other helminths detected in cats included Heterophyes nocens (1,527 specimens), Pygidiopsis summa (131), Stictodora fuscata (4), Acanthotrema felis (2), Spirometra erinacei (15), toxocarids (4), and a hookworm (1). A raccoon dog was found to be infected with a species of echinostome (55), hookworms (7), toxocarids (3), P. summa (3), and S. erinacei (1). No G. seoi was found in the raccoon dog. The results indicate that feral cats and raccoon dogs on Aphaedo are natural definitive hosts for intestinal trematodes and cestodes, including G. seoi, H. nocens, and S. erinacei. It has been first confirmed that cats, a mammalian species other than humans, play the role of a natural definitive host for G. seoi on Aphaedo Island.

  16. Parasite prevalence and community diversity in sympatric and allopatric populations of two woodrat species (Sigmodontinae: Neotoma) in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Molly J; Teglas, Michael B; Murphy, Peter J; Matocq, Marjorie D

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of host-parasite association may vary across the landscape in part because of host and parasite diversity, divergence, local ecology, or interactions among these factors. In central coastal California, we quantified parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and diversity in two sister species of woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma macrotis) where the species co-occur (sympatry) and where each species exists alone (allopatry). In feces from 50 adults we identified seven taxa: the protozoans Eimeria, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, the nematodes Trichuris, Aspicularis, and Eucoleus, and a cestode in the family Anoplocephalidae. Gastrointestinal parasite infection intensity and diversity were higher in males than in females, a difference that was most pronounced in the more aggressive N. fuscipes. Both species had lower infection intensity in sympatry than in allopatry and in sympatry the two species did not differ in infection intensity in total but did maintain distinct parasite communities. Taken together, our findings suggest that host evolutionary differences, including perhaps species-specific patterns of aggressive behavior, as well as local ecology, influence the likelihood of infection by these endoparasite taxa.

  17. Helminth parasite communities of allopatric populations of the frog Leptodactylus podicipinus from Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, K M; da Silva, R J; Ferreira, V L

    2014-03-01

    Several factors may influence the structure of parasite communities in amphibian hosts. In this study, we describe the helminth parasites of three allopatric populations of the frog Leptodactylus podicipinus and test whether host size and sex were determinants of the structure and composition of the helminth communities. One hundred and twenty-three anurans were collected from three different study sites within the Pantanal wetlands and surveyed for helminth parasites. We found 14 helminth taxa: 7 species of nematodes, 4 species of trematodes, 1 species of cestodes, 1 species of acanthocephalan and one unidentified cyst. Host sex and size did not cause significant differences in helminth abundance or richness. The structure of helminth communities from the three study sites varied in terms of species composition, abundance and diversity. Six out of 14 helminth taxa were found in the three localities. Among those, the nematodes Cosmocerca podicipinus and Rhabdias sp., the trematode Catadiscus propinquus and the helminth cyst showed significant differences in mean abundances. We suggest that such differences found among the three component communities are driven by biotic and abiotic factors operating locally. Moreover, these differences stress the importance of local conditions, such as hydrologic characteristics and landscape composition, on helminth community structure.

  18. New host, geographical records, and factors affecting the prevalence of helminths infection from synanthropic rodents in Yucatán, Mexico

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    Panti-May J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the occurrence of helminths in Mus musculus and Rattus rattus from urban, suburban and rural settlements in Yucatán, Mexico; and to analyse the host factors (e.g. sex related to helminths’ distribution. Helminths in a total of 279 rodents were surveyed by visual examination of the liver for metacestodes and faecal examination for helminth eggs using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The cestodes Hydatigera taeniaeformis (metacestodes detected in the liver and Hymenolepis diminuta, and the nematodes Aspiculuris sp., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Syphacia obvelata, and Trichuris muris were identified. In M. musculus, the prevalence of infection with T. muris and H. taeniaeformis was higher in the rural village compared to those in the suburban neighbourhood. For R. rattus, a higher prevalence of infection with H. diminuta was found in the urban site compared to that in the suburban site. This study reports the occurrence of H. diminuta among rodents living in close proximity to humans, representing a potential public health risk. In addition, this survey increases our understanding of dynamic transmission among intestinal helminths recorded in Yucatán, Mexico.

  19. A New Genus of Tapeworm (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea) from Sawfish (Elasmobranchii: Pristidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, J N; Jensen, K; Fyler, C A

    2018-04-01

    Collections from the dwarf sawfish, Pristis clavata, near Darwin, Australia, in 1997 led to the discovery of the new onchoproteocephalidean genus Matticestus n. gen.-a taxon that has been referred to in molecular phylogenetic analyses in which it has been included as "New genus 8." Its type species, Matticestus anneae n. gen., n. sp., and a second species, Matticestus kathleenae n. sp., are described. Placement of this taxon in the Onchoproteocephalidea is supported morphologically in that both species bear a scolex with 4 bothridia each with a pair of bi-pronged hooks and spinitriches that extend throughout the length of the body. Sequence data for the D1-D3 region of the 28S rDNA gene also place the genus solidly among the other elasmobranch-hosted members of the order. The new genus differs from the other elasmobranch-hosted genera in the order in that its members possess a combination of biloculated bothridia with lateral lappets on the posterior margin of the anterior loculus and a pair of bi-pronged hooks with a distinctive configuration of tubercles and internal channels. Its members are also extremely small. In summary, Matticestus n. gen. is an unusually tiny, "spiny," genus of cestode that seems to exclusively parasitize sawfish of the genus Pristis.

  20. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

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    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  1. Tunga penetrans and further parasites in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Raphael; Melaun, Christian; Martins, Maria Marlene; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Heukelbach, Jörg; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    The Brazilian savannah-like area, the Cerrado region, covers large areas of the country and provides a habitat for a multitude of different animal species. The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is geographically widespread and one of the typical inhabitants of the Cerrado. They are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A population loss of at least 30 % over the past 10 years has been estimated based on local extinctions, habitat loss and deaths caused by fires, roadkills and hunting. Little is known about ecological and in particular parasitic conditions of this highly specialised insectivore species. During September and November 2010 we examined three roadkilled giant anteater for the presence of metazoan ecto- and endoparasites. Besides the cestode species Oochoristica tetragonocephala and the tick species Amblyomma nodosum, we found for the first time the flea Tunga penetrans. Beside morphological flea species identification, we compared a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of eggs, a molecular method utilised for the first time in this combination. The identification of T. penetrans in M. tridactyla represents a new host record and expands the host and distribution range of the zoonotic flea species.

  2. Taxonomy, distribution and prevalence of parasites of tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau, 1861) in the Sanyati basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Nyasha; Barson, Maxwell; Van Dyk, Cobus; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-09-01

    Parasites of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) were investigated in the period October 2014 to July 2015 in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. The fish were collected using seine netting and also during the annual Kariba International Tiger Fishing Tournament. A total of 80 fish specimens (24 males and 56 females) were collected and were infected with the following seven parasite taxa: Monogenea (Annulotrema sp.1 from the gills and Annulotrema sp.2 from the skin), Nematoda (Contracaecum larvae), Cestoda (bothriocephalid, larval cyclophyllid), Copepoda (Lamproglena hemprichii), pentastomid, Myxosporea (Myxobolus sp.,) and unicellular ciliate parasites (Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp., and unidentified). Annulotrema sp. 1 was observed in all fish and had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance. The fish organs infected were gills, skin, fin, body cavity, stomach, intestines, mesentery, liver, kidney, brain cavity and swim bladder. No parasites were observed in the muscle, eyes and blood. The distribution of the parasites was highest in the gills and lowest in the brain cavity and swimbladder. Bothriocephalids, pentastomes and Trichodina sp. were not observed in male fish. Sex was not related to the intensity of parasites. The results of the study showed that H. vittatus has a richer parasite community than other previous investigated alestids. Pentastomes, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp. and bothriocephalid cestodes are new records for H. vittatus in Zimbabwe.

  3. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  4. Taxonomic composition and endemism of the helminth fauna of freshwater fishes of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    We examine the taxonomic composition and endemism of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes of Mexico, with regard to the main hydrological basins of the country. A presence-absence matrix, including every species of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from 23 Mexican hydrological basins was compiled and examined in this paper. The helminth fauna of freshwater fishes of Mexico consists of a large group of Central American Neotropical species (S = 119) and another set, less rich of Nearctic species (S = 48), which are distributed along with the families of its fish hosts; insufficient data preclude the assignation of three species. This fauna is composed predominantly by nematodes, trematodes, and monogeneans, which together contributed 86 % of the total species recorded; cestodes and acanthocephalans being the taxa with the least species recorded. Current data suggests a 22 % (37/170) endemism amongst helminths of freshwater fishes of Mexico. Data suggests that the isolation of bodies of water in the Mexican territory, mostly in the Neotropical areas of southeastern Mexico and in the central Altiplano Mexicano (Mexican Highland Plateau), with well delimited basins separated by orographic features, provided peculiar conditions that have been conducive to the diversification of a unique helminth fauna.

  5. Infestation of zooplankton with Triaenophorus and Proteocephalus procercoids (Cestoda in a deep oligotrophic lake

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    Peter Anegg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2004, a massive infestation of the whitefish population in the Austrian Lake Achensee with Triaenophorus crassus was observed. Procercoids, the larval stage of parasitic cestodes, infest copepods as their first intermediate host. Therefore, in spring 2011, zooplankton samples were taken weekly at two sampling sites and depth ranges to determine the abundances of crustaceans as well as percentages of infected copepods and temporal occurrence of parasites. In addition, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus stomach contents were analysed for food spectrum and parasite infestation. From the end of June to mid-August, procercoids of Triaenophorus spp. were detected in Cyclops abyssorum, the only first intermediate host for this parasite in Lake Achensee. Highest percentages of infected copepods were reached in mid-July (prevalence: 0.38%. Furthermore, an infestation of Proteocephalus sp. was observed in this copepod species, which occurred earlier until the end of the sampling period (prevalence: 1.34%. Besides C. abyssorum, also Eudiaptomus gracilis was occasionally infected with Proteocephalus (prevalence: 0.05%. The procercoids were found in both depth ranges, with no clear vertical infestation preference. More female C. abyssorum were Triaenophorus-infected than males, while the opposite was observed for Proteocephalus infection. The whitefish stomachs contained large numbers of Proteocephalus and Triaenophorus procercoids, coinciding with the occurrence of these parasites in the copepods.

  6. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae from Mexico

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    Karla Acosta-Virgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes. Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals.

  7. Metazoarios parásitos de Tlacuatzin canescens y Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia de México Metazoan parasites of Tlacuatzin canescens and Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia from Mexico

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    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los metazoarios parásitos de mamíferos de México se recolectaron 4 ejemplares de ratones tlacuache: 2 de Tlacuatzin canescens (Allen, 1893 procedentes de Oaxaca y 2 de Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897 de Veracruz. Se presentan 5 registros nuevos de hospedero y localidad para ácaros de las especies Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls y Clifford, 1966, las pulgas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950 y Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, así como para el cestodo Hymenolepis sp. y por primera vez en México se registra el nematodo Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano y Pujol, 1991.As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the metazoan parasites of Mexican mammals, 4 specimens of 2 species of mouse opossums (2 Tlacuatzin canescens [Allen, 1893] and 2 Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897, were collected from Oaxaca and Veracuz states, Mexico, respectively. Five new locality and host records are presented for the acari Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls and Clifford, 1966, of fleas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950, and Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, as well as the cestode Hymenolepis sp., while the nematode Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano and Pujol, 1991, is recorded for the first time in Mexico.

