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Sample records for cestode taenia solium

  1. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little...

  2. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Mwape, Evans Kabemba

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community...

  3. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-01-17

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  4. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagida Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  5. Designing a Minimal Intervention Strategy to Control Taenia solium.

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    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell

    2017-02-21

    Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible. Logical models are presented which reflect changes in the risk that age cohorts of animals have for their potential to transmit T. solium. Interventions that include a combined application of vaccination, plus chemotherapy in young animals, are the most effective.

  6. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

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    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.

  7. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

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    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host.

  8. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.

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    Gonzales, I; Rivera, J T; Garcia, H H

    2016-03-01

    Taenia solium infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis) are a major scourge to most developing countries. Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human nervous system by the cystic larvae of this parasite, has a protean array of clinical manifestations varying from entirely asymptomatic infections to aggressive, lethal courses. The diversity of clinical manifestations reflects a series of contributing factors which include the number, size and location of the invading parasites, and particularly the inflammatory response of the host. This manuscript reviews the different presentations of T. solium infections in the human host with a focus on the mechanisms or processes responsible for their clinical expression.

  9. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida Tetsuya; Sako Yasuhito; Nakao Minoru; Nakaya Kazuhiro; Ito Akira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases ...

  10. Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections: from DNA probes to polymerase chain reaction.

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    González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector lambda gt10 using the 2-4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under 'star' conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA from T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus (bovine, porcine, and human), 2 recombinant phages were selected. They were designated HDP1 and HDP2. HDP1 reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA, and HDP2 recognized DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium. The 2 DNA probes were then sequenced and further characterized. HDP1 was a repetitive sequence with a 53 bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1272 bp fragment, while the 3954 bp HDP2 was not a repetitive sequence. Using the sequencing data, oligonucleotides were designed and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 2 selected oligonucleotides from probe HDP1 (PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified gDNA from T. saginata, but not T. solium or other related cestodes, with a sensitivity of < 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA, about the quantity of DNA in one taeniid egg. The 3 oligonucleotides selected from the HDP2 sequence (PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) allowed the differential amplification of gDNA from T. saginata, T. solium and E. granulosus in a multiplex PCR, again with a sensitivity of < 10 pg. These diagnostic tools have immediate application in the differential diagnosis of T. solium and T. saginata in humans and in the diagnosis of dubious cysts in the slaughterhouse. We also hope to apply them to epidemiological surveys of, for example, soil and water in endemic areas.

  11. Disease Centered Around Calcified Taenia solium Granuloma.

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    Nash, Theodore E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) is present in most developing countries, where it is a frequent cause of seizures and other neurological disease. Parasitic larvae invade the human brain, establish, and eventually resolve, leaving a calcified scar. While these lesions are common in endemic regions, and most of these are clinically silent, a proportion of individuals with calcified cysticerci develop seizures from these lesions, and 30-65% of these cases are associated with perilesional edema (PE), likely due to host inflammation. This manuscript summarizes the importance, characteristics, natural history, and potential prevention and treatments of symptomatic calcified neurocysticercosis (NCC).

  12. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis...

  13. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

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    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed

  14. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

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    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium. A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  15. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

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    Victor, Bjorn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gabriël, Sarah; Polman, Katja; Deckers, Nynke; Dorny, Pierre; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-06-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to get a better understanding of the interaction between T. solium metacestodes and their host, there is a need for more information about the proteins that are released by the parasite. In this study, we used protein sequences from different helminths, 1DE, reversed-phase LC, and MS/MS to analyze the excretion-secretion proteins produced by T. solium metacestodes from infected pigs. This is the first report of the T. solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteome. We report 76 proteins including 27 already described T. solium proteins, 17 host proteins and 32 proteins likely to be of T. solium origin, but identified using sequences from other helminths.

  16. [Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts].

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    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Cangalaya, Carla; Nash, Theodore E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  17. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena;

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs wit...

  18. Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  19. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs...

  20. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

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    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  1. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia

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    Pablo Maravilla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  2. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia.

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    Maravilla, Pablo; Valera, Aldo; Souza, Valeria; Martinez-Gordillo, Mario; Flisser, Ana

    2003-12-01

    Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  3. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

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    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome.

  4. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic ...

  5. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...... was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers, researchers and relevant governmental agencies, is taken to find sustainable solutions for prevention, control...

  6. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts...... investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs...

  7. Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Dan Higiene Perorangan Dengan Kejadian penyakit Cacing Pita (Taenia Solium) Pada Siswa SD Negeri 173545 di Desa Tambunan Kecamatan Balige Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Dewi Sartika

    2015-01-01

    Taenia Solium infection is an environmental-based disease and one type of it is tapeworm (taenia) know for its term taeniasis. Taenia was due to illness of parasitic tapeworm belonging to the genus taenia that can spread from animals to human, or otherwise taenias is the human beings is network by larva forms taenia as inedible taenia solium the worm (taenia solium ). The purpose of this analytical survey study with cross sectional design conducted in State Primary School no...

  8. Differential in vitro effects of insulin on Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci.

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    Escobedo, G; Romano, M C; Morales-Montor, J

    2009-12-01

    Hormones play a significant role in murine cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps), and increase the frequency of porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium. In the present study, we report the in vitro effect of insulin on the larval stages of T. crassiceps (ORF strain) and T. solium. In vitro exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to insulin was found to stimulate this parasite's reproduction twofold with respect to control values, while the same treatment had no effect on T. solium cysticerci. Moreover, normal female mice (BALB/cAnN) infected with T. crassiceps cysticerci previously exposed to insulin presented larger parasite loads than mice inoculated with vehicle-treated cysticerci. To determine the possible molecular mechanisms by which insulin affects T. crassiceps, the insulin receptor was amplified by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, both T. crassiceps and T. solium expressed the insulin receptor, although insulin had effects only on T. crassiceps. These results demonstrate that insulin has a dichotomistic effect; it acts directly only on T. crassiceps cysticerci reproduction, possibly through its binding to a specific insulin receptor synthesized by the parasite. Thus, insulin may be recognized by T. crassiceps cysticercus cells as a mitogenic factor, and contribute to parasite proliferation inside the host, as well as to the female mouse susceptibility to T.crassiceps. This phenomenon has not been reported for cysticercosis caused by T. solium, which could, in part, be related to the poor effect of insulin upon the human parasite.

  9. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

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    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  10. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana.

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    Montenegro, T; Gilman, R H; Castillo, R; Tsang, V; Brandt, J; Guevara, A; Sanabria, H; Verastegui, M; Sterling, C; Miranda, E

    1994-01-01

    Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.

  11. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

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    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2).

  12. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  13. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis.

  14. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  15. Genetic similarity between cysticerci of Taenia solium isolated from human brain and from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2008-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group.

  16. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history.

  17. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.

  18. State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

  19. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis.

  20. Taenia solium: current understanding of laboratory animal models of taeniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, A; Avila, G; Maravilla, P; Mendlovic, F; León-Cabrera, S; Cruz-Rivera, M; Garza, A; Gómez, B; Aguilar, L; Terán, N; Velasco, S; Benítez, M; Jimenez-Gonzalez, D E

    2010-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.

  1. Novel Rat Model for Neurocysticercosis Using Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui, Manuela R.; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  2. The 10 kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes shows genus specific antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S K; Yun, D H; Chung, J Y; Kong, Y; Cho, S Y

    2000-09-01

    Genus specific antigenicity of the 10 kDa protein in cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was demonstrated by comparative immunoblot analysis. When CFs from taeniid metacestodes of T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps were probed with specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against 150 kDa protein of T. solium metacestodes, specific antibody reactions were observed in 7 and 10 kDa proteins of T. solium and in 7/8 kDa of T. saginata, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps. The mAb did not react with any protein in hydatid fluid of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. This result revealed that the 10 kDa peptide of T. solium metacestodes and its equivalent proteins of different Taenia metacestodes are genus specific antigens that are shared among different Taenia species.

  3. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Chile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages.T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development--days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32% of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15-30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages.This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite's immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations.

  4. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  5. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.;

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it i...

  6. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto;

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials a...

  7. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina Møller; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll Skúli

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain...

  8. CystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission...

  9. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis.

  10. Elimination of Taenia solium Transmission in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; O’Neal, Seth E.; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre; Hightower, Allen; Craig, Philip S.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Gauci, Charles G.; Leontsini, Elli; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. METHODS We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. RESULTS Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all

  11. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Mexican village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti-Gutierrez, E J; Schantz, P M; Lara-Aguilera, R; Gomez Dandoy, H; Flisser, A

    1988-09-01

    One hundred and twenty-four persons, nearly the entire population of a rural village in Hidalgo State, were screened for intestinal parasites and clinical or serologic (ELISA) evidence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. Heads of households were questioned about dietary and other practices that might lead to pork tapeworm transmission, and soil samples were examined for helminth eggs. Twenty-five percent of local pigs had cysticerci visible by examination of the undersurface of their tongues. Four persons passed taeniid eggs, 7 were seropositive, and 10 gave medical histories suggestive of neurodysticercosis. Most seropositive persons were not symptomatic and the reverse was also true. The clustered distribution of infected pigs, tapeworm carriers, and persons with serologic or clinical evidence of cysticercosis suggested intrahousehold transmission. Dietary and sanitary practices were generally optimal for transmission of pork tapeworm. No cattle were kept in the village and beef was rarely eaten. This preliminary report attempts to characterize T. solium transmission in communities with endemic disease in rural Mexico and illustrates some of the methodological problems faced by epidemiologists who study this disease.

  12. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  13. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Fleury

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis (NC is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000 were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres to 5.4% (500 oncospheres. Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3% and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  14. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  15. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region.

  16. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  17. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  18. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  19. Characterization of one typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin gene of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Landa, Abraham

    2009-09-01

    The Taenia genus is capable of living for long periods within its hosts. Reports have shown that this successful establishment is related to its efficient defense mechanisms against host immune response and its high tolerance to oxidative stress. In this work, we describe the genomic sequences of one Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Ts2-CysPrx, Tc2-CysPrx) genes, which are 94% identical in primary sequence with the typical 2-Cys Prxs catalytic motifs. Both genes have the same genomic architecture, showing a TATA box and Initiator (Inr) sequence in their proximal promoter, two exons split by a 67-bp type III intron and one unique transcription start site located inside the Inr. We show that T. crassiceps cysticerci are highly tolerant to H(2)O(2) presenting a lethal concentration 50 of 3.0 mM and demonstrate that the typical Tc2-CysPrx gene is not induced by H(2)O(2), showing a behavior of an antioxidant housekeeping gene. This study describes for first time the gene structure of a typical 2-Cys Prx in the Taenia genus.

  20. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease.

  1. The 10 kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes shows genus specific antigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Yun, Doo-Hee; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Seung-Yull

    2000-01-01

    Genus specific antigenicity of the 10 kDa protein in cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was demonstrated by comparative immunoblot analysis. When CFs from taeniid metacestodes of T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps were probed with specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against 150 kDa protein of T. solium metacestodes, specific antibody reactions were observed in 7 and 10 kDa proteins of T. solium and in 7/8 kDa of T. saginata, T. taeniaeformis and T. cra...

  2. Visualization and 3D reconstruction of flame cells of Taenia solium (cestoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Valverde-Islas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton.

  3. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  5. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control...

  6. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  7. Ring-screening to control endemic transmission of Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis. These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination.We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot.Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0-30.0 in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7-25.9 in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.87 while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.91.Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation

  8. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology.

  9. Taenia multiceps: a rare human cestode infection in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mony Benifla MD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain infestation caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps is a rare phenomenon in humans, but is fairly common among sheep in Mediterranean countries. No more than 150 human cases have been reported. In this present study, we report an unusual case of a huge intra-parenchymal cyst in a four-year-old girl caused by T. multiceps. No cross-reactivity between Echinococcus granulosus and T. multiceps antigens was demonstrated. After surgical removal of the cyst, followed by chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazole combined with praziquantel, the child recovered completely.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica J Pajuelo; María Eguiluz; Eric Dahlstrom; David Requena; Frank Guzmán; Manuel Ramirez; Patricia Sheen; Michael Frace; Scott Sammons; Vitaliano Cama; Sarah Anzick; Dan Bruno; Siddhartha Mahanty; Patricia Wilkins; Theodore Nash

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex patho...

  11. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models

    OpenAIRE

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importan...

  12. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed.

  13. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on ‘the control of neglected zoonotic diseases – from advocacy to action’, that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to el......The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on ‘the control of neglected zoonotic diseases – from advocacy to action’, that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work...

  14. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is ......Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993...

  15. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected...... of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine...... protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  16. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social...

  17. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear...

  18. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were...

  19. Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

    1995-05-01

    Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed.

  20. Tamoxifen treatment in hamsters induces protection during taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

  1. Characterization of hydrophobic-ligand-binding proteins of Taenia solium that are expressed specifically in the adult stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-α-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships.

  2. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

  3. Variation in the cellular localization of host-protective oncospheral antigens in Taenia saginata and Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, A; Verástegui, M; Lackenby, J A; Walduck, A K; Gauci, C G; Gilman, R H; Lightowlers, M W

    2010-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy were used to localize the host-protective antigens of Taenia saginata (TSA9 and TSA18) and Taenia solium (TSOL16, TSOL18 and TSOL45). In nonactivated oncospheres, TSA9 and TSOL45 antigens were found primarily in the cytoplasm of the penetration gland type one (PG1) cell. A similar pattern of staining was seen for TSOL45 in oncospheres of T. solium that remained within the oncospheral membrane. In addition, there was less intense staining of TSA9 and TSOL45 in the quadri-nucleate penetration gland type 2 (PG2) cell. TSA18, TSOL16 and TSOL18 were predominantly found in the PG2 cell. In activated oncospheres that had escaped the oncospheral membrane, the antigens (other than TSA9) were seen both in the penetration gland cell locations and throughout the oncospheral parenchyma. Co-localization analyses revealed that only TSOL16 and TSOL18 antigens were co-localized in the PG2 cell of oncospheres that had not escaped the oncospheral membrane. However, in activated oncospheres that escaped the oncospheral membrane, all three antigens of T. solium were co-localized as they were present throughout the parenchyma. No positive staining was observed on the surface of nonactivated or recently activated oncospheres of T. saginata or T. solium.

  4. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear....... METHODS: A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used...... to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected...

  5. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-06-06

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.

  6. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods.

  7. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nina M; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll S; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis.

  8. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-04-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences provide useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Although Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis are common taeniid tapeworms of ruminants, pigs, dogs, or cats, causing significant economic losses, no published study on their mt genomes is available. The complete mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were amplified in two overlapping fragments and then sequenced. The sizes of the entire mt genome were 13700 bp for T. multiceps, 13489 bp for T. hydatigena, and 13647 bp for T. taeniaeformis. Each of the three genomes contains 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA, which are the same as the mt genomes of all other cestode species studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 71.3% for T. multiceps, 70.8% for T. hydatigena, and 73.0% for T. taeniaeformis. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. T. multiceps and T. hydatigena had two noncoding regions, but T. taeniaeformis had only one. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three Taenia species of animal and human health significance, providing useful markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of these cestode parasites of animals and humans.

  10. CystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission...

  11. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium, the cause of cysticercosis: Biogeographic (temporal and spacial) origins in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; Carod, Jean-François; Rakontondrazaka, Mahenintsoa; Ma, Laurence; Gay, Frédérick; Dauga, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    Cysticercosis is a serious public health problem in Madagascar. The prevalence rate of active cysticercosis reached 21% in regions with a high level of livestock farming. Taenia solium of African-American and Asian genotypes are both present on the island. The times of divergence of the 13 specimens studied suggests a very ancient diversification of T. solium. These events are widely thought to be prior to the domestication of pigs, and seem to follow the expansion of Homo in Asia. Multiple human migrations and the diversity of potential intermediate hosts may have led to a complex epidemiological situation on the island.

  12. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.4–49.4 %) and 37.6 % (95 % CI 29.3–45.9 %), respectively. All pigs, however, were repo...

  13. A review of the control of clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yixin; Hong, Qingbiao

    2012-11-01

    Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31 T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries

  14. Complexities in using sentinel pigs to study Taenia solium transmission dynamics under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Tharmalingam, Jayaraman; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-03-31

    The transmission dynamics of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, remain a matter of research and debate. In a longitudinal field study performed in southeastern Nepal, 18 sentinel pigs were serologically monitored to study the field kinetics of Taenia antigens and anti-T. solium antibodies. At the end of the twelve months' study period, necropsy was performed and suspected lesions were subjected to molecular identification of the Taenia species. The study generated new hypotheses on the transmission dynamics of Taenia spp. and exposed crucial complexities in the use of sentinel pigs in longitudinal field studies. Sentinel pigs can be useful epidemiological tools, but their use should be thoroughly planned before initiating a study and carefully monitored throughout the course of the study. Important aspects to be considered are those affecting the pig's susceptibility to infection, such as passive immunity, age, hormonal levels, and infection with competing Taenia species. In addition, serological test results should be interpreted considering possible cross-reactions and with proper understanding of the significance of a positive test result.

  15. An ocular cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia caused by Taenia solium Asian genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Dewiyani, Cokorda I; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhiko; Sudarmaja, Made; Sutisna, Putu; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-06-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a nine-year-old Balinese girl in Indonesia is reported. She presented with redness and pain in the left eye and showed a cysticercus in the anterior chamber in December 2010. Morphological feature of the cysticercus removed from the anterior chamber indicated that it was an immature cysticercus of Taenia species with no hooklets. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis using a piece of histopathological specimen revealed it a cysticercus of Taenia solium Asian genotype. Serology by immunoblot and ELISA highly specific to cysticercosis was negative.

  16. Kitchen waste as pig feed sustains transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mbeya, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin

    Attempts to control the neglected tropical disease Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in low-income countries have been unsuccessful or unsustainable. This could indicate a knowledge gap in our understanding of the transmission dynamics including the importance of environmental contamination.......29-114.55) compared to cemented floors, were more likely to be infected. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs, or whether the contamination is from the water used, or from dirty hands, in the process of peeling the potatoes, need to be confirmed. The results obtained in this study are strengthened...

  17. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci: Characterization of the 14-kDa glycoprotein with homologies to antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Regina H; Espíndola, Noeli M; Pardini, Alessandra X; Iha, Alberto H; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Vaz, Adelaide J; Peralta, José M

    2010-03-01

    Glycoproteins from the total vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tc) were prepared using three different purification methods, consisting of ConA-lectin affinity chromatography (ConA-Tc), preparative electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) (14 gp-Tc), and monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography (18/14-Tc). The complex composition represented by the VF-Tc and ConA-Tc antigens revealed peptides ranging from 101- to 14-kDa and from 92- to 12-kDa, respectively. Immunoblotting using lectins confirmed glucose/mannose (glc/man) residues in the 18- and 14-kDa peptides, which are considered specific and immunodominant for the diagnosis of cysticercosis, and indicated that these fractions are glycoproteins. Serum antibodies from a patient with neurocysticercosis that reacted to the 14 gp band from T. crassiceps (Tc) were eluted from immunoblotting membranes and showed reactivity to 14 gp from Taenia solium. In order to determine the similar peptide sequence, the N-terminal amino acid was determined and analyzed with sequences available in public databases. This sequence revealed partial homology between T. crassiceps and T. solium peptides. In addition, mass spectrometry along with theoretical M(r) and pI of the 14 gp-Tc point suggested a close relationship to some peptides of a 150-kDa protein complex of the T. solium previously described. The identification of these common immunogenic sites will contribute to future efforts to develop recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides for immunological assays.

  18. Kitchen waste as pig feed sustains transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mbeya, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin;

    Attempts to control the neglected tropical disease Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in low-income countries have been unsuccessful or unsustainable. This could indicate a knowledge gap in our understanding of the transmission dynamics including the importance of environmental contamination...... with T. solium eggs. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis using a case-control study design, utilising known information on persistent or multiple infections of porcine cysticercosis. Questionnaire interviews and observational surveys were conducted in July 2014.......29-114.55) compared to cemented floors, were more likely to be infected. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs, or whether the contamination is from the water used, or from dirty hands, in the process of peeling the potatoes, need to be confirmed. The results obtained in this study are strengthened...

  19. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control and elimination through community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabin, Hélène; Traoré, Aminata A

    2014-12-01

    Taenia solium was declared potentially eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1992. Yet, very few well-designed community-based randomized controlled trials have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of alternative control strategies. Most strategies have been tested in pre-post intervention designs in very few communities, often without a control group. The only two community-based randomized controlled trials suggest that an educational program alone or a combination of human and porcine mass treatment reduce porcine cysticercosis in the short term. A transmission dynamics model suggests that improved sanitation and pig management are more effective and sustainable than pig vaccination, human or porcine mass treatment. Current evidence does not support the eradication of Taenia solium in the foreseeable future. Investigators should follow international recommendations on the conduct of community-based randomized control trials to provide more valid estimates of the effect and cost-effectiveness of alternative control strategies for cysticercosis.

  20. High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

    2006-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01).

  1. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme.

  2. Taenia solium: inhibition of spontaneous evagination of cysticerci by the host inflammatory capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, L; Correa, D; Faradji, R; Garcia, H; Flisser, A

    1991-09-01

    The effect of the host's inflammatory capsule or of physical restraint on the spontaneous evagination capacity of Taenia solium cysticerci was evaluated. Parasites obtained from infected pig muscle, in which the surrounding inflammatory capsule was not eliminated, were unable to evaginate spontaneously after 12 or 60 h of culture. This phenomenon was not abolished when the capsule was eliminated and the parasites were cultured in semi-solid agar or in liquid medium.

  3. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade.

  4. Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M; Davis, A; Dixon, H.; Pawlowski, Z. S.; Proano, J.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme.

  5. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Zammarchi; Marianne Strohmeyer; Filippo Bartalesi; Elisa Bruno; José Muñoz; Dora Buonfrate; Alessandra Nicoletti; Héctor Hugo García; Edoardo Pozio; Alessandro Bartoloni

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and cli...

  6. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  7. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region.

  8. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-18

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

  9. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the

  10. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  11. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections.

  12. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium

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    Miguel Ángel Orrego-Solano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal y la cisticercosis en humanos y cerdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium.

  13. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Orrego-Solano

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal y la cisticercosis en humanos y cerdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium.

  14. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  15. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells.

  16. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium.

  17. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immun...

  18. Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

  19. Epidemiological study of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in a rural village in Yucatan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Fraser, A; Allan, J C; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; Craig, P S

    1999-01-01

    A survey to detect human taeniasis and cysticercosis was conducted in a community in Yucatan state, Mexico, an area endemic for Taenia solium. Information on the environmental, demographic and risk factors associated with transmission of T. solium within the community was recorded on questionnaires. Although no Taenia eggs or proglottides were found in the initial faecal samples collected from each of the 475 subjects, the results of a capture-ELISA for T. solium coproantigen were positive for 10 of the subjects (of both genders and various ages). After treatment with niclosamide, proglottides were detected in purge samples from seven of these 10 subjects. The prevalence of parasitologically confirmed taeniasis was therefore 1.5% (seven in 475). The other three ELISA-positive cases delayed supplying faecal material post-treatment, and it is nuclear whether they had expelled proglottides before providing the samples. All 10 ELISA-positive subjects became ELISA-negative after treatment. Seroprevalence of human cysticercosis, based on the detection in immunoblots of antibodies to antigens of 8- and 26-kDa from a crude saline extract of T. solium metacestodes, was 3.7% (i.e. five positives out of 134 subjects). None of the seropositive cases demonstrated clinical symptoms of infection. Again, the positive cases were of both genders and various ages. Although tongue palpation indicated that 17 (23%) of 75 pigs kept within the community had T. solium cysticercosis, the results of immunoblotting demonstrated antibodies to the 8- and/or 26-kDa antigens of T. solium in 26 (35%). The pigs allowed to roam throughout the community were far more likely to have cysticercosis than those kept in pens (odds ratio = 42, with a 95% confidence interval of 5.05-920.2; P taeniasis and cysticercosis included the eating of infected pork and close proximity to a carrier of T. solium. The main risk factor identified for porcine cysticercosis was free-range husbandry, permitting access to

  20. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium.

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    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen.For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples.The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites.The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a

  2. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: The best way forward for sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Mwape, K E; Trevisan, C; Braae, U C; Magnussen, P; Thys, S; Bulaya, C; Phiri, I K; Sikasunge, C S; Makungu, C; Afonso, S; Nicolau, Q; Johansen, M V

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community level, improved standards of meat inspection, pig management, treatment of individual patients and possibly human populations, and treatment and/or vaccination of porcine populations. This manuscript looks critically into currently existing control options and provides suggestions on which (combination of) tools would be most effective in the control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Field data and disease transmission simulations suggest that implementation of a single intervention control strategy will not lead to a satisfactory reduction of disease morbidity or transmission. A feasible strategy to combat T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis would include a combination of approaches focussing on both human (health education and treatment) and animal host (management, treatment and vaccination), which can vary for different communities and different geographical locations. Selection of the specific strategy depends on cost-effectiveness analyses based on solid field data, currently unavailable, though urgently needed; as well as on health priorities and resources of the country. A One Health approach involving medical, veterinary, environmental and social sectors is essential for T. solium to be controlled and eventually eliminated. Finally the success of any intervention is largely dependent on the level of societal and political acceptance, commitment and engagement.

