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Sample records for cestode infections neglected

  1. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  2. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history.

  3. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed

  4. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations

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    Stella Redón

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain, in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles. The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides and colour change (for six cestode species were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.

  5. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redón, Stella; Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-04-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences provide useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Although Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis are common taeniid tapeworms of ruminants, pigs, dogs, or cats, causing significant economic losses, no published study on their mt genomes is available. The complete mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were amplified in two overlapping fragments and then sequenced. The sizes of the entire mt genome were 13700 bp for T. multiceps, 13489 bp for T. hydatigena, and 13647 bp for T. taeniaeformis. Each of the three genomes contains 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA, which are the same as the mt genomes of all other cestode species studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 71.3% for T. multiceps, 70.8% for T. hydatigena, and 73.0% for T. taeniaeformis. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. T. multiceps and T. hydatigena had two noncoding regions, but T. taeniaeformis had only one. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three Taenia species of animal and human health significance, providing useful markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of these cestode parasites of animals and humans.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

    2005-10-01

    Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections.

  8. 绦虫幼虫所致疾病的诊断%The diagnosis of diseases due to cestode infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 周升

    2006-01-01

    由于绦虫幼虫是高致病性病原,诊断绦虫幼虫感染就显得很重要.本文对目前应用的诊断方法:病原学诊断,影像学诊断,免疫学诊断和分子生物学诊断技术进行详细的阐述.病原学诊断只是在囊性棘球蚴病和部分活动性脑囊尾蚴病的诊断中得到有效的和有限的应用.X线,CT和核磁共振(MRI)用于脑囊尾蚴病诊断.影像学诊断用来确诊囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病.X线是最便宜的诊断肺部囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病的方法.超声波检查作为诊断囊性棘球蚴病腹部包囊的首选诊断方法.MRI是最贵的影像学诊断方法,但仅仅用于诊断颅内囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病.在大多数发展中国家,IgG-ELISA是诊断人类囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病的一种好方法.虽然诊断特异性血清抗体可以获得高敏感度,但仍有部分病人的抗体不能检测出.幼虫囊包的位置、完整性和活性决定了抗体的检测效果.分子生物学技术是敏感度和特异度最高的诊断方法,但是,也是最昂贵的诊断方法.现在首选的诊断绦虫幼虫所致疾病的方法是综合影像学和免疫学方法.%As the larval cestodes is highly pathogenic to human, it is important for diagnosis of larval cestode infections. Thisreview presented diagnosis methods used: parasitological diagnosis, imaging techniques, immunological diagnosis, and molecular biological techniques. Parasitological diagnosis is limitedly used in cystic echinococcosis (CE) and part of active neurocysticercosis patients. X- ray, Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) are useful in neurocysticercosis. Definitive diagnosis of CE end alveolar echinococcosis (AE) can be achieved by various itaaging technique. X - ray is cheaper than others used for pulmonary of AE and CE, ultrasonography (US) for abdominal cyst in CE as primary diagnosis technique and MRI, the most expensive imaging technique

  9. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  10. Enzymatic method (phospholipase B) for studies on cestode infection (Hymenolepis nana) and its suppression by chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottolenghi, A.; Rowland, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The phospholipase B activity of the small intestine of mice infected with Hymenolepis nana has been studied to determine its value as a laboratory test for the presence of parasites and the chemotherapeutic effects of antitapeworm drugs. Mice infected with 500 H. nana eggs were examined on the 21st day of infection and the phospholipase B content of homogenates of small intestine was determined using lysolecithin (6.6 x 10/sup -3/ M) as the substrate. Some of the infected animals were treated with niclosamide according to schedules and doses known to affect worm development. Presence or absence of parasites was verified by visual inspection of the intestinal content. The enzymatic and visual methods gave equivalent results in both infected-not treated and infected-treated groups. Special features of niclosamide action (relative refractoriness of the early parasitic forms, enhanced effect of multiple doses) have been confirmed. The enzymatic method is proposed as a procedure for laboratory testing in chemotherapeutic investigations.