  8. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  9. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  10. Ecotoxicoparasitology of the gastrointestinal tracts of pinnipeds: the effect of parasites on the potential bioavailability of total mercury (THg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Salman, Mo D; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances M D; Whiting, Alex; Ballweber, Lora R

    2018-08-01

    Acanthocephalans, cestodes, and some species of nematodes acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of their definitive host. These parasites are exposed to toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), through passive or active feeding mechanisms; therefore, the focus of this study was to determine if there is an effect of parasites on the dietary availability of total mercury (THg) within piscivorous pinniped hosts. THg concentrations ([THg]) in selected host tissues, parasites, and GI lumen contents from 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 15 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and 4 spotted seals (Phoca largha) were determined. Among all pinnipeds, [THg] in acanthocephalans of the large intestine were significantly higher than concentrations in other samples (host lumen contents, other parasites and host intestinal wall), irrespective of location within the host GI tract. δ 15 N values of parasites depended both on parasite group and location within the GI tract. δ 15 N values were consistently higher in parasites inhabiting the large intestine, compared to elsewhere in the GI tract, for both sea lions and seals. δ 13 C values in parasites did not differ significantly from host GI tissues. Based on both [THg] and stable isotope values, parasites are likely affecting the Hg bioavailability within the GI lumen contents and host tissues, and toxicant-parasite interactions appear to depend on both parasitic taxon as well as their location within the host intestine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Helminth community of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from western Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Jill N; Vasquez, Barbara; Bradley, Russell G; Fedynich, Alan M; Lerich, Scott P; Kinsella, John M

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) were collected during August 2002 at Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Brewster County, Texas, and examined for helminths. Eight species of helminths were found (5 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 2,811 individuals. Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. Prevalence of Aulonocephalus pennula, Gongylonema sp., Oxyspirura petrowi, Physaloptera sp., P. pileata, C. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively. Aulonocephalus pennula numerically dominated, accounting for 88% of total worms. Statistical analyses were performed on the 5 species with > or = 25% prevalence using the after-hatch-year host sample (n = 38). Prevalence of P. pileata was higher (P = 0.049) in females than in males and higher (P = 0.037) in the sample collected from the site that had spreader dams (berms 1-2 m high and 4-55 m long constructed in varying sizes to catch and retain rainfall) than the control site (no spreader dams). Higher rank mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0052, respectively) was found in the host sample collected from the site that had spreader dams than the control site. A host gender-by-collection site interaction (P = 0.0215) was observed for P. pileata. Findings indicate that scaled quail are acquiring indirect life cycle helminths in arid western Texas habitats.

  12. Investigación experimental de la equinococosis canina a partir de quiste hidatídico de origen porcino en México Experimental investigation of canine echinococcosis from swine hydatic cyst in Mexico

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    Ismael Zuñiga-A

    1999-06-01

    ção e os outros cada 5 dias até o 55º dia. No segundo grupo, foram sacrificados no 55º dia. Foram encontrados ovos do cestóides em fezes a partir do 51º dia pós-infeção. A avaliação morfológica foi feita por meio de observação microscópica da raspagem de mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: Dos 50 cestóides analisados, 10 corresponderam a cada um dos cães infectados, 49 (98% mostraram 3 proglotides e 1 (2% continha só 4; 18 (36% dos cestóides apresentavam um proglotide grávido. Na availação clínica, o número de leucócitos e a quantidade de proteínas plasmáticas foram significantemente maiores no grupo testemunha (P OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the infection and obtain the adult state of the cestode, echinococcosis was reproduced in dogs using the hydatic cyst of swine. METHODS: Two groups were formed, one of five and the other of three dogs, each animal in the experimental group was given two grams of germinative membrane of fertile hydatic cyst by oral route. The second was the control group. Both groups were evaluated clinically, serologically and parasitologically. One animal was killed on the 35th day after infection and each five successive days until the 55th day. In the second group all the animals were killed on the 55th day. Eggs of the cestode were observed in feces from the 51st post-infection day. The morphological evaluation was made through microscopic observation of the mucous intestine scraping. RESULTS: Fifty cestodes were analyzed, ten from each of the infected dogs, 49 (98% presented three proglottids and 1 (2% had four; 18 (36% of the cestodes presented a gravid proglottid. The length of the strobila varied from 1.6 to 2.6 mm. The average of the long and short hooks was 31 and 34, respectively. The length of the long hooks varied from 0.081 to 0.09 mm, the short hooks from 0.034 to 0.041 mm. The quantity of plasmatic proteins and the number of leukocytes were significantly greater in the control group (P < 0.05; the quantity of alpha

  13. Metazoan parasite infracommunities of Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) from the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, Claudia; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2002-12-01

    Metazoan parasite infracommunities of the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) were studied in terms of species composition, species richness, diversity, numerical dominance, and similarity. Seventy-five fishes were collected from 4 localities along the Yucatan Peninsula coast and 24 parasite species recovered. Most were digeneans (8 species) and nematodes (7). Other species were monogeneans (3). aspidogastreans (2), cestodes (1), acanthocephalans (1), and crustaceans (2). Only 4 species were common in at least I locality. Mean values for species richness, abundance, diversity, numerical dominance, and similarity in total (all species in the individual fish), gastrointestinal, and ectoparasite infracommunities were within ranges observed for most helminth infracommunities of marine fishes from temperate and tropical latitudes. These infracommunities had low species richness, abundance, diversity, and predictability (except ectoparasite infracommunities) and high dominance. Within the predictable element (common species), the specialist monogenean Pseudobicotylophora atlantica was the main reason for the increase in predictability because it was the only common species at all 4 localities. Host feeding habits, the distribution of intermediate hosts and infective stages, the local species pool, and a phylogenetic component seem to be determining the characteristics of these metazoan parasite infracommunities.

  14. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-03-01

    A survey of proteocephalidean cestodes found in the firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix et Agassiz) from the Amazon River is provided. The following taxa parasitic in S. planiceps are redescribed on the basis of their type specimens and material collected recently in the Amazon River, near the type localities in Brazil, and in Iquitos, Peru: Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933; Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933); and Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934, for which a new genus, Lenhataenia, is proposed, with L. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) comb. n. as its type and only species. The new genus is a member of the Monticelliinae, i.e. has all genital organs in the cortex, and is most similar to Chambriella in possessing biloculate suckers and lacking a metascolex. It differs in the morphology of the cirrus-sac that contains a strongly coiled, thick-walled internal sperm duct (vas deferens) and a muscular cirrus of the appearance typical of most proteocephalideans, whereas that of Chambriella is sigmoid, with voluminous, tightly sinuous thick-walled internal sperm duct. In addition, Lenhataenia possesses a well developed internal musculature, whereas the internal musculature of Chambriella is weakly developed, formed by a low number of muscle fibres. The scolex morphology and distribution of microtriches of Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933 and Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933), Chambriella sp. and Choanoscolex sp. are described using scanning electron microscopy. The two latter taxa may be new for science and are reported from S. planiceps for the first time.

  15. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Bangladesh.

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    Rahman, Mizanur; Islam, Shariful; Masuduzzaman, Md; Alam, Mahabub; Chawdhury, Mohammad Nizam Uddin; Ferdous, Jinnat; Islam, Md Nurul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Islam, Ariful

    2018-04-01

    Asian house shrew ( Suncus murinus ), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew ( S. murinus ) in Bangladesh. A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae. The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86), with six species including nematodes (3), cestodes (2), and trematodes (1). Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp.(59%), followed by Strongyloides spp.(17%), Capillaria spp. (10%), Physaloptera spp. (3%), and Echinostoma spp.(3%). The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp.) in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling) in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis.

  16. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology.

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    Vega, Rodrigo; Piñero, Daniel; Ramanankandrasana, Bienvenue; Dumas, Michel; Bouteille, Bernard; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-11-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severely incapacitating and even fatal presentation. Further, vaccine design and diagnosis technology have met with difficulties in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Parasite diversity underlying clinical heterogeneity and technological difficulties is little explored. Here, T. solium genetic population structure and diversity was studied by way of random amplified polymorphic DNA in individual cysticerci collected from pigs in Madagascar and two regions in Mexico. The amplification profiles of T. solium were also compared with those of the murine cysticercus Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain). We show significant genetic differentiation between Madagascar and Mexico and between regions in Mexico, but less so between cysticerci from different localities in Mexico and none between cysticerci from different tissues from the same pig. We also found restricted genetic variability within populations and gene flow was estimated to be low between populations. Thus, genetic differentiation of T. solium suggests that different evolutionary paths have been taken and provides support for its involvement in the differential tissue distribution of cysticerci and varying degrees of severity of the disease. It may also explain difficulties in the development of vaccines and tools for immunodiagnosis.

  18. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

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    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  19. Parasitism in Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae) from coastal waters of Puerto Rico, the Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Williams, Ernest H; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Tuttle, Lillian J; Sikkel, Paul C; Hixon, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Pterois volitans, a Pacific species of lionfish, invaded the Atlantic Ocean, likely via the aquarium trade. We examined for internal and external parasites 188 individuals from 8 municipalities of Puerto Rico collected during 2009-2012, 91 individuals from Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, collected during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and 47 individuals from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, collected during the summer of 2009. In total, 27 parasite taxa were found, including 3 previously reported species from lionfish, the digenean Lecithochirium floridense, the leech Trachelobdella lubrica, and an Excorallana sp. isopod. We also report another 24 previously unreported parasite taxa from lionfish, including digeneans, monogeneans, cestodes, nematodes, isopods, a copepod, and an acanthocephalan. Among these parasites, several were previously unreported at their respective geographic origins: We report 5 new locality records from Puerto Rico, 9 from Cayman Islands, 5 from the Bahamas, 5 from the Caribbean, and 3 from the subtropical western Atlantic region. Three parasites are reported to associate with a fish host for the first time. The parasite faunas of P. volitans among our 3 study sites were quite different; most of the species infecting lionfish were generalists and/or species that infect carnivorous fishes. Although our study did not assess the impact of parasites on the fitness of invasive lionfish, it provides an important early step. Our results provide valuable comparative data for future studies at these and other sites throughout the lionfish's invaded range.

  20. Canine echinococcosis in northern Jordan: increased prevalence and dominance of sheep/dog strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Abdel-Hafez, Sami K; Craig, Philip S

    2003-06-01

    A total of 112 stray and semi-stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from four different geographical areas in northern and middle Jordan were necropsied to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. Of these, 33 dogs (29.5%) were infected with Echinococcus granulosus and 61 (54.5%) with other Taenia species. Other cestodes found included Dipylidium caninum in 36 dogs (32.1%), Diplopylidium in 6 dogs (5.4%), Mesocestoides sp. in 3 dogs (2.7%) and Joyuexiella in 1 dog (0.9%). Toxocara nematodes were found in 10 dogs (9.2%) and only 1 dog was positive for acanthocephalans. Among the dogs infected with E. granulosus, 8 dogs (24.2%) had a worm load higher than 1,000 worms. The ratio of infected male to female dogs was 1.9:1.0. Strain analysis of E. granulosus using random primers revealed the dominance of the G1 strain (sheep/dog strain) in the region. Only one dog harbored another E. granulosus strain, which resembled the G4 strain pattern.

  1. Helminth parasites of Lemniscomys striatus (striped grass mouse and Cricetomys gambianus (giant African rat in Nsukka, Nigeria

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    Ezeudu Terry Adaeze

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the helminth profile of Lemniscomys striatus (L. striatus and Cricetomys gambianus (C. gambianus in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria, and their zoonotic potentials and public health risk. Methods: A total of 63 rodents were captured during the study period, of which 54 (85.7% were L. striatus and 9 (14.3% were C. gambianus. Following evisceration, various organs from the rodents (the lungs, liver, stomach, small intestines and large intestines were split open and thoroughly examined under a stereomicroscope. The liver samples were subjected to histopathological processing and examination. Results: No helminth parasite was found in C. gambianus while 44 (81.5% of L. striatus were infected with one or more species of helminth parasites. And 10 (18.5% and 34 (63% of L. striatus had mixed and single infections, respectively. Three helminth species were recovered during the study. Two nematodes [Capillaria hepatica (C. hepatica and Protospirura spp.] and one cestode parasite (Hymenolepis spp. were found at prevalence rates of 3.7%, 14.8% and 81.5%, respectively. Histopathology revealed the typical characteristic bipolar plugs of C. hepatica ova. There were also massive areas of degenerative necrosis of hepatocytes, fibrous encapsulation of C. hepatica ova and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusions: Two out of the three helminths (C. hepatica and Hymenolepis spp. recovered in this study are of serious zoonotic importance and thus pose great public health risk to the community.

  2. Helminth community structure and diet of three Afrotropical anuran species: a test of the interactive-versus-isolationist parasite communities hypothesis

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    G. C. Akani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactive-versus-isolationist hypothesis predicts that parasite communities should be depauperated and weakly structured by interspecific competition in amphibians. A parasitological survey was carried out to test this hypothesis using three anuran species from Nigeria, tropical Africa (one Bufonidae; two Ranidae. High values of parasite infection parameters were found in all three species, which were infected by nematodes, cestodes and trematodes. Nonetheless, the parasite communities of the three anurans were very depauperated in terms of number of species (4 to 6. Interspecific competition was irrelevant in all species, as revealed by null models and Monte Carlo permutations. Cluster analyses revealed that, in terms of parasite community composition, the two Ranidae were similar, whereas the Bufonidae was more different. However, when prevalence, intensity, and abundance of parasites are combined into a multivariate analysis, each anuran species was clearly spaced apart from the others, thus revealing considerable species-specific differences in terms of their parasite communities. All anurans were generalists and probably opportunistic in terms of dietary habits, and showed no evidence of interspecific competition for food. Overall, our data are widely consistent with expectations driven from the interactive-versus-isolationist parasite communities hypothesis.