  3. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: the role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli.

  4. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: past practices and new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis continues to be a major health burden on humans living in many regions of the world, despite the availability of highly effective taeniacides and identification of the cause, Taenia solium, as being potentially eradicable. Several T. solium control trials have been undertaken, generally achieving limited success and none that has been fully documented has achieved what was demonstrated to be a sustainable level of disease control. Pigs act as intermediate hosts for T. solium and two new control tools have become available for application in pigs - single-dose oxfendazole treatment of porcine cysticercosis and the TSOL18 vaccine. Three potential intervention scenarios for pigs are compared for control of cysticercosis, using either oxfendazole or vaccination. A control scenario involving vaccination plus oxfendazole treatment delivered at 4 monthly intervals was predicted to achieve the best outcome, with no pigs slaughtered at 12 months of age having viable T. solium cysticerci. Now that new control tools are available, there are opportunities to concentrate research attention on evaluation of novel control scenarios leading to the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes and a reduction in the global burden of neurocysticercosis.

  5. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Bronsvoort, Barend M De C; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M

    2017-02-17

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002-0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  6. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts.

  7. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ivanildes Solange da Costa; Souza, Maria Aparecida; Pena, Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Moura, Lísia Gomes Martins de; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  8. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto

    .9%, respectively. Among people with reported epilepsy, 42.5% had NCC. The number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis corresponded to 35% of the total pig population. The estimated average number of DALYs lost due to NCC associated epilepsy and headache was 12.1 per thousand persons per year. The total annual......Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials......% and 0.8% of the total population of Angonia district was estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and headache, respectively. Around two thirds of the diseased population never received any treatment. The estimates were based on reported prevalence of epilepsy and headache of 15.6% and 30...

  9. Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cederberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of value 0.006 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30 μg/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50 μg/mL.

  10. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination.

  11. Simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    SUMMARY Cysticercosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide and immunodiagnosis is important for the control and elimination of cysticercosis. In the present study, we established a simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic low-molecular-weight antigens (LMWAgs) from T. solium cyst fluids by a cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Banding patterns of LMWAgs on SDS-PAGE were different between isolates from Ecuador and China. All cysticercosis patient sera and some echinococcosis patient sera recognized both LMWAgs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but sera from healthy persons were not positive. There was no statistical difference in immunodiagnostic performance of LMWAgs prepared from different geographical isolates. These results indicated that these novel immunodiagnostic antigen preparations could contribute the control and prevention of cysticercosis in endemic areas, especially developing countries.

  12. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...... infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly...... concentrations (infected pigs 253.9 ± 82.3 pg/mg, control pigs 387.7 ± 116.4 pg/mg) (pcortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results...

  13. Epidemiological investigation of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a rural village of Michoacan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Plancarte, A; Wilson, M; Gutierrez, O I; Aguilera, J; Roberts, J; Flisser, A

    1994-01-01

    We performed a survey for taeniasis and cysticercosis among persons living in a Mexican village where Taenia solium infection in pigs was known to be enzootic. A standardized questionnaire was administered in all 577 households to obtain medical histories and information on demographic and environmental factors and on risk factors associated with transmission of infection. Serum and/or stool specimens were obtained from 1005 volunteers and examined for cysticercosis antibodies and intestinal parasites. Faecal examination of 828 participants revealed infection by Taenia sp. in 2 (0.2%). Three additional cases of taeniasis were detected in individuals who evacuated proglottids after treatment with praziquantel. Of 1005 human serum specimens, 49 (4.9%) were positive in the cysticercosis immunoblot assay. Seropositivity increased with age and reached a peak in subjects aged 46-55 years (P taeniasis.

  14. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  15. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites.

  16. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis in a rural pig farming community of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Singh, Uttam

    2007-12-01

    There is a lack of information on the disease burden due to Taenia solium taeniasis and its associated risk factors in pig farming communities throughout the world. The present study was conducted in a rural pig farming community of north India to estimate the prevalence of T. solium taeniasis and associated factors. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 1181 subjects in 210 households in 30 villages. Stool specimens from 924 subjects were examined for eggs of Taenia and other parasites. Identification of T. solium was confirmed by morphological features of segments and species-specific DNA detection from segments and stool. The prevalence of T. solium taeniasis was 18.6% (172/924); factors associated with taeniasis on multivariate analysis were age above 15 years, history of passage of Taenia segments in stool, undercooked pork consumption and poor hand hygiene (hand-washing with clay/water after defecation). Seventy-eight subjects (6.6%) with epilepsy were identified. The study showed alarmingly high rates of epilepsy and T. solium taeniasis in the study community; it highlights the need for large-scale imaging-based surveys to identify the factors associated with epilepsy including neurocysticercosis. Health education, mass anthelminthic therapy and other preventive measures are required to control the menace of the disease.

  17. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on ‘the control of neglected zoonotic diseases – from advocacy to action’, that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to el...

  18. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  19. Gene sequencing and analysis of mtDNA-ND1 in Taenia cestodes from Baoshan and Puer of Yunnan province%云南保山、普洱带绦虫mtDNA-ND1基因序列测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱波; 杨毅梅

    2011-01-01

    To identify the Taenia cestode specimens collected from Baoshan and Puer regions of Yunnan province, the adult Taenia cestode segments were selected, genomic DNA was extracted, and mtDNA-ND1 gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Combined with the known mtDNA-ND1 gene sequences of Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium in GenBank, phylogenetic tree and homologous tree were constructed by using DNA MAN software. Taenia cestode phylogenetic tree and homologous tree showed homology of P1, P2, B3, B6, B7 and ND were mostly close to N2. Homology of B1, B2, B4, B5 and YZ were mostly close to Y1. Homology of ZD was mostly close to Z3. Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata exist in Baoshan of Yunnan, and Taenia saginata exists in Puer. MtDNA-ND1 gene sequence could be used for identification of three types of Taenia cestode.%目的 对云南保山、普洱地区带绦虫标本进行鉴定.方法 选取带绦虫成虫节片,抽提虫体基因组DNA,PCR扩增mtDNA-ND1基因序列,并测序;结合GenBank中已知的亚洲带绦虫、牛带绦虫、猪带绦虫mtDNA-ND1基因序列,经DNA MAN软件处理后构建系统发育树状图与同源树状图.结果 带绦虫系统发育树与同源树状图显示P1、P2、B3、B6、B7、ND与N2的同源性最近.B1、B2、B4、B5、YZ与Y1的同源性最近.ZD与Z3的同源性最近.结论 云南保山存在亚洲带绦虫与牛带绦虫;普洱存在牛带绦虫.mtDNA-ND1基因序列可用于三种带绦虫的分类鉴定.

  20. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  1. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures.

  2. Taenia solium cysticercosis hotspots surrounding tapeworm carriers: clustering on human seroprevalence but not on seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres G Lescano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis accounts for 30%-50% of all late-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. We assessed the clustering patterns of Taenia solium human cysticercosis seropositivity and seizures around tapeworm carriers in seven rural communities in Peru. METHODOLOGY: The presence of T. solium-specific antibodies was defined as one or more positive bands in the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB. Neurocysticercosis-related seizures cases were diagnosed clinically and had positive neuroimaging or EITB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven tapeworm carriers were identified by stool microscopy. The seroprevalence of human cysticercosis was 24% (196/803. Seroprevalence was 21% >50 m from a carrier and increased to 32% at 1-50 m (p = 0.047, and from that distance seroprevalence had another significant increase to 64% at the homes of carriers (p = 0.004. Seizure prevalence was 3.0% (25/837 but there were no differences between any pair of distance ranges (p = 0.629, Wald test 2 degrees of freedom. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a significant human cysticercosis seroprevalence gradient surrounding current tapeworm carriers, although cysticercosis-related seizures did not cluster around carriers. Due to differences in the timing of the two outcomes, seroprevalence may reflect recent T. solium exposure more accurately than seizure frequency.

  3. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: from research towards implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Zbigniew; Allan, James; Sarti, Elsa

    2005-10-01

    Theoretically, considering the biology of its transmission and reservoirs, global eradication of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis is feasible. Recently much progress has been made in research on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis, although more operational research is still needed. In spite of this, global eradication of T. solium infection is still unlikely in the near future. Major obstacles to practical implementation of control measures include low levels of sanitation and health education amongst endemic populations, ineffective health services infrastructure and inadequate socioeconomic development in these areas. The continued public health impact of neurocysticercosis, especially fatalities and epilepsy, force us to identify improved options for control. In order to implement control measures in highly endemic areas the active involvement of medical services in controlling T. solium infection and more effective collaboration between medical and veterinary services is necessary. A switch is suggested from total reliance on meat inspection to active diagnosis and treatment of human taeniasis, protection of pigs against infection, promotion of health education and improved surveillance preparing chemotherapeutic and/or sanitary interventions. This could be implemented in areas where active transmission causes substantial morbidity and mortality provided there is the political will, social support, better financing and an effective organizational framework.

  4. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases.

  5. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H

  6. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  7. CystiSim – An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Torgerson, Paul; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol and consists of two entities—pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in the potential

  8. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Paul Nava-Luna, Alfonso Olivos, Armando Pérez-Torres, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, J.C. Carrero, Jorge Morales-Montor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  9. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. De C.; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite’s life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002–0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622–64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality. PMID:28212398

  10. CystiSim - An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Torgerson, Paul; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-12-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol and consists of two entities-pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in the potential

  11. Novel inhibitors to Taenia solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase identified by virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, P.; Landa-Piedra, A.; Rodríguez-Romero, A.; Parra-Unda, R.; Rojo-Domínguez, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe in this work a successful virtual screening and experimental testing aimed to the identification of novel inhibitors of superoxide dismutase of the worm Taenia solium ( TsCu/Zn-SOD), a human parasite. Conformers from LeadQuest® database of drug-like compounds were selected and then docked on the surface of TsCu/Zn-SOD. Results were screened looking for ligand contacts with receptor side-chains not conserved in the human homologue, with a subsequent development of a score optimization by a set of energy minimization steps, aimed to identify lead compounds for in vitro experiments. Six out of fifty experimentally tested compounds showed μM inhibitory activity toward TsCu/Zn-SOD. Two of them showed species selectivity since did not inhibit the homologous human enzyme when assayed in vitro.

  12. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG.

  13. 猪带绦虫CDC37基因的克隆、表达与组织定位研究%Prokaryotic Expression and Histolocalization of the Taenia solium CDC37 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 李波; 戴佳琳; 张爱华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To express Taenia solium gene encoding cell division cycle 37 protein (TsCDC37) and investigate its antigenicity and localization in adults of Taenia solium. Methods The complete coding sequence of TsCDC37 was amplified by PCR based on the recombinant plasmid clone from the cDNA library of adult Taenia solium. The PCR product was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified reeombinant TsCDC37 formulated in Freund's adjuvant. The antigenicity of the reeombinant protein was examined by Western blotting. The localization of TsCDC37 in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. Results The reeombinant expression vector was constructed successfully. The reeombinant protein was about M, 52 000, it was then purified and specifically recognized by immunosera of SD rats and sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TsCDC37 located at the tegument of T. solium adult and the eggs. Conclusion TsCDC37 gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity. The reeombinant protein is mainly expressed in tegument and egg, and is a common antigen of the three human taenia cestodes.%目的 原核表达猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)细胞分裂周期蛋白37(cell division cycle 37,TsCDC37),并对其进行组织定位和免疫原性研究.方法 通过Blastx分析从猪带绦虫成虫cDNA质粒文库中筛选出 TsCDC37基因,PCR扩增CDC37基因,以pET-28a(+)为载体构建目的基因原核表达体系,在大肠埃希菌(E.coli)BL-21/DE3 中诱导表达,纯化的重组蛋白免疫SD大鼠制备免疫血清,Western blotting分析重组蛋白的免疫原性,免疫组织化学方法观察TsCDC37在

  14. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

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    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  15. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits triosephosphate isomerase activity of Taenia solium.

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    Víctor, Sanabria-Ayala; Yolanda, Medina-Flores; Araceli, Zavala-Carballo; Lucía, Jiménez; Abraham, Landa

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained and characterized partially a monoclonal antibody (4H11D10B11 mAb) against triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium (TTPI). This antibody recognized the enzyme by both ELISA and western blot and was able to inhibit its enzymatic activity in 74%. Moreover, the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), products of digestion of the monoclonal antibody with papain, retained almost the same inhibitory effect. We determined the binding site by ELISA; synthetic peptides containing sequences from different non-conserved regions of the TTPI were confronted to the 4H11D10B11 mAb. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody was located on peptide TTPI-56 (ATPAQAQEVHKVVRDWIRKHVDAGIADKARI), and an analysis of mimotopes, obtained with the 4H11D10B11 mAb, suggests that the epitope spans the sequence WIRKHVDAGIAD, residues 193-204 of the enzyme. This epitope is located within helix 6, next to loop 6, an essential active loop during catalysis. The antibody did not recognize triosephosphate isomerase from man and pig, definitive and intermediary hosts of T. solium, respectively. Furthermore, it did not bind to the catalytic site, since kinetic analysis demonstrated that inhibition had a non-competitive profile.

  16. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Wnt4 gene in metacestodes of Taenia solium.

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    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-04-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.

  17. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

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    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  18. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

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    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Forkman, Björn

    2017-02-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social and feeding behaviours as well as the pattern of activity as indicators of reduced welfare in naturally infected sows. In total 13 T. solium naturally infected and 15 non-infected control sows were videotaped for 2 consecutive weeks using close circuit television cameras at research facilities at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Videos were analysed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the 2 week recording period. For each time point, videos were analysed during feeding, while the enrichment was provided, and by recording every half an hour the sows' behaviours performed over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed as this has so far been neglected.

  19. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

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    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah; Magnussen, Pascal; Braae, Uffe Christian

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on 'the control of neglected zoonotic diseases - from advocacy to action', that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to elucidate theoretical outcomes of various control options suggested for TSTC elimination in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over a 4-year period. Our current knowledge regarding T. solium epidemiology and control primarily builds on studies from Latin America. A simple transmission model - built on data from Latin America - has been used to predict the effect of various interventions such as mass treatment of humans, vaccination and treatment of pigs, and health education of communities, potentially leading to change in bad practices and reducing transmission risks. Based on simulations of the transmission model, even a 4-year integrated One Health approach fails to eliminate TSTC from a small community and in all simulations, the prevalence of human taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis start to rise as soon as the programmes end. Our current knowledge regarding transmission and burden of TSTC in SSA is scarce and while claiming to be tool ready, the selection of diagnostic and surveillance tools, as well as the algorithms and stepwise approaches for control and elimination of TSTC remain major challenges.

  20. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

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    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals.

  1. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

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    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12 weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-γ) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci.

  2. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

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    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  3. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering.

  4. Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990-2011.

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    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. OBJECTIVES: To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. METHODS: A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990-2011 was conducted. RESULTS: Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1% of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7% diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6% in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers. The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%, France (16.7% and Italy (8.3%. One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would

  5. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

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    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  6. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

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    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist.

  7. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

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    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  8. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

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    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy.

  9. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product.

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    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771 bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3 h and lost it in 24 h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1 h and lost activity completely in 24 h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at -70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H₂O₂ and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12 kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts.

  10. Analyses of an expressed sequence tag library from Taenia solium, Cysticerca.

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    Jonas Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by the oral ingestion of eggs from the human parasitic worm Taenia solium. Although drugs are available they are controversial because of the side effects and poor efficiency. An expressed sequence tag (EST library is a method used to describe the gene expression profile and sequence of mRNA from a specific organism and stage. Such information can be used in order to find new targets for the development of drugs and to get a better understanding of the parasite biology. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here an EST library consisting of 5760 sequences from the pig cysticerca stage has been constructed. In the library 1650 unique sequences were found and of these, 845 sequences (52% were novel to T. solium and not identified within other EST libraries. Furthermore, 918 sequences (55% were of unknown function. Amongst the 25 most frequently expressed sequences 6 had no relevant similarity to other sequences found in the Genbank NR DNA database. A prediction of putative signal peptides was also performed and 4 among the 25 were found to be predicted with a signal peptide. Proposed vaccine and diagnostic targets T24, Tsol18/HP6 and Tso31d could also be identified among the 25 most frequently expressed. CONCLUSIONS: An EST library has been produced from pig cysticerca and analyzed. More than half of the different ESTs sequenced contained a sequence with no suggested function and 845 novel EST sequences have been identified. The library increases the knowledge about what genes are expressed and to what level. It can also be used to study different areas of research such as drug and diagnostic development together with parasite fitness via e.g. immune modulation.

  11. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

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    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  12. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  13. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  14. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-08-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

  15. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Alves Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  16. Functionally Expression of Metalloproteinase in Taenia solium Metacestode and Its Evaluation for Serodiagnosis of Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Ying; BAE, Young-An; ZONG, Hong-Ying; KONG, Yoon; CAI, Guo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parasite proteases have important roles in cleavage of host proteins during the invasion of host tissues and participate in the parasite’s evasion from the host’s immune response. The aim of the present study was to estimate a metalloproteinase properties of Taenia solium metacestode (TsMP) during host-parasite interactions, and evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Methods: The cDNA coding for the mature catalytic domain of TsMP was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. A recombinant glutathione S-transferase and TsMP fusion protein was induced. After refolding and purification, enzymatic properties of the recombinant metalloproteinase were observed. Immunoblot assay was processed to evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Results: The recombinant TsMP protein showed proteolytic activity, which preferred host extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin as degradable substrates. In immunoblot assay, 87.5% of sera from patients with cysticercosis showed strong reactivity. In sera from patients with other parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed high specificity. Conclusions: TsMP might be involved in the processing of numerous host proteins and play an important role in the parasite life cycle. A single recombinant TsMP antigen could have a potential value for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. PMID:27095967

  17. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernatus Martin Mkupasi

    Full Text Available Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  18. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases.

  19. Evaluation of activity of triclabendazole against Taenia solium metacestode in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Vargas-Calla; Luis A Gomez-Puerta; Juan Calcina; Omar Gonzales-Viera; Cesar Gavidia; Maria T Lopez-Urbina; Hector H Garcia; Armando E Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in porcine cysticercosis. Methods:Eighteen naturally infected cysticercotic pigs were divided into 3 groups of 6 individuals each. The first group was treated orally with TCBZ at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight, the second group was treated orally with oxfendazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight and the third group received a placebo (control group). All animals were kept under the same management conditions. The pigs were euthanized 17 wk post-treatment and the number of surviving cysts in muscles was assessed and compared between groups. Results: All pigs treated with oxfendazole had only degenerated cysts in their carcasses. In contrast, TCBZ had very little effect against the parasitic cysts. Cysts from pigs in the TCBZ group looked apparently normal after treatment. However, histological evaluation showed a mild to moderate degree of inflammation. Conclusions: TCBZ is not an efficacious drug against Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine using a single dose.

  20. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction.

  1. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  2. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

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    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  3. Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Vanessa da S; Nunes, Daniela da S; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2014-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n = 123) and immunoblotting (IB, n = 22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5% and DEAE S2 90%. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4%). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis.

  4. Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-γ response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses.

  5. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.

  6. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Ramirez-Aquino; Irena Radovanovic; Anny Fortin; Edda Sciutto-Conde; Gladis Fragoso-González; Philippe Gros; Irma Aguilar-Delfin

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, wit...

  7. Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  8. Evaluating the efficacy of teaching methods regarding prevention of human epilepsy caused by Taenia solium neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project.

  9. Evaluación del impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis (Taenia solium)

    OpenAIRE

    Aline S de Aluja; Raúl Suárez-Marín; Edda Sciutto-Conde; Julio Morales-Soto; José Juan Martínez-Maya; Nelly Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de control de la teniasis-cisticercosis por Taenia solium con fines de erradicación, basado en educación de la comunidad y vacunación de cerdos. Material y métodos. Se estimó la prevalencia de cisticercosis porcina por medio de la palpación de lengua, ultrasonido y presencia de anticuerpos en suero, antes de iniciar el programa y tres años después, en tres regiones del estado de Guerrero. Resultados. Se observó una reducción significativa en la prev...

  10. [Construction and identification of the Bifidobacterium expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum of Taenia solium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bi-Ying; Liu, Mei-Chen; He, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli-Bifidobacteria shuttle vector pGEX-1lambdaT. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSOL18 was transformed into Bifidobacterium longum with electroporation. The recombinant plasmid containing TSOL18 gene was identified by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing. The length of synthesized TSOL18 gene was 393 bp. The results indicated that the Bifidobacteria expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum was successfully constructed.

  11. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada

  12. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

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    Kabemba E Mwape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA, while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA. Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3% were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708 individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00 and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis (p = 0.03 but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and

  13. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

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    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  14. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

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    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections.

  15. Relationship between serum antibodies and Taenia solium larvae burden in pigs raised in field conditions.

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    Cesar M Gavidia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5 ± 4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ≤ 8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84 positive to 1-2 bands, 46.4% (39/84 to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84 to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8% and 43 (51% had one or more cysts (positive predictive value. Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection.

  16. Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.

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    Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity.

  17. Purification, properties, and kinetic studies of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase from Taenia solium cysticerci.

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    Plancarte, Agustín; Nava, Gabriela; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo

    2009-07-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (L: -malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) from the cytoplasm of Taenia solium cysticerci (cMDHTs) was purified 48-fold through a four-step procedure involving salt fractionation, ionic exchange, and dye affinity chromatography. cMDHTs had a native M (r) of 64,000, while the corresponding value per subunit, obtained under denaturing conditions, was 32,000. The enzyme is partially positive, with an isoelectric point of 8.7, and had a specific activity of 2,615 U mg(-1) in the reduction of oxaloacetate. The second to the 21st amino acids from cMDHTs N-terminal group were P G P L R V L I T G A A G Q I A Y N L S. This sequence is 100% identical to that of Echinococcus granulosus. Basic kinetic parameters were determined for this enzyme. The optimum pH for enzyme reaction was at 7.6 for oxaloacetate reduction and at 9.6 for malate oxidation. K (m) values for oxaloacetate, malate, NAD, and NADH were 2.4, 215, 50, and 48 microM, respectively. V (max) values for the substrates and cosubstrates as described above were 1,490, 87.8, 104, and 1,714 micromol min(-1) mg(-1). Several NAD analogs, structurally altered in either the pyridine or purine moiety, were observed to function as coenzymes in the reaction catalyzed by the purified malate dehydrogenase. cMDHTs activity was uncompetitive inhibited by arsenate for both the forward (Ki = 8.2 mM) and reverse (Ki = 77 mM) reactions. The mechanism of the cMDHTs reactivity was investigated kinetically by the product inhibition approach. The results of this study are qualitatively consistent with an Ordered Bi Bi reaction mechanism, in which only the coenzymes can react with the free enzyme.

  18. Protein and antigen diversity in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from naturally infected pigs.

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    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

  19. Development and evaluation of a magnetic immunochromatographic test to detect Taenia solium, which causes taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans.

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    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Dong, X Fan; Laborde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-04-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis.

  20. Controlling Taenia solium and soil transmitted helminths in a northern Lao PDR village: Impact of a triple dose albendazole regime.