  11. Immune response to the cestode Hymenolepis nana: cytokine production during infection with eggs or cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchedda, M; Bortoletti, G; Gabriele, F; Wakelin, D; Palmas, C

    1997-03-01

    Analysis of cytokine production (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5) by in vitro Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells measured daily after egg or cyst infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana showed that cytokine production varies during parasite development and between different host strains (BALB/c and C3H/He mice). Egg infection stimulates a rapid increase in IFN-gamma, independent of mouse strain. In addition, in BALB/c mice a Th2-like response (IL-4, IL-5 secretion) was stimulated 4-5 days p.i., when the parasites are thought to begin their lumenal phase. After infection with cysts significant increases in IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed at the time when autoinfection with eggs is thought to occur. The level of IFN-gamma paralleled that seen after a primary egg infection. This suggests that there is a predominantly Th1-type response during the tissue phase of H. nana development and that, in BALB/c mice, a Th2 polarization occurs during the first few days of the lumenal phase. The cytokine patterns observed are discussed in relation to host responses during chronic helminth infection.

  12. Efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel (Broadline(®)) against naturally acquired infections with cestodes of the genus Joyeuxiella in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Mustafa, Murad Basheer; Baskar, Jagadeesan Vijay; Rosentel, Joseph; Chester, S Theodore; Knaus, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Cats are host to dipylidiid cestodes of the genera Diplopylidium, Dipylidium and Joyeuxiella. Broadline(®), a topical broad-spectrum combination parasiticide containing fipronil (8.3 % w/v), (S)-methoprene (10 % w/v), eprinomectin (0.4 % w/v) and the cestocide praziquantel (8.3 % w/v), has previously been shown to be efficacious against Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. in cats. To evaluate its efficacy against Joyeuxiella species, a blinded clinical efficacy study was conducted according to GCP. All cats had evidence for naturally acquired dipylidiid cestode infection as confirmed by pre-treatment examination. Cats were allocated randomly to two groups of 13 cats each based on bodyweight: Control (untreated) and Broadline(®) at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight administered once topically. Based on the comparison of helminth counts in the treated and untreated cats seven days post treatment, Broadline(®) demonstrated >99 % efficacy (p < 0.01) against mature J. fuhrmanni and J. pasqualei, with 11 and 13 of the untreated cats harbouring 1 to 102 or 2 to 95 cestodes, respectively. In addition, parasite counts indicated 95.9 % efficacy (p = 0.006) against the rictularoid nematode Pterygodermatites cahirensis.

  13. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  14. Hookworm infection: A neglected tropical disease of mankind

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Hossain; Jamal Uddin Bhuiyan

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection, a global problem of human, is caused by both Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These parasites are considered as important blood feeding nematodes. Hookworm is usually prevalent among the people who live with low socio-economic status. However, this tropical disease is neglected in most cases. This review was aimed at investigating the insights of hookworm infection of human considering its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatmen...

  15. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

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    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  16. Hookworm infection: A neglected tropical disease of mankind

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    Muhammed Hossain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection, a global problem of human, is caused by both Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These parasites are considered as important blood feeding nematodes. Hookworm is usually prevalent among the people who live with low socio-economic status. However, this tropical disease is neglected in most cases. This review was aimed at investigating the insights of hookworm infection of human considering its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, immune mechanism, prevention, and control. This study showed how hookworm infection poses a global burden and infects 438.9 million people around the word annualy, and causes significant morbidity among the children and adult in endemic countries. Also, this review discussed how hookworm infection threatens the mankind causing serious health hazards. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 297-320

  17. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, W Evan; Meites, Elissa; Starr, Michelle C; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2014-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common human parasitic infections in the United States, as well as the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection. However, it has long received much less consideration than other parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. Much of this inattention can be attributed to a poor understanding of the public health impact of trichomoniasis. Increasing recognition of the sequelae of infection, including increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and adverse outcomes of pregnancy, has led to increased interest in T. vaginalis. Recent innovations include development of diagnostic tests that could improve detection of the parasite. A number of important questions, such as the epidemiology among men and women, the true public health burden of symptomatic and asymptomatic T. vaginalis infections, and whether current treatments will be adequate to reduce the substantial health disparities and costs associated with trichomoniasis, need consideration to remedy neglect of this important disease.