  3. Intestinal Parasites and Anthelmintic Treatments in a Laboratory Colony of Wild-caught African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys ansorgei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullin, Cassandra O; Sellers, Matthew S; Rogers, Erin R; Scott, Kathleen E; Lee, Danielle N; Ophir, Alexander G; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg) were used to determine effective treatment options for the gastrointestinal parasites present in the colony. Pyrantel pamoate in a treat vehicle and piperazine in water bottles were easily administered and significantly reduced the numbers of animals shedding Nippostrongylus spp. and Heterakis spp. during the study. Moxidectin and ivermectin were clinically ineffective at reducing fecal egg shedding. Fenbendazole was most effective at clearing infection with Trichuris spp. Although 10 mg/kg praziquantel was ineffective, a single dose of 30 mg/kg praziquantel significantly reduced the number of African pouched rats that shed cestode embryos. A combination treatment may be necessary to successfully treat all parasites present in any given animal. PMID:28935004

  4. Echinobothrium notoguidoi n. sp. (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from Mustelus schmitti (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes) in the Argentine Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V A

    1997-10-01

    A new cestode, Echinobothrium notoguidoi n. sp., is described from the spiral intestine of the shark Mustelus schmitti, from coastal waters off Mar del Plata, Argentina. This species is distinguished from all others in the genus by a rostellar armature consisting of 2 apical groups of 31 large hooks each, arranged in 2 rows (16 anterior, 15 posterior) with 13 hooklets per side, a wide corona of 8-11 rows of spines posterior to the rostellum, 8 rows of 24-26 spines on the cephalic peduncle, and 11-15 testes per proglottid. The new species most closely resembles 2 congeners that also parasitize sharks, Echinobothrium musteli and Echinobothrium scoliodoni, on the basis of the armature of the rostellum and cephalic peduncle and the presence of a corona of small spines. Echinobothrium notoguidoi can be differentiated from E. musteli by the number of hooklets (3) and testes (22), and from E. scoliodoni by the number of large hooks (10-13), spines on the cephalic peduncle (> 100), and segments (40-50). Echinobothrium notoguidoi is clearly distinguished from Echinobothrium pigmentatum described previously from Zapteryx brevirostris in Argentine waters by the following combination of characters: corona of hooks lacking, possession of fewer apical hooks (20), hooklets in a continuous row instead of separate groups, fewer spines in the cephalic peduncle (9-13 per row), and fewer testes (5-7) per proglottid.

  5. [Endoparasitic infections in sheep from the Swabian Alb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Winter, R

    1998-11-01

    The endoparasite fauna of 59 slaughtered sheep (30 lambs, 29 ewes) from the Swabian Alb, Germany, was examined. One species of trematodes, 3 species of cestodes, 29 species of nematodes (23 species of gastro-intestinal and 6 species of lung nematodes), 1 species of arthropodes and 1 species of protozoa were recorded. All animals were infected with Dicrocoelium dentriticum as well as gastro-intestinal and lung nematodes, 45.8% with Moniezia spp., 15.3% with Cysticercus tenuicollis, 55.9% with Oestrus ovis and 11.9% with Sarcocystis gigantea. The most important gastro-intestinal nematodes were Ostertagia circumcincta and Cooperia curticei, which were recorded in all sheep, Ostertagia trifurcata and Chabertia ovine (98.3% each), Oesophagostumum venulosum (96.6%), Nematodirus filicollis (81.4% each), Ostertagia pinnata (78.0%), Trichuris ovis and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (76.3% each). The ewes harboured more abomasal and small intestinal nematodes (1819 and 3702) than the lambs (695 and 1730), which haboured more large intestinal nematodes (177) than those (56). The most often recorded lungworms were Cystocaulus ocreatus (74.6%) and Muellerius capillaris (72.9%), followed by Neostrongylus linearis (57.6%), Dictyocaulus filaria (50.8%), Protostrongylus brevispiculum (37.3%) and Protostrongylus rufescens (28.8%). The ewes carried higher lungworm burdens than the lambs.

  6. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bożena; Werszko, Joanna; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae.

  7. Medicinal Plants: A Source of Anti-Parasitic Secondary Metabolites

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    Michael Wink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation, membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

  8. Experimental assessment of the effects of gastrointestinal parasites on offspring quality in chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M J; Valera, F; Barbosa, A

    2012-05-01

    Parasites reduce host fitness and consequently impose strong selection pressures on their hosts. It has been hypothesized that parasites are scarcer and their overall effect on hosts is weaker at higher latitudes. Although Antarctic birds have relatively low numbers of parasites, their effect on host fitness has rarely been investigated. The effect of helminth parasitism on growth rate was experimentally studied in chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) nestlings. In a total of 22 two-nestling broods, 1 nestling was treated with anthelminthics (for cestodes and nematodes) while its sibling was left as a control. Increased growth rate was predicted in de-wormed nestlings compared to their siblings. As expected, 15 days after treatment, the experimental nestlings had increased body mass more than their siblings. These results show a non-negligible negative effect of helminth parasites on nestling body condition that would presumably affect future survival and thus fitness, and it has been suggested there is a strong relationship between body mass and mortality in chinstrap penguins.

  9. Community-based surveillance of zoonotic parasites in a 'One Health' world: A systematic review.

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    Schurer, J M; Mosites, E; Li, C; Meschke, S; Rabinowitz, P

    2016-12-01

    The One Health (OH) concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment) were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure. Study sites spanned 23 countries, and research teams brought together an average of seven authors from two countries. Surveillance of blood-borne and gastrointestinal protozoa were most frequently reported (19 of 32; 59%), followed by trematodes, nematodes, and cestodes. Laboratory techniques varied greatly between studies, and only 16 identified parasites using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in all three OH domains. Our review identified important gaps in parasitology research operating under an OH framework. We recommend that investigators working in the realm of zoonotic disease strive to evaluate all three OH domains by integrating modern molecular tools as well as techniques provided by economists and social scientists.

  10. New records of helminths of Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae) from Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, with the description of a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Edgar Uriel Garduño-Montes; López-Caballero, Jorge D; Mata-López, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    A total of 61 specimens of the Red-headed Spiny Lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Phrynosomatidae) collected during the breeding season (June/July 2003, 2004 and 2005) from Western Mexico were examined for helminths. The morphological characterization of the helminths found was made through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nine taxa of helminths were identified, two cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. and Oochoristica sp., and seven nematodes: Parapharyngodon ayotzinapaensis Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon tikuinii Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon sp., Physalopterinae gen. sp., Skrjabinoptera scelopori Caballero-Rodríguez, 1971, Strongyluris similis Caballero, 1938 and a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914. Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. and Physalopterinae gen. sp. were found in the body cavity and digestive tract, respectively. Excluding the species of Parapharyngodon Chatterji, 1933, S. pyrocephalus is recorded for the first time as a host of the remaining seven taxa of helminths. Additionally, Thubunaea leonregagnonae sp. n. is described and illustrated as a new nematode species, parasite of S. pyrocephalus from Mexico. This new species can be differentiated from the majority of its congeners by the absence of spicules, the particular pattern of caudal papillae in males and the small ratio of oesophagus length:male total body length (0.1-0.16).

  11. New records of helminths of Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae from Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, with the description of a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Uriel Garduño-Montes de Oca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 61 specimens of the Red-headed Spiny Lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope (Phrynosomatidae collected during the breeding season (June/July 2003, 2004 and 2005 from Western Mexico were examined for helminths. The morphological characterization of the helminths found was made through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nine taxa of helminths were identified, two cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. and Oochoristica sp., and seven nematodes: Parapharyngodon ayotzinapaensis Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon tikuinii Garduño-Montes de Oca, Mata-López & León-Règagnon, 2016, Parapharyngodon sp., Physalopterinae gen. sp., Skrjabinoptera scelopori Caballero-Rodríguez, 1971, Strongyluris similis Caballero, 1938 and a new species of Thubunaea Seurat, 1914. Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. and Physalopterinae gen. sp. were found in the body cavity and digestive tract, respectively. Excluding the species of Parapharyngodon Chatterji, 1933, S. pyrocephalus is recorded for the first time as a host of the remaining seven taxa of helminths. Additionally, Thubunaea leonregagnonae sp. n. is described and illustrated as a new nematode species, parasite of S. pyrocephalus from Mexico. This new species can be differentiated from the majority of its congeners by the absence of spicules, the particular pattern of caudal papillae in males and the small ratio of oesophagus length:male total body length (0.1–0.16.

  12. Endoparasites of the Eastern Rock Sengi (Elephantulus myurus) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutermann, Heike; Medger, Katarina; Junker, Kerstin

    2015-12-01

    The endoparasite fauna of the eastern rock sengi ( Elephantulus myurus Thomas and Schwann) was studied for the first time for any sengi species from September 2007 until August 2008 in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. From the 121 sengis examined, we recovered 11 endoparasite taxa, including 9 nematodes, 1 cestode family (Hymenolepididae), and 1 pentastomid species (Armillifer armillatus (Wyman, 1834)). The overall endoparasite prevalence was high, at 100%, and largely attributable to the nematode Maupasina weissi Seurat, 1913 , with only a single individual being parasite free. Despite the high diversity, species richness was low (1.58 ± 0.06) and only M. weissi and spiruroid larvae occurred at a prevalence exceeding 8%. The abundance of M. weissi varied significantly between seasons and was lowest in summer and autumn. In contrast, the abundance of spiruroid larvae remained relatively constant across seasons in males, but was significantly higher in spring and summer compared to winter in females. These patterns may be generated by an accumulation of M. weissi with age as well as sex-specific seasonal shifts in diet. An updated list on the hosts and geographic range of parasites of sengis is provided.

  13. Establishment of a Modified in Vitro Cultivation of Protoscoleces to Adult Echinococcus Ganulosus; an Important Way for New Investigations on Hydatidosis

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    HR Rahimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcus granulosus, a zoonotic cestode parasite, causative agent of hydatid cyst is endemic in many parts of the world including the Middle East. Study on different aspects of this parasite is very important and valuable. However, working with adult worms which their habitat situated in the small intestine of canids, is dangerous and risky. Achieving such risky situation needs a controlled condition which is cultivation of the organisms in the laboratory. In this regard, cultivation of E. granulosus protoscoleces leading to adult worms was established in the laboratory for the first time in Iran.Methods: Under aseptic conditions a number of protoscoleces were cultivated in diphasic S.10E.H medium using CO2 incubator to produce adult worms.Results: Different forms of parasites including pre-segmentation stages (PS1 - PS4 and segmentation stages (S5-S8 and developing stages in segmented worms (S10-S11 were observed and evaluated in these medium. Finally adult worms contained four proglottids with a large and distinct genital pore were observed 50-55 days post cultivation. These parasites do not produce fertile eggs and conclusively do not have risk of hydatid disease transmission to the researchers.Conclusion: The mentioned method for producing E. granulosus adult worms can open a new window for researches and facilitate working on different aspects of hydatidosis especially for diagnosis, protection and treatment studies.

  14. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  15. Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitizing four species of wild felines in Southern Brazil Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitando quatro espécies de felinos silvestres no Sul do Brasil

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    Moisés Gallas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus and Puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. Seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in Southern Brazil and examined for parasites. Cestodes were identified as Mesocestoides sp. The parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (L. colocolo and L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi and 50% (L. geoffroyi. Rodents and lizards were found in the stomach contents and they possibly were intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides sp. in wild felines in Brazil.As espécies Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus e Puma yagouaroundi, são felídeos silvestres ameaçados de extinção, principalmente pela destruição do hábitat e morte em rodovias. Dezessete felídeos foram coletados atropelados no sul do Brasil e, analisados na pesquisa de parasitos. Cestóides encontrados foram identificados como Mesocestoides sp. Os parasitos foram encontrados no intestino delgado dos hospedeiros com prevalência de 66,7% (L. colocolo e L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi e 50% (L. geoffroyi. Roedores e lagartos foram encontrados no conteúdo estomacal, podendo ser os hospedeiros intermediários para Mesocestoides sp. Este é o primeiro registro de Mesocestoides sp. em felídeos silvestres no Brasil.