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    Ash, Amanda; Okello, Anna; Khamlome, Boualam; Inthavong, Phouth; Allen, John; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-05-19

    Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases endemic throughout Southeast Asia. Within Lao PDR, a remote northern hill tribe village had previously been identified as a hyper endemic focus for T. solium. To reduce this observed prevalence, a One Health intervention covering both pigs and humans was implemented, which included two Mass drug administrations (MDA1 and MDA2) for village residents using a triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime. In addition to the effect on T. solium levels, the dual impact of this anthelmintic regime on STHs within the community was also monitored. Faecal samples were collected pre and post MDA1 and MDA2 and analysed for the presence of Taenia species and the STHs Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm species. The McMaster technique was used to measure the changes in both prevalence and intensity of infection. Molecular characterisation of Taenia and hookworm species was conducted to detect zoonotic species. The level of taeniasis within the sampled population decreased by 79.4% after MDA1, remained steady during the five month inter-treatment interval and decreased again by 100% after MDA2. The prevalence of STHs decreased by 65.5% and 62.8% after MDA1 and MDA2 respectively; however an increase to 62.1% of pre MDA1 levels was detected during the inter-treatment interval. Individually, hookworm prevalence decreased by 83.4% (MDA1) and 84.5% (MDA2), A. lumbricoides by 95.6% and 93.5% and T. trichiura by 69.2% and 61%. The intensity of infection within the sampled population also decreased, with egg reduction rates of 94.4% and 97.8% for hookworm, 99.4% and 99.3% for A. lumbricoides and 77.2% and 88.5% for T. trichiura. Molecular characterisation identified a T. solium tapeworm carrier from 21.6% (13/60) of households in the village. T. saginata was identified in 5% (3/60) of households. The zoonotic hookworm A. ceylanicum was detected in the

  1. 云南保山和普洱地区带绦虫线粒体DNA基因编码核糖体RNA小亚基基因序列分析%Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA-gene encoding ribosomal RNA small subunit gene sequence of Taenia cestode from Baoshan and Puer areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱波; 杨毅梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify Taenia cestodes specimens collected from Baoshan and Puer regions of Yunnan Province by analyzing mitochondrial DNA gene encoding ribosomal RNA small subunit (mtDNA-12S rRNA) gene sequence. Methods The adult Taenia cestode samples were collected from Baoshan and Puer regions of Yunnan Province. The genomic DNA was extracted and mtDNA-12S rRAN gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then sequenced.Combined with the known mtDNA-12S rRNA gene sequence of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata,Taenia asiatica in GenBank, homology tree and phylogenetic tree were constructed by DNA MAN software. Results Taenia cestode homology tree and phylogenetic tree showed that gene sequences of BS1, BS2, BS4 and BS5 were most close to YZ with identity of 99% and those of BS3, BS6, BST,PE1 and PE2 were most close to ND with identity of 99%. Conclusions Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica can be found in Baoshan area, while Taenia saginata can be found in Puer area. The gene sequence of mtDNA-12S rRNA can be used for clarifying the three types of Taenia cestode.%目的 利用线粒体DNA基因编码核糖体RNA小亚基(mtDNA-12S rRNA)基因序列分析对采自云南保山、普洱地区的带绦虫标本进行鉴定.方法 选取保山(7条,BS1-BS7)、普洱(2条,PE1~PE2)带绦虫成虫节片,抽提基因组DNA,PCR扩增mtDNA-12S rRNA基因序列,并测序;结合GenBank中已知的猪带绦虫(ZD)、牛带绦虫(ND)、亚洲带绦虫(YZ)mtDNA-12S rRNA基因序列,经DNA MAN软件处理后构建同源树状图与系统发育树状图.结果 带绦虫同源树与系统发育树状图显示,BS1、BS2、BS4、BS5与YZ的同源性最近(99%).BS3、BS6、BS7、PE1、PE2与ND的同源性最近(99%).结论 云南保山存在牛带绦虫与亚洲带绦虫,普洱存在牛带绦虫,mtDNA-12S rRNA基因序列可用于三种带绦虫的分类研究.

  2. Chemokinetic factors obtained from the larval stage of the cestode, Taenia taeniaeformis.

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    Camp, C J; Leid, R W

    1982-09-01

    Saline extracts of the metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis were shown to have chemokinetic as well as chemotactic activity for equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Although parasite derived chemotactic activity could be appreciated at high protein inputs, such leucotactic activity was quickly lost upon dilution. In contrast chemokinetic activity was readily observed in saline extracts over a much broader range of protein inputs. Utilizing the Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard assay the chemokinetic properties in the saline extracts were more pronounced when chemokinetic factors were loaded into the cell compartment of the chemotactic chambers only. Mild heat treatment or storage at 4 degrees C resulted in little destruction of the chemokinetic factors. However six cycles of rapid freezing and thawing generated marked increases in chemokinetic activity and not chemotactic activity. The results of this work provide for the first time evidence of parasite derived chemokinetic factors.

  3. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

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    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

    2005-10-01

    Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections.

  5. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

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    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  6. Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.

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    Julio Morales

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003. A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003, ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07, as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008. High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  7. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

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    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  8. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far.

  9. Testing pigs of non-technified rearing farms for serum antibodies against Taenia solium in a region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.M. Rossi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Taenia solium is a zoonotic tapeworm of great importance in developing countries, due to the occurrence of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. Pigs have an important role in the biological cycle of the parasite as intermediate hosts. The scientific literature has been describing risk factors associated with the occurrence of this disease that must be avoided in countries with poor sanitation, in order to reduce the exposure of swine to the parasite eggs. This research focused on testing pigs of non-technified rearing farms for serum antibodies against Taenia solium in the region of Jaboticabal municipality, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The found prevalence was 6.82% (CI 95% 4.18 - 9.45 at animal level and 28.87% (CI 95% 16.74 - 40.40 at herd level. These figures are probably associated with low technification adoption during animal rearing in the studied area, which increased the exposure of the animals to risk factors associated with the occurrence of Taenia solium complex. The results found based on serological evidences of swine cysticercosis in the studied region serves as a warning to public sanitary authorities to improve public health and control T. solium.

  10. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2017-01-01

    Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm...... discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health – and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½ hours individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall...

  11. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  12. Optimized codon usage enhances the expression and immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Taenia solium oncosphere TSOL18 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chang, Xue-Lian; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Chen, Yong; Qi, Wen-Juan; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Di; Sun, Xin; Shen, Ji-Long; Fang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis due to larval cysts of Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem affecting humans in numerous regions worldwide. The oncospheral stage-specific TSOL18 antigen is a promising candidate for an anti-cysticercosis vaccine. It has been reported that the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine may be enhanced through codon optimization of candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to further increase the efficacy of the cysticercosis DNA vaccine; therefore, a codon optimized recombinant expression plasmid pVAX1/TSOL18 was developed in order to enhance expression and immunogenicity of TSOL18. The gene encoding TSOL18 of Taenia solium was optimized, and the resulting opt-TSOL18 gene was amplified and expressed. The results of the present study showed that the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully expressed in CHO-K1 cells, and immunized mice vaccinated with opt-TSOL18 recombinant expression plasmids demonstrated opt‑TSOL18 expression in muscle fibers, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene produced a significantly greater effect compared with that of TSOL18 and active spleen cells were markedly stimulated in vaccinated mice. 3H-thymidine incorporation was significantly greater in the opt-TSOL18 group compared with that of the TSOL18, pVAX and blank control groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression vector containing the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene was successfully constructed and was confirmed to be expressed in vivo and in vitro. The expression and immunogenicity of the codon-optimized TSOL18 gene were markedly greater compared with that of the un-optimized gene. Therefore, these results may provide the basis for an optimized TSOL18 gene vaccine against cysticercosis.

  13. Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain χ4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium χ4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain χ4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (psolium.

  14. Development and evaluation of a health education intervention against Taenia solium in a rural community in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Flisser, A; Schantz, P M; Gleizer, M; Loya, M; Plancarte, A; Avila, G; Allan, J; Craig, P; Bronfman, M; Wijeyaratne, P

    1997-02-01

    A comprehensive study was undertaken in a rural community in the state of Morelos, Mexico to evaluate health education as an intervention measure against Taenia solium. An educational program was developed to promote recognition and knowledge of the transmission of the parasite and to improve hygienic behavior and sanitary conditions that foster transmission. The effects of educational intervention were evaluated by measuring changes in knowledge and practices and prevalence of human taeniasis and swine cysticercosis before and after the campaign. The health education strategy was implemented with the active participation of the population based on the information obtained from a sociologic study. A questionnaire was designed and used before, immediately after the intervention, and six months later. Statistically significant improvements occurred in knowledge of the parasite, its life cycle, and how it is acquired by humans; however, changes in behavior related to transmission were less dramatic and persistent. The prevalences of cysticercosis in pigs at the start of the education intervention were 2.6% and 5.2% by lingual examination and antibody detection (immunoblot assay), respectively, and approximately one year after the intervention they were 0% and 1.2% (P < 0.05). These changes were accompanied by significant reductions in the reported access of pigs to sources of infection and freedom to roam. We conclude that health education, developed along with community involvement, reduced opportunities for transmission of T. solium in the human-pig cycle.

  15. Cloning, sequencing and functional expression of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase from Taenia solium: Purification and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Gabriela; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl; Carrero, Julio C; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Enriquez-Flores, Sergio; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Plancarte, Agustín

    2011-07-01

    We report herein the complete coding sequence of a Taenia solium cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (TscMDH). The cDNA fragment, identified from the T. solium genome project database, encodes a protein of 332 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular weight of 36517Da. For recombinant expression, the full length coding sequence was cloned into pET23a. After successful expression and enzyme purification, isoelectrofocusing gel electrophoresis allowed to confirm the calculated pI value at 8.1, as deduced from the amino acid sequence. The recombinant protein (r-TscMDH) showed MDH activity of 409U/mg in the reduction of oxaloacetate, with neither lactate dehydrogenase activity nor NADPH selectivity. Optimum pH for enzyme activity was 7.6 for oxaloacetate reduction and 9.6 for malate oxidation. K(cat) values for oxaloacetate, malate, NAD, and NADH were 665, 47, 385, and 962s(-1), respectively. Additionally, a partial characterization of TsMDH gene structure after analysis of a 1.56Kb genomic contig assembly is also reported.

  16. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.

  17. 猪带绦虫实验动物模型的建立%Laboratory animal models for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贝妮; 王丹; 王哲; 赵权

    2013-01-01

    为建立猪带绦虫实验动物模型,本实验通过口服激活、未激活囊尾蚴和尾静脉注射激活的囊尾蚴感染昆明小鼠、BALB/c小鼠、SD大鼠、豚鼠、金黄地鼠、沙鼠,对各种鼠体内的绦虫的感染、生长发育及寄生部位等生物学特性进行研究.在感染45 d的金黄地鼠体内检出可见虫体,检出的虫体多数吸附在小肠.本实验建立了猪带绦虫的实验动物模型,使得解决猪带绦虫实验材料的来源问题成为可能,也为猪带绦虫的深入研究奠定了基础.%To establish the animal models for Taenia solium,the Kunming mice,BALB/c mice,SD rots,guinea pigs,golden hamsters and gerbils were infected with activated or not activated cysticerci via oral and tail vein injection of activated cysticerci,respectively.The tapeworm infection,growth and development,and parasite location were examed in artificially infected animals.In addition,the visible parasites only detected in the golden hamster at 45 days post infection and the majority parasites were detected in the small intestine.The primary established animal model for T.solium would facilitate further study for T.solium in vivo.

  18. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  19. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  20. Geospatial and age-related patterns of Taenia solium taeniasis in the rural health zone of Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    OpenAIRE

    Madinga Ntwan, Joule; Kanobana, Kirezi; Lukanu, Philippe; Abatih, Emmanuel; Baloji, Sylvain; Linsuke, Sylvie; Praet, Nicolas; Kapinga, Serge; Polman,Katja; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Wendy; Gabriel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Taenia solium infections are mostly endemic in less developed countries where poor hygiene conditions and free-range pig management favor their transmission. Knowledge on patterns of infections in both human and pig is crucial to design effective control strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution of taeniasis in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in the prospect of upcoming control activities. METHODS:...

  1. Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

  2. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  3. Research progress on 18 gene of Taenia solium oncosphere%猪带绦虫六钩蚴TSO18基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英; 陈雅棠; 李文桂

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a severe zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage(Cysticercus cellulosae)of the helminth Taenia solium.Vaccine plays an important role in preventing and controlling the disease.TSO18 gene is an immunogen gene of Taenia solium oncosphere(TSO)stage,which is regarded as the most perspective vaccine candidate gene.This article reviews molecular biology of Taenia solium oncosphere TSO18 gene and the development of TSO18 vaccine.%猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,疫苗是预防控制猪囊尾蚴病的重要手段.TSO18基因是猪带绦虫六钩蚴阶段重要的免疫原基因,被认为是最具有前途的疫苗候选基因.该文综述了猪带绦虫六钩蚴TSO18基因的分子生物学及其疫苗开发的研究进展.

  4. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory.

  5. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Iudici Neto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoenzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00. Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imunoenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0

  6. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health- and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½h individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall knowledge on aspects of acquisition and transmission of T. solium infections (78%), porcine cysticercosis treatment (77%), human tapeworm in general (72%), neurocysticercosis in general (49%), and porcine cysticercosis diagnosis (48%). However, there was a lack of knowledge on acquisition of neurocysticercosis (15%), prevention of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (28%), and relation between porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, and taeniosis (32%). Overall, the study subject's knowledge was significantly improved both immediately after (p=0.001) and two weeks after (psolium taeniosis/cysticercosis control.

  7. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC.

  8. Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Armandina Garza; David J Tweardy; Joel Weinstock; Balaji Viswanathan; Prema Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1β, TN...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans and pigs in a village in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Plancarte, A; Wilson, M; Gutierrez, I O; Lopez, A S; Roberts, J; Flisser, A

    1992-06-01

    In a Mexican village in which Taenia solium infection was known to be endemic, we selected a cluster sample of 368 households (21% of the total) for demographic, environmental, and diagnostic surveys, and medical histories for taeniasis and cysticercosis. Coproparasitologic studies of 1,531 participants revealed infection by Taenia sp. in four (0.3%) individuals; however, 5.8% of the respondents reported a history of having passed tapeworm proglottids in feces. Of 1,552 human serum specimens, 10.8% tested positive in the cysticercosis immunoblot assay. Seropositivity increased with age and reached a maximum in subjects ages 46-55 years. Risk factors associated with seropositivity included a history of passing tapeworm proglottids, frequent consumption of pork, and poor personal and household hygiene (P less than 0.05). A history of seizures was also significantly associated with seropositivity (P less than 0.05); approximately one-third of persons with such histories were seropositive. Of 571 pigs examined by tongue inspection, 23 (4.0%) had cysticerci; infection rates increased with the age of pigs, and were higher in pigs that habitually ran loose or were fed human feces (P less than 0.05). Goodness of fit analysis confirmed that seropositive persons (but not infected pigs) were significantly clustered within households, particularly, in households in which a member reported a history of having passed tapeworm proglottids. The results of this study have identified community behavioral and environmental practices that must be modified to prevent continued transmission of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

  10. Molecular characterization, functional expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium fatty acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas, Oscar; Carrero, Julio C; Bobes, Raúl J; Flisser, Ana; Rosas, Gabriela; Laclette, Juan P

    2012-12-01

    The fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) comprise a family of proteins that are widely expressed in animal cells and perform a variety of vital functions. Here, we report the identification, characterization, recombinant expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium FABP (TsFABP1). The TsFABP1 primary structure showed all the conserved residues characteristic of the subfamily iv of the intracellular Lipid-Binding Proteins (iLBPs), including those involved in the binding stabilization of the fatty acid molecule. Through a competitive binding assay we found that TsFABP1 is able to bind at least six different fatty acids with preference toward palmitic and stearic acid, suggesting that TsFABP1 is a member of the iLBP subfamily iv. Immunolocalization assays carried out on larval and adult tissues of four species of taeniids using anti-TsFABP1 hyperimmune sera produced in mice and rabbit, showed intense labeling in the tegument of the spiral canal and in subtegumental cytons of the larvae. These findings suggest that the spiral canal might be a major place for FA uptake in the developing scolex. In contrast, only subtegumental cytons in the adult worms stained positive. We propose that TsFABP1 is involved in the mechanism to mobilize fatty acids between compartments in the extensive syncytial tissue of taeniids. Protection assays carried out in a murine model of cysticercosis showed that subcutaneous immunization with TsFABP1 resulted in about 45% reduction of parasite load against an intraperitoneal challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts. This reduction in parasite load correlated with the level of cellular and humoral immune responses against TsFABP1, as determined in spleen lymphocyte proliferation and ELISA testing.

  11. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors.

  12. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escalante

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  13. Triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI): phage display and antibodies as tools for finding target regions to inhibit catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Ayala, Víctor; Belmont, Iaraset; Abraham, Landa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI) can alter its enzymatic catalysis. In the present study, we used antibodies produced against the NH2-terminal region of TTPI (1/3NH2TTPI) and the phage display technology to find target regions to inhibit TTPI activity. As a first step, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against non-conserved regions from the 1/3NH2TTPI, which had an inhibitory effect of about 74 % on catalytic activity. Afterward, they were used to screen a library of phage-displayed dodecapeptides; as a result, 41 phage mimotope clones were isolated and grouped according to their amino acid sequence, finding the consensus A1 (VPTXPI), A2 (VPTXXI), B (LTPGQ), and D (DPLPR). Antibodies against selected phage mimotope clones were obtained by rabbit's immunization; these ones clearly recognized TTPI by both Western blot and ELISA. However, only the mimotope PDTS16 (DSVTPTSVMAVA) clone, which belongs to the VPTXXI consensus, raised antibodies capable of inhibiting the TTPI catalytic activity in 45 %. Anti-PDTS16 antibodies were confronted to several synthetic peptides that encompass the 1/3NH2TTPI, and they only recognized three, which share the motif FDTLQK belonging to the helix-α1 in TTPI. This suggests that this motif is the main part of the epitope recognized by anti-PDTS16 antibodies and revealed its importance for TTPI catalysis.

  14. Evaluation of the non-catalytic binding function of Ts26GST a glutathione transferase isoform of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, A; Romero, J R; Nava, G; Reyes, H; Hernández, M

    2014-03-01

    Taenia solium glutathione transferase isoform of 26.5 kDa (Ts26GST) was observed to bind non-catalytically to porphyrins, trans-trans-dienals, bile acids and fatty acids, as assessed by inhibition kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive fluorescence assays with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The quenching of Ts26GST intrinsic fluorescence allowed for the determination of the dissociation constants (KD) for all ligands. Obtained data indicate that Ts26GST binds to all ligands but with different affinity. Porphyrins and lipid peroxide products inhibited Ts26GST catalytic activity up to 100% in contrast with only 20-30% inhibition observed for bile acids and two saturated fatty acids. Non-competitive type inhibition was observed for all enzyme inhibitor ligands except for trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, which exhibited uncompetitive type inhibition. The dissociation constant value KD = 0.7 μM for the hematin ligand, determined by competitive fluorescence assays with ANS, was in good agreement with its inhibition kinetic value Ki = 0.3 μM and its intrinsic fluorescence quenching KD = 0.7 μM. The remaining ligands did not displace ANS from the enzyme suggesting the existence of different binding sites. In addition to the catalytic activity of Ts26GST the results obtained suggest that the enzyme exhibits a ligandin function with broad specificity towards nonsubstrate ligands.

  15. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  16. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Palafox-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht, which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg, were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  17. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  18. Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in a village in the highlands of Cusco, Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Gonzalez, A E; Pacheco, R; Verastegui, M; Tsang, V C

    1999-05-25

    A serological survey was performed using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) in a village in the highlands of Peru where there are three distinct but close neighborhoods, to determine if there is a direct relationship between human and porcine Taenia solium infection. One hundred and eight out of 365 individuals were sampled, and 14 were seropositive (human seroprevalence 13%). Most seropositive individuals were neurologically asymptomatic. Thirty-eight out of 89 sampled pigs (43%) were seropositive. There was a clear geographical clustering of cases, and positive correlation between human and porcine seroprevalence found when comparing the three neighborhoods. Cysticercosis is an important cause of neurological morbidity in most developing countries, and control/eradication trials are now being increasingly applied. Porcine serology provides an appropriate indicator of T. solium environmental contamination and should be used to estimate the risk of infection when evaluating control measures.

  19. [Cathepsin L cysteine protease from Taenia solium: its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  20. Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

    2013-06-01

    A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis.

  1. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh

    2011-06-21

    The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  2. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination.

  4. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas

  5. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

  6. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia

    2012-01-15

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection.

  7. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.

  8. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.

  9. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

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    Sonia Vázquez-Flores

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  10. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated.

  11. Detección de antígenos de la larva de Taenia solium mediante la Técnica de Elisa

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    Carmenza Murillo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la optimización de las variables en un ELISA sandwich asimétrico para la detección de antígenos circulantes de larva de Taenia solium empleado como estándar líquido intraquístico obtenido del parásito y como suero itunune anticisticerco absorbido con líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR normal lo que permite detectar 50 ng/ mi de antígeno. Se utilizaron muestras de LCR liofilizadas; bajo estas condiciones de almacenamiento la especificidad obtenida fue del 63% al analizar 24 LCR negativos para neurocisticercosis por tromografía computarizada cerebral, y 15 LCR de pacientes que mostraban calcificaciones. El coeficiente de variación interensayo está dentro de los límites aceptados para el ELISA.

  12. Reprint of "Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2017-01-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention.

  13. Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2016-07-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention.

  14. Protein profiles of Taenia solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and the central nervous system of pigs: Search for tissue-specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl José; Villalobos, Nelly; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis. This study was aimed to explore the 2DE protein maps of T. solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and central nervous system of naturally infected pigs. The gel images were analyzed through a combination of PDQuest™ and multivariate analysis. Results showed that differences in the protein patterns of cysts obtained from both tissues were remarkably discrete. Only 7 protein spots were found specifically associated to the skeletal muscle localization of the cysts; none was found significantly associated to the central nervous system. The use of distinct protein fractions of cysts allowed preliminary identification of several tissue-specific antigenic bands. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as several strategies directed to achieve the complete characterization of this parasite's proteome, in order to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue localization of the cysts and to open avenues for the development of immunological tissue-specific diagnosis of the disease.

  15. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

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    Abraham Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, αmethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

  16. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases.

  17. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

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    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  18. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  19. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  20. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  1. cystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah

    Sim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and is publicly available as an R package (https://github.com/brechtdv/cystiSim/). The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol. The model consists of two entities: pigs...

  2. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Hul, Anke Van; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  3. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

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    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  4. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  5. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  6. Taenia saginata: differential diagnosis of human taeniasis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Dias, Francisca Elda Ferreira; Aoki, Sérgio Moraes; de Paula, Henrique Borges; Lima, Luis Gustavo Ferraz; Garcia, José Fernando

    2005-08-01

    Speciation of Taenia in human stool is important because of their different clinical and epidemiological features. DNA analysis has recently become possible which overcomes the problems of differentiating human taeniid cestodes morphologically. In the present study, we evaluated PCR coupled to restriction fragment length polymorphism to differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata eggs present in fecal samples from naturally infected patients. A different DraI-RFLP pattern: a two-band pattern (421 and 100 bp) for T. saginata and a three-band pattern (234, 188, and 99 bp) for T. solium was observed allowing the two species to be separated. The lower detection limit of the PCR-RFLP using a non-infected fecal sample prepared with a given number of T. saginata eggs was 34 eggs in 2 g stool sediment. The 521 bp mtDNA fragment was detected in 8 out of 12 Taenia sp. carriers (66.6%). Of these, three showed a T. solium pattern and five a T. saginata pattern.

  7. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

  8. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin;

    2014-01-01

    variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of Taenia hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers...

  9. Short report: Evidence and potential for transmission of human and swine Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region, Piauí, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marcello Otake; Cavalcante, Tânia Vasconcelos; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2006-11-01

    The study conducted in the Cocal dos Alves municipality, located in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, Brazil in November of 2003 was based on both a socio-behavioral survey and analysis of serum antibodies and parasitic materials. Pig raising is the main economic activity with 91.4% using extensive farming. On the studied population, 54.3% of people did not apply any sanitary measures to wastewater, 45.7% used septic tanks, and 69.1% consumed water without treatment. The data collected indicated the occurrence and active transmission of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the region. One of seven voluntary persons was positive in antibody-ELISA tests using both native and recombinant antigens. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of cyst samples obtained from a pig revealed the presence of the Afro-American genotype of Taenia solium. This study revealed the occurrence of human and porcine cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, middle-north of Brazil.

  10. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  11. 猪带绦虫TSOL18疫苗的研制现状%The status in the research of TSOL18 vaccine for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文桂; 陈雅棠

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is one type of zoonosis seriously endangering human health.It' s mainly prevalent in central Africa,southern Africa,Latin America,eastern Asia and southern Asia.It recently becomes highlight to control this disease by use of vaccines.The review outlined the status in the research of the encoding gene,DNA vaccine and protein vaccine of TSOL18 of Taenia solium.%猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.采用疫苗防治该病是当前研究的热点.该文对TSOL18的编码基因、DNA疫苗和蛋白疫苗等方面的研究现状进行了综述.

  12. Research progress on recombinant antigens of Taenia solium%猪带绦虫重组抗原研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英

    2014-01-01

    猪囊尾蚴病(Cysticercosis cellulosae)俗称囊虫病(Cysticercosis)是由猪带绦虫(Taenia solium,Ts)中绦期幼虫猪囊尾蚴(cysticercus cellulosae)引起的一种严重的人兽共患寄生虫病.该病呈全球性分布,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.我国主要流行于黑龙江、吉林、河南、河北、山东、广西、云南、四川和贵州等31个省市自治区.采用分子生物学技术对Ts生活史不同阶段的抗原基因进行克隆、表达及生物学功能研究是当前研究的热点.本文就Ts六钩蚴、囊尾蚴、成虫阶段重要重组抗原的研究进展作一介绍.

  13. 猪带绦虫45W蛋白疫苗的研制现状%Status of research on a 45W protein vaccine for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文桂; 陈雅棠

    2012-01-01

    猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.采用疫苗防治该病是当前研究的热点.本文对45W蛋白的起源、编码基因和45W蛋白疫苗等方面的研究现状进行了综述.%Cysticercosis cellulosae is a type of zoonosis that serious endangers human health and that is prevalent mainly in central and southern Africa, Latin America, and East and Southern Asia. Attention has focused on using a vaccine to control this disease. This review outlines the status of research on the origins of the 45W protein of Taenia solium, the gene that codes for it, and 45W protein vaccines.