  18. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Menezes, Dulcinéa; Deliberalli, Ivânia; Bittencourt, Najara Carneiro; Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares do; Barbosa, Liana Nunes; Santos, Alessandro Marques dos; Pinto, Gabriel Godinho

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  19. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  20. Intestinal cestodes of poultry Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia Infundibulum infection in a commercial Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica farm in Apomu, Osun State, Nigeria

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    O.W. Gamra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia infundibulum are important species of cosmopolitan cestodes of poultry occurring in the small intestine and transmitted by ants, houseflies and beetles. Ten moribund and fifteen carcasses of Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica with heavy intestinal tapeworm infection were brought to the post-mortem section of the department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. The farmer reported that there was sporadic mortality (11.2% on his farm as he has lost almost 112 birds of a total flock size of 1000 capacity within the space of two weeks as an average of 8 mortalities were recorded per day prior to the time of presentation. Postmortem examination revealed severe emaciation of the breast muscles and protrusion of the keel bone, as intestinal lumen of all the carcasses was severely filled with whitish worms measuring about 15cm-25cm in length as their anterior ends were firmly attached to the intestinal mucosal and dark red exudates (digested blood was seen. Histopathology reveals transverse section of worms associated with sloughing off, necrosis and degeneration of intestinal villi. The worms were confirmed to be Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida. This is the first recorded case of Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida infection in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in Nigeria. This report may be an alert of the possibility of on-going pathogenicity of these poultry cestodes in quails in Nigeria. We strongly encourage quail farmers to frequently change the birds' bedding and always keep it dry which can help to avoid infections because it shortens the survival of the gravid segments and the eggs. Also farmers should put up measures to avoid contamination of feed with ants, houseflies and beetles, and also prevent access of these intermediate hosts to birds as chemical control of flies, ants and termites in poultry houses is essential for the

  1. Cestode regulation of inflammation and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jose-Luis Reyes; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek M

    2013-03-01

    Helminth parasites are masters of immune regulation; a likely prerequisite for long-term survival by circumventing their hosts' attempt to eradicate them. From a translational perspective, knowledge of immune events as a response to infection with a helminth parasite could be used to reduce the intensity of unwanted inflammatory reactions. Substantial data have accumulated showing that inflammatory reactions that promote a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases are dampened as a consequence of infection with helminth parasites, via either the mobilization of an anti-worm spectrum of immune events or by the direct effect of secretory/excretory bioactive immunomodulatory molecules released from the parasite. However, many issues are outstanding in the definition of the mechanism(s) by which infection with helminth parasites can affect the outcome, positively or negatively, of concomitant disease. We focus on a subgroup of this complex group of metazoan parasites, the cestodes, summarizing studies from rodent models that illustrate if, and by what mechanisms, infection with tapeworms ameliorate or exaggerate disease in their host. The ability of infection with cestodes, or other classes of helminth, to worsen a disease course or confer susceptibility to intracellular pathogens should be carefully considered in the context of 'helminth therapy'. In addition, poorly characterised cestode extracts can regulate murine and human immunocyte function, yet the impact of these in the context of autoimmune or allergic diseases is poorly understood. Thus, studies with cestodes, as representative helminths, have helped cement the concept that infection with parasitic helminths can inhibit concomitant disease; however, issues relating to long-term effects, potential side-effects, mixed pathogen infections and purification of immunomodulatory molecules from the parasite remain as challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve the use of helminths as anti

  2. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

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    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  3. Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevičius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (psafety score of 'excellent' for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent

  4. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999, 158.8 (December 1999, 96.4 (February 2000, 400.7 (April 2000, 215.6 (October 2000 and 136.4 (December 2000 were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05 between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.