  16. Short report: secondary transmission in porcine cysticercosis: description and their potential implications for control sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; López-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Byron Y; Gavidia, César M; Garcia, Héctor H; Silva, María E; Ramos, Daphne D; Manzanedo, Rafael; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Lelia; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

    2005-09-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of few potentially eradicable infectious diseases and is the target of control programs in several countries. The larval stage of this zoonotic cestode invades the human brain and is responsible for most cases of adult-onset epilepsy in the world. The pig is the natural intermediate host, harboring the larvae or cysticerci. Our current understanding of the life cycle implicates humans as the only definitive host and tapeworm carrier (developing taeniasis) and thus the sole source of infective eggs that are responsible for cysticercosis in both human and pigs through oral-fecal transmission. Here we show evidence of an alternative pig-to-pig route of transmission, previously not suspected to exist. In a series of four experiments, naive sentinel pigs were exposed to pigs that had been infected orally with tapeworm segments (containing infective eggs) and moved to a clean environment. Consistently in all four experiments, at least one of the sentinel pigs became seropositive or infected with parasite cysts with much lower cyst burdens than did primarily infected animals. Second-hand transmission of Taenia solium eggs could explain the overdispersed pattern of porcine cysticercosis, with few pigs harboring heavy parasite burdens and many more harboring small numbers of parasites. This route of transmission opens new avenues for consideration with respect to control strategies.

  17. DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C.; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, the diagnostic markers were detected from 7 of 14 and 4 of 9 T. solium carriers from Guatemala and Indonesia, respectively. Test sensitivity may have been reduced by the length of time (up to 12 years) that samples were stored and/or small sample volumes (ca. 30 to 50 mg). However, the diagnostic markers were detected by nested PCR in five worm carriers from Guatemalan cases that were found to be negative by multiplex PCR. It was noteworthy that a 720 bp-diagnostic marker was detected from a T. solium carrier who was egg-free, implying that it is possible to detect worm carriers and treat before mature gravid proglottids are discharged. In contrast to T. solium carriers, 827-bp markers were detected by multiplex PCR in all T. saginata carriers. The application of the multiplex PCR would be useful not only for surveillance of taeniasis and cysticercosis control but also for the molecular epidemiological survey of these cestode infections. PMID:14766815

  18. Tropical diseases of the myocardium: a review

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    Groom ZC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoe C Groom,1 Aristotle D Protopapas,2 Vasileios Zochios3,4 1Costello Medical Consulting Limited, Cambridge, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, 3Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, 4College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are widely distributed throughout the world. Human parasitic infections are ubiquitous. Tropical parasites are increasingly recognized as causes of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we address the most frequently reported parasites that directly infect the myocardium, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoal causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease, and Taenia solium, the cestode causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis. We also discuss tropical endomyocardial fibrosis, trichinellosis and schistosomiasis. Health systems, attitudes, the perceptions of both patients and physicians as well as socioeconomic factors should all be explored and recognized as crucial factors for improving the control of cardiovascular diseases in the tropics. Clinicians throughout the world must remain aware of imported parasites as potential causes of cardiac diseases. Keywords: cardiomyopathy, Chagas disease, myocardium, parasitic infection, tropical infections

  19. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

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    Gordana Panic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.

  20. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891 Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae IN BRAZIL

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    Valeriana Valadares LOPES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronatacould, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri,based on Stunkard's (1940 description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeriin Brazil.

  1. Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

  2. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  3. Gastrointestinal parasites of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda.

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    Sleeman, J M; Meader, L L; Mudakikwa, A B; Foster, J W; Patton, S

    2000-09-01

    Ninety-eight fecal samples were collected from 74 free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) from the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, between July 1995 and January 1997 and examined for parasites by Sheather's sugar and zinc sulfate flotation methods, trichrome staining, and larval cultures. All samples contained at least one parasite. Seventeen endoparasites were identified, including eight protozoa, seven nematodes, one cestode, and one trematode. Two species of arthropod mite were also recovered from the fecal samples. Parasites observed on fecal examinations included strongyle/trichostrongyle-type eggs (72/74) (representing Oesphagostomum sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Hyostrongylus spp., and possibly Murshidia sp.), Strongyloides sp. (1/74), Trichuris trichiura (2/74), Probstmayria sp. (7/74), Anoplocephala sp. (63/74), Entamoeba hartmanni cysts and trophozoites (19/70), Endolimax nana cysts (31/70), Iodamoeba buetschlii cysts (11/70), Endolimax nana or Iodamoeba buetschlii trophozoites (63/70). Entamoeba coli cysts and trophozoites (14/70), Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite (1/70), Chilomastix sp. cysts and trophozoites (31/70), and Giardia sp. cysts (2/70). In addition, one ascarid and one trematode egg were seen. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites between males and females and between age groups: however, infants and juveniles appeared to have a lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae, and the silverbacked males appeared to have a higher prevalence of Probstmayria sp. Parasite prevalence was consistent among the five social groups studied except Susa group had a significantly lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae. Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Chilomastix sp., and Endolimax nana were identified for the first time in this population, and it is possible that these parasites were of human origin. Although there were no obvious clinical effects due to the presence of these parasites, six parasites

  4. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

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    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  5. Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission in China: small mammal diversity, landscape or climate?

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    Patrick Giraudoux

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i for continental China and (ii over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics.The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002-2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km(2 region.E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for

  6. Echinococcosis: An Economic Evaluation of a Veterinary Public Health Intervention in Rural Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Marwa; Zeng, Wu; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a rare but endemic condition in people in Canada, caused by a zoonotic cestode for which the source of human infection is ingestion of parasite eggs shed by canids. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with infection and to measure the cost-utility of introducing an echinococcosis prevention program in a rural area. We analyzed human case reports submitted to the Canadian Institutes for Health Information between 2002 and 2011. Over this 10 year period, there were 48 cases associated with E. granulosus/E. canadensis, 16 with E. multilocularis, and 251 cases of echinococcosis for which species was not identified (total 315 cases). Nationally, annual incidence of echinococcosis was 0.14 cases per 100 000 people, which is likely an underestimate due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Risk factors for echinococcosis included female gender, age (>65 years), and residing in one of the northern territories (Nunavut, Yukon, or Northwest Territories). The average cost of treating a case of cystic echinococcosis in Canada was $8,842 CAD. Cost-utility analysis revealed that dosing dogs with praziquantel (a cestocide) at six week intervals to control cystic echinococcosis is not currently cost-effective at a threshold of $20,000-100,000 per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained, even in a health region with the highest incidence rate in Canada ($666,978 -755,051 per QALY gained). However, threshold analysis demonstrated that the program may become cost-saving at an echinococcosis incidence of 13-85 cases per 100,000 people and therefore, even one additional CE case in a community of 9000 people could result in the monetary benefits of the program outweighing costs. PMID:26135476

  7. Pelvic hydatid cyst with uncommon sciatalgia manifestation: a case report

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    Ghodratolah Maddah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease or echinococcosis is a common parasitic disease of human and bovine, caused by infection with larva of the cestode echinococcus. Liver is the most common organ that is involved in this disease. Pelvic involvement and neurological symptoms, due to mass effect of pelvic involvement, in lower extremities are very uncommon manifestations of the disease.Case presentation: A forty six year old man was referred to clinic of surgery at Ghaem Hospital, Medical University of Mashhad, Iran. The patient complained about weakness and motor impairment in right lower extremity accompanied by numbness and radicular pain over past two months. Physical examination demonstrated muscular atrophy and reduced muscular strength in right lower extremity. Computed tomography and ultrasonographic studies showed a cystic mass in right side of the pelvic cavity with extention to the sciatic notch and another cystic mass in right gluteal region. Surgical operation revealed a cystic mass deep in pelvic cavity with the extention to the right sciatic notch with compression of nerve roots. The cystic mass was contained of daughter cysts which confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst disease. This diagnosis was confirmed by pathologic assessment.Conclusion: Although uncommon, but hydatid disease can involve the pelvic cavity and make a pelvic, usually cystic, mass; that can make compression on nerve roots and so making neurologic symptoms in lower extremities. So in endemic areas for hydatid disease, such as Iran, pelvic hydatid cysts should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in patients presenting with the sciatic pain and neurological manifestations in whom a pelvic mass has been found too.

  8. The study of base and surface-active substances influence on biopharmaceutical characteristics of suppository with praziquantel

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    D. M. Romanina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acne dermatoses (rosacea, perioral dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis etc. are one of the most actual problems in dermatology. Praziquantel is an antiparasitic medication effective towards trematodes, cestodes. Investigations developed by domestic scientists revealed antidemodicosis activity of praziquantel. Use of semisolid dosage forms for rectal administration will allow to increase its efficacy and minimize the risks of adverse reactions. The aim of this work is the study of influence of excipients (bases and surfactants use in suppository manufacturing on the biopharmaceutical characteristics of praziquantel rectal dosage form. Methods and results. As excipients for praziquantel rectal dosage form we have investigated suppository bases and surfactants, which are widely used in manufacturing and compounding of semisolid dosage forms and are described in literature. Suppositories were made by the fusion method. Concentration of surfactants in all compositions was 2%, praziquantel – 0,6 g on one suppository. Investigation was carried out by the 2-factors dispersive analysis with repeated observations. Suppository compounding was carried out by the suspension type. After thorough pulverization of praziquantel, it was mixed with some part of the base and then obtained mixture was added to the all melted base. As optimization parameter the praziquantel releasing was chosen as the first step of bioavailability investigation. Praziquantel releasing from suppository was studied by the equilibrium dialysis by Kruvchinsky. Ethyl alcohol was chosen as a dialysis medium considering the solubility of praziquantel. Concentration of released praziquantel after 30 minutes of the dialysis was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. Conclusion. It has been established that the sort of the base and surfactant have significant influence on praziquantel releasing from rectal suppository. It has been revealed that sort of base has the greatest influence on

  9. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  10. Gastrointestinal parasite infections and self-medication in wild chimpanzees surviving in degraded forest fragments within an agricultural landscape mosaic in Uganda.

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    Matthew R McLennan

    Full Text Available Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode. DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella. To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.. Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than

  11. Genomes of Fasciola hepatica from the Americas Reveal Colonization with Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related to the Agents of Potomac Horse and Human Sennetsu Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Samantha N; Tort, Jose F; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Fischer, Kerstin; Rosa, Bruce A; Smircich, Pablo; Fontenla, Santiago; Choi, Young-Jun; Tyagi, Rahul; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Mann, Victoria H; Kammili, Lakshmi; Latham, Patricia S; Dell'Oca, Nicolas; Dominguez, Fernanda; Carmona, Carlos; Fischer, Peter U; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2017-01-01

    Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated that F. hepatica Oregon and related food-borne trematodes are metabolically less constrained than schistosomes and cestodes, taking advantage of the richer millieux offered by the hepatobiliary organs. Protease families differentially expanded between diverse trematodes may facilitate migration and survival within the heterogeneous environments and niches within the mammalian host. Surprisingly, the sequencing of Oregon and Uruguay F. hepatica isolates led to the first discovery of an endobacteria in this species. Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh) closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers. Immunohistochemical studies targeting a Neorickettsia surface protein found nFh in specific organs and tissues of the adult trematode including the female reproductive tract, eggs, the Mehlis' gland, seminal vesicle, and oral suckers, suggesting putative routes for fluke-to-fluke and fluke-to-host transmission. The genomes of F. hepatica and nFh will serve as a resource for further exploration of the biology of F. hepatica, and specifically its newly discovered trans-kingdom interaction with nFh and the impact of both species on disease in ruminants and humans.