  14. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  15. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T

  16. Inactivation effect of 60Co gamma ray on cysticerci of Taenia solium in pork%60Coγ射线对猪肉中囊尾蚴的辐照杀灭效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凯; 高翔; 计融

    2011-01-01

    Objective revealing the relationship between irradiation dose and inactivation ratio for eysticerei of Taenia solium in pork, determining the minimal dose for totally killing cysticerci and providing scientific evidence for setting up relevant hygienic standards of radiation. Methods After Taenia solium infected pork being treated with different irradiation doses; cysticerci were separated and incubated in fresh swine bile. The adjusted inactivation ratio was calculated according to the survival rate. Results There was a linear correlation between irradiation dose and adjusted inactivation ratio, the D10 value was about 3.8 kGy, and a totally killing could be achieved by 4.5 kGy irradiation. Conclusion Irradiation at a dose of 4.5 kGy could be applied as the maximum dose to inactivate cysticerci of Taenia solium in pork processing.%目的 揭示猪肉中囊尾蚴灭活率与辐照剂量的相关关系及最小杀灭剂量,为制定相应辐照卫生规范提供科学依据.方法 以不同剂量Co γ射线处理感染囊尾蚴的猪肉,并用新鲜猪胆汁孵化剥离出的囊尾蚴,根据成活率计算校正灭活率.结果 辐照剂量与校正灭活率具有线性相关,D值约为3.8 kGy,4.5 kGy可完全杀灭囊尾蚴.结论 4.5 kGy γ射线对猪肉中囊尾蚴有很好的杀灭效果.

  17. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  18. Echinococcus metacestodes as laboratory models for the screening of drugs against cestodes and trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, A; Stadelmann, B; Scholl, S; Müller, J; Spiliotis, M; Müller, N; Gottstein, B; Siles-Lucas, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the cestodes, Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia solium represent the most dangerous parasites. Their larval stages cause the diseases cystic echinococcosis (CE), alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cysticercosis, respectively, which exhibit considerable medical and veterinary health concerns with a profound economic impact. Others caused by other cestodes, such as species of the genera Mesocestoides and Hymenolepis, are relatively rare in humans. In this review, we will focus on E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestode laboratory models and will review the use of these models in the search for novel drugs that could be employed for chemotherapeutic treatment of echinococcosis. Clearly, improved therapeutic drugs are needed for the treatment of AE and CE, and this can only be achieved through the development of medium-to-high throughput screening approaches. The most recent achievements in the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of E. multilocularis cells and metacestodes, and the accessability of the E. multilocularis genome and EST sequence information, have rendered the E. multilocularis model uniquely suited for studies on drug-efficacy and drug target identification. This could lead to the development of novel compounds for the use in chemotherapy against echinococcosis, and possibly against diseases caused by other cestodes, and potentially also trematodes.

  19. Construction and expression of a recombinant BCG-TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium%猪带绦虫重组 BCG-TSOL18疫苗构建及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤娇; 周必英

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a recombinant Bacillus Calmette‐Guerin(BCG)‐TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium and observed the expression of the TSOL18 gene in BCG .The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium was obtained from the recombinant plasmid pGEX‐TSOL18 by digestion method and cloned into Escherichia coli (E .coli)‐mycobacterium shuttle plasmid pMV261 to con‐struct the recombinant plasmid pMV261‐TSOL18 of Taenia solium ,and the recombinant plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme digestion ,PCR and DNA sequencing .Then ,the recombinant plasmid was transformed into BCG by electroporation to construct the recombinant BCG‐TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium ,and the vaccine was identified by PCR .The expression of the TSOL18 gene in BCG was identified by SDS‐PAGE and Western blot .The 393 bp TSOL18 gene fragment was successfully obtained by restriction enzyme digestion .Restriction enzyme digestion ,PCR and DNA sequencing suggested that the recombi‐nant plasmid pMV261‐TSOL18 of Taenia solium was successfully constructed .PCR confirmed that the recombinant plasmid pMV261‐TSOL18 of Taenia solium was successfully transformed into BCG ,suggesting that the recombinant BCG‐TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium was successfully constructed .SDS‐PAGE showed that the relative molecular mass (Mr) of TSOL18 target protein was approximately 14 .7 kD .Results of western blot showed the TSOL18 target protein could be recognized by rabbit antiserum or cysticercosis swine serum .The recombinant BCG‐TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium was successfully con‐structed .The TSOL18 gene of Taeniasolium was successfully expressed in BCG and the expressed TSOL18 recombinant pro‐tein had specific antigenicity .This result would lay a foundation for further study of the vaccine .%目的:构建猪带绦虫重组BCG‐TSOL18疫苗,研究TSOL18基因在BCG中的表达情况。方法通过酶切的方法从重组质粒pGEX‐TSOL18获取猪带绦虫TSOL18基因,将其定向克隆到大肠

  20. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis.

  1. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  2. Detection of high endemic and zoonotic risk areas regarding the infestation with Taenia solium larvae in pigs in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Oleleu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, it is necessary to collect recent data on the prevalence of swine cysticercosis, to detect areas of high endemicity and zoonotic risk, to prevent economic losses through proper implementation of control programs. A retrospective epidemiological study was performed during the period 2009-2013, by accessing report/surveillance systems and management of infected animals by analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of swine cysticercosis in Romania. The study was conducted on the reporting of cases confirmed after the macroscopic exam in slaughterhouses after slaughtering the animals, in accordance to the national epidemio-surveillance strategic program for swine cysticercosis.In term of spatial spread, outbreaks were discovered in 7 countries (16.66% of the 42 existing in Romania. During the studied period there were a total of 10 disease outbreaks. In term of temporal spread, cases of disease had been recorded every year taken under study. Links between the same different outbreaks, exist in the same year or in successive years, so we can see evolution trend of infection in the north-west of Romania, where there were discovered five of seven outbreaks.Analyzing the maintaining/recurrence of infection in outbreaks, we can mention Alba country, located in the north-west of the country, where the infestation was maintained 4 years (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013. In Cluj, the results obtained were correlated with T. solium infestation in humans by eating pork. The obtained results demonstrated that the control programs currently applied are not sufficient to diminuate and/or eradicate these diseases in Romania. Serological surveillance and molecular diagnostic tests are mandatory to be introduced, besides the slaughterhouse basic exams.

  3. Cloning and Expression of HSP of Taenia Solium Oncosphere%猪带绦虫六钩蚴 HSP 的克隆和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 赵权

    2013-01-01

      The HSP gene was separately amplified from total RNA of activated Taenia solium oncosphere by RT -PCR.The PCR products were cloned into pGH vector,recombinant positive clones was sequenced after restriction enzyme digestion.The HSP gene was subcloned into pET28a expression vector,the recombinant pET28a-HSP infected into E.coliBL21.IPTG was added to induce fusion expression and the expression products was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot.One fusion protein band about 35 kDa was identified by SDS -PAGE after inducible expression after inducible expression,The result would lay foundations for the mechanism of invasion of between oncosphere and host,and the design of new vaccine anti-porcine cysticercosis and taeniasis.%  提取猪带绦虫激活和未激活六钩蚴总 RNA,RT-PCR 扩增 HSP 目的基因,将目的基因与 pGH 克隆载体连接,经酶切鉴定后,将阳性重组质粒进行测序,结果扩增出激活的六钩蚴的目的片段。将目的基因亚克隆到原核表达载体 pET-28a-HSP中,并将获得的 pET28a-HSP 阳性重组子转化至宿主菌 E.coliBL21,IPTG 进行诱导表达,并对重组抗原 pET-28a-HSP 进行SDS-PAGE 和 Western-blot 检测。结果表明重组经 SDS-PAGE 分析可见一条约35 kDa 大小的融合蛋白条带的抗原,Western-blot 结果显示其能被囊虫病人阳性血清识别。这将为进一步阐明六钩蚴入侵中间宿主的机理、设计新型抗猪囊虫病和绦虫病疫苗打下基础。

  4. Bioinformatics Analysis on the Structure and Function of Malate Dehydrogenase Gene of Taenia solium%生物信息学法分析猪带绦虫苹果酸脱氢酶结构与功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝磊; 廖兴江; 黄江; 戴佳琳

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析和预测猪带绦虫苹果酸脱氢酶的结构和特性,用于指导其生物学功能的实验研究.方法:利用美国国家生物技术信息中心和瑞士生物信息学研究所的蛋白分析专家系统中有关基因和蛋白的序列和结构信息分析的工具,结合Pcgene和Vector NTI suite生物信息学分析软件包,从猪带绦虫全长cDNA质粒文库中识别苹果酸脱氢酶基因及其编码区,分析、预测该基因编码的蛋白质的理化特性、翻译后的修饰位点、功能域、亚细胞定位、拓扑结构、二级结构、三维空间构象等.结果:该基因编码332个氨基酸,为全长基因.GenBank中与细粒棘球绦虫苹果酸脱氢酶序列同源性最高,理论分子量为36459.2 Da.预测编码蛋白无跨膜区,无二硫键,稳定性较好.与吸虫属的苹果酸脱氢酶进化关系最近.结论:应用生物信息方法从猪带绦虫成虫Cd-NA文库中筛选出了猪带绦虫核糖体Cdna全长序列并预测得到其结构与功能方面信息.%Objective: To analyze and predict the structure and characteristics of Taenia solium mal-ate dehydrogenase ( MDH) , and so as to guide the experimental research on biological function of MDH. Methods: Tools about informatics analyis on sequences and structures of gene and protein in protein analysis expert system of bioinformatic institute of Switzerland, and those of state biological and technology information center of USA, combined with Pcgene and Vector NTI suite bioinformatics soft-ware pakege were employed to screen Taenia solium MDH gene and encoding region from cDNA plas-mid library to analyze and predict physicochemical properties of its encoding protein, modification site after translation, function domains, subcelluar location, topological structure, secondary structure, and 3D conformation and so on. Results: This gene encoded 332 amino acids, and was a full length gene. It was the most homologues to Taenia echinococcus MDH in Gen

  5. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were

  6. Biochemical analysis of a recombinant glutathione transferase from the cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harispe, Laura; García, Gabriela; Arbildi, Paula; Pascovich, Leticia; Chalar, Cora; Zaha, Arnaldo; Fernandez, Cecilia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2010-04-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are believed to be a major detoxification system in helminths. We describe the expression and functional analysis of EgGST, a cytosolic GST from Echinococcus granulosus, related to the Mu-class of mammalian enzymes. EgGST was produced as an enzymatically active dimeric protein (rEgGST), with highest specific activity towards the standard substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB; 2.5 micromol min(-1)mg(-1)), followed by ethacrynic acid. Interestingly, rEgGST displayed glutathione peroxidase activity (towards cumene hydroperoxide), and conjugated reactive carbonyls (trans-2-nonenal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal), indicating that it may intercept damaging products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, classical GST inhibitors (cybacron blue, triphenylthin chloride and ellagic acid) and a number of anthelmintic drugs (mainly, hexachlorophene and rafoxanide) were found to interfere with glutathione-conjugation to CDNB; suggesting that they may bind to EgGST. Considered globally, the functional properties of rEgGST are similar to those of putative orthologs from Echinococcus multilcularis and Taenia solium, the other medically important cestodes. Interestingly, our results also indicate that differences exist between these closely related cestode GSTs, which probably reflect specific biological functions of the molecules in each parasitic organism.

  7. Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy León

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisticercosis (NCC. Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships within Taenia taeniaeformis variants and other taeniid cestodes inferred from the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Bessho, Y; Kamiya, M; Kurosawa, T; Horii, T

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variations in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (391 bp) were examined within seven species of the genus Taenia and two species of the genus Echinococcus, including ten isolates of T. taeniaeformis and six isolates of E. multilocularis. More than a 12% rate of nucleotide differences between taeniid species was found, allowing the species to be distinguished. In E. multilocularis, no sequence variation was observed among isolates, regardless of the host (gray red-backed vole, tundra vole, pig, Norway rat) or area (Japan, Alaska) from which each metacestode had been isolated. In contrast, six distinct sequences were detected among the ten T. taeniaeformis isolates examined. The level of nucleotide variation in the COI gene within T. taeniaeformis isolates except for one isolate from the gray red-backed vole (TtACR), which has been proposed as a distinct strain or a different species, was about 0.3%-4.1%, whereas the COI gene sequence for TtACR differed from those of the other isolates, with levels being 9.0%-9.5%. Phylogenetic trees were then inferred from these sequence data using two different algorithms.

  9. Dynamic Pathologic Changes in Pigs Infected with Taenia solium%猪囊尾蚴感染家猪的组织病理学动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2012-01-01

    将4头20日龄三元杂交乳猪感染猪带绦虫虫卵,8×104个/头,感染后第40、80、120和150天采集有囊尾蚴寄生的肝、肌肉和脑组织,制备病理切片,观察囊尾蚴发育过程中周围组织的病理反应.结果显示,感染第40~80天,肝脏内寄生的囊尾蚴被宿主纤维结缔组织增生形成的外膜包围,与肝组织交界处有大量炎症细胞浸润;感染第120天,大部分囊尾蚴出现死亡或钙化;感染第150天,囊尾蚴已全部死亡或钙化.感染第40天,寄生于骨骼肌和舌肌的囊尾蚴周围有炎症细胞浸润,邻近头节的肌纤维炎症反应较囊壁其余部位严重;感染第80~150天,囊尾蚴周围炎症细胞浸润呈带状分布.心肌的病理反应与骨骼肌和舌肌相似,但浸润的炎症细胞稍多.感染第40天,寄生于脑组织的囊尾蚴周围有少量炎症细胞浸润,感染第80~150天,囊尾蚴周围有大量炎症细胞浸润,形成炎症带.猪囊尾蚴寄生的周围组织的炎症反应随感染时间延长逐渐加强,且肝脏的炎症反应强于肌肉和脑组织的反应.%Four three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected each with 80 000 Taenia solium eggs. One pig was sacrificed respectively at 40, 80, 120, and 150 d post-infection, and tissue samples containing cysticerci were collected for pathological sections. The results showed that in 40-80 days, cysticerci in the liver were surrounded by membrane formed with the hyperplastic fibrous connective tissue and inflammatory cells. On 120* day, a large number of the cysticerci were dead or calcified. On 150* day, all cysticerci died or calcified. On 40* day, the inflammatory cells infiltrated around the cysticerci in the tongue and skeletal muscle, and the inflammatory responses near the scolex were more serious than that near cyst wall. In the 80-150 days, the inflammatory cells showed bandlike distribution. The pathological response in cardiac muscle was similar to that of the skeletal muscle and the

  10. Immunopathology in Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A; Cardenas, G; Adalid-Peralta, L; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to a severe, potentially fatal clinical picture. The intensity and extension of the parasite-elicited inflammatory reaction is a key factor for such variability. The main features of the inflammatory process found in the brain and in the peripheral blood of neurocysticercosis patients will be discussed in this review, and the factors involved in its modulation will be herein presented.

  11. Pathological analysis of hepatic fibrosis in pigs infected with Taenia solium%猪带绦虫虫卵感染家猪致肝纤维化相关病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓青; 宁燕; 李溥; 沈振华; 娄磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe liver fibrosis caused by experimentally infecting an intermediate host, i.e. pigs, with Taenia solium eggs and to quantitatively analyze the severity of that cysticercosis. Methods Three groups of pigs with 2 pigs each were directly fed a large dose of Asian Taenia solium eggs (60 000 eggs/ml), a medium dose, (40 000 eggs/ml), or a small dose (10 000 eggs/ml). Two healthy pigs served as the control group. Pigs were sacrificed after 30 days.The liver was removed and sectioned, and HE and Cason staining were performed. Pathological changes in tissue and collagen fiber content were analyzed. Results Compared to the control group, pigs fed large, medium, and small doses of eggs had varying degrees of liver tissue degeneration and necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and an increased liver and spleen index (P<0.05, P<0.01). Liver fibrosis was apparent, the total area of collagen fibers and total optical density increased, and collagen fiber content also increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion Pigs infected with Taenia solium eggs had a greater number of cysticerci in the liver and a greater incidence of pathological changes and more severe damage primarily in the form of granulomas and fibrosis.%目的 观察猪带绦虫虫卵实验感染中间宿主家猪后囊尾蚴致肝纤维化作用,并对病变程度进行定量分析.方法 实验猪分成3组,将亚洲猪带绦虫虫卵以高剂量(60 000个/ml)、中剂量(40 000个/ml)和低剂量(10 000个/ml)分别灌服感染家猪,每种剂量感染2头.健康家猪2头为对照组.30 d后剖杀,取肝脏,制作病理切片,HE和Cason染色,对实验猪肝脏病变组织进行病理变化观察及胶原纤维含量分析.结果 与健康对照组比较,实验组家猪肝组织发生不同程度的变性、坏死、炎细胞侵润,肝、脾指数增加(P<0.05或P<0.01);肝纤维化改变明显,胶原纤维总面积和总吸光度值增加,胶原纤维含量显著增加(P<0.05或P<0

  12. Expression of glutathione S-transferase in Taenia solium cysticercus%猪囊尾蚴谷胱甘肽S-转移酶的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase(GST) was detected with immunohistochemistry methods, two dimensional electrophoresis and western blotting to explore the expression of GST in cysticercus cellulosae. Six piglets of 20-day-old were infected with a dose of 80 000 eggs of T.sodium and the immunohistochemistry have been done on paraffin section of cysticercus cellulosae acquired on 40, 80 and 120 days after infection from muscle and liver ( except 120 days). The total protein of cysticercus cellulosae from muscle acquired 40 days after infection was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the western blotting was performed to find out GST after the protein spots on the gel were transferred to PVDF membrane. The results showed that there was GST expressing in the head and wall of the cysticercus cellulosae from different tissues at different times. As the time passed, the GST expression of cysticercus celluosae from muscle were little changed (P>0. 05), while the GST expression of cysticercus celluosae from brain were slightly higher(P<0. 05). There were 207±9 protein spots of cysticercus cellulosae in 2-DE gel stained by coomassie brilliant blue, and the ranges of Mr and pI were 14 400-94 000 and 3.0-10.0, respectively. Western blotting showed 1 specific antigen spots with anti-GST mixed sera of the experimental rats and none specific spot with the mixed sera of the healthy rats. The spot in the western blotting was corresponding to the protein spot in 2-DE gel. The pI/Mr of the protein in 2-DE gel was similar to the theoretical value of GST of Taenia solium. The results indicate that there is a little difference on GST expression in cysticercus cellulosae parasited in different tissues at different times.%目的 应用免疫组化、双向电泳(2-DE)结合蛋白质印迹(Western-blotting)技术分析猪囊尾蚴谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)的表达.方法 用猪带绦虫卵1 mL(8万个/mL)灌胃20d龄健康乳猪6头,于感染后40d、80d和120 d分别宰杀2

  13. 猪带绦虫乳酸脱氢酶A和B的生物信息学比较分析%Bioinformatics Analysis and Comparision of the Genes Encoding Lactate Dehydrogenase A and B from Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜武英; 戴佳琳; 黄艳; 胡旭初; 余新炳; 徐劲; 廖兴江; 黄江

    2010-01-01

    目的 预测及比较分析猪带绦虫乳酸脱氢酶A(Taenia solium lactate dehydrogenase A,TsLDH-A)和乳酸脱氢酶B(Taenia solium lactate dehydrogenase B,TsLDH-B),用于指导其生物学功能的研究.方法 利用生物信息网站如美国国家生物技术信息中心(NCBI,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)和瑞士生物信息学研究所的蛋白分析专家系统(ExPASY,http://ca.expasy.org/)中有关基因和蛋白的序列和结构信息分析的各种工具,结合其它生物信息学分析软件包,从猪带绦虫成虫全长cDNA质粒文库中识别LDH-A和LDH-B的全长编码基因并对其结构与功能进行生物信息学预测分析.结果 两序列都是包含完整开放阅读框的全长基因,推导出的氨基酸序列与其它物种LDH-A或LDH-B同源基因的氨基酸序列的一致性均大于50%.两者编码的蛋白在编码的氨基酸数目(331)、蛋白的理化性质、L-乳酸脱氢酶结构域、构成LDH酶催化中心的关键氨基酸、包含LDH活性位点的线性表位、无亚细胞定位等方面是一致的,但两者在翻译后的修饰位点、3个跨膜区和其他线性表位方面既相似也有区别.结论 应用生物信息方法从猪带绦虫成虫cDNA文库中筛选出了TsLDH-A和TsLDH-B的cDNA全长序列,并预测和比较了两者结构与功能方面的信息,为进一步研究所编码蛋白的功能奠定了基础.

  14. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  15. 猪带绦虫成虫cDNA质粒文库的构建及EST测序%Construction of the full-length cDNA plasmid library for adult worms of Taenia solium and its ETS sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 胡旭初; 徐劲; 余新炳; 包怀恩; 郎书源; 廖兴江

    2008-01-01

    目的 构建猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)成虫全长cDNA表达文库,为获取猪带绦虫成虫的基因信息,建立基因表达谱,并为筛选疫苗基因和诊断抗原基因奠定基础.方法 提取猪带绦虫成虫mRNA,构建pBluescript II SK全长cDNA质粒文库,测定扩增文库的滴度;用载体克隆位点两端的引物进行PCR扩增,以检测所构建文库的质量.随机挑选质粒文库转化的阳性重组克隆,进行较大规模的5'端测序,归并unigene.结果 文库库容达到1×106 pfu/ml ,插入片段的大小主要在1 000bp以上.获得有效EST序列2 000条,归并为1 171条unigene.结论 已成功获得一高质量的猪带绦虫成虫全长cDNA表达文库,并获得了较丰富的成虫表达基因数据.

  16. Identification of species and genetic variation in Taenia isolates from human and swine of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Aloukick K; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Chauhan, Ranjeet S; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Pati, Binod K

    2016-10-01

    Taenia solium is the major cause of taeniasis and cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the developing countries including India, but the existence of other Taenia species and genetic variation have not been studied in India. So, we studied the existence of different Taenia species, and sequence variation in Taenia isolates from human (proglottids and cysticerci) and swine (cysticerci) in North India. Amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We identified two species of Taenia i.e. T. solium and Taenia asiatica in our isolates. T. solium isolates showed similarity with Asian genotype and nucleotide variations from 0.25 to 1.01 %, whereas T. asiatica displayed nucleotide variations ranged from 0.25 to 0.5 %. These findings displayed the minimal genetic variations in North Indian isolates of T. solium and T. asiatica.

  17. 猪带绦虫成虫凝溶胶蛋白基因的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatics Analysis on Gelsolin Gene of Taenia Solium Imago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申萍香; 王宇; 黄江

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the structure of gelsolin gene from Taenia solium adults ( Ts GEL)and the structure and function of the encoded protein. Methods: Gelsolin gene was identified from T.solium full-length cDNA plasmid libratory by analyzing tools. Its structure was analyzed, and the structure and function characteristics of the encoded protein were predicted. Results: Consistency and similarity of Ts GEL with Acephalocystis granulosus gelsolin gene were 88% and 93% respectively. The full length of Ts GEL was 1 514 bp. Its coding region was 167 ~ 1 263, encoding 365 amino acids. The encoded protein didnt contain any kinds of subcellular localization sequence, but contained several potential phosphorylation sites. It was stable in solution. Conclusions: The full cDNA sequence of gelsolin gene is screened from cDNA plasmid library of T. solium imago with bioinformatical method. The structure and function of the gene and encoded protein are predicted.[ Key words%目的:分析猪带绦虫(Taeria solium)成虫凝溶胶蛋白(gelsolin,GEL)基因及编码蛋白的结构和功能.方法:利用生物信息网站美国国家生物技术信息中心(NCBI)和瑞士生物信息学研究所的蛋白分析专家系统(ExPASY)中生物信息学分析工具,并结合其它分析软件,从获得的猪带绦虫成虫全长cDNA质粒文库的表达序列标签(EST)中识别凝溶胶蛋白基因,分析该基因的结构并预测其编码蛋白质的结构和功能特征.结果:猪带绦虫成虫凝溶胶蛋白基因与细粒棘球绦虫凝溶胶蛋白的一致性为88%,相似性为93%;全长1 514 bp,编码区为167~1 263bp,编码365个氨基酸,无各种亚细胞定位序列,具有多个潜在的磷酸化位点,蛋白在溶液中性质稳定.结论:应用生物信息方法从猪带绦虫成虫cDNA质粒文库中筛选出了猪带绦虫凝溶胶蛋白cDNA全长序列并预测其结构与功能.