  5. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall, Dana M; Eberhard, Mark L; Parise, Monica E

    2014-05-01

    Toxocariasis is a preventable parasitic disease that is caused by the dog and cat roundworms Toxocara cani and T. cati, respectively. Humans become infected when they accidently ingest infectious Toxocara eggs commonly found in contaminated soil; children are most often affected. Clinical manifestations of Toxocara infection in humans include ocular toxocariasis and visceral toxocariasis. Although infection with Toxocara can cause devastating disease, the burden of toxocariasis in the United States population remains unknown. In addition, risk factors for acquiring infection need to be better defined, and research needs to be conducted to better understand the pathophysiology and clinical course of toxocariasis. Development of diagnostic tests would enable clinicians to detect active infection, and determination of optimal drug regiments would ensure patients were appropriately treated. Addressing these public health gaps is necessary to understand and address the impact of toxocariasis in the United States.

  6. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

  7. A neglected epidemic: fungal infections in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-James, Darius; Meintjes, Graeme; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of HIV-related mortality globally. Despite widespread rollout of combined antiretroviral therapy, there are still up to 1 million deaths annually from IFIs, accounting for 50% of all AIDS-related death. A historic failure to focus efforts on the IFIs that kill so many HIV patients has led to fundamental flaws in the management of advanced HIV infection. This review, based on the EMBO AIDS-Related Mycoses Workshop in Cape Town in July 2013, summarizes the current state of the-art in AIDS-related mycoses, and the key action points required to improve outcomes from these devastating infections.

  8. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.

  9. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Neglected Problem in Our Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E is one of the most important infectious problems in developing countries as other oral-fecal transmitted infections(1, 2. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is enterically transmitted and widely spread in many tropical and subtropical countries. Hepatitis E is an important public health concern in many developing countries of Asia and Africa where environmental sanitation facilities are poor (3. Large outbreaks of hepatitis E were observed in, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, China (4, in East Africa which affecting the Ethiopian refugees in Somalia and Sudan (5, and Central Asia (6. Usually hepatitis E occurs in localities with a high population density, lowlands, and valley areas. The incidence and prevalence rate of HEV infection is underestimated due to unavailability of laboratory services in endemic territories. It is believed that in India at least one-half of acute sporadic viral hepatitis cases in adults are etiologically associated with HEV (7. In endemic areas general sanitation is poor, so HEV spreads through contaminated water sources frequently and non-human HEV reservoirs are very probable. Under natural conditions, fecally contaminated drinking water seems to be the principle vehicle of HEV transmission. Almost all large outbreaks or epidemics of hepatitis E were caused by the consumption of contaminated water. In particular, epidemic situations often arise during the rainy seasons or floods when sewage waters gain access to open water reservoirs (8. Food-borne outbreaks occur less frequently and usually involve fewer people. Contact or person-to-person transmission is known to exist, particularly during or after big epidemics, but occurs at a lower rate when compared with other enteric viral infections (e.g. hepatitis A (9. In non-endemic areas and in industrialized countries, travelers to endemic regions are at major risk of HEV infection (imported cases, but sporadic cases of acute hepatitis E without an implicated

  11. Toxocariasis and lung function: relevance of a neglected infection in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2014-03-01

    Toxocariasis has been highlighted as a potentially important neglected infection of poverty in developed countries that experience substantive health disparities such as the United States. An association between Toxocara infection and lung function, in concert with a relatively high prevalence of infection, may mark an important mechanism by which this infection could contribute significantly to the differential morbidity across different socioeconomic groups and landscapes. To assess the potential relevance of this infection in a dense urban environment, we measured the association between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) and serology diagnosed Toxocara infection in a sample of US-born New York City residents. We identified a significant independent association between Toxocara infection and lung function, wherein those with previous Toxocara infection had a 236.9 mL reduced FEV₁ compared to those without Toxocara infection even after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, level of education, smoking status, body mass index, and pet ownership. These findings from New York City corroborate similar findings in a national sample and, while the cross-sectional data preclude a direct causal relationship, this study identifies a potentially important neglected infection in a dense urban landscape.

  12. Neglected infections of poverty in Texas and the rest of the United States: management and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M A; Bezek, S; Serpa, J A; Hotez, P J; Woc-Colburn, L

    2012-08-01

    In the poorest regions of the United States, especially along the Gulf Coast and in South Texas, are a group of endemic parasitic and related infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Such infections are characterized by their chronicity, disabling features, and disproportionate impact on the estimated 46 million people who live below the U.S. poverty line. Today more Americans live in poverty than ever before in the half-century that the Census Bureau has been recording poverty rates. In association with that poverty, a group of major neglected infections of poverty have emerged in the United States. Here we describe the major neglected infections of poverty in the United States, with a brief overview of their significant epidemiological features, their links with poverty, and our approaches to their diagnosis, management, and treatment.