  12. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

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    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Zoologisches Institut-Okologie

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Single-Step Duplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Family Fasciolidae, Class Trematoda, Phylum Platyhelminthes)

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    Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap. PMID:22692744

  14. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damy, Sylvie; Brillaud, Jonathan; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Navion, Jérémy; Mélior, Raphael; Afonso, Eve; Hormaz, Vanessa; Gottstein, Bruno; Umhang, Gérald; Casulli, Adriano; Dadeau, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Raoul, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas), Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan), and North America (Canada and Alaska). Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature). In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms) and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET) project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database), consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground. PMID:28972978

  15. Could the domestic cat play a significant role in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis? A study based on qPCR analysis of cat feces in a rural area in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Combes, Benoît; Umhang, Gérald; Aknouche, Soufiane; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines. In the present study, we investigated copro-sampling performed in a rural and highly endemic area in Eastern France, on carnivore feces (n = 150). From these samples, the parasite was detected and identified by DNA analysis using quantitative PCR targeting part of a mitochondrial gene (Em-qPCR). Taeniid eggs were isolated from positive-Em-qPCR samples by flotation, and species identification was confirmed by sequencing on DNA extracts. From a total of 43 copro-samples from cats, four tested positive for E. multilocularis by the Em-qPCR. In two of these, we found parasite eggs that were identified as E. multilocularis. This finding was confirmed by sequencing, while one dog stool out of 61 collected was found to be positive, no egg was detectable. At the same time, 34% of fox stools tested positive for the parasite. The present study challenges the current idea that cats are only of minor significance in the E. multilocularis life cycle. PMID:27739398

  16. High-throughput characterization of Echinococcus spp. metacestode miRNomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, Marcela; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Kamenetzky, Laura; Maldonado, Lucas; Brehm, Klaus; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2015-03-01

    Echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern, considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organisation. The cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) and Echinococcus multilocularis are the main aetiological agents. In the intermediate host, these parasites display particular developmental traits that lead to different patterns of disease progression. In an attempt to understand the causes of these differences, we focused on the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs with major roles in development of animals and plants. In this work, we analysed the small RNA expression pattern of the metacestode, the stage of sanitary relevance, and provide a detailed description of Echinococcus miRNAs. Using high-throughput small RNA sequencing, we believe that we have carried out the first experimental identification of miRNAs in E. multilocularis and have expanded the Echinococcus miRNA catalogue to 38 miRNA genes, including one miRNA only present in E. granulosus s. l. Our findings show that although both species share the top five highest expressed miRNAs, 13 are differentially expressed, which could be related to developmental differences. We also provide evidence that uridylation is the main miRNA processing mechanism in Echinococcus spp. These results provide detailed information on Echinococcus miRNAs, which is the first step in understanding their role in parasite biology and disease establishment and/or progression, and their future potential use as drug or diagnostic targets. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of gastrointestinal parasites in Red Panda of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Kunwar, Ajaya Jang; Acharya, Sakshi; Jnawali, Shant Raj; Acharya, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected through systematic sampling across the red panda distribution range in Nepal and coprological examination was completed using standard techniques. It was followed by an estimation of prevalence and mean intensity of parasites, as well as statistical analysis, which was carried out using R statistical software. Parasite prevalence was documented in 90.80% ( n  = 247) out of 272 samples examined which includes seven different species along with three genera of parasites belonging to Protozoans (3 species), Cestodes (1 genus, 1 species) and Nematodes (2 genera, 3 species). Nematodes predominated in all infected samples (87.62%). Prevalence of Ancyclostoma duodenale ( n  = 227, 70.06%), having a mean intensity of 3.45 ± 2.88 individuals per sample, was observed, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides ( n  = 19, 5.86%) and Entamoeba histolytica ( n  = 24, 7.41%). Eight variables for assessing the determinants of infestation were tested: protected areas; non-protected areas; aspect; elevation; slope; and distance to water sources, herding stations, and settlements. Only the settlement displayed significant association ( β = -1534e-04, t  =  - 2.192, p  = 0.0293) though each parasite species displayed dissimilar association with different variables. This study indicates the urgent need of improving existing herding practice through habitat zonation, rotational grazing, medication of livestock, and prohibition of open defecation within and around red panda habitat.

  18. Comparative analysis of the metazoan parasite communities of leatherjackets, Oligoplites palometa, O. saurus, and O. saliens (Osteichthyes:Carangidae) from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, R M; Amato, J F; Luque, J L

    1996-11-01

    One hundred and fifty-seven specimens of leatherjackets, 84 specimens of Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier), 37 specimens of O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and 36 specimens of O. saliens (Bloch) captured at the Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, between March of 1991 and November of 1992, were necropsied to study their communities of metazoan parasites. All fishes studied were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Eighteen parasite species were found in O. palometa and 13 parasite species were found in O. saurus and O. saliens, respectively. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 90.3%, 82.2%, and 87.7% in O. palometa, O. saurus, and O. saliens, respectively. The Simpson index was lower than 0.25 for the 3 host species, showing an absence of concentration for dominance. The similarity coefficients among the parasite communities of the 3 fish species was above 66%. The parasites of the 3 host species showed typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Four cases of positive correlation between host's total length and prevalence and parasite intensity were found. The majority of the species did not show influence of host sex. The 3 host species had similar parasite diversity, which was not correlated with the host's total body length and there was no significant difference between male and female hosts. Oligoplites palometa and O. saurus each had one pair of ectoparasite species sharing a positive association and with a positive correlation between their intensities. No pairs of associated species were found in O. saliens. Parasites were found along the entire extension of the gastrointestinal tract of the 3 host species. The parasite communities of O. palometa, O. saurus, and O. saliens are defined as isolationists because there are few evidences of interspecific association or covariation. The presence of larval stages of cestodes and nematodes suggests that the three species of Oligoplites are at an intermediate level in

  19. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, J.F.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Mallory, M.L.; Mitchell, G.W.; Forbes, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ"1"5N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to examine the

  1. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  2. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  3. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  4. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataranovski, M; Mirkov, I; Belij, S; Popov, A; Petrovic, Z; Gaci, Z; Kataranovski, D

    2011-05-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muns and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5 %). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  5. Host pharmacokinetics and drug accumulation of anthelmintics within target helminth parasites of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L

    2017-07-01

    Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy. It focuses on the anthelmintics used in cattle and sheep for which published information on the overall topic is available; benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and monepantel. Physicochemical properties, such as water solubility and dissolution rate, determine the ability of anthelmintic compounds to accumulate in the target parasites and consequently final clinical efficacy. The transcuticular absorption process is the main route of penetration for different drugs in nematodes and cestodes. However, oral ingestion is a main route of drug entry into adult liver flukes. Among other factors, the route of administration may substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of anthelmintic molecules and modify their efficacy. Oral administration improves drug efficacy against nematodes located in the gastroinestinal tract especially if parasites have a reduced susceptibility. Partitioning of the drug between gastrointestinal contents, mucosal tissue and the target parasite is important to enhance the drug exposure of the nematodes located in the lumen of the abomasum and/or small intestine. On the other hand, large inter-animal variability in drug exposure and subsequent high variability in efficacy is observed after topical administration of anthelmintic compounds. As it has been extensively demonstrated under experimental and field conditions, understanding

  6. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  7. Health assessment of raptors in triage in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

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    D de A Andery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Falconiformes (n=82, Strigiformes (n=84 and Cathartiformes (n=14 at a triage center (CETAS-Belo Horizonte, IBAMA, Brazil were examined between 2008 and 2010 . No bird was reactive at hemagglutination-inhibition (HI for antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg. Two Caracara plancus (2/68 had HI titers (16-32 against Newcastle disease virus. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in the liver (PCR; n=95. Blood smears (Giemsa; n=89 and spleen fragments (PCR; n=82 were 13.5% and 8.5% positive, respectively, for Haemoproteus only. Necropsy of Cathartiformes (n=10, Falconiformes (n=42 and Strigiformes (n=57 showed that trauma injuries were the main cause (63.3% of admission and death, being fractures (38.5% of the thoracic limbs (57.1% the most frequent. Nematode (12.8%, cestode (1.8%, trematode (0.9%, and acanthocephalan (2.7% parasite infections were relevant. Mites (Acari were the most frequent (17.4% external parasites, particularly Ornithonyssus sylviarum in Asio clamator and Amblyomma cajennense in Tyto alba. Chewing lice (10.1% and Pseudolynchia spp. (9.2% were also found. Histomonas spp. (6.4% was found in the ceca of Bubo virginianus, Athene cunicularia, Tyto alba, and Asio clamator, but not in Falconiformes or Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. (oral cavity, pharynx and upper esophagus; 9.1% was detected in Falconiformes and Strigiformes, but not in Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. were found in A. cunicularia, Asio clamator, Glaucidium brasilianum and Tyto alba (Strigiformes, and in Rupornis magnirostris, Milvago chimachima, Falco femoralis, Falco sparverius and Caracara plancus (Falconiformes. Coccidia (9.1% (Sarcocystis spp., 6.4% and mycosis were observed in most Tyto alba (70%. The evaluated Orders may not pose risks for commercial poultry production. Habitat loss and urban adaptation may be increasingly affecting raptors.

  8. Parasitological survey of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the Pacoti River Estuary, Ceará State, Brazil.

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    Sabry, Rachel Costa; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia, Ostreidae) is commonly collected by fisherwomen in the estuaries of the Ceará State (CE), Northeastern Brazil. Despite the socioeconomic importance of this natural resource, there are few studies on the health of the oysters in this region. This study aimed to survey pathological changes in the mangrove oyster C. rhizophorae in the estuary of the Pacoti River, CE. Adult oysters were collected in August 2008 (N=450) and December 2009 (N=450) at three sites of the Pacoti estuary and in 2010 (N=600) samplings were done quarterly at one site which has showed the higher prevalence de Perkinsus. Macroscopical and histological analyses were used to evaluate pathological changes, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM) to detect Perkinsus spp. and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequencing to identify Perkinsus species. In 2009, RFTM assay detected Perkinsus sp. infecting the tissues of C. rhizophorae with low prevalences of 1.3%, 6.7% e 7.3% in sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and in 2010, in site 3, prevalence was 2% (12 of 600 oysters). PCR did not confirm any positive case in 2009 and only 5 in 2010. The phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Perkinsus species infecting oysters C. rhizophorae of this study belongs to Perkinsus beihaiensis. The histology confirmed 11 cases of Perkinsus sp. infecting the C. rhizophorae in 2009, and only two cases in 2010. Nematopsis sp. was the protozoan observed with greater prevalence (up 96.7%). Other found protozoa were: Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Ancistrocoma - like and an unknown ovarian parasite. The metazoa found were the polychaete Polydora with high prevalences, a turbellarian, possibly of the genus Urastoma, an unidentified digenean metacercariae and larvae of cestode Tylocephalum. A continuous monitoring of diseases in bivalves from this natural population is recommended, since the phylogenetic analyses indicate the occurrence of P. beihaiensis

  9. Water temperature, not fish morph, determines parasite infections of sympatric Icelandic threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Skúlason, Skúli; Lanki, Maiju; Rellstab, Christian; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-06-01

    Parasite communities of fishes are known to respond directly to the abiotic environment of the host, for example, to water quality and water temperature. Biotic factors are also important as they affect the exposure profile through heterogeneities in parasite distribution in the environment. Parasites in a particular environment may pose a strong selection on fish. For example, ecological differences in selection by parasites have been hypothesized to facilitate evolutionary differentiation of freshwater fish morphs specializing on different food types. However, as parasites may also respond directly to abiotic environment the parasite risk does not depend only on biotic features of the host environment. It is possible that different morphs experience specific selection gradients by parasites but it is not clear how consistent the selection is when abiotic factors change. We examined parasite pressure in sympatric morphs of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) across a temperature gradient in two large Icelandic lakes, Myvatn and Thingvallavatn. Habitat-specific temperature gradients in these lakes are opposite. Myvatn lava rock morph lives in a warm environment, while the mud morph lives in the cold. In Thingvallavatn, the lava rock morph lives in a cold environment and the mud morph in a warm habitat. We found more parasites in fish living in higher temperature in both lakes, independent of the fish morph, and this pattern was similar for the two dominating parasite taxa, trematodes and cestodes. However, at the same time, we also found higher parasite abundance in a third morph living in deep cold-water habitat in Thingvallavatn compared to the cold-water lava morph, indicating strong effect of habitat-specific biotic factors. Our results suggest complex interactions between water temperature and biotic factors in determining the parasite community structure, a pattern that may have implications for differentiation of stickleback morphs.