  18. Research on molecular identification of mema cestode from 4 ethnic populations in Yunnan Province%云南4个少数民族带绦虫分子鉴定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨昊; 杨毅梅

    2009-01-01

    目的 利用分子遗传标志对采自云南西部彝族(楚雄)、傈僳族(怒江)、普米族(怒江)、白族(大理)等4个少数民族带绦虫标本作生物多态性的研究. 方法取云南彝族分离株、傈僳分离株、普米分离株、白族分离株和贵州从江分离株带绦虫成虫节片,提取线粒体DNA,PCR扩增线粒体DNA细胞色素B(mtDNA-Cytb)序列部分片段测序;结合GenBank中已知猪带绦虫、牛带绦虫和牛带绦虫亚洲亚种 mtDNA-Cytb序列,使用PHYLIP软件包运用最大似然法和最大简约法构建系统发育树.结果系统发育树显示云南傈僳族、普米族和白族带绦虫标本与台湾牛带绦虫业洲业种的遗传距离最接近,距云南彝族、贵州从江牛带绦虫标本较远,与猪带绦虫则更远. 结论云南傈僳族(怒江)、普米族(怒江)和白族(大理)带绦虫标本属于牛带绦虫亚洲弧种,云南彝族(楚雄)带绦虫标本属于牛带绦虫;mtDNA-Cytb 序列分析可以用于带绦虫生物多态性研究.%Objective To study the biologic polymorphism of taenia cestode samples from Yi population (Chuxiong),Lisu population (Nujiang),Pumi population (Nujiang) and Bai population (Dali) in the west of Yunnan by molecular genetic markers.Methods Mitochondrial DNA were extracted from the proglottis of adult taenia cestode strains from Yi population,Lisu population,Pumi population,Bai population and Congjiang District respectively,partial segments of mitochondrial DNA-cytochrome B (mtDNA-Cytb) sequences were amplified by polymcrase chain reaction (PCR),then sequenced.Phylogenetic tree of species and geographical isolates was constructed with other known mtDNA-Cytb sequence of T.solium.T.saginata and T.saginata asiatica in GenBank.Results The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed that the taenia cestode samples from Lisu population,Pumi population and Bai population in Yunnan Province were close to Taiwan strain genetically,but far from Yi population in Yunnan

  19. 基于IgY的ELISA用于囊尾蚴循环抗原的检测%Detecting the circulating antigen(CA) of Taenia solium cysticercosis with specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) by sandwich ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 王元伦; 唐雨德

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a sensitive and specific double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect circulating antigen (CA) of Taeniasoliumcysticercosis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin antibodies (IgY).Methods Hens were subcutaneously immunized with CA and the crude IgY was extracted from egg yolk by water dilution method.A sandwich ELISA had been developed by purified IgY antibodies as capture antibody and monoclonal antibodies labeled with peroxidase as detecting antibody.The detection limits of CA were analyzed.The sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients,the sera of healthy people,sick pigs and healthy pigs were detected in parallel by the established ELISA methods.It's sensitivity and specificity were evaluated by comparison with ELISA based monoclonal antibodies.Results The minimal detectable concentration of CA was 8.3 and 13.9 μg/ml by sandwich ELISA based IgY and monoclonal antibodies,respectively.The positive rates of samples from 139 patients,19 cerebrospinal fluid of patients and 222 sick pigs were 100% (139/139),89.5% (17/19) and 100% (222/222) by sandwich ELISA based IgY respectively.The negative rates of samples from 50 healthy people and 20 healthy pigs were 100%.Conclusion The novel double-antibody sandwich ELISA using anti-CA IgY appears to be sensitive and specific for detection the CA of Taenia solium cysticercosis.It is the promising assay for immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.%目的 建立基于IgY的双抗体夹心ELISA用于囊尾蚴病的诊断.方法 制备并纯化抗囊尾蚴循环抗原(CA)卵黄抗体(IgY),建立以抗CA的IgY为捕获抗体,酶标记抗CA的单克隆抗体1A5为检测抗体的双抗体夹心ELISA法,共检测样品450份,并与捕获抗体和检测抗体均为单克隆抗体的ELISA法比较,验证方法的敏感性、特异性与实用性.结果 成功制备并鉴定了特异性IgY抗体,建立了基于Igy的双抗体夹心ELISA检测体系.IgY-ELISA和双单

  20. 猪带绦虫HSP70-4的真核表达及其抗血清的制备%Eukaryotic expression and anti-serum preparation of HSP70-4 from Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷静; 王帅; 刘光学; 何伟; 才学鹏

    2016-01-01

    为了研究猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)热休克蛋白70-4 (TsHSP70-4)基因序列的特征及其真核表达蛋白的抗原性,参考GeneDB中猪带绦虫基因组注释信息,设计特异性引物,RT-PCR扩增TsHSP70-4ORF序列.根据毕赤酵母密码子偏好性,对TsHSP70-4基因密码子进行优化,连接载体pPIC9K,在毕赤酵母中进行诱导表达,通过Western-blot及质谱测序进行蛋白鉴定.将纯化后的TsHSP70-4表达蛋白免疫新西兰大白兔,制备抗血清.结果显示,成功克隆出大小为1 953 bp的TsHSP70-4ORF序列.在毕赤酵母中进行了高效表达,获得大小约为95 ku的重组蛋白.Western-blot检测和质谱鉴定表明,获得的重组蛋白即为TsHSP70-4.免疫新西兰大白兔,制备出效价高达1∶409 600的抗血清.该研究为猪囊尾蚴病新疫苗的研制提供了依据.

  1. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  2. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.

  3. Construction and identification of a recombinant Bifidobacteria (pGEX-TSO45W-4B) vaccine of Taenia solium%猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌(pGEX-TSO45W-4B)疫苗构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英; 刘美辰; 贺莉芳

    2014-01-01

    目的 构建和鉴定猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌(Bb)(pGEX-TSO45W-4B)疫苗.方法 通过全基因合成猪带绦虫TSO45W-4B基因,预期该基因中的片段长度为351 bp.将该基因定向克隆到大肠埃希菌-Bb穿梭表达载体pGEX-1λT中,构建重组质粒pGEX-TSO45W-4B,电穿孔法将该质粒导入长双歧杆菌,构建猪带绦虫重组Bb(pGEX-TSO45W-4B)疫苗,通过酶切、PCR和测序进行鉴定,证实猪带绦虫重组Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B)疫苗中含有片段长度为351 bp的基因.结果 全基因合成351 bp的TSO45W-4B基因片段.酶切、PCR和测序鉴定证明猪带绦虫重组Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B)疫苗构建成功,均获得了351 bp基因片段.结论 成功构建了猪带绦虫重组Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B)疫苗,为该疫苗的表达及免疫原性研究奠定了基础.%Objective To construct and identify a recombinant Bifidobacteria(Bb) (pGEX-TSO45W-4B) vaccine of Taenia solium.Methods The TSO45W-4B gene of Taenia solium was synthesized.It was expected that the fragment length of the gene was 351 bp.The gene was cloned into Escherichia coli-Bifidobacteria(Bb) shutde vector pGEX-1λT to construct a recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSO45W-4B.The recombinant plasmid was electroporated into Bb to construct a recombinant Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B) vaccine.The vaccine was identified by restriction analysis,PCR and sequencing,which would demonstrate that the constructed recombinant Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B) vaccine of Taenia solium contained the gene of fragment length of 351 bp.Results The TSO45W-4B gene of 351 bp was synthesized.Restriction analysis,PCR and sequencing results showed that the recombinant Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B) vaccine of Taenia solium was successfully constructed and contained the gene fragment of 351 bp.Conclusion The recombinant Bb (pGEX-TSO45W-4B) vaccine of Taenia solium is successfully constructed,which lays a foundation for the study of expression and immunogenicity of the vaccine.

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay using two baculovirus expressed recombinant antigens for diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Min Z; Lewis, Melissa M; Rodriquez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Khan, Azra; Lin, Sehching; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-04-01

    Taeniasis diagnosis is an important step in the control and elimination of both cysticercosis and taeniasis. We report the development of 2 serological taeniasis diagnostic tests using recombinant antigens rES33 and rES38 expressed by baculovirus in insect cells in an EITB format. In laboratory testing with defined sera from nonendemic areas, rES33 has a sensitivity of 98% (n = 167) and a specificity of 99% (n = 310) (J index: 0.97); rES38 has a sensitivity of 99% (n = 146) and a specificity of 97% (n = 275) (J index: 0.96). Independent field testing in Peru showed 97% (n = 203) of the taeniasis sera were positive with rES33, and 100% of the nontaeniasis sera (n = 272) were negative with rES33; 98% (n = 198) of taeniasis sera were positive with rES38, and 91% (n = 274) of the nontaeniasis sera were negative with rES38. Among the Peruvian sera tested, 17 of 26 Peruvian Taenia saginata sera were false positive with rES38 test. Both tests were also examined with cysticercosis sera, with a positive rate ranging from 21% to 46%. rES33 and rES38 tests offer sensitive and specific diagnosis of taeniasis and easy sample collection through finger sticks that can be used in large-scale studies. They are currently being used in cysticercosis elimination programs in Peru.

  5. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

  6. Total Protein Analysis by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis in Cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica%猪带绦虫囊尾蚴与亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴蛋白双向电泳图谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80 000 Taenia solium or T. Asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Plantinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236±12) and (231 ±14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. Solium and T. Asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-lated in T- scutum rt-Tir^rrus iiy 2-fold or more compared with those in T. Asioiica cystirercua-%将2头20日龄三元杂交乳猪分别感染猪带绦虫虫卵和亚洲带绦虫虫卵,8×104个/头.感染后40 d分别收集寄生在肝脏的未成熟猪带绦虫囊尾蚴(简称猪囊尾蚴)和亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴,制备囊尾蚴蛋白,并进行蛋白双向电泳分析,用ImageMaster 2D Plantinum 6.0软件分析差异表达蛋白.结果显示,感染后40 d肝脏寄生的未成熟猪囊尾蚴和亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴蛋白的双向电泳凝胶上分别有(236±12)和(231±14)个蛋白斑点,差异表达2倍以上的蛋白共10个,其中猪囊尾蚴表达上调的蛋白3个,下调的蛋白7个.

  7. HISTOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON TAENIA SOLIUM CYSTICERCI IN THE DEVELOPMENT%发育过程中的猪带绦虫囊尾蚴的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永杰; 郝艳红; 李庆章

    2002-01-01

    Objective To systematically study the changes of histological structure of Taenia solium cysticerci in the development. Methods At the different periods after infected with T. solium eggs, pigs were autopsied and blocks of the tissues with cysticerci were made into histological sections. Results The developmental extent of cysticerci was variable in the different parts or even a same part in a same host. The youngest cysticerci were observed in skeletal muscles 19 days after infection. Histological examination revealed obvious early development of scolex. No cysticerci were found in other tissues or organs. 30 days after the infection, hooklets and brood suckers had appeared in the cysticerci from skeletal muscles. With the duration of infection, scolex began to differentiate and possessed suckers and fewer folds. At 60 days, there were a larger sucker and more folds. The cysticerci at 70 days and afterward were similar to those seen at 60 days in histology. In every developmental stage there existed degenerated cysticerci. Conclusion The appearing of cysticerci is at about 19 days and the mature is at about 60 days after infection. During the development the bladder wall was a transitory embryo, on the basis of which the scolex developed.%目的系统地研究猪囊尾蚴发育过程中的组织结构变化. 方法仔猪感染猪带绦虫卵不同时间后剖杀,取囊尾蚴寄生部位作病理组织学检查. 结果同一宿主不同部位甚至同一宿主同一部位囊尾蚴的组织结构发育程度不同.感染后19 d在骨骼肌中即有幼年期囊尾蚴出现,组织学检查显示了头节的早期发育,其他组织器官内未发现有囊尾蚴寄生.感染后30 d骨骼肌内寄生的囊尾蚴出现小钩及吸盘的雏形.随着猪囊尾蚴体内发育时间的延长,头节区逐渐分化,出现吸盘及折叠.感染后60 d,骨骼肌内寄生的囊尾蚴头节区出现较大的吸盘和大量折叠.70 d以后的囊尾蚴在组织学结构上和60 d

  8. Evaluación de Electroinmunotransferencia utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ayala-Sulca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de la prueba electroinmunotransferencia (EITB para la detección de cisticercosis humana utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium. Material y métodos. Estudio observacional de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. El antígeno mix nativo purificado se extrajo del líquido de cisticerco de cerdos naturalmente parasitados de áreas consideradas endémicas, se evaluó y seleccionó uno de los cuatro métodos de purificación: sulfato de amonio, lecitina de lentejas-sefarosa, Sephadex G-75 y electro-elución. La sensibilidad del antígeno purificado se determinó con EITB y fue evaluada con 50 sueros positivos a cisticercosis y la especificidad con 50 sueros negativos a cisticercosis (20 libres de infección parasitaria y 30 positivos a diferentes parasitosis. Resultados. La concentración óptima del antígeno mix nativo purificado para preparar las tiras EITB fue de 0,82 µg/mm. Por cromatografía de afinidad con lectina de lentejas- sefarosa se visualizaron y purificaron ocho glicoproteínas antigénicas específicas, siendo sus masas relativas de: 13, 14, 17, 18, 23, 24, 31 y 35 kDa; los antígenos purificados obtenidos por los otros métodos no fueron evaluados por EITB, porque no correspondieron a las proteínas antigénicas específicas consideradas entre 13 y 35 KDa. La prueba de EITB utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado presentó 100% de sensibilidad y 100% de especificidad. Conclusiones. El antígeno mix nativo purificado mejora la eficiencia diagnóstica de la prueba de EITB. Recomendamos la preparación de un kit in house y su validación en campo para que pueda transferirse e implementarse en laboratorios de zonas endémicas del Perú

  9. Evaluación de Electroinmunotransferencia utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ayala-Sulca

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de la prueba electroinmunotransferencia (EITB para la detección de cisticercosis humana utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium. Material y métodos. Estudio observacional de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. El antígeno mix nativo purificado se extrajo del líquido de cisticerco de cerdos naturalmente parasitados de áreas consideradas endémicas, se evaluó y seleccionó uno de los cuatro métodos de purificación: sulfato de amonio, lecitina de lentejas-sefarosa, Sephadex G-75 y electro-elución. La sensibilidad del antígeno purificado se determinó con EITB y fue evaluada con 50 sueros positivos a cisticercosis y la especificidad con 50 sueros negativos a cisticercosis (20 libres de infección parasitaria y 30 positivos a diferentes parasitosis. Resultados. La concentración óptima del antígeno mix nativo purificado para preparar las tiras EITB fue de 0,82 µg/mm. Por cromatografía de afinidad con lectina de lentejas- sefarosa se visualizaron y purificaron ocho glicoproteínas antigénicas específicas, siendo sus masas relativas de: 13, 14, 17, 18, 23, 24, 31 y 35 kDa; los antígenos purificados obtenidos por los otros métodos no fueron evaluados por EITB, porque no correspondieron a las proteínas antigénicas específicas consideradas entre 13 y 35 KDa. La prueba de EITB utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado presentó 100% de sensibilidad y 100% de especificidad. Conclusiones. El antígeno mix nativo purificado mejora la eficiencia diagnóstica de la prueba de EITB. Recomendamos la preparación de un kit in house y su validación en campo para que pueda transferirse e implementarse en laboratorios de zonas endémicas del Perú

  10. Proteomic analysis of the nonactivated and activated proteins of Taenia solium oncosphere stimulated by artificial intestinal fluid%体外人工肠液激活与未激活的猪带绦虫六钩蚴差异蛋白质组学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 王丹; 李巍; 蔡亚楠; 杨桂连; 赵权

    2011-01-01

    为建立一种用于比较猪带绦虫六钩蚴(Taenia solium)激活前后蛋白差异表达的二维液相色谱方法,本研究对人工肠液激活前后的六钩蚴进行一维色谱聚焦和二维反相色谱分析,以0.3pH为单位在pH7.71~pH5.31的范围内梯度分离出208个激活和197个未激活的六钩蚴蛋白.Mapping tools软件分析结果表明,六钩蚴激活前后的差异蛋白数量为77个,其中激活的六钩蚴差异蛋白44个,未激活的六钩蚴差异蛋白33个.该方法具有分辨率高、重现性好、自动化程度高的特点,为研究六钩蚴与其宿主间的寄生机制提供研究方法.%For proteomic analysis of Taenia solium oncosphere, the one-dimensional chromatofocusing and two-dimensional liquid reversion phase chromatography was used to separate and compare the difference of protein expressions in nonactivated and activated of T. solium oncospherein stimulated by artificial instestinal fluid. Total of 208 activated and 197 nonactivated oncospherein proteins were obtained by 0.3pH gradient separation between pH7.71 to pH5.31. Seventy-seven differentially proteins were identified by Mapping tools comparison, of which 44 differentially expressed proteins were found in activated and 33 in nonactivated T. solium oncospherein. The analysis method was proved to be effective, stable and high-automaticity, which has tremendous developing potentiality on the research of differential proteomic expression profile. The research work sets up a foundation for the research on the parasite mechanism of host and oncosphere.

  11. The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong

    2013-03-01

    Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia.

  12. Specific Identification of a Taeniid Cestode from Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia Schreber, 1776 (Felidae in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiya Ganzorig

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An unknown taeniid cestode, resembling Taenia hydatigena, was recovered from a snow leopard, Uncia uncia in Mongolia. Morphology and nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunit 1 gene (mt DNA COI ofthe cestode found was examined. The cestode is differed from T hydatigena both morphologically and genetically. The differences between two species were in the gross length, different number of testes, presence of vaginal sphincter and in egg size. The nucleotide sequence of this cestode differed from that of 7: hydatigena at 34 of the 384 (8.6% nucleotide positions examined. The present cestode is very close to 7: kotlani in morphology and size of rostellar hooks. However, the adult stages of the latter species are unknown, and further comparison was unfeasible.

  13. mRNA expression of three kinds of recombinant bifidobacterium vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs%3种猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌候选疫苗在家猪体内的mRNA表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英; 刘美辰; 杨凤娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of three kinds of recombinant bifidobacterium(Bb) vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs.Methods Healthy domestic pigs of 40 days old were orally administrated with 1011 (colony forming units,CFU) recombinant Bb-TSO45W-4B,Bb-TSOL18 and Bb-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 vaccines.Two weeks after the first immunization,these domestic pigs were strengthened immunized.56 days after the first immunization,these domestic pigs were killed.The liver,lung and spleen were collected to detect the expression of three kinds of recombinant Bb vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results The TSO45W-4B gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver,lung and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 3.3,3.3,1,respectively.The relative expression in liver and lung was higher than that in spleen;The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 2.6,1,respectively.The relative expression in liver was higher than that in spleen.The TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 fusion gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver,lung and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 0.2,2.4,2.1,respectively.Conclusion Three kinds of recombinant Bb vaccines of Taenia solium could be expressed in domestic pigs,which would contribute to playing a role in immune effect of vaccines.%目的 检测3种猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌候选疫苗在家猪体内的表达情况. 方法 将40日龄健康家猪分别用1011克隆形成单位(colony forming units,CFU)的猪带绦虫Bb-TSO45W-4B、Bb-TSOL18和Bb-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18重组候选疫苗对家猪口服灌胃.首次免疫2周后加强免疫1次.于首免后56 d,剖杀家猪,无菌取肝、肺、脾,采用RT-PCR方法检测上述3种候选疫苗在家猪体内的mRNA表达情况. 结果 在家猪肝脏、肺脏和脾脏中均检测到猪带绦虫TSO45W-4B基因的mRNA,其中肝脏和

  14. 未成熟与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白双向电泳的图谱分析%Total Protein Analysis of Immature and Mature Cysticerci of Taenia solium by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    为从蛋白质水平揭示猪带绦虫入侵中间宿主家猪的免疫逃避机制,应用双向电泳技术分析未成熟与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白质表达差异,进行双向电泳图像软件分析.结果表明:未成熟猪囊尾蚴与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白的双向电泳凝胶上分别有(217±13)个、(241±17)个蛋白斑点,未成熟猪囊尾蚴表达上调2倍以上的蛋白有6个,下调2倍以上的蛋白有2个.%In order to explore the immune-escape mechanisms of the T. solium cysticercus on the protein level, the differentially expressed proteins of the immature and mature T. solium cysticerci were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis respectively and analyzed by ImageMaster 2D Plantinum 6. 0 software. The results showed that the immature and mature T. solium cysticerci have 217 13 and 241 17 protein spots respectively, the immature T. solium cysticerci have six proteins of more than two times upregulation and two proteins of more than two times downregulation compared to the mature T. solium cysticerci.

  15. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.

  16. Sympatric distribution of three human Taenia tapeworms collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2008-12-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA data reveal cryptic species within Taenia krabbei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lehtinen, Markus J; Laaksonen, Sauli; Holmström, Sauli; Isomursu, Marja; Oksanen, Antti; Meri, Seppo

    2010-06-01

    Cysticerci of Taenia sp. from two elks (Alces alces) in Finland were characterized using morphological criteria and sequences of two mitochondrial DNA regions. The host species, size, structure and location of the cysticerci indicated that they might belong to Taenia krabbei, a circumpolar species occurring in a sylvatic life cycle in wild canids and cervids. Based on the number, length and shape of the rostellar hooks, the specimens could not be unambiguously defined as belonging to T. krabbei, T. cervi, T. ovis or T. solium. In the phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data, Taenia sp. was placed as a sister species of T. solium, distant from T. krabbei isolates previously characterized from Svalbard. This indicates that the Finnish and the Svalbard isolates, resembling T. krabbei, cannot represent a single species. The results suggest that careful morphological and genetic analyses of further isolates from intermediate and definitive hosts are required to define the taxonomic status of these two cryptic species.

  18. Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites: Implications for development of recombinant vaccines produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts.

  19. 检测囊虫循环抗原胶体金试条的研制与初步应用%Development and primary application of gold immuno-chromatographic assay trips for detecting the circulating antigen of Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 唐雨德; 王永山; 王长军; 王平; 冷欣彦

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop a new simple and rapid method to detect the circulating antigen (CA) of Tacnia solium cysticerco-sis. Methods Five hybridoma strains which secret monoclonul antibodies (McAbs) against CA were established and used for screen-ing the optimal composition of gold immunochromatographic (GICA) trips. Two McAbs were purified and applied for preparation GICA trips by labeling one McAb with colloidal gold and coating another on nitrocellulose membrane. The sensitivity and specificity of GICA were evaluated by comparison with sandwich ELISA. Results The optimal composition was McAbs 1 A5 and 186. The optimal amount of McAb 1A5 marked with I ml colloidal gold was 10 μg/ml ,and the optimal coating concentration of MeAb 1 B6 was 1 mg/ml. Concord-mace between GICA and the ELISA for detecting the CA in sera of sick pigs, the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients, and cyst fluid was 97.03%. No positive results were detected in the negative control sera. Threshold value of GICA was 10 ng of CA,and the detec-tion time was about 5 minutes. The GICA strips that were stored at 4℃ and at room temperature for 105 days or at 37℃ for45 days had same performance in the detection. Conclusions The GICA method may efficiently detect CA of Taenia solium cysticercosis, and is suitable for field surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis.%目的 研制快速检测囊虫循环抗原(CA)的胶体金试纸法.方法 以部分纯化囊虫抗原免疫BALB/c小鼠制备抗CA单克隆抗体(McAb),经筛选获得5株能稳定分泌McAb的杂交瘤细胞株.用制备的McAb两两配对,制备了囊虫CA免疫胶体金快速诊断试条.结果 以1A5和1B6配对的试条对人体囊虫CA、囊虫CA标准抗原以及63份囊虫病患者血清、9份脑囊虫痛患者脑脊液的检测结果均为阳性,时弓形虫病感染者、包虫病患者及非疫区献血员血清的检测结果均为阴性;与酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)的平行对比试验表明,试条检测敏感

  20. Le complexe taeniase/cysticercose : la phylogénie et l’évolution de Taenia solium et la biologie moléculaire appliquée au diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Michelet, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Taenia soliumis responsible for two distinct diseases in humans: taeniasis and cysticercosis. The complex Taeniasis/Cysticercosis has long been investigated because of the impact of the parasite on the human and pig populations.We wanted to study this complex from the angle of the parasite-host system (intermediate host, definitive host and parasite). The main objective of this work is to deepen knowledge of this complex to lead to improved diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. We work primarily o...

  1. NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

    1999-12-01

    Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae.

  2. 猪带绦虫苹果酸脱氢酶基因的克隆表达及免疫学分析%Expression and purification of malate dehydrogenase gene in Taenia solium and immunologic analysis of the recombinant proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江楠; 席晓兰; 王杰; 戴佳琳; 廖兴江; 黄江

    2011-01-01

    目的 对猪带绦虫苹果酸脱氢酶基因(malate dehydrogenase,MDH)进行克隆,表达及免疫学特性的初步研究.方法 将猪带绦虫MDH基因克隆到原核表达质粒pET-28a(+)中,在大肠埃希菌BL21/DE3中用异丙基-β-D-半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达,表达产物通过十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)进行鉴定,用镍离子金属螯合剂亲和层析柱进行纯化,纯化的重组蛋白用蛋白印迹(Western Blot)进行免疫学分析.结果 成功构建pET-28a(+)-MDH重组质粒,并获得高纯度蛋白,该重组蛋白可被其免疫SD大鼠血清识别,同时也能被感染猪带绦虫的病人及猪、感染牛带绦虫病人及感染亚带绦虫病人血清所识别.结论 猪带绦虫苹果酸脱氢酶基因可在原核表达系统中获得具有免疫学活性的高效表达,为进一步研究该蛋白的功能奠定了基础.%The objective of this study was to clone and express the gene named as malate dehydrogenase gene (MDH) in Taenia Solium, and to analyze the immunogenicity of its recombinant protein. The coding region of MDH was amplified with PCR, cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and expressed in E. coli BL21/DE3 with IPTG induction. In addition, the immunogenicity of the purified recombinant proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. PCR, double enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing confirmed that the recombinant expression plasmid was successfully constructed. The expression products were obtained and purified by His-Ni2+ affinity chromatography. Western blotting analysis of MDH recombinant protein testified that these proteins could be recognized by sera of the patients infected with T. asiatica and T. rhynchus saginatus. Results suggested that the MDH gene of T. solium has been cloned and expressed, and the purified protein has been confirmed with immunogenicity.