  10. Landscape genetics of Schistocephalus solidus parasites in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprehn, C Grace; Blum, Michael J; Quinn, Thomas P; Heins, David C

    2015-01-01

    The nature of gene flow in parasites with complex life cycles is poorly understood, particularly when intermediate and definitive hosts have contrasting movement potential. We examined whether the fine-scale population genetic structure of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reflects the habits of intermediate threespine stickleback hosts or those of its definitive hosts, semi-aquatic piscivorous birds, to better understand complex host-parasite interactions. Seventeen lakes in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska were sampled, including ten in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, five on the Kenai Peninsula, and two in the Bristol Bay drainage. We analyzed sequence variation across a 759 bp region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region for 1,026 S. solidus individuals sampled from 2009-2012. We also analyzed allelic variation at 8 microsatellite loci for 1,243 individuals. Analysis of mtDNA haplotype and microsatellite genotype variation recovered evidence of significant population genetic structure within S. solidus. Host, location, and year were factors in structuring observed genetic variation. Pairwise measures revealed significant differentiation among lakes, including a pattern of isolation-by-distance. Bayesian analysis identified three distinct genotypic clusters in the study region, little admixture within hosts and lakes, and a shift in genotype frequencies over time. Evidence of fine-scale population structure in S. solidus indicates that movement of its vagile, definitive avian hosts has less influence on gene flow than expected based solely on movement potential. Observed patterns of genetic variation may reflect genetic drift, behaviors of definitive hosts that constrain dispersal, life history of intermediate hosts, and adaptive specificity of S. solidus to intermediate host genotype.

  11. Micromanagement of Immune System: Role of miRNAs in Helminthic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Naina; Tripathi, Shweta; Singh, Aloukick K; Mondal, Prosenjit; Mishra, Amit; Prasad, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Helminthic infections fall under neglected tropical diseases, although they inflict severe morbidity to human and causes major economic burden on health care system in many developing countries. There is increased effort to understand their immunopathology in recent days due to their immuno-modulatory capabilities. Immune response is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level, however, microRNA-mediated RNA interference is emerging as important regulatory machinery that works at the translation level. In the past decade, microRNA (miRNA/miR) research has advanced with significant momentum. The result is ever increasing list of curated sequences from a broad panel of organisms including helminths. Several miRNAs had been discovered from trematodes, nematodes and cestodes like let-7, miR155, miR-199, miR-134, miR-223, miR-146, and fhe-mir-125a etc., with potential role in immune modulation. These miRs had been associated with TGF-β, MAPK, Toll-like receptor, PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and insulin growth factor regulation. Thus, controlling the immune cells development, survival, proliferation and death. Apart from micromanagement of immune system, they also express certain unique miRNA also like cis- miR-001, cis- miR-2, cis- miR-6, cis- miR-10, cis- miR-18, cis- miR-19, trs-mir-0001, fhe-miR-01, fhe-miR-07, fhe-miR-08, egr-miR-4988, egr-miR-4989 etc. The specific role played by most of these species specific unique miRs are yet to be discovered. However, these newly discovered miRNAs might serve as novel targets for therapeutic intervention or biomarkers for parasitic infections.

  12. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Mesocestoides spp. and sensitivity of flotation method for the diagnosis of mesocestoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Tolnai, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-09-15

    Mesocestoides spp. are zoonotic cestodes of wild and domesticated carnivores. Although the adult stages are relatively harmless intestinal parasites, the metacestode stages (tetrathyridia) can be responsible for life-threatening peritonitis and pleuritis in several species including dogs, cats, non-human primates and probably man. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of Mesocestoides spp. in the most important final hosts, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems and to evaluate faecal flotation method for the detection of infection in the final host. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The intestinal tract was examined by sedimentation and counting technique. The sensitivity of the flotation method was evaluated by the testing of the faecal samples of 180 foxes infected with Mesocestoides spp. The prevalence of infection was high in foxes (45.8%; 95% CI=41.0-50.6%), and the parasite was detected in all areas of Hungary. The high prevalence of the parasite in foxes suggests that the infection might also be common in outdoor dogs and cats. Mesocestoides infection could not be detected in any of the foxes by flotation method indicating that the sensitivity of the method is less than 0.6%. Therefore, almost all canine and feline infections remain undetected in the veterinary practice. Based on the statistical analysis, the altitude was the only determinant of the spatial distribution of Mesocestoides spp. indicating that infections in carnivores including dogs and cats can be expected mainly in midland regions (150-750 m above sea level). It might be attributed to the altitude-dependent species richness and abundance of the intermediate and final hosts of the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  14. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2013-05-01

    The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Approaches To Investigate the Immunogenicity of Taenia solium-Derived KE7 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Raúl J; Navarrete-Perea, José; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Anaya, Víctor Hugo; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes-Torres, Jacquelynne; Estrada, Karel; Sánchez-Lopez, Filiberto; Soberón, Xavier; Rosas, Gabriela; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; García-Varela, Martín; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio Rafael; López-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Laclette, Juan P; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda

    2017-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis, a parasitic disease that affects human health in various regions of the world, is preventable by vaccination. Both the 97-amino-acid-long KETc7 peptide and its carboxyl-terminal, 18-amino-acid-long sequence (GK-1) are found in Taenia crassiceps Both peptides have proven protective capacity against cysticercosis and are part of the highly conserved, cestode-native, 264-amino-acid long protein KE7. KE7 belongs to a ubiquitously distributed family of proteins associated with membrane processes and may participate in several vital cell pathways. The aim of this study was to identify the T. solium KE7 (TsKE7) full-length protein and to determine its immunogenic properties. Recombinant TsKE7 (rTsKE7) was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta2 cells and used to obtain mouse polyclonal antibodies. Anti-rTsKE7 antibodies detected the expected native protein among the 350 spots developed from T. solium cyst vesicular fluid in a mass spectrometry-coupled immune proteomic analysis. These antibodies were then used to screen a phage-displayed 7-random-peptide library to map B-cell epitopes. The recognized phages displayed 9 peptides, with the consensus motif Y(F/Y)PS sequence, which includes YYYPS (named GK-1M, for being a GK-1 mimotope), exactly matching a part of GK-1. GK-1M was recognized by 58% of serum samples from cysticercotic pigs with 100% specificity but induced weak protection against murine cysticercosis. In silico analysis revealed a universal T-cell epitope(s) in native TsKE7 potentially capable of stimulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and helper T lymphocytes under different major histocompatibility complex class I and class II mouse haplotypes. Altogether, these results provide a rationale for the efficacy of the KETc7, rTsKE7, and GK-1 peptides as vaccines. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Prevalence and Identity of Taenia multiceps cysts "Coenurus cerebralis" in Sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; ElKhatam, Ahmed; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Bakr, Lamia I; Zidan, Shereif; Elsify, Ahmed; Mohamed, Mostafa A; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-12-01

    Coenurosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (Coenurus cerebralis) of the canids cestode Taenia multiceps. C. cerebralis particularly infects sheep and goats, and pose a public health concerns. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and molecular identity of C. cerebralis infecting sheep in Egypt. Infection rate was determined by postmortem inspection of heads of the cases that showed neurological manifestations. Species identification and genetic diversity were analyzed based on PCR-sequence analysis of nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ND1) gene markers. Out of 3668 animals distributed in 50 herds at localities of Ashmoun and El Sadat cities, El Menoufia Province, Egypt, 420 (11.45%) sheep showed neurological disorders. Postmortem examination of these animals after slaughter at local abattoirs indicated to occurrence of C. cerebralis cysts in the brain of 111 out of 420 (26.4%), with overall infection rate 3.03% of the involved sheep population. Molecular analysis of representative samples of coenuri at ITS1 gene marker showed extensive intra- and inter-sequence diversity due to deletions/insertions in the microsatellite regions. On contrast to the nuclear gene marker, considerably low genetic diversity was seen in the analyzed mitochondrial gene markers. Phylogenetic analysis based on COI and ND1 gene sequences indicated that the generated sequences in the present study and the reference sequences in the database clustered in 4 haplogroups, with more or less similar topologies. Clustering pattern of the phylogenetic tree showed no effect for the geographic location or the host species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology of canine gastrointestinal helminths in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozyechi Ngulube Chidumayo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs have a close association with humans providing companionship, security and a source of dietary protein. However, dogs are also potential carriers of zoonotic pathogens. Dogs, therefore, pose a public health risk and a good understanding of canine diseases is important for planning and implementing control measures. The aim of this study was to characterise canine helminthiasis in sub-Saharan Africa using a systematic approach. Methods Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant primary studies published from 2000. Forty-one eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalences were estimated using the quality effects model. Results and conclusions Twenty-six genera of enteric helminths were reported and the pooled estimate of canine helminthiasis was 71% (95% CI: 63–79%. Species of Ancylostoma and Toxocara, causative agents of larva migrans in humans, were the most frequently reported helminths with pooled estimated prevalences of 41% (95% CI: 32–50% and 22% (95% CI: 16–29%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp. were the most frequently reported cestodes with pooled estimated prevalences of 20% (95% CI: 12–29% and 9% (95% CI: 5–15%, respectively. Trematodes were rarely reported. There was a high level of heterogeneity in most pooled estimates (I2 ˃ 80%. The results of this study show that canine helminthiasis is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and there is need for regular deworming programmes to improve the health status of the dogs and minimise the potential health risk to humans.

  2. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

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    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age harboured significantly (pcaninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination, there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog.

  3. Occurrence of Dipylidium caninum in fleas from client-owned cats and dogs in Europe using a new PCR detection assay.

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    Beugnet, Frédéric; Labuschagne, Michel; Fourie, Josephus; Jacques, Guillot; Farkas, Robert; Cozma, Vasile; Halos, Lénaïg; Hellmann, Klaus; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-09-15

    Ctenocephalides fleas are not only the most prevalent ectoparasites of dogs and cats but also the intermediate host of the cestode Dipylidium caninum. Due to the poor sensitivity of coproscopy to diagnose cat and dog infestation by Dipylidium, few epidemiological data are available on its prevalence among pet populations. A new PCR method was developed to specifically identify D. caninum rDNA inside single fleas. The PCR test was then applied to 5529 fleas of Ctenocephalides genus, 2701 Ctenocephalides felis fleas (1969 collected on 435 cats and 732 on 178 dogs) and 2828 Ctenocephalides canis fleas collected from 396 dogs. Precisely, 4.37% of cats were infested by a flea population infected with D. caninum. Out of the 1969 C. felis from cats, 2.23% were found to be infected with Dipylidium. From the 396 dogs infested with C. canis, 9.1%% were infested with the Dipylidium infected fleas, which is significantly higher than the observation made in cats (p=0.03). Moreover, 3.1% of the C. canis fleas were found to be infected with Dipylidium, which is not significantly different than in C. felis. Looking at the number of infected fleas in the positive samples (at least one PCR positive flea in a sample), the infestation rate in samples was varied from 3 to 100% with an average of 19.7% which is in favour of easy and regular Dipylidium reinfestations of both cats and dogs in households. For the first time, the spread of D. caninum between fleas and dogs and cats is confirmed throughout Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

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    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible.

  5. Infestaçao humana pelo Dipylidium caninum

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    Carlos Henrique Lemos

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de infestação pelo Dipylidium caninum numa criança residente em Araguari, Minas Gerais, que apresentou lesões cutâneas, insônia, irritabilidade, vômitos eperda do apetite. Relatam a eliminação abundante deproglotes quando a paciente foi tratada com medicamentos caseiros e a remissão dos sintomas, após dois tratamentos com mebendazol. Contudo não puderam concluir sobre a eficiência das drogas, devido à medicação empírica e ã administração de 200 mg/dia de mebendazol, contrariando a dosagem recomendada para Cestodas, que é de 400 mg/dia. Relatam, ainda, que exames das fezes do cão de propriedade da família revelaram apenas a presença de ancilostomídeos.The authors describe a case of Dipylidium caninum infestation in a child living in Araguari, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, who has presented skin lesions, insomnia, irritability, vomitingand lossof appetite. When the patient was treated with folk medicine they noticed excessive elimination of proglotids and the elimination of symptoms after being treated twice with mebendazol. However it was not possible to conclude anything about the drugs, due to the empiric medication and the administration of mebendazol in a dose of200 mg daily, which is not the quantity recommended for Cestodes (400 mg daily. The fecal examination of the dog that belongs to the family showed only ancylostomides.

  6. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

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    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3% and 31/51 (60.78%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05. Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%, T. leonina (11.77%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9% and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%, Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%, Dipylidium caninum (29.41%, T. hydatigena (19.6% were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9. Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80% and C. canis (20% were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.

  7. Técnica de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco no diagnóstico de helmintos gastrintestinais de gatos domésticos Zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique on the diagnosis of gastrointestinal helminthes of domestic cats

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    Letícia Mattos de Souza-Dantas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico coproparasitológico é o recurso laboratorial mais utilizado para detecção de infecções parasitárias gastrintestinais. A técnica de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco (FAUST et al., 1938 é técnica de eleição no diagnóstico de estruturas parasitárias leves, podendo também ser usada para detecção de estruturas pesadas. Para avaliar o desempenho dessa técnica no diagnóstico das helmintoses gastrintestinais de gatos domésticos, foram realizados exames coproparasitológicos de 13 gatos domésticos 15 dias antes de suas mortes. À necropsia, os helmintos adultos encontrados no tubo digestivo e fígado foram contados, fixados e identificados. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se capaz de recuperar ovos de todos os nematóides e trematódeos encontrados, mas não foi adequada para a recuperação de cestóides.Fecal examinations are the most commonly used laboratory tool for diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode parasitic infections. Zinc centrifugal floatation technique (FAUST et al., 1938 is not only considered to be efficient in detecting light parasitic structures, but it is also used for recovery of heavy structures. In order to evaluate the performance of that technique in the diagnosis of domestic cats' gastrointestinal helminthiasis, fecal examinations of 13 animals were carried out 15 days prior to the animals' deaths. At necropsy, adult gastrointestinal parasites found were collected, counted, fixed and identified. The studied technique was able to recover eggs from all detected nematodes and trematodes, but appeared inappropriate for recovery of cestode eggs.

  8. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

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    Natalie Olifiers

    Full Text Available Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This

  9. Progress in the pharmacological treatment of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: Compounds and therapeutic targets

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    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Casulli, Adriano; Cirilli, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are helmintic zoonotic diseases caused by infections with the larval stages of the cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. Both diseases are progressive and chronic, and often fatal if left unattended for E. multilocularis. As a treatment approach, chemotherapy against these orphan and neglected diseases has been available for more than 40 years. However, drug options were limited to the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole, the only chemical compounds currently licensed for treatment in humans. To compensate this therapeutic shortfall, new treatment alternatives are urgently needed, including the identification, development, and assessment of novel compound classes and drug targets. Here is presented a thorough overview of the range of compounds that have been tested against E. granulosus and E. multilocularis in recent years, including in vitro and in vivo data on their mode of action, dosage, administration regimen, therapeutic outcomes, and associated clinical symptoms. Drugs covered included albendazole, mebendazole, and other members of the benzimidazole family and their derivatives, including improved formulations and combined therapies with other biocidal agents. Chemically synthetized molecules previously known to be effective against other infectious and non-infectious conditions such as anti-virals, antibiotics, anti-parasites, anti-mycotics, and anti-neoplastics are addressed. In view of their increasing relevance, natural occurring compounds derived from plant and fungal extracts are also discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recent application of genomic science on drug discovery and clinical medicine, particularly through the identification of small inhibitor molecules tackling key metabolic enzymes or signalling pathways. PMID:29677189

  10. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of highly zoonotic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) based on 8279bp of mtDNA.

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    Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Haag, Karen Luisa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Garate, Teresa; Gonzàlez, Luis Miguel; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum. However, despite the high significance to the public and livestock health, the data on genetic variability and regional genetic differences of genotype G1 in America are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and phylogeography of G1 in several countries in America by sequencing a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. We analysed 8279bp of mtDNA for 52 E. granulosus G1 samples from sheep, cattle and pigs collected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, covering majority of countries in the Americas where G1 has been reported. The phylogenetic network revealed 29 haplotypes and a high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.903). The absence of phylogeographic segregation between different regions in America suggests the importance of animal transportation in shaping the genetic structure of E. granulosus G1. In addition, our study revealed many highly divergent haplotypes, indicating a long and complex evolutionary history of E. granulosus G1 in the Americas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Our experience in eight cases with urinary hydatid disease: A series of 372 cases held in nine different clinics

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    Yilmaz, Y.; Koesem, M; Ceylan, K.; Koeseoglu, B.; Yalcinkaya, I.; Arslan, H.; Guenes, M.; Soeylemez, Oe

    2006-01-01

    Hydatid disease, a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is diagnosed commonly in the east and south-east regions of Turkey. The aim of this study is to emphasize the relatively frequent occurrences of echinococcosis in our region, and to discuss therapeutic options and treatment results according to current literature. A retrospective 10-year review of nine different clinics' records of the Research Hospital of the Medical School of Yuezuencue Y 1 l University revealed 372 hydatid disease cases that were localized in various organs and treated surgically (271 cases) or drained percutaneously (99 cases). Hydatid disease was diagnosed by ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography scans (CT) and confirmed histopathologically. The involved organ was lung in 203 cases (131 adults, 72 children), liver in 150, spleen in 9, brain in 2, kidneys in 7 cases and the retrovesical area in 1 case. The urogenital system is involved at a rate of 2.15%. Two hundred and seventy-one cases were treated surgically and 99 percutaneously. Two cases with renal hydatid cyst refused the surgical procedure (one had a solitary kidney with hydatid cyst). Albendazole was administered to 192 patients; 93 patients had open surgical procedure and 99 patients underwent percutaneous procedure. Cysts were excised totally in the open surgical procedure; however, involved kidneys were removed totally (four cases) except one. Cystectomy and omentoplasty was performed in one case. Complications were as follows: in six cases, cystic material was spilled into the bronchial cavity during the dissection and a renal hydatid cyst ruptured and spilled retroperitoneally. Hydatid disease is a serious health problem in Turkey. The mainly affected organs are liver and lung. It can be treated surgical or by percutaneous aspiration. (author)

  12. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

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    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  13. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite.

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    Knapp, Jenny; Damy, Sylvie; Brillaud, Jonathan; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Navion, Jérémy; Mélior, Raphael; Afonso, Eve; Hormaz, Vanessa; Gottstein, Bruno; Umhang, Gérald; Casulli, Adriano; Dadeau, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Raoul, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas), Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan), and North America (Canada and Alaska). Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature). In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms) and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET) project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database), consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground.

  14. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae Beetles from Iran

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    Mahsa Sadat Makki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010–2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52% of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12–14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, includ­ing the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97–100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  15. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

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    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  16. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

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    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  17. Genomes of Fasciola hepatica from the Americas Reveal Colonization with Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related to the Agents of Potomac Horse and Human Sennetsu Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Rosa, Bruce A.; Fontenla, Santiago; Choi, Young-Jun; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Kammili, Lakshmi; Latham, Patricia S.; Dell’Oca, Nicolas; Dominguez, Fernanda; Carmona, Carlos; Fischer, Peter U.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2017-01-01

    Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated that F. hepatica Oregon and related food-borne trematodes are metabolically less constrained than schistosomes and cestodes, taking advantage of the richer millieux offered by the hepatobiliary organs. Protease families differentially expanded between diverse trematodes may facilitate migration and survival within the heterogeneous environments and niches within the mammalian host. Surprisingly, the sequencing of Oregon and Uruguay F. hepatica isolates led to the first discovery of an endobacteria in this species. Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh) closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers. Immunohistochemical studies targeting a Neorickettsia surface protein found nFh in specific organs and tissues of the adult trematode including the female reproductive tract, eggs, the Mehlis’ gland, seminal vesicle, and oral suckers, suggesting putative routes for fluke-to-fluke and fluke-to-host transmission. The genomes of F. hepatica and nFh will serve as a resource for further exploration of the biology of F. hepatica, and specifically its newly discovered trans-kingdom interaction with nFh and the impact of both species on disease in ruminants and humans. PMID:28060841

  18. Development and evaluation of a single-step duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (family Fasciolidae, class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-08-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap.

  19. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

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    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  20. REDESCRIPTION OF SCIADOCEPHALUS MEGALODISCUS DIESING, 1850, ONE THE EARLIEST DIVERGING NEOTROPICAL FISH TAPEWORMS (CESTODA: PROTEOCEPHALIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2018-06-04

    The tapeworm Sciadocephalus megalodiscus Diesing, 1850 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) is redescribed based on newly collected specimens parasitizing tucunare peacock bass, Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), in the Peruvian Amazon. Even though this cestode was redescribed 2 decades ago by Rego et al. (1999), that redescription did not report some of the unique features of this species. The most unusual characteristics of the species are: (i) peculiar formation of the uterus, with fast formation of numerous, tightly packed diverticula protruding ventrally and dorsally, with simultaneous disintegration of the ovary and vitelline follicles in the first pregravid proglottids; (ii) inverted umbrella-shaped scolex with a well-developed apical sucker; (iii) a large-sized, follicular (grape cluster-like) ovary, which occupies most of the central (median) third of proglottids, with the ovarian isthmus situated almost equatorially; (iv) regular alternation of genital pores; (v) a well-developed internal seminal vesicle; and (vi) a small-sized strobila (shorter than 6 mm) consisting of few proglottids (15-20). Preliminary molecular data reveal S. megalodiscus to be most closely related to Cichlidocestus gillesi, the type species of the recently erected Cichlidocestus de Chambrier, Pinacho-Pinacho, Hernández-Orts and Scholz, 2017. Species of both genera parasitize Neotropical cichlids and are unique among all proteocephalids in the shape and position of the ovary. They also share other morphological characteristics unusual among other proteocephalids and thus these two genera can be considered good candidates to be placed in a new, higher-level taxon such as separate subfamily or even family when a new, more natural classification of the Proteocephalidae is proposed.

  1. A family of diverse Kunitz inhibitors from Echinococcus granulosus potentially involved in host-parasite cross-talk.

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    González, Silvia; Fló, Martín; Margenat, Mariana; Durán, Rosario; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Graña, Martín; Parkinson, John; Maizels, Rick M; Salinas, Gustavo; Alvarez, Beatriz; Fernández, Cecilia

    2009-09-17

    The cestode Echinococcus granulosus, the agent of hydatidosis/echinococcosis, is remarkably well adapted to its definitive host. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the successful establishment of larval worms (protoscoleces) in the dog duodenum are unknown. With the aim of identifying molecules participating in the E. granulosus-dog cross-talk, we surveyed the transcriptomes of protoscoleces and protoscoleces treated with pepsin at pH 2. This analysis identified a multigene family of secreted monodomain Kunitz proteins associated mostly with pepsin/H(+)-treated worms, suggesting that they play a role at the onset of infection. We present the relevant molecular features of eight members of the E. granulosus Kunitz family (EgKU-1 - EgKU-8). Although diverse, the family includes three pairs of close paralogs (EgKU-1/EgKU-4; EgKU-3/EgKU-8; EgKU-6/EgKU-7), which would be the products of recent gene duplications. In addition, we describe the purification of EgKU-1 and EgKU-8 from larval worms, and provide data indicating that some members of the family (notably, EgKU-3 and EgKU-8) are secreted by protoscoleces. Detailed kinetic studies with native EgKU-1 and EgKU-8 highlighted their functional diversity. Like most monodomain Kunitz proteins, EgKU-8 behaved as a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of serine proteases, with global inhibition constants (K(I) (*)) versus trypsins in the picomolar range. In sharp contrast, EgKU-1 did not inhibit any of the assayed peptidases. Interestingly, molecular modeling revealed structural elements associated with activity in Kunitz cation-channel blockers. We propose that this family of inhibitors has the potential to act at the E. granulosus-dog interface and interfere with host physiological processes at the initial stages of infection.

  2. Morphological re-description of Electrotaenia malapteruri (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) and Dujardinnascaris malapteruri (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae) infecting the Electric catfish Malapterurus electricus and heavy metal accumulation in host and parasites in relation to water and sediment analysis in Lake Manzala, North Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdallah Shazly, Mohamed; Morsy, Kareem; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohamed, Sanna; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    Parasites are one of the most serious limiting factors in aquaculture. The Electric catfish Malapterurus electricus was subjected to study the prevalence and mean intensity of parasitic infections throughout the whole year of 2015. Heavy metals accumulation in host fish and parasites were determined in relation to water quality and sediments of two different sites of Lake Manzala (Manzala and Bahr El-Baqar), Egypt. A total of 100 specimens of Electric catfish were collected and examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Two parasite species were recovered and morphologically identified. These were cestoda Electrotaenia malapteruri and nematode Dujardinnascaris malapteruri. Heavy metal analysis in water and sediments showed that measured heavy metals in Bahr El-Baqar were found in risky levels higher than permissible limits and Manzala site. Sediments were found to contain a higher level of metals than water samples. Heavy metals accumulation in recovered parasites and their host were also determined and showed significantly higher concentrations in parasites compared to their host tissues. According to bioconcentration factors, E. malapteruri showed that highest accumulation rate for all recorded elements up to 302. Essential elements like Cu and Fe were found in significantly higher concentrations in D. malapteruri, whereas E. malapteruri accumulated elements Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Zn and Ca to a significantly higher degree. Accordingly, the ratios (C[D.malapteruri]/C[E. malapteruri]) for most essential elements were higher than 0.5. Therefore, fish cestodes can be regarded as useful bio-indicators more than nematodes when evaluating the environmental pollution of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals.