  3. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  4. 猪带绦虫六钩蚴TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域相应的线性B细胞表位肽免疫原性研究%Research on immunity response about Taenia solium oncosphere TSO45-4B antigens FnⅢ structure domain linear B cells epitope peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛媛; 陶志勇; 杨小迪; 王小莉; 常雪莲; 陈勇; 孙新; 夏惠; 方强

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the humoral immune response induced by Taenia solium oncosphere TSO45-4B antigens Fn Ⅲ structure domain linear B cells epitope peptides in mice. Methods: The two predicted B cell epitope peptides of TSO45-4B Fn Ⅲ structure domain conjugated with carrier protein of keyhole limpet hemocyanin were synthesized and used to immunize mice. The mice specific serum antibody titer to the epitope peptides synthesized was tested by ELISA. Results: The specific antibody to one of the predicted epitope peptides synthesized was found in mice serum,and the titer was 1: 1 280. Conclusions: One of the two predicted linear B cell epitope peptides of TSO45-4B FnⅢ structure domain can induce the humoral immune response in mice.%目的:观察载体蛋白偶联的TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域相应的线性B细胞表位肽诱导的体液免疫反应.方法:人工合成TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域2条预测表位肽,偶联钥孔血蓝蛋白免疫小鼠,采用ELISA法检测小鼠血清中预测表位肽特异性抗体滴度.结果:免疫小鼠血清中检测到1条预测表位肽特异性抗体,其效价达到1:1 280.结论:设计的1条TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域线性B细胞表位肽可诱导小鼠产生体液免疫反应.

  5. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of Taenia tapeworms from human: application to a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for identification of human Taenia tapeworms in Tibetan communities in Sichuan, China. Out of 51 proglottids recovered from 35 carriers, 9, 1, and 41 samples were identified as Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, respectively. Same results were obtained afterwards in the laboratory, except one sample. These results demonstrated that the LAMP method enabled rapid identification of parasites in the field surveys, which suggested that this method would contribute to the control of Taenia infections in endemic areas.

  6. TAENIA SAGINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Setiyani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cacing pita ini adalah parasit dalam usus halusmanusia, dan sebagai inang antaranya adalah sapi.Penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh cacing pitaTaenia saginata dikenal dengan nama Taeniasis. Infeksiterutama terjadi di Afrika, Timur Tengah, Eropa Barat,Meksiko, dan Amerika Selatan.

  7. Taenia saginata: an unusual cause of post-appendectomy faecal fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najih, Mohammed; Laraqui, Hicham; Njoumi, Nouredine; Mouhafid, Faycel; Moujahid, Mountassir; Ehirchiou, Abdelkader; Zentar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Post-appendectomy faecal fistula is a rare surgical complication, associated with significant morbidity. Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestation in the gastrointestinal tract. It makes many complications as obstruction, perforation, anastomotic leakage or appendicular stump dehiscence. The objective of our study is to report a very rare case of post appendectomy faecal fistula caused by taenia saginata infestation and was successfully treated conservatively. PMID:28292157

  8. First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Zaheri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

  9. Taenia infestation in the appendix: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Eksi, Saliha

    2013-11-01

    Taenia saginata is a zoonotic cestode causing taeniasis. Taeniasis refers to the intestinal infection with the adult stage of this tapeworm. An association between teaniasis and acute appendicitis is uncommon. We present the case of a 37 year old male who presented with abdominal pain for one day. He was diagnosed with having appendicitis and an appendectomy was performed. Pathology of the appendix showed Taenia saginata with eggs in the lumen. Histological analysis showed acute inflammation consistent with acute appendicitis caused by T. saginata.

  10. Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

  11. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  12. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

  13. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  14. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjit Thanchomnang

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  15. [Teniasis in a child with finding of Taenia saginata proglottids in the school environment: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of teniasis in a child, associated to the finding of Taenia proglottids in a classroom of a primary school in the area of Cuneo (Local Health Unit Cn-1, Piedmont Region, Italy). Several proglottids had been repeatedly found by cleaners on the bookbox of several schooldesks in the same classroom. Laboratory investigation was able to identify Taenia saginata proglottids and cooperation of the local Public Health Unit with the school management allowed to identify and treat the affected child. Laboratory investigation was crucial to exclude a Taenia solium infection, which should have had important public health implications. In fact, infection among humans can follow the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs and in this case larval forms in several tissues can occur (cysticercosis). Moreover the disease can be particularly severe when cysticerci invade the brain, causing seizures and hydrocephalia.

  16. Dynamic observation of immune responses induced in mice by immunization with a recombinant BCG-TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium%猪带绦虫重组BCG-TSOL18疫苗诱导小鼠免疫应答的动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤娇; 江楠; 周泠; 刘晖; 王灵军; 周必英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To dynamically observe humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by immunization with a recombinant BCG-TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium.Methods Totally 80 Kunming mice were divided into 4 groups by using random number table according to body mass, 20 mice in each group: rBCG-TSOL18 intraperitoneal injection group [mice were vaccinated with 5 × 106 colony forming units (CFU) recombinant BCG-TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium through intraperitoneal injection], rBCG-TSOL18 intragastric administration group(mice were vaccinated with 4 × 108 CFU recombinant BCG-TSOL18 vaccine of Taenia solium through intragastric administration), BCG control (mice were vaccinated with 5 × 106 CFU BCG through intraperitoneal injection), PBS control (mice were vaccinated with PBS through intraperitoneal injection).Zero, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after immunization, eye blood was collected and serum w as separated.Levels of specific IgG and IgG2a were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Proliferation level of spleen lymphocytes was detected by CCK-8.Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 were determined by ELISA.Results The level of specific IgG in rBCG-TSOL18 intraperitoneal injection group and rBCG-TSOL18 intragastric administration group increased from 2 to 8 weeks, and reached the highest level by the 6th week (0.310 ± 0.022, 0.356 ± 0.026).Compared with 0 week in the same group, BCG and PBS control group of the same time periods (0.054 ± 0.005, 0.057 ± 0.006, 0.093 ± 0.014, 0.085 ± 0.010), there were statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05).The level of specific IgG2a increased from 2 to 8 weeks, and reached the highest level by the 6th week (0.965 ± 0.031, 1.144 ± 0.049).Compared with 0 week in the same group, BCG and PBS control group of the same time periods (0.102 ± 0.014, 0.093 ± 0.012, 0.115 ± 0.012, 0.103 ± 0.013), there were statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05).The proliferation level of spleen

  17. Identification of Taenia solium Insulin Receptor TsIR-1316 and Expression of Its Ligand Binding Domain%猪带绦虫胰岛素受体TsIR-1316的鉴定及其配体结合结构域的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳玲; 郭爱疆; 张少华; 刘光学; 侯俊玲; 骆学农

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析鉴定猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)胰岛素受体TsIR-1316的结构特征,并对其配体结合结构域(LBD)进行表达. 方法 参考GeneDB数据库猪带绦虫基因组注释信息,设计特异性引物,克隆获得TsIR-1316基因,用BLASTN和BLASTP分别对其核苷酸和氨基酸序列进行同源性比对,并用在线软件对该蛋白的信号肽和结构域进行预测分析.将其LBD克隆至原核表达载体pET-30a(+),表达、纯化后进行十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分析,用猪囊尾蚴阳性血清和TsIR-LBD免疫兔血清进行蛋白质印迹(Western blotting)鉴定. 结果 TsIR-1316的开放阅读框为5 196 bp,编码1 732个氨基酸,与多房棘球绦虫(Echinococcus multilocularis)的同源性为84%,具有典型的酪氨酸激酶家族的结构特征和“V”型三级结构.SDS-PAGE结果显示,所表达的重组蛋白相对分子质量(M)为59000,与预期一致.Western blotting检测结果显示,重组蛋白可与猪囊尾蚴阳性血清及TsIR-LBD免疫兔血清发生特异性反应,在Mr 59 000处出现特异条带. 结论 克隆并鉴定了猪带绦虫TsIR-1316基因,其LBD的表达产物可被猪囊尾蚴阳性血清所识别,具有良好的反应原性.

  18. Prediction and identification of Taenia solium oncosphere TSO45-4B antigen FnⅢ structure domain linear B cell epitopes%猪带绦虫六钩蚴TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域线性B细胞表位预测及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛媛; 王小莉; 常雪莲; 陶志勇; 夏惠; 方强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To predict and identify Taenia solium oncosphere TSO45-4B antigen FnⅢ structure domain linear B cell epitopes. Methods The B cell epitopes of TSO45-4B FnⅢ structure domain were predicted through the sequence analysis by using bioinformatics online tools and the protein space conformation was predicted by SWISS-MODEL. The peptides were synthesized according to the predicted linear epitopes. The immunoreactivity of sera of cysticercosis patients to the peptides synthesized was tested by using ELISA. Results Two linear B cell epitopes of TSO45-4B FnⅢ structure domain were predicted, and one of the predicted epitope peptides synthesized could be recognized by the sera of cysticercosis patients. Conclusion Two linear B cell epitopes of TSO45-4B Fn Ⅲ structure domain are predicted and one of them has been confirmed successfully.%目的 预测并鉴定猪带绦虫六钩蚴TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域线性B细胞表位.方法 利用生物信息学在线工具分析TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域序列并预测其线性B细胞表位;采用SWISS-MODEL软件预测TSO45-4B的蛋白空间结构,并合成两条预测表位肽.采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测猪囊尾蚴病人血清与两条预测表位肽的免疫反应性.结果 获得2个TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域线性B细胞预测表位,其中1条预测表位合成肽可为猪囊尾蚴病患者血清识别.结论 成功预测并鉴定了猪带绦虫六钩蚴TSO45-4B抗原FnⅢ结构域线性B细胞表位.

  19. Advance study of animal model of Taenia solium%人-猪囊虫、猪带绦虫动物模型替代性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景志忠; 王佩雅; 窦永喜; 才学鹏

    2001-01-01

    @@猪囊虫病又称猪囊尾蚴病(Cysticercosis celluose)是一种危害畜牧业和人体健康的重要人兽共患寄生虫病(Parasitic Zoonsis)。该病主要分布于美洲、非洲及亚洲部分不发达地区,我国已有27个省、市、自治区发现本病,猪囊虫病的感染率在全国平均为5.32%,有的地区高达30%~50%,近有2 200多万头猪患囊虫病。另外人囊虫病对人的危害也十分严重,可导致患者致残,甚至死亡。人是猪囊虫成虫-猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)的唯一终末宿主,人的猪带绦虫病既可污染环境造成更多猪只患囊虫病,又可引发人的囊虫病特别是脑囊虫病,人的猪带绦虫病和人、猪囊虫病互为因果,人体猪带绦虫病感染率为0.09%~7.9%,人体囊虫病感染率为0.14%~3.2%,全国约有囊虫病患者600万人,该病在公共卫生学上具有极为重要意义,是肉品检验中必检的项目之一,也是我国农业发展纲要中限期消灭的疾病之一。由于人是猪带绦虫的唯一天然终末宿主,极大地限制了人、猪囊虫研究的材料来源。目前有关猪囊虫的研究材料主要来源于天然宿主感染,即家猪的感染和人的感染(囊虫病和绦虫病),由于猪体体型较大,不利于日常管理和实验操作,同时其采食量大,所需经费较大,限制了人工感染囊虫猪的使用,而猪带绦虫的来源就更有限,既没有志愿者,也不能利用非人灵长类,因此猪囊虫特别是猪带绦虫的试验材料相当有限,不利于对该病的研究,为了解决病原材料的来源和对该病模拟研究,国内外学者曾多次尝试建立猪囊虫病的动物模型,皆因猪囊虫严格的宿主特异性均未获得成功。

  20. 槟榔南瓜子合剂对猪带绦虫作用的超微结构观察%ULTRASTRUCTURE OBSERVATION ON TAENIA SOLIUM EXPELLED BY DECOCTION OF ARECA AND PUMPKIN SEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田喜凤; 戴建军; 董路; 贺宝玲; 杨兆勇; 赵丽娜

    2002-01-01

    目的研究槟榔南瓜子合剂对猪带绦虫的杀虫机理. 方法猪带绦虫患者,晨空腹口服熟的、研成粉末的南瓜子仁100 g,30 min后服用槟榔煎剂(100 g,加水500 ml,煎煮),30 min后服用50%的硫酸镁60 ml.驱出的猪带绦虫活虫,以0.2 mol/L,pH7.2 PBS冲洗3次,2.5%戊二醛固定24 h以上.分别取幼节、成节、孕节各两节,每节取2小块,修成1 mm3,置2.5%戊二醛中备用.另取犬肠道内的豆状带绦虫(Taenia pisiformis)及患者驱虫前自动排出的新鲜孕节片(3节)作对照.将上述虫块取出,PBS 冲洗3次后,1%四氧化锇后固定4 h,冲洗3次,梯度酒精脱水,环氧树脂618浸透、包埋,超薄切片,厚50~70 nm,经醋酸铀和枸橼酸铅双重染色,透射电镜观察. 结果槟榔南瓜子合剂驱出的猪带绦虫的超微结构与正常对照组基本相同.(1)皮层无损伤.远端胞质区表面的微毛完整,胞质区内的囊泡、线粒体、内质网等细胞器无肿胀;核周胞质无变性、无细胞器减少或出现大量囊泡;(2)实质无变化.实质浅层的环肌束和纵肌束排列整齐,无肌纤维断裂和线粒体肿胀.实质深层的实质细胞和支持细胞结构正常. 结论槟榔南瓜子合剂对猪带绦虫的驱虫机理主要是麻痹作用,对神经无损伤.与阿苯达唑对猪带绦虫的损伤作用明显不同.

  1. Immunoblot patterns of Taenia asiatica taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2009-03-01

    Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and 21.5 kDa against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia saginata revealed 110-100, 66, 58-56, and 46 kDa immunoblot bands against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia solium also revealed 99-97, 68-66, and 46 kDa bands against T. asiatica infected sera. The immunoblot band of 21.5 kDa exhibited specificity to T. asiatica.

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic.

  3. Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

    2010-03-01

    There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded.

  4. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2013-05-01

    The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species.

  6. Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-10-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries.

  7. [Taenia martis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) from vertebrates in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Infestation of vertebrate animals with the cestode Taenia martis and its larvae was investigated in south-west Belarus during 2001-2008. Obligatory definitive host (common marten) and intermediate hosts (red-backed vole, yellow-necked mouse, striped field mouse, and red squirrel) of this helminth were established for the Republic of Belarus. Description and figure of the T. martis larva is given.

  8. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  9. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical.

  10. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere.

  11. Cestode regulation of inflammation and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jose-Luis Reyes; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek M

    2013-03-01

    Helminth parasites are masters of immune regulation; a likely prerequisite for long-term survival by circumventing their hosts' attempt to eradicate them. From a translational perspective, knowledge of immune events as a response to infection with a helminth parasite could be used to reduce the intensity of unwanted inflammatory reactions. Substantial data have accumulated showing that inflammatory reactions that promote a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases are dampened as a consequence of infection with helminth parasites, via either the mobilization of an anti-worm spectrum of immune events or by the direct effect of secretory/excretory bioactive immunomodulatory molecules released from the parasite. However, many issues are outstanding in the definition of the mechanism(s) by which infection with helminth parasites can affect the outcome, positively or negatively, of concomitant disease. We focus on a subgroup of this complex group of metazoan parasites, the cestodes, summarizing studies from rodent models that illustrate if, and by what mechanisms, infection with tapeworms ameliorate or exaggerate disease in their host. The ability of infection with cestodes, or other classes of helminth, to worsen a disease course or confer susceptibility to intracellular pathogens should be carefully considered in the context of 'helminth therapy'. In addition, poorly characterised cestode extracts can regulate murine and human immunocyte function, yet the impact of these in the context of autoimmune or allergic diseases is poorly understood. Thus, studies with cestodes, as representative helminths, have helped cement the concept that infection with parasitic helminths can inhibit concomitant disease; however, issues relating to long-term effects, potential side-effects, mixed pathogen infections and purification of immunomodulatory molecules from the parasite remain as challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve the use of helminths as anti

  12. Spermatological characteristics of the genus Taenia inferred from the ultrastructural study on Taenia hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish the sperm ultrastructure baseline for Taenia hydatigena, which is essential for the future research on the location of specific proteins involved in spermatogenesis in this species. Thus, the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live tapeworms were obtained from an experimentally infected dog in the Department of Pathology and Public Health of the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II of Rabat (Morocco). The spermatozoon of T. hydatigena is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, a crested body, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other interesting characteristics are the presence of a 2000 nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of T. hydatigena are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia.

  13. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  14. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

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    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  15. Generalized Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

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    Basso, Walter; Rütten, Maja; Deplazes, Peter; Grimm, Felix

    2014-01-17

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite that uses carnivores as definitive hosts and rodents and rabbits as main intermediate hosts, but other animal species and humans may also get infected. One adult male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) from an animal shelter in Switzerland presented widespread subcutaneous fluctuant swellings extended over the forehead, nose, face and thoracic regions with a progressive growth over 3 months. The thoracic swelling was surgically resected, and it consisted of numerous 3-4mm small transparent vesicles, mainly confined to the subcutaneous tissue, which were morphologically identified as cysticerci of T. crassiceps. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis of fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. After 1.5 months, due to enlargement of the swollen areas and deterioration of the general health condition, the chinchilla was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. Thousands of small cysticerci were observed widespread in the subcutis, involving underlying musculature of the whole body, in the thoracic cavity, larynx, pharynx and in the retropharyngeal region. Additionally, three larger metacestodes were detected in the liver and morphologically and molecularly identified as Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocerci. The present case represents an indicator of the environmental contamination with Taenia eggs, highlighting the risk of infection for susceptible animals and humans. Besides the clinical relevance for pets, T. crassiceps is a zoonotic parasite and can be also cause of severe cysticercosis in humans.

  16. 猪带绦虫TSO45W-4B-TSOL18融合基因在大肠埃希菌ArcticExpress(DE3)中的表达、纯化和兔抗血清的制备%Expression and purification of a fusion gene TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 of Taenia solium in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress(DE3) and preparation of rabbit antiserum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英; 周泠; 刘美辰; 刘晖; 贺莉芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct a recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 of Taenia solium,to obtain purified recombinant protein TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 and to prepare rabbit antiserum against the recombinant fusion protein.Methods TSO45W-4B and TSOL18 encoding genes were connected with hydrophobic (Gly4Ser)3 linker.TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 fusion gene was synthesized and cloned into an expression vector pGEX-1λT to construct a recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18.The positive recombinants were transformed into Escherichia(E.) coli ArcticExpress (DE3),and the expression of recombinant protein was induced with isopropylβ-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).The expressed recombinant fusion protein was purified through affinity chromatography.The purified recombinant protein was mixed with complete Freunds adjuvant at a dosage of 0.5 mg.Rabbit was intramuscularly and subcutaneously immunized in the hind leg and the back,respectively.After 2 weeks the rabbit was boosted with purified recombinant protein which was mixed with incomplete Freunds adjuvant at the same dosage.Rabbit can be boosted every 10 days until an adequate response was achieved.At the 6th day after the last immunization,blood was collected from the rabbit heart.Serum was separated to purify and prepare the antiserum.ELISA was applied to determine the titer of the antiserum and Western blot assay was used to determine the specificity of the antiserum.Results The size of the synthesized fusion gene TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 was 789 bp.The results of restriction enzyme digestion showed that the recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 was successfully constructed.DNA sequencing showed that the size of the fusion gene TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 was 789 bp,which was consistent with expected result.As demonstrated by SDS-PAGE,relative molecular mass of the expressed recombinant fusion protein was approximately 55 × 103,and its purity was 85% after

  17. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

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    McManus Donald P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.

  18. Relative seroprevalence of cysticercus antigens and antibodies and antibodies to Taenia ova in a population sample in south India suggests immunity against neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T; Prabhakaran, V; Babu, P; Raghava, M Venkata; Rajshekhar, V; Dorny, P; Muliyil, J; Oommen, A

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the exposure of a community in Vellore district of south India to Taenia solium infection and its relationship to the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) causing active epilepsy. Seroprevalence of Taenia cysticercus antigens and antibodies were determined in 1064 randomly chosen asymptomatic individuals, antibodies to T. solium ova in 197 selected sera, and prevalence of taeniasis by a coproantigen test in 729 stool samples. The prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy in Vellore district was determined in a population of 50 617. Coproantigens were detected in 0.8% (6 samples), Taenia cysticercus antigens in 4.5% (48 sera) and cysticercus IgG antibodies in 15.9% (169 sera) of the population. Cysticercus antibodies were directed against relatively low molecular weight cyst glycoprotein antigens in 14.9% (158 sera) of the population. IgG antibodies to Taenia ova were found in 81 (41.1%) of the selected samples. Prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy was 1.3 per 1000 population. These results show high exposure of the population to the parasite and a relatively high prevalence of active infections (4.5% antigen positives) but a low prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy (0.13%). These findings may indicate that the population is protected against developing neurocysticercosis. IgG antibodies directed against Taenia ova and low molecular weight cyst antigens may contribute to protection.

  19. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

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    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  20. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-22

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species.

  1. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode.

  2. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings.

  3. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  4. Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

    2012-11-23

    Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed.

  5. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  6. The occurrence of the larval cestode Cysticercus fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.

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    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Panti-May, J A; Parada-López, J; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Ruiz-Piña, H A

    2011-12-01

    Cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, whose definitive hosts are mainly cats. This larval stage uses a wide variety of small rodents, and occasionally birds and humans, as intermediate hosts. In the Yucatan, there are no reports of the presence of this cestode in animal populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of C. fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico. Trapping of rodents was conducted from October 2009 to April 2010 in 40 households in Molas, in which Sherman traps were placed both inside and outside backyards. Rodents were dissected to inspect the liver for the presence of the worm. To determine risk factors associated with infection, univariate analysis was performed using sex, age, species, trapping site, and season as independent variables. Variables with a P value rodent species were trapped; Mus musculus was the most abundant (78%), followed by Rattus rattus (13%) and the wild species Peromyscus yucatanicus, Ototylomys phyllotis, Heteromys gaumeri and Reithrodontomys gracilis (9%). Only 7.5% (n = 31) of M. musculus and R. rattus were infected with C. fasciolaris (demonstrated by the presence of liver cysts) with a prevalence of 9.0% and 3.5%, respectively. Both adults and male mice were 4.33 and 3.46 (OR values) times more likely to have C. fasciolaris than juveniles and females respectively. We can conclude that in the Cuxtal Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, the prevalence of C. fasciolaris is higher in M. musculus, and that adult males had a higher probability of infection. Wild species, mainly P. yucatanicus, were not found to be infected with the cestode, but its presence in the backyards of households could result in a potential risk of acquiring this infection.

  7. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.

  8. Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents.

  9. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation.

  10. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  11. Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2012-06-01

    Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic.

  12. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

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    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  13. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  14. Molecular cloning of Taenia taeniaeformis oncosphere antigen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, W G; Lightowlers, M W; Bogh, H O; Rickard, M D; Johnson, K S

    1991-03-01

    Infection of mice with the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis exhibits several important features common to other cestode infections, including the ability to vaccinate with crude antigen mixtures. Partial purification of the protective oncosphere antigens has been reported with a cutout from deoxycholate (DOC) acrylamide gels; this cutout was called fraction II (FII), and comprises approximately 10% of total DOC-soluble oncosphere antigen. Western blots of DOC gels probed with anti-FII antisera revealed a series of 3-5 discrete bands within the FII region. Further fractionation of the FII antigens on DOC gels was impractical due to limitations in supply of oncospheres, so a cDNA library was constructed from 150 ng of oncosphere mRNA and screened with alpha-FII antisera. Two distinct clone families were identified, oncA and oncB. Antibodies affinity-purified on either of two representative members, oncA1 and oncB1, recognised all the FII bands. Individual FII bands excised from a DOC gel resolved into an overlapping series of molecules when re-run on SDS-PAGE, indicating that each FII band consisted of several polypeptides of differing molecular weight. Immunoprecipitates resolved on SDS-PAGE revealed that alpha-FII recognised 3 major oncosphere antigens, of 62, 34 and 25 kDa; antisera against oncB precipitated both the 34- and 25-kDa antigens, whereas alpha-oncA antisera precipitated the 62-kDa antigen. We conclude that oncA and oncB encode the major antigens in the FII complex. The 62-kDa antigen encoded by oncA1 was the only common antigen precipitated by anti-FII and two other antisera raised against different protective extracts, suggesting that it may be a protective component in all three. Southern blot results indicate that oncA and oncB are distinct genes present at low copy number in the genome. Evidence is also presented suggesting that some cestode mRNAs, including oncA, may use variant polyadenylation signals.