  3. Spatial distribution of canine zoonotic enteroparasites in Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    Luciano F La Sala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: (1 to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2 to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3 to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n = 475 were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI.

  4. Landscape genetics of Schistocephalus solidus parasites in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from Alaska.

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    C Grace Sprehn

    Full Text Available The nature of gene flow in parasites with complex life cycles is poorly understood, particularly when intermediate and definitive hosts have contrasting movement potential. We examined whether the fine-scale population genetic structure of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reflects the habits of intermediate threespine stickleback hosts or those of its definitive hosts, semi-aquatic piscivorous birds, to better understand complex host-parasite interactions. Seventeen lakes in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska were sampled, including ten in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, five on the Kenai Peninsula, and two in the Bristol Bay drainage. We analyzed sequence variation across a 759 bp region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I region for 1,026 S. solidus individuals sampled from 2009-2012. We also analyzed allelic variation at 8 microsatellite loci for 1,243 individuals. Analysis of mtDNA haplotype and microsatellite genotype variation recovered evidence of significant population genetic structure within S. solidus. Host, location, and year were factors in structuring observed genetic variation. Pairwise measures revealed significant differentiation among lakes, including a pattern of isolation-by-distance. Bayesian analysis identified three distinct genotypic clusters in the study region, little admixture within hosts and lakes, and a shift in genotype frequencies over time. Evidence of fine-scale population structure in S. solidus indicates that movement of its vagile, definitive avian hosts has less influence on gene flow than expected based solely on movement potential. Observed patterns of genetic variation may reflect genetic drift, behaviors of definitive hosts that constrain dispersal, life history of intermediate hosts, and adaptive specificity of S. solidus to intermediate host genotype.

  5. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

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    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  6. New African species of Echinobothrium (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) and implications for the identities of their skate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, J N; Rodriguez, N; Pickering, M

    2013-10-01

    Two new species of diphyllidean cestodes of the genus Echinobothrium, each hosted by a different skate species in the Raja miraletus complex, are described. Echinobothrium mercedesae n. sp. is described from R. cf. miraletus 2 off Senegal. Echinobothrium yiae n. sp. is described from R. cf. miraletus 1 off South Africa. Both species are small worms that differ from their 29 described congeners in the combination of number of cephalic peduncle spines per column, hook formula, number and arrangement of testes, and arrangement of vitelline follicles. They are easily distinguished from one another in that whereas the vitelline follicles of E. yiae n. sp. are circumcortical, they are lateral in E. mercedesae n. sp., and also in number of cephalic peduncle spines per column (14-17 vs. 10-12). Echinobothrium yiae n. sp. is also unusual in that the cephalic peduncle spines stop short of the anterior margin of the peduncle. In addition, although the paucity of available material precluded their formal description, evidence of 2 additional new species parasitizing R. miraletus also from Senegal is presented. In combination these worms provide support for the interpretation that what is currently recognized as Raja miraletus actually consists of a complex of geographically restricted species, rather than a polymorphic species of multiple parapatric or allopatrically distributed populations. This interpretation is not only supported by previously published molecular data, but also by newly collected morphological data involving differences in the color patterns of disc ocelli among host specimens of the 3 forms available as a result of digital efforts to ensure the accuracy of host identifications, which are also presented here.

  7. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  9. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite.

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    Jenny Knapp

    Full Text Available Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas, Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan, and North America (Canada and Alaska. Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature. In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database, consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground.

  10. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode.

  11. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  12. Cross sectional epidemiological investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free range chickens in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Hasan, Mohammed Tabaruk; Golam Kadir, A K M

    2016-09-01

    Rural poultry production in Bangladesh is mainly based on the free range or backyard poultry production system. This backyard poultry plays a vital tool for poverty alleviation as well as for empowerment of poor women of this country. However, this production system has disadvantage of susceptibility to many diseases including higher burden of parasitic infection. Therefore this cross sectional epidemiological investigation was done to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. To conduct this study a total of 150 chickens from three different villages of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh (50 chickens per village) were collected by random sampling method and killed by cervical disarticulation. Thereafter, all the chickens were necropsied and gastrointestinal tracts were examined macroscopically for the presence helminth infection. In total two nematode (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum,) and one cestode (Raillietina spp.) were identified by post mortem examination. Raillietina spp. was detected as the most prevalent helminth species (86-92 %) followed by A. galli (70-86 %), and H. gallinarum (70-76 %) in studied villages. In some chickens petechial hemorrhage were observed in the small intestinal wall which was associated with the A. galli infection and for some birds white tiny nodules were detected in case of H. gallinarum infection. No significant difference in parasite prevalence was observed between male and female bird as well as among three studied villages (P > 0.05). We observed that most of chickens were infected with more than one species of parasites. This finding suggests that the poultry production system in rural areas of Bangladesh and the environmental conditions are very favourable for the transmission and persistence of the parasite species in rural areas of Bangladesh.

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthijaree, K; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2017-12-01

    1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths. 3. In faeces, FEC values averaged 258 eggs per g of faeces, which were dominated by Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Mean FOC was 80 oocysts/g. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least one nematode species was found in 99.3% of the examined hens. H. gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (95.7%), followed by Capillaria spp. (66.8%) and A. galli (63.6%). Thirty per cent of the chickens were infected with cestodes (tapeworms). Correlation coefficients between worm counts of H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and A. galli ranged from 0.41 to 0.51. 5. The helminth prevalence did not differ between conventional and organic farms, whereas total worm burden was higher in organic compared with conventional farms (318.9 vs. 112.0). Prevalence and infection intensity did not differ between farms that used anthelmintic treatments and those that did not. 6. In conclusion, free-range laying hens under the studied mountain farming conditions are at high risk of nematode infection, especially in organic systems. The vast majority of hens are subclinical infected with at least one helminth species.

  14. Meso- and bathy-pelagic fish parasites at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR): Low host specificity and restricted parasite diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Busch, Markus Wilhelm; Sutton, Tracey; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2010-04-01

    Seven meso- and bathy-pelagic fish species from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were firstly studied for fish parasites and feeding ecology. With a total of seven parasite species, the 247 meso- and bathy-pelagic deep-sea fish specimens belonging to the families Melamphaidae (3 spp.), Myctophidae (3 spp.) and Stomiidae (1 sp.) revealed low parasite diversity. The genetically identified nematodes Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii from the body cavity, liver and muscles of Myctophum punctatum were the most abundant parasites, reaching a prevalence of 91.4% and mean intensity of 3.1 (1-14). Anisakis sp. (unidentified) infected Chauliodus sloani and Poromitra crassiceps. Bothriocephalidean and tetraphyllidean cestode larvae infected Benthosema glaciale, the latter also occurring in C. sloani and Scopelogadus beanii, at low prevalences. Adult parasites at low infection rates included the digenean Lethadena sp. (2.9%), and the two copepod species Sarcotretes scopeli (5.7%) and Tautochondria dolichoura (5.3-11.4%). The myctophid Lampanyctus macdonaldi and the melamphaid Scopelogadus mizolepis mizolepis were free of parasites. Analyses of the stomach contents revealed crustaceans, especially copepods and euphausiids for the myctophids and also amphipods for the melamphaids as predominant prey items. While all stomachs showing distinct content comprising often unidentified 'tissue' (possibly gelatinous zooplankton), only C. sloani preyed upon fish. Though this feeding habit would enable transfer of a variety of crustacean-transmitted parasites into the fish, the parasite fauna in the meso- and bathy-pelagic fish was species poor. All observed parasites showed low host specificity, demonstrating no distinct pattern of host-parasite co-evolution. The MAR is no barrier for the parasite distribution in the North Atlantic meso- and bathy-pelagial.

  15. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  16. Helminths of zoonotic importance in slaughtered food animals in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshima, S N

    2018-03-05

    Knowledge of endemic helminths in a resource-limited country such as Nigeria is essential for their diagnosis, treatment and cost-effective control. In the present study, the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guideline was employed to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of zoonotic helminths in food animals slaughtered in Nigerian abattoirs between 1970 and 2016. Pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) was determined by the random-effects model while heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran's Q-test. Results from 42 eligible studies reported across 19 Nigerian states revealed 85,466 cases of zoonotic helminths from 3,771,832 slaughtered food animals. Overall PPE was 2.27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.25, 2.28). PPEs for sub-groups ranged between 0.51% (95% CI: 0.46, 0.56) and 18.05% (95% CI: 17.12, 19.01) across regions, hosts, study periods and diagnostic methods. Ascaris suum had the highest pooled prevalence of 25.46% (95% CI: 24.04, 26.92). Overall prevalence estimates for cestodes, nematodes and trematodes were 0.60% (95% CI: 0.59, 0.61), 21.51% (95% CI: 20.73, 22.30) and 1.86% (95% CI: 1.84, 1.87), respectively. A high degree of heterogeneity 99.97% (95% CI: 2.25, 2.28, P: 0.000) was observed. Zoonotic helminths were prevalent in slaughtered food animals, with higher prevalence estimates in the north-central region, pigs and during the last decade reviewed. Ascaris suum was the most prevalent helminth, while Fasciola gigantica had the widest geographical distribution. It is envisaged that the present information will help in the formulation of disease-control policies, encourage on-farm good agricultural practices, and adequate hygiene and sanitation in abattoirs and meat-processing plants, with the aim of protecting public health.

  17. Diagnóstico de situación de la equinococosis quística en heces dispersas en las zonas de Quebrada y Puna, provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

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    Silvia Frison de Costas

    Full Text Available La equinococosis es una enfermedad parasitaria común en el ganado, causada por el cestode Echinococcus granulosus; el perro es su principal hospedador definitivo. La provincia de Jujuy es un área endémica, situada en el ángulo noroeste de la República Argentina. Las condiciones ecológicas restringidas de Quebrada y Puna hacen que la actividad más importante de la población sea la pecuaria formal pastoril y trashumante, especialmente dedicada a ovinos y camélidos. El perro adquiere en estas comunidades una doble función de compañía y como pastor. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un diagnóstico de situación en las áreas de Quebrada y Puna, donde se sospecha que hay circulación de E. granulosus. Desde 2002 hasta 2012 se recolectaron 523 muestras de materia fecal de canino dispersas en el ambiente. Las prevalencias variaron desde un 2 % en Susques hasta un 27,7 % (la mayor de la provincia en Humahuaca. Tumbaya presentó una prevalencia del 21 % en 2007, llegó a 0 % en 2010, pero volvió a aumentar al 10,5 % en 2011. La disminución observada durante 2010 puede explicarse en el hecho de que las muestras se tomaron en localidades donde se había realizado educación sanitaria previamente. En el resto de las regiones estudiadas se observaron prevalencias entre 2 % y 19,4 %. Estos resultados sugieren que la falta de estrategias para el control de la equinococosis ha permitido la dispersión de la enfermedad.

  18. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  19. Genomes of Fasciola hepatica from the Americas Reveal Colonization with Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related to the Agents of Potomac Horse and Human Sennetsu Fevers.

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    Samantha N McNulty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food borne trematodes (FBTs are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated that F. hepatica Oregon and related food-borne trematodes are metabolically less constrained than schistosomes and cestodes, taking advantage of the richer millieux offered by the hepatobiliary organs. Protease families differentially expanded between diverse trematodes may facilitate migration and survival within the heterogeneous environments and niches within the mammalian host. Surprisingly, the sequencing of Oregon and Uruguay F. hepatica isolates led to the first discovery of an endobacteria in this species. Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers. Immunohistochemical studies targeting a Neorickettsia surface protein found nFh in specific organs and tissues of the adult trematode including the female reproductive tract, eggs, the Mehlis' gland, seminal vesicle, and oral suckers, suggesting putative routes for fluke-to-fluke and fluke-to-host transmission. The genomes of F. hepatica and nFh will serve as a resource for further exploration of the biology of F. hepatica, and specifically its newly discovered trans-kingdom interaction with nFh and the impact of both species on disease in ruminants and humans.

  20. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and