  15. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

  16. Molecular characterization of enolase gene from Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Qu, Z G; Zhang, N Z; Yue, L; Jia, W Z; Luo, J X; Yin, H; Fu, B Q

    2015-10-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite with its larval stage, known as Coenurus cerebralis, mainly encysts in the central nervous system of sheep and other livestocks. Enolase is a key glycolytic enzyme and represents multifunction in most organisms. In the present study, a 1617bp full-length cDNA encoding enolase was cloned from T. multiceps and designated as TmENO. A putative encoded protein of 433 amino acid residues that exhibited high similarity to helminth parasites. The recombinant TmENO protein (rTmENO) showed the catalytic and plasminogen-binding characteristics after the TmENO was subcloned and expressed in the pET30a(+) vector. The TmENO gene was transcribed during the adult and larval stages and was also identified in both cyst fluid and as a component of the adult worms and the metacestode by western blot analysis. Taken together, our results will facilitate further structural characterization for TmENO and new potential control strategies for T. multiceps.

  17. Unusual colonoscopy finding: Taenia saginata proglottid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Infection with tapeworms is a major problem in many parts of the world. Patients may be asymptomatic or have a significant morbidity depending on the species.Infection with Taenia species is sometimes found by expulsion of eggs or proglottids in stool. Species specific diagnosis of Taenia is difficult, but possible. We present a case of Taenia saginata incidentally discovered, and risk factors for transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment.

  18. Influence of geographical scale on the detection of density dependence in the host-parasite system, Arvicola terrestris and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deter, J; Berthier, K; Chaval, Y; Cosson, J F; Morand, S; Charbonnel, N

    2006-04-01

    Infection by the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis was investigated within numerous cyclic populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola terrestris sampled during 4 years in Franche-Comté (France). The relative influence of different rodent demographic parameters on the presence of this cestode was assessed by considering (1) the demographic phase of the cycle; (2) density at the local geographical scale (10 km2). The local scale corresponded to the rodent population (intermediate host), while the large scale corresponded to the definitive host population (wild and feral cats). General linear models based on analyses of 1804 voles revealed the importance of local density but also of year, rodent age, season and interactions between year and season and between age and season. Prevalence was significantly higher in low vole densities than during local outbreaks. By contrast, the large geographical scale density and the demographic phase had less influence on infection by the cestode. The potential impacts of the cestode on the fitness of the host were assessed and infection had no effect on the host body mass, litter size or sexual activity of voles.

  19. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature.

  20. [The influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larval infection on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Jerzy; Nosał, Paweł; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed.

  1. Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'.

  2. Annotated checklist of fish cestodes from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Philippe V.; de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes), parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. As expected, the current knowledge is quite uneven regarding the number of taxa and host-associations reported from the principal river basins and marine ecoregions. These differences may not only reflect the actual cestode richness but may also be due to the research effort that has been devoted to unravelling the diversity of these endoparasitic helminths in individual countries. A total of 297 valid species, 61 taxa identified to the generic level, in addition to unidentified cestodes, were recorded from 401 species of fish hosts. Among the recognized cestode orders, 13 have been recorded in South America, with the Onchoproteocephalidea displaying the highest species richness, representing c. 50% of all species diversity. The majority of records include teleost fish hosts (79%) that harbour larval and adult stages of cestodes, whereas stingrays (Myliobatiformes) exhibit the highest proportion of records (39%) among the elasmobranch hosts. Fish cestodes are ubiquitous in South America, being mostly recorded from the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific (WTSP; 31%) for marine hosts and the Amazon River basin (45%) for freshwater ones. The following problems were detected during the compilation of literary data: (i) unreliability of many records; (ii) poor taxonomic resolution, i.e. identification made only to the genus or even family level; (iii

  3. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    , it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected...... and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye...

  4. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja, Alberto;

    Pig-keeping and pork consumption have increased significantly in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past decade. A high and increasing prevalence of epilepsy in ESA, without a clear etiology, and an increase in cases of porcine cysticercosis have been noted in the region. Two Danida-fun...

  5. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja, Alberto

    Pig-keeping and pork consumption have increased significantly in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past decade. A high and increasing prevalence of epilepsy in ESA, without a clear etiology, and an increase in cases of porcine cysticercosis have been noted in the region. Two Danida-fun...

  6. Intraventricular Taenia solium cysts presenting with Bruns syndrome and indications for emergent neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahani, Lokesh; Garnes, Natalie Dailey; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-06-01

    Bruns syndrome is an unusual phenomenon, characterized by attacks of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head. The presumptive cause of Bruns syndrome is a mobile deformable intraventricular mass leading to an episodic obstructive hydrocephalus. Intraventricular tumors have been associated with Bruns syndrome; however, few cases of intraventricular neurocysticercosis have been reported to present with Bruns syndrome. We report the first series of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis presenting with Bruns syndrome in the United States and review the other published cases where surgery was indicated.

  7. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

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    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  8. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. cysticercosis in rural and urban smallholder pig production settings in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungu, Joseph M; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Harrison, Leslie J S; Poole, E Jane; Pezo, Danilo; Grace, Delia

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is prevalent in Uganda although the prevalence has not been determined in all areas of the country. A cross-sectional study, to determine the sero-prevalence of the parasite in pigs kept under rural and urban production settings, was carried out in three Ugandan districts, Masaka, Mukono and Kamuli. Serum samples from 1185 pigs were tested for the presence of T. solium cysticercosis antigen using the HP10 antigen-ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and the ApDia Ag-ELISA assays. Using parallel interpretation of the two tests showed lower levels of observed prevalence of T. solium in rural production settings (10.8%) compared to urban (17.1%). Additionally, Maximum Likelihood Estimation for evaluating assays in the absence of a gold standard, using TAGS on the R platform, estimated the true sero-prevalence to be lower in rural production setting, 0.0% [0.0-3.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI)] than in urban production setting, 12.3% (4.2-77.5% CI). When the sensitivity/specificity (Se/Sp) of the assays were estimated, assuming conditional independence of the tests, HP10 Ag-ELISA was more sensitive and specific [(Se=53.9%; 10.1-100% CI), (Sp=97.0%; 95.9-100% CI)] than the ApDia assay [(Se=20.2%; 1.5-47.7% CI), (Sp=92.2%; 90.5-93.9% CI)]. Subject to parasitological verification, these results indicate there may be a need to implement appropriate control measures for T. solium in the study areas.

  9. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  10. Analysis of the expression of cytoskeletal proteins of Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci (Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Paredes-Salomon, Cristina; Pérez-Reyes, América; Landa, Abraham; Robert, Lilia; Mendoza, Guillermo; Ambrosio, Javier R

    2014-05-01

    The Taenia crassiceps ORF strain is used to generate a murine model of cysticercosis, which is used for diagnosis, evaluation of drugs, and vaccination. This particular strain only exists as cysticerci, is easily maintained under in vivo and in vitro conditions, and offers an excellent model for studying the cytoskeletons of cestodes. In this study, several experimental approaches were used to determine the tissue expression of its cytoskeletal proteins. The techniques used were microscopy (video, confocal, and transmission electron), one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, immunochemistry, and mass spectrometry. The tissue expression of actin, tubulin, and paramyosin was assessed using microscopy, and their protein isoforms were determined with 1D and 2D electrophoresis and immunochemistry. Nineteen spots were excised from a proteomic gel and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunochemistry. The proteins identified were classic cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, and proteins with diverse biological functions, but mainly involved in detoxification activities. Research suggests that most noncytoskeletal proteins interact with actin or tubulin, and the results of the present study suggest that the proteins identified may be involved in supporting the dynamics and plasticity of the cytoskeleton of T. crassiceps cysticerci. These results contribute to our knowledge of the cellular biology and physiology of cestodes.

  11. Modification of universal 12S rDNA primers for specific amplification of contaminated Taenia spp. (Cestoda) gDNA enabling phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, M; Silva-Gonzalez, R; Lucius, R

    1999-10-01

    The construction of new specific tapeworm primers allowed synthesis of a 311-bp fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rDNA of 11 Taenia species and two Echinococcus species by PCR. After direct sequencing and construction of an alignment, the DNA sequences were calculated by three different phylogenetic algorithms. The phylogenetic trees were tested by 1000 bootstrap replications. Reliability of the nodes was tested by splits testing. All three algorithms revealed a clear monophyletic phylum Taenia, suggesting it may be paraphyletic with respect to the genus Echinococcus. Within the genus Taenia, the first secure group was composed by Taenia saginata, T. solium, T. serialis, T. ovis and T. hydatigena. A delimited second group was formed by T. martis, T. taeniaeformis, T. mustelae and T. parva. All of them were opposed to the genus Echinococcus using other cyclophyllideans as an outgroup. In this study Echinococcus was used as an outgroup, being the closest species against which the ingroup could be routed. The findings of this publication reflect Verster's basic morphologically based grouping of the Taeniidae.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Taenia ovis metacestodes by high performance liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2017-03-15

    Taenia ovis metacestodes reside in the muscle of sheep and goats, and may cause great economic loss due to condemnation of carcasses if not effectively controlled. Although advances have been made in the control of T. ovis infection, our knowledge of T. ovis biology is limited. Herein the protein profiling of T. ovis metacestodes was determined by liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 966 proteins were identified and 25.1% (188/748) were annotated to be associated with metabolic pathways. Consistently, GO analysis returned a metabolic process (16.27%) as one of two main biological process terms. Moreover, it was found that 24 proteins, including very low-density lipoprotein receptor, enolase, paramyosin and endophilin B1, were abundant in T. ovis metacestodes. These proteins may be associated with motility, metabolism, signaling, stress, drug resistance and immune responses. Furthermore, comparative analysis of 5 cestodes revealed the presence of Taenia-specific enolases. These data provide clues for better understanding of T. ovis biology, which is informative for effective control of infection.

  13. Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids in vitro: metyrapone regulates the production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Hinojosa, L; Gómez, Y; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2012-05-01

    Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci and tapeworms have the ability to synthesize sex steroid hormones and have a functional 3β-hydroxisteroid dehydrogenase. Corticosteroids (CS) like corticosterone and dexamethasone have been shown to stimulate in vitro estrogen production by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The aim of this work was to study the ability of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids, and the effect of the inhibitor metyrapone on the CS synthesis. For this purpose T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, thoroughly washed and pre-incubated in multiwells for 24 h in DMEM plus antibiotics/antimycotics. The tritiated CS precursor progesterone ((3)H-P4) was added to the culture media and parasites cultured for different periods. Blanks containing the culture media plus the (3)H-P4 were simultaneously incubated. Blanks and parasite culture media were ether extracted and analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. Corticosterone production was measured in the culture media by RIA. In some experiments metyrapone (0.1-0.5 mM) was added for 24, 48 or 72 h. Results showed that cysticerci mainly synthesized tritiated 11-deoxy corticosterone (DOC) and small amounts of corticosterone that was also detected by RIA. Small amounts of (3)H-11-deoxy cortisol were also found. Corticosteroid synthesis was time dependent. The addition of metyrapone significantly inhibited tritiated DOC, deoxycortisol and corticosterone synthesis. These results show for the first time that parasites have the capacity to synthesize CS that is modulated by metyrapone. Data suggest that DOC is the main corticosteroid in the parasites.

  14. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp.In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata, human cysticercosis (T. solium and pig cysticercosis (T. solium in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%-7.7%, and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%-26.4%. Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%-0.5%. Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively, gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02, level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09, use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02 and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0

  15. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  16. On cestodes of Passer domesticus I. Choanotaenia, Raillietine and Proparuterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, S C; Saxena, S K

    1976-09-01

    An investigation on the cestode fauna of the common sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) was carried out for about five years. In all 445 birds were examined during this period and only five species of cestodes were found to parasitize this bird: of these, three are known while two are new forms, the latter are the rarities. This part includes critical accounts of Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907), Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) and Proparuterina lali sp. nov. - Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907) has been previously studied by Fuhrmann (1907), Johnston (1909), Stunkard & Milford (1937) and Kintner (1938). The present study provides additional data. The writers find two rows of rostellar hooks in the present material. Fuhrmann and Johnston reported two rows of rostellar hooks, but Kintner apparently found a single row of rostellar hooks. Variations have been found in the number of testes and extent of cirrus sac. Amongst the previous workers, only Johnston (1909) paid attention to study the protective coverings present around the hexacanth and described two envelopes, but the writers find three. - Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) has been restudied and redescribed from fresh material. Previously Mahon (1958) studied this species from P. domesticus. The present account includes important variations and some additions too. Suckers have been found to be armed in contradiction to what Mahon stated. Gravid proglottides have been found to develop a velum. Egg capsules contain 3-13 eggs each. Two protective envelopes have been found around the hexacanth. This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in P. domesticus in India. Proparuterina lali sp. nov. is a rare parasite of Passer domesticus. Only one more species viz. P. aruensis Fuhrmann, 1911 is known. The present species differs from P. aruensis in the number and distribution of testes, bilobed nature and median position of ovary, position of vitellarium and of genital

  17. Cross protection against Taenia taeniaeformis in rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres of Asian Taenia or T. saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Suzuki, M

    1994-03-01

    It was determined to examine whether rats injected with non-viable oncospheres of Asian Taenia or Taenia saginata became resistant to challenge infection with eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis, since (a) metacestodes of Asian Taenia and T. taeniaeformis develop in the liver of pigs and rats, respectively, and (b) Asian Taenia and T. saginata have human origins. Rats injected intravenously or subcutaneously with complete Freund's adjuvant with non-viable oncospheres of Asian Taenia showed statistically significant resistance to challenge infection with eggs of T. taeniaeformis, whereas those injected with non-viable oncospheres of T. saginata did not show any resistance.

  18. The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, L; Valdez, R A; Salvador, V; Rodríguez, A G; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2012-12-01

    We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17β-oestradiol ([3H]17β-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17β-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17β-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci.

  19. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  20. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  1. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

  2. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deplazes Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (≤ 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9% than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%. Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE. Therefore, interventions against the

  3. [Application of molecular biological techniques in Taenia identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hang; Yang, Yi-Mei

    2011-10-01

    The traditional identification of Taenia spp. based on morphological features of adult and cysticercus has difficulties in identifying the morphologically similar species. The recent development of molecular techniques provides more scientific ways for distinguishing Taenia species. This paper summarizes the application of molecular biological techniques in the identification of Taenia, such as analysis of DNA sequence, PCR-RFLP and LAMP.

  4. Cloning and characterization of the fatty acid-binding protein gene from the protoscolex of Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-05-01

    Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis.

  5. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mukaratirwa; T. Hove

    2009-01-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

  6. Evaluación del Cisticerco Longicollis de Taenia Crassiceps como Fuente de Antígeno para el Diagnóstico de la Neurocisticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La cisticercosis del SNC es la infección causada por el estado larvario de Taenia solium, se produce por la ingestión de huevos a través de los alimentos o agua contaminada con materia fecal humana, principalmente en áreas con inadecuada eliminación de excretas, insuficiente abastecimiento de agua y malas condiciones higiénicas; es la más importante de las enfermedades neurológicas humanas de origen parasitario, genera una morbilidad considerable y en las áreas donde T. solium es endémica, se sabe que es una de las principales causas de epilepsia crónica, que tiene graves consecuencias individuales y sociales.

    El diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC está basado en criterios clínicos, epidemiológicos e inmunológicos. Los estudios de neuroimagen como la resonancia magnética (RM y la tomografía computarizada (TC son los métodos más sensibles y específicos para el diagnóstico de NCC pero su alto costo y disponibilidad restringida en los países en vía de desarrollo condicionan su uso (2. La determinación de anticuerpos anti-T. solium por medio del inmunoblot es una buena herramienta para el diagnóstico de la NCC, presenta mayor sensibilidad y especificidad * Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales GIEPI. Corporación de Patologías Tropicales, Universidad de Antioquia. frente a otras metodologías como el Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (ELISA, tanto en muestras de suero como en muestras de LCR (3,6. Esta prueba permite identificar patrones de polipéptidos antigénicos específicos de especie que posibilitan un diagnóstico de certeza al facilitar la discriminación de otras bandas de glicoproteínas compartidas por otras especies de parásitos filogenéticamente relacionados como el estadío adulto de Taenia solium y Taenia saginata, Echinococus y Strongyloides, además permite la purificación de estas moléculas para su posterior estudio y caracterización (15.

  7. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  8. Expression of the Tpanxb1 gene from Taenia pisiformis and its potential diagnostic value by dot-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xuhang; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Mei; Chen, Zuqin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2014-04-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, is a common disease in rabbits that results in economic losses. To date, there has been limited information available on the early detection of infection by this parasite. This study describes a dot-ELISA method based on an autologous antigen annexin B1 (Tpanxb1). Its potential for serodiagnosis of rabbit cysticercosis was also evaluated. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant Tpanxb1 (rTpanxb1) protein could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-sera. In serum trials, the antibodies could be detected by dot-ELISA using rTpanxb1 at 14 days post-infection. The positive response was present for up to 49 days post-infection. Based on the necropsy results of 169 rabbit samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-ELISA were 94.55% and 92.86%, respectively. This study provides a foundation for studying the immunological function of annexin and its application to control Taenia cestodes.

  9. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus.

  10. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cyclospora cayetanensis Toxoplasma gondii Trichinella spiralis Taenia saginata/Taenia solium (Tapeworms) Parasites may be present in food or ... gondii , Trichinella spiralis , Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). [ Top of Page ] Giardia duodenalis or ...

  11. Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2012-09-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (∼69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank.

  12. 多头带绦虫脑多头蚴cDNA表达文库的构建及初步分析%Construction and Preliminary Analysis of cDNA Expression Library of Coenurus cerebralis of Taenia multiceps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 王建魁; 盖文燕; 姚菊霞; 曲自刚; 贾万忠; 罗建勋; Radu Blaga; 付宝权

    2011-01-01

    trematode, 4 were homologous with nematode, 17 ESTs showed similarity to known genes of other species, and 17 ESTs had no significant similarity to any sequences availahle in GenBank databases. Translation products of these ESTs were homologous with T. multiceps oncosphere protein Tm16, T. solium paramyosin, immunogen protein Ts76 and other Taenia antigens, enolase and other enzymes, heat shock protein, actin protein, rihosomal protein and so on.

  13. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (iii..., Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and removal and control of canine cestode...

  14. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay forTaenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  15. Genetic variation of the 8-kDa glycoprotein family from Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia multiceps and Taenia hydatigena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Wan-zhong; YAN Hong-bin; LOU Zhong-zi; NI Xing-wei; LIU Hong-xia; LI Hong-min; GUO Ai-jiang; FU Bao-quan

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis, coenurosis and cysticercosis are debilitating diseases which prevail in China.Immunological diagnosis of metacestodosis is important in disease control. The 8-kDa glycoproteins from taeniid cestodes have successfully been used for diagnosis of human cysticercosis in immunological assays. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic variations and phylogenetic relationships of the 8-kDa proteins for evaluating the possibility of utilizing these proteins as diagnostic antigens for other metacestode infections.Methods The genes and complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the 8-kDa proteins from Echinococcus (E.)granulosus, Taenia (T.) multiceps and T. hydatigena were amplified using PCR method. Their amplicons were cloned into the vector pMD18 and the positive clones were sequenced. Sequence data were analyzed with the SeqMan program,and sequence homology searches were performed using the BLAST program. Alignments were conducted using the ClustalX program, and the phylogenetic analyses were performed with the Protein Sequences Program and the Puzzle Program using the Neighbor-joining method.Results Fifteen, 18 and 22 different genomic DNA sequences were identified as members of the 8-kDa protein gene family from E. granulosus, T. multiceps and T. hydatigena, respectively. Eight, four and six different cDNA clones respectively from E. granulosus, T. multiceps and T. hydatigena were characterized. Analysis of these sequences revealed 54 unique 8-kDa protein sequences. Phylogenetic trees demonstrated that the taeniid 8-kDa proteins are clustered into eight clades at least: Ts18, Ts14, TsRS1, TsRS2, T8kDa-1, T8kDa-2, T8kDa-3 and T8kDa-4.Conclusion We found that the gene family encoding for the taeniid 8-kDa antigens is comprised of many members with high diversity, which will provide molecular evidence for cross-reaction or specific reaction among metacestode infections and may contribute to the development of promising immunological

  16. Radiologic evaluation of the liver and gastrointestinal tract in rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R L; Williams, J F; Carrig, C B; Kaneene, J B; Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1994-08-01

    In rats infected with the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, hepatomegaly results from development of parasitic cysts in the liver. Diffuse nodular mucosal hyperplasia in the glandular region (corpus and antrum) of the stomach, and gross thickening of the intestinal mucosa also result. Between postinfection days (PID) 21 and 84, radiologic observations were made after oral administration of a barium sulfate suspension in T taeniaeformis-infected rats and in age/sex-matched controls. There was radiographic evidence of hepatic enlargement at PID 21. Enlargement of the gastric folds was first observed along the greater curvature of the stomach at PID 35. Fimbriation of small intestinal mucosal surfaces resulted from thickening of the intestinal villi and was observed in the duodenum at PID 21. Intestinal motility was assessed, and contractions were counted, using image intensification fluoroscopy, then were recorded on videotape. There were no significant differences between control and infected rats for gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, and number of intestinal contractions per minute. Barium contrast radiography clearly indicated large gastric folds, thickening of the small intestinal villi, and hepatic enlargement, and was useful for assessing gastrointestinal motility.

  17. Taenia taeniaeformis: fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

    2008-04-01

    Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions.

  18. Infection with the strobilocercus of Taenia taeniaeformis in a Malagasy giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Dimitri; Jurczynski, Kerstin

    2012-12-01

    An adult male Malagasy giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena) kept at Zoo Duisburg was presented for clinical examination because of a distended abdomen and a history of lethargy and weakness. General examination findings consisted of an enlarged soft and fluctuating abdomen, suggestive of ascites. Digital radiography revealed multiple cloud-like radiopaque lesions in the cranial abdominal area, as well as an overall decrease in visibility of detail of the abdominal organs. Ultrasound examination showed circumscribed hypo- to anechogenic areas in the liver, measuring from 1 to 3 cm in diameter, some containing irregular, convoluted structures. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the presence of a large amount of clear, pale-yellow fluid in the peritoneal cavity, as well as multiple cystic lesions in the liver and in the greater omentum. Extirpated cysts placed in sterile saline solution or fixed in formalin were sent to the Institut für Parasitologie der Tierärztlichen Hochschule, Hannover, Germany, and were identified as larval stages of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis. Unfortunately, the rat died a few hours after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of infection with strobilocerci of T. taeniaeformis in a Malagasy giant jumping rat.

  19. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  20. In vitro hatching of oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis using eggs isolated from fresh, frozen, formalin-fixed and ethanol-fixed segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negita, T; Ito, A

    1994-09-01

    In order to establish a simple means of handling eggs of taeniid cestodes under non-biohazardous conditions, gravid segments of Taenia taeniaeformis were fixed in ethanol or formalin or were frozen. In vitro hatching of oncospheres was carried out by the 0.5% sodium hypochlorite method using eggs isolated from the nonviable and viable segments. No oncospheres hatched from formalized eggs, whereas almost all oncospheres hatched from all other eggs but the number of oncospheres recovered was highly variable. Oncospheres hatched from eggs isolated from frozen segments were highly fragile. The highest figures for in vitro hatching of oncospheres were recorded when eggs isolated either from segments fixed in 70% ethanol or from viable segments were used.

  1. REACTIONS OF THE HOSTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF Taenia solium CYSTICERCI%猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)囊尾蚴发育过程中的周围宿主反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永杰; 郝艳红; 李庆章

    2003-01-01

    首次系统地研究了猪囊尾蚴发育过程中的周围宿主反应.结果显示,宿主炎性细胞在囊尾蚴周围出现有先后顺序.初期以嗜中性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞和淋巴细胞为主,随后巨噬细胞及上皮样细胞开始出现,并在虫体周围呈围墙样增生,最后在虫体外围形成结缔组织包囊.从病理组织学结果可以看出,嗜酸性粒细胞是虫体开始遭到破坏的决定细胞.

  2. Ultrastructural Observation on Taenia solium Cysticerci in Development%猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)囊尾蚴发育过程的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳兵; 李庆章; 郝艳红

    2005-01-01

    系统地研究了猪囊尾蚴发育过程中超微结构的变化.5头仔猪,分别经口服感染3节猪带绦虫孕卵节片,于感染后不同时期剖杀,剥离囊尾蚴.取囊壁和头颈部,作透射电镜观察.观察结果表明,随感染时间的延长,猪囊尾蚴细胞或组织的类型未发生明显变化,只在大小或发育程度上有所增加.头节和囊壁均由皮层和实质区构成,但二者的超微结构有差别.头节肌肉较发达,皮层外表面的微毛较短,基质区线粒体较少,实质区糖原颗粒不及囊壁贮存多,并且排泄管也较少.提示二者可能执行不同的功能:囊壁与营养吸收有关,而头节可能与将来的发育有关.

  3. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  4. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  5. The musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Tibben, J.H.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Gro

  6. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido à desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1 anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata e (2 antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras

  7. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  8. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  9. A young child infected with Taenia solium%幼儿猪带绦虫病一例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马细妹; 石林波

    2002-01-01

    @@ 患儿,男,15个月,江西南城人.其父诉,2001年9月10日早晨吃酸奶后,便哭闹不安,呕吐,腹泻(约15次/d),便呈绿色,有腥臭味.9月14日晚,在稀便中发现有蠕动的白色片状物,共4段,每2片相连.送县医院鉴定,诊断不明.9月16日将患儿送至江西省儿童医院入院治疗.体检:体温37.2℃,神清,轻度脱水外观,心肺正常,腹部平软,肝脾肋下未触及,肠鸣音活跃,神经系统体检无异常.

  10. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group...

  11. Evolution, molecular epidemiology and perspectives on the research of taeniid parasites with special emphasis on Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnès; García-Varela, Martín; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-04-01

    Human cysticercosis is known since old historical times in Greece and China; however, human infections by tapeworms have accompanied human beings for more that hundred thousand years. The disease is tightly bound to poverty and lack of hygiene, and has been eradicated in developed countries, but continues being a public health problem in developing countries of Latin-American, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is also remerging in a number of non endemic countries. It is considered a neglected disease. Here we revise a number of key scientific contributions on taeniid biology that open new avenues for more effective approaches to the control of cysticercosis. The evolution of flatworms and class Cestoda is analyzed, with special emphasis on the emergence of taeniid parasites and the colonization of the human species by tapeworms. The complex molecular host-parasite interplay in this relationship as result of co-evolution between two distantly related organisms. The relevant host and parasite's factors, in the prospect of identifying species-specific molecular markers useful in epidemiological studies carried out in endemic countries. The new possibilities arising with the characterization of the genomes for several species of tapeworms, including a deeper understanding of these organisms, as well as improved tools for diagnosis, vaccination and drug treatment. The need to revise the current control and management strategies for this tropical neglected disease.

  12. Cysticercosis of masseter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.

  13. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands.

  14. Evaluación de cisticerco de taenia crassiceps como antígeno sustituto para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Agudelo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC se requiere de extractos antigénicos obtenidos de los cisticercos de Taenia solium (T.so, lo cual presenta dificultades técnicas por la difícil consecución de cerdos naturalmente infectados (1. Sin embargo, los extractos antigénicos obtenidos de Taenia crassiceps (T.cra muestran una alta homología con los de T.so, brindando ventajas en la producción de antígenos para implementar en técnicas serológicas (2,3. Nuestro grupo ha venido trabajando en la búsqueda de alternativas para el diagnóstico serológico de cisticercosis humana y porcina en
    Colombia y en el establecimiento de un modelo animal de fácil mantenimiento que permita la obtención de cisticercos a gran escala.

     

     

  15. Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Yaqoob Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.

  16. [Characteristics of the Effect of Cestodes Parasitizing the Fish Intestine on the Activity of the Host Proteinases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, G I; Solovyev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The activity and spectrum of proteinases in the intestines of host fishes change upon infestation with cestodes. Serine proteinases are found to make a greater contribution to the total proteolytic activity. The reduction of proteolytic activity is associated with adsorption of the enzymes of the host on the surface of cestodes, and the increase in the activity is caused by the injury of the intestinal mucosa by the attachment apparatuses of cestodes. The inhibition of proteainase activity indicates the possible participation of microbiota enzymes in protein hydrolyses.

  17. Steroid synthesis by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci is regulated by enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Ramos, A; Valdez, R A; Gaona, B; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2013-07-01

    Cysticerci and tapeworms from Taenia crassiceps WFU, ORF and Taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. Corticosteroids increase the 17β-estradiol synthesis by T. crassiceps cysticerci. T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). The aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. For this purpose, T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, pre-cultured for 24h in DMEM+antibiotics/antimycotics and cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone ((3)H-P4), androstendione ((3)H-A4), or dehydroepiandrosterone ((3)H-DHEA) plus different doses of the corresponding inhibitors, for different periods. Blanks with the culture media adding the tritiated precursors were simultaneously incubated. At the end of the incubation period, parasites were separated and media extracted with ether. The resulting steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Data were expressed as percent transformation of the tritiated precursors. Results showed that after 2h of exposure of the cysticerci to 100 μM formestane, the (3)H-17β-estradiol synthesis from tritiated androstenedione was significantly inhibited. The incubation of cysticerci in the presence of (3)H-DHEA and danazol (100 nM) resulted in (3)H-androstenediol accumulation and a significant reduction of the 17β-estradiol synthesis. The cysticerci (3)H-DOC synthesis was significantly inhibited when the parasites were cultured in the presence of different ketoconazole dosis. The drug treatments did not affect parasite's viability. The results of this study showed that corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis in T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci can be modified by steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors. As was shown previously by our laboratory and others, parasite survival and development depends

  18. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-15

    Enterobius vermicularls Strongyloides stercoralis Diphyllobothrium spp. Taenia saginata Taenia solium Hymenolepis nana Hymenolepis dilllinuta Echinococcus...0., Allebeck, P., Cosenza, H., and Ljungstrom, I. (1997). Epidemiological study of Taenia solium infections in a rural village in Honduras. Annals

  19. Technology Assessment and Strategy for Development of a Rapid Field Water Microbiology Test Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Taiwan, Indochina Capillaria Philippines, philippinensis (N) Small intestine Thailand Taenia solium (C) Eye and brain Worldwide Dracunculus Africa, Arabia...diminuta (C) Small intestine Worldwide Hymenolopis nana (C) Small intestine Worldwide Taenia saginata (C) Small intestine Worldwide Taenia solium (C

  20. [Lipids of Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida cestodes from the intestines of hens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhrestiuk, N P; Iarygina, G V; Il'iasov, I N

    1981-01-01

    Lipids of the cestodes R. tetragona and R. echinobothrida, parasites of chickens, were studied by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography methods. The quantity of neutral lipids amounts to 74.4% in R. tetragona and to 73.1% in R. echinobothrida. Triglycerides amount to 35.6% and 38.4% of the neutral lipids in these species, sterols to 21.6% and 17.2%, sterol esters to 25.1% and 32.0%, diglycerides to 2.8% and 1.4% and free fatty acids to 7.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Fatty acids content of worms is similar but not identical of that of chicken intestine lipids. Cestode infection affects the lipid content of chicken intestine resulting in the decrease of triglycerides and oleic acid quantities and in the increase of the amount of free fatty acids and stearic acid.

  1. The ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) as an intermediate host for the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona (Molin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, O B; Hussein, H S; Elowni, E E

    1988-01-01

    The role of several species of ants as intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes in the Sudan was investigated by a search for cysticercoids in specimens from poultry houses in various localities in the country. Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Messor galla and Acantholepis sp. were the only species collected from the areas surveyed. All these ants were examined for cysticercoids of poultry tapeworms but only P. sennaarensis was found to carry cysticercoids, all of which were identical to those of the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona. This tapeworm was recovered from all chicks fed the cysticercoids obtained from P. sennaarensis. R. tetragona cysticercoids were present in 63.3% of the P. sennaarensis sampled with 1-40 cysticercoids per ant, which is the heaviest recorded infestation of an ant species with these cysticeroids.

  2. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Nikolov, Pavel N; Georgieva, Darina D; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D; Green, Andy J

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  3. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  4. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses.

  5. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR. 1

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    Michael V. Novikov

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% , Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% , Hymenolepis scutigera (54% , Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% , Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% , Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% , Choanotaenia hepatica (6% , Dilepis undula (2% and Polycercus sp. (2% .

  6. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier R Ambrosio

    Full Text Available The effects of testosterone (T4 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml and time exposed (10 days in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells.

  7. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells.

  8. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection.

  9. Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1μM, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the α3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins.

  10. Immunisation of mice against Taenia taeniaeformis using antigens prepared from T. pisiformis and T. hydatigena eggs or oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, M D; Rajasekariah, G R; Mitchell, G F

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigation the degree of immunity stimulated against Taenia taeniaeformis infection in mice by prior administration of eggs or ultrasonically disrupted oncospheres of T. pisiformis or T. hydatigena. Sonicated oncospheral antigens were given either orally or by subcutaneous injection in Freund's complete adjuvant, and eggs were given orally. Three inbred strains of mice with varying degrees of innate resistance to initial infection with T. taeniaeformis were used in the experiments. These were the moderately resistant BALB/c, moderately susceptible CBA/H, and highly susceptible C3H/He strains. It was found that BALB/c mice developed high levels of immunity when immunised with either T. pisiformis or T. hydatigena eggs, or with sonicated oncospheres administered orally or parenterally. CBA/H mice developed moderate immunity, and C3H/He mice generally did not develop a satisfactory level of resistance. the implication of these findings with respect to immunisation of outbred animals against natural infection with larval cestodes using antigen prepared from the oncospheres of heterologous parasite species is discussed.

  11. Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

    1992-01-01

    Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population.

  12. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  13. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  14. Analysis of COX1 sequences of Taenia isolates from four areas of Guangxi%广西4地带绦虫分离株COX1序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益超; 欧阳颐; 苏爱荣; 万孝玲; 李树林

    2012-01-01

    isolates collected had the same length of 444 bp. There were 5 variable positions between the Luzhai isolate and Taenia asiatica, the homogeneity was 98.87% and their genetic distance was 0.011. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Luzhai isolate and Taenia asiatica locating at the same node had a close relationship. The homogeneity between Rongshui isolate A and Taenia solium was 100%, while the homogeneity of Rongshui isolate B with Taeniasis saginata and Taenia asiatica were 98.20% and 96.17%, respectively. The homogeneities of the Tiandong and Sanjiang isolates with Taenia tolium were 99.55% and 96.40%, respectively, and the genetic distances were 0.005 and 0.037, respectively. The homogeneity between the Luzhai isolate and Taeiuasis saginate was 96.40%. Conclusion Taenia asiatica exists in Luzhai and Taenia solium and Taenia saginata coexist in Rongshui, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  15. Cestodes from Hector's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon hectori ) and spectacled porpoise ( Phocoena dioptrica ) from Argentinean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Pavel N; Cappozzo, H Luis; Berón-Vera, Bárbara; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2010-08-01

    Single individuals of 2 little-known cetacean species, Mesoplodon hectori and Phocoena dioptrica , stranded and died on the coast of Argentina (Buenos Aires and Chubut provinces, respectively) and were studied for the presence of helminths. The cestodes found were described and illustrated using light microscopy. The following cestode taxa were recovered: Tetrabothrius ( Tetrabothrius ) hobergi n. sp. (several fragmented specimens, at least 1 gravid) and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 (several fragmented immature specimens) from M. hectori , and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 2 (single fragmented immature specimen) and 2 morphotypes of tetraphyllidean larvae from P. dioptrica. Tetrabothrius ( T. ) hobergi n. sp. can be distinguished from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri by the greater number of testes and larger eggs and oncospheres, from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) curilensis by the smaller testes and vitellarium, the shape and size of the ovary, and the larger oncospheres and longer embryonic hooks, and from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) sp. from Ziphius cavirostris by the narrower strobila, smaller scolex, and smaller number of testes. The generic designations of Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 2 were based on the scolex morphology. Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 is closest to Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri and Tetrabothrius ( Biamniculus ) innominatus based on the number of testes, while the scolex size of Tetrabothrius ( Tetrabothrius ) sp. 2 is within the variability range reported for Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri . More definite identification of the 2 species was not possible due to the condition of the available material. The present study provides the first descriptions of cestodes from M. hectori and P. dioptrica , thus enriching the knowledge regarding the helminths of insufficiently studied marine mammals.

  16. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene.

  17. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible.

  18. Intraspecific variation of isoenzymes in Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Ito, A; Kurosawa, T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Agatsuma, T

    1995-02-01

    The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats.

  19. Efeito do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata Effect of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ribeiro Braga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de demonstrar a eficácia do fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Taenia saginata em condições laboratoriais, foi montado ensaio em placas de Petri com agar - água 2%. Houve atividade ovicida (pWith the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs under laboratory conditions, a trial was set up in Petri dishes with water-agar 2%. There was ovicidal activity (p < 0.05 in relation to the control group on the tenth day of interaction and an internal colonization rate of 25.5% in the eggs.

  20. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M S; Riffat, S

    1991-08-01

    Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e-Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested.

  1. On cestode and digenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 from the Rietvlei Dam, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, from the Rietvlei Dam near Pretoria, South Africa were examined for internal platyhelminth parasites. Two adult cestodes, Polyonchobothrium clarias (stomach (prev alence 71 %, mean intensity = 5, n = 7 and Proteocephalus glanduliger (anterior intestine (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 2, n = 7, were found in the gut while metacercariae of one larval digenean, Ornithodiplostomum sp. (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 140, n = 7, were found encysted in the muscles. The morphology of these species, based on light and scanning electron microscopy as well as histological analysis, and how they differ from previously described specimens, are discussed. Ornithodiplostomum is a new record in southern Africa. Infection levels of the host fish were mild compared to records from previous surveys.

  2. Characterization of a diversity of tetraphyllidean and rhinebothriidean cestode larval types, with comments on host associations and life-cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-07-01

    Life-cycles of marine tapeworms of the orders Tetraphyllidea and Rhinebothriidea are poorly known primarily because their larvae typically lack species level, taxonomically distinguishing adult characteristics and using morphology they can be identified to genus, family or order only. This large-scale study conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico includes adult cestodes (25 species) collected from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii, eight species) and larval cestodes (27 species) collected from teleosts (Neopterygii, 46 species), bivalves and gastropods (Mollusca, 24 species), and shrimps (Crustacea, five species), comprising a phylogenetically (75 species in three phyla, 14 orders and 46 families) and ecologically (e.g., benthic, epibenthic, pelagic, euryhaline, stenohaline) diverse array of hosts of larval cestode. Molecular biology and morphology informed larval identification and facilitated the circumscription of suites of morphological features representing distinct larval types (i.e., collective groups). A total of 198 specimens comprising adult and larval tetraphyllideans and rhinebothriideans assigned to 12 genera were characterized for the partial (D1-D3) lsrDNA gene and analyzed separately and in combination with data derived from species belonging to an additional 21 genera available from GenBank. Eight larval types were identified and matched to one or several genera of Tetraphyllidea or Rhinebothriidea; morphological variation within these larval types was also documented. In combination with published reports of unique larval morphologies, 15 larval types were established and a key to their larvae presented. Overall, teleosts figured prominently in the life-cycles of tetraphyllideans and rhinebothriideans. Intermediate host specificity at the level of cestode genus was euryxenous, but limited host records suggest that host specificity at the level of cestode species may be more strict. To our knowledge, this is the first published study that approaches

  3. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-08-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material.

  4. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date.

  5. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Feliu, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae.

  6. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    Full Text Available We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  7. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  8. Crude Antigen Cystisercus Taenia Saginata Isolat Bali untuk Deteksi Sistiserkosis pada Sapi

    OpenAIRE

    Hertati Anriani Lubis; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taenia saginata cystisercus antigen for the detection of bovine cysticercosis. Taenia saginata cysticercus antigen was derived from local isolates, obtained from the experimental infection of Taenia saginata tape worms from Bali. The research was done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) optimized by determining the optimal concentration of antigen, the optimal dilutions of serum and the optimal dilutions of conjugate. The results showed that ...

  9. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks.

  10. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species. PMID:27597893

  11. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallé Ndom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species.

  12. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50 and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  13. Congruent and synchronic patterns in biogeography and speciation among seabirds, pinnipeds, and cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P

    1992-08-01

    Congruence in biogeographic patterns among diverse assemblages of taxa indicates uniformity in the historical determinants of biotic distributions. Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies and the elucidation of distributional area relationships are requisite components of analyses in historical biogeography. Host-parasite associations with broad geographic ranges are often archaic and have been structured largely by coevolutionary processes. In contrast, the origins and radiation of the primary cestode faunas of some seabirds (Alcataenia spp./Alcidae) and pinnipeds (Anophryocephalus spp./Phocidae and Otariidae) are associated with colonization. These young colonizing faunas, in the Holarctic Region, were influenced by a common history during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Periodic range contraction, with isolation in refugial centers, and subsequent expansion into postglacial habitats for hosts and parasites coincided with the cyclic pattern of stadials and interstadials. During the past 2-3 million years following colonization, these dramatic climatic fluctuations strongly influenced the continuity of ecological associations in marine habitats and appear to have been the determinants of congruent and synchronic patterns of speciation among these disparate taxa of marine homeotherms and eucestodes.

  14. The first outbreak of Taenia ovis infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangui; He, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Liu, Quanyuan; Gao, Shengzhi; Zhan, Fang; Liu, Xu; Pan, Yonghong; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Infection of Taenia ovis metacestodes in sheep or goats causes great economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. T. ovis infection is not formally recorded in China to date. In October, 2015, T. ovis infection occurred in Jingtai County, China, and 113 of 192 sheep from one farm were infected. Cysts resided in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, and evaginated metacestodes had four suckers and scolex armed with approximately 23 hooks. Using cox1 and nad1 as molecular markers, the sample was further identified and the results showed that the cox1 and nad1 nucleotide sequences of the sample shared 99% identity with that of T. ovis and 75%-91.3% with those of other Taenia species. Taken together, these results confirm the first occurrence of T. ovis in China.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis.

  16. Infectivities of four isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis to various rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, N; Iwaki, T; Okamoto, M; Ooi, H K; Oku, Y; Ohbayashi, M; Kamiya, M

    1994-06-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis were isolated from Norway rats captured at Sapporo (SRN isolate) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KRN) and from Bedford's gray red-backed voles at Toubetsu (TCR) and Abuta (ACR). SRN, KRN and TCR isolates showed similar degree of infectivity to various rodents in which cysticerci with hooks were obtained in laboratory rats, white tuberous lesions in mice and no cysts or lesions in Mongolian gerbils and voles. Contrary to this, inoculation with ACR isolate eggs resulted in strobilocerci formation in the liver of voles, but no cysts were observed in rats, mice or gerbils. This host specificity of ACR isolate to voles suggests that it might be a new species of Taenia.

  17. Study on Human Taeniasis by Administring Anti-Taenia Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Mazandaran province, northern Iran, has been an area with highest prevalence of infectivity with human taeniasis during past decades. In order to assess current situation of taeniasis in the province by a method which can yield a correct estimation of infection rate, this study was performed by administrating anti-Taenia drug, during 2003-2004. A total of 417 people were randomly selected from rural areas of Mazandaran province. All of them were at first given a dose of niclosamide (2-4 500 mg tablets and bisacodile (1-3 5 mg tablets; then their 36 h stool passage was collected and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The results revealed that 2 individuals (0.5% were infected with Taenia saginata. Compared with previous decades, there is a sharp drop on human taeniasis in the study area. Infected peoples were followed up till complete treatment.

  18. About human taeniasis and Taenia saginata diagnosis by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Puchades, María Teresa

    2016-10-01

    La carta al editor se refiere al artículo de Canaval-Zuleta et al. aceptado para publicación, titulado "Endoscopy as an alternative diagnostic and therapeutic technique for Taenia saginata". El trabajo presenta una serie de incorrecciones que deben ser aclaradas, o al menos parte de ellas en solo 300 palabras. La información sobre las vias de infeccion en taeniasis, así como la patogenia y técnicas de diagnóstico, no se ajustan a la realidad. Asimismo, ya está publicado que el diagnóstico por endoscopia es una técnica muy sensible pero nada específica, pues no permite distinguir entre las 3 especies humanas del género Taenia.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (ii) Dosage. Cats 4 pounds and under, 11.5 mg; 5 to 11 pounds... cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode...

  20. Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Nascimento

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating antibodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

  1. 猪带绦虫卵体外孵化方法的比较%Comparison on the In vitro Hatching Methods for Taenia solium Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳兵

    2006-01-01

    本文比较了次氯酸钠(NaClO)法和消化酶法对带绦虫卵的孵化率及六钩蚴存活率.结果,两种方法对虫卵的孵化、激活均有显著效果(P值均>0.05).NaClO法,反应时间短(<5 min),孵化率和六钩蚴存活率高达96.4%和89.0%,不需要昂贵的反应试剂,是较为理想的体外虫卵孵化方法.

  2. Development of Taenia Solium Cysticercus and Morphological Observation%猪带绦虫囊尾蚴的发育过程及形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永杰; 李庆章; 郝艳红

    2002-01-01

    目的观察猪带绦虫囊尾蚴的发育过程及其形态变化,以确定虫体的出现时间和成熟时间.方法仔猪感染猪带绦虫卵后不同时间剖杀,取各部位组织检查囊尾蚴的分布.剥离囊尾蚴作压片及组织切片,显微镜下观察其形态.结果猪囊尾蚴主要分布在肌肉组织,其次是脑、肝、肺、肾等器官.同一宿主不同部位甚至同一宿主同一部位囊尾蚴处于不同的发育阶段.感染后19 d仅在骨骼肌中发现幼期囊尾蚴,头节区未见吸盘和小钩.组织学检查显示了早期发育的头节.感染后30 d的囊尾蚴出现小钩及吸盘的雏形,随感染时间的延长,吸盘直径及小钩长度增加.感染后60 d,囊尾蚴头节区出现较大的吸盘和许多折叠.60 d以后的囊尾蚴在形态学上与60 d的相似.在每一发育阶段均有退化变性的囊尾蚴出现.结论猪体感染猪带绦虫卵后,囊尾蚴19 d出现,60 d成熟.

  3. Observation on the hatching of Taenia solium eggs using sodium hypochrite method%次氯酸钠法孵化猪带绦虫卵的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方强; 孙新; 夏惠; 胡守锋

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察次氯酸钠作用下猪带绦虫卵的孵化过程.方法:以1.0%次氯酸钠溶液孵化猪带绦虫虫卵,以显微镜进行动态观察.结果:猪带绦虫虫卵胚膜被溶解,六钩蚴逸出.结论:次氯酸钠法孵化猪带绦虫卵的本质是溶解猪带绦虫虫卵胚膜.

  4. 猪带绦虫六钩蚴的体外培养%Cultivation of Oncospheres of Taenia Solium in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永杰; 郝艳红; 李庆章

    2002-01-01

    采用12种培养体系培养猪带绦虫六钩蚴,结果发现单层细胞且无气相存在的培养体系效果较好,促使大部分六钩蚴进入了六钩蚴后期发育,且虫体可延长存活至16d.

  5. 猪囊尾蚴DNA疫苗在猪组织中的分布%DNA Taenia solium cysticercosis vaccine:tissue distribution in porcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瀛军; 王庆敏; 张洪英; 陈祖欢; 孙树汉

    2002-01-01

    目的:分析猪囊尾蚴DNA疫苗pcDNA3-cC1肌肉接种后在猪体内的组织分布.方法:分别于疫苗接种后1 d、7 d、4周、8周,提取猪骨髓、肾、肝、脑、性腺、肠系膜淋巴结、脾、胸腺、外周血及肌注部位的肌肉和皮肤的总DNA,通过PCR的方法检测疫苗质粒在各组织中的分布及随时间变化的情况.结果:疫苗接种后的第1天几乎所有组织中都检测到质粒;但随着时间的延续,仅在注射部位的肌肉和皮肤中检测到质粒的存在,并保持到8周以上.结论:肌注疫苗质粒后,实验猪组织中的游离质粒在短时期内就被清除.

  6. 吡喹酮治疗猪带绦虫病60例报道%Treatment of 60 cases with Taenia solium infection by praziquantel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张双福

    2003-01-01

    @@ 猪带绦虫病患者如不及时治疗,极易造成自身感染囊尾蚴,或通过接触而传及他人.以往采用南瓜子和槟榔驱绦虫,排虫率不高,排虫时间长.近年作者对60例猪带绦虫病患者采用吡喹酮驱绦虫,20%甘露醇导泻,效果较好,报告如下.

  7. Study on number of eggs in gravid proglottids of Taenia solium%猪带绦虫孕节内虫卵数量的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方强; 孙新; 夏惠; 胡守锋; 沈继龙

    2003-01-01

    目的:了解猪带绦虫成虫成熟孕节内虫卵数量.方法:对10条猪带绦虫的50片成熟孕节以胃蛋白酶法消化,收集虫卵,以细胞计数板进行计数.结果:猪带绦虫每节成熟孕节内虫卵数量不等,最少为550个,最多为172 500个,平均为26 891个.不同虫体间孕节内虫卵数的差异较同一虫体间的差异显著.结论:猪带绦虫成虫成熟孕节内虫卵数量不等,可有悬殊的差别.

  8. Antigens and antibodies in sera from human cases of epilepsy or taeniasis from an area of Mexico where Taenia solium cysticercosis is endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, D; Sarti, E; Tapia-Romero, R; Rico, R; Alcántara-Anguiano, I; Salgado, A; Valdez, L; Flisser, A

    1999-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis is an important parasitic disease in developing countries. Most epidemiological studies on the disease have used antibody-based assays that allow the detection of transmission 'hot spots' and the identification of the main risk factors for transmission. However, such assays have low predictive value in the detection of active cases of neurocysticercosis. The screening potential of the most commonly used antibody-detection technique, the electroimmunotransfer blot assay (EITB), has now been compared with an antigen-capture assay, in an endemic region of Mexico. The subjects were 68 patients with late-onset epilepsy, 35 cases of taeniasis and a randomly selected, control group of 133 individuals from the same region. Parasite-specific antibodies and antigens were more common among the epileptics and taeniasis cases than among the controls. The antigens appeared to be associated