  13. What is the price of neglecting parasite groups when assessing the cost of co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E; Millán, J

    2014-07-01

    Although co-infection by multiple groups of pathogens is the norm rather than the exception in nature, most research on the effects of pathogens on their hosts has been largely based on a single or few pathogen species. Nevertheless, the health impact of co-occurring infections is evident, and it is important that scientists should consider pathogen communities rather than single relevant pathogen species when assessing the impact of multiple infections. In this work we illustrate the consequences of neglecting different pathogen taxa (viruses, protozoa, helminths, arthropods) in the explanatory power of a set of Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) models used for exploring the impact of co-infections on the body condition of 57 adult feral cats; 71·5% cats were co-infected by ≥3 groups of pathogens. The best two PLS-R models provided a first component based on the combination of helminths, protozoa and viruses, explaining 29·15% of body-condition variability. Statistical models, partially considering the pathogen community, lost between 24% and 94% of their explanatory power for explaining the cost of multiple infections. We believe that in the future, researchers assessing the impact of diseases on host life-history traits should take into account a broad representation of the pathogen community, especially during early assessment of the impact of diseases on host health.

  14. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  15. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  16. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Nikolov, Pavel N; Georgieva, Darina D; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D; Green, Andy J

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  17. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zika virus infection and once again the risk from other neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrino, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Since the first cases of Zika were identified and reported in Brazil, the magnitude and consequences of the outbreak in the Americas have increased tremendously, leading the World Health Organization to consider Zika and its link with clusters of microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Only a previous large outbreak in French Polynesia was known and no neurological anomalies have been reported. Differences in African and Asian lineage and differences in genetic evolution of the Zika virus may possibly provide an explanation for the development of the recent outbreaks and their variable presentation. However, the similar clinical presentation between Zika and other diseases like Dengue and Chikungunya can support that Zika has been circulating and spreading inadvertently. This hypothesis gains strength when rates of laboratory confirmation diagnosis for Dengue are observed in Brazil and Colombia, two of the most affected countries by Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.The lack of attention and resources on neglected diseases supposes a huge risk that new lethal pathogens camouflage themselves to spread into large areas and populations.

  19. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  20. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  1. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR. 1

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    Michael V. Novikov

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% , Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% , Hymenolepis scutigera (54% , Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% , Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% , Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% , Choanotaenia hepatica (6% , Dilepis undula (2% and Polycercus sp. (2% .

  2. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR). 1

    OpenAIRE

    Novikov,Michael V.

    1992-01-01

    The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae) cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% ), Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% ), Hymenolepis scutigera (54% ), Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% ), Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% ), Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% ), Choanotaenia hepa...

  3. [Lipids of Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida cestodes from the intestines of hens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhrestiuk, N P; Iarygina, G V; Il'iasov, I N

    1981-01-01

    Lipids of the cestodes R. tetragona and R. echinobothrida, parasites of chickens, were studied by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography methods. The quantity of neutral lipids amounts to 74.4% in R. tetragona and to 73.1% in R. echinobothrida. Triglycerides amount to 35.6% and 38.4% of the neutral lipids in these species, sterols to 21.6% and 17.2%, sterol esters to 25.1% and 32.0%, diglycerides to 2.8% and 1.4% and free fatty acids to 7.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Fatty acids content of worms is similar but not identical of that of chicken intestine lipids. Cestode infection affects the lipid content of chicken intestine resulting in the decrease of triglycerides and oleic acid quantities and in the increase of the amount of free fatty acids and stearic acid.

  4. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. Methodology/Principal findings From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments. PMID

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments.

  7. Vaccination and antiviral treatment of neglected diseases caused by flaviviral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, K; Nürnberger, C; Sobanski, A; Efferth, T

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviral infections have a re-emerging impact on the health situation in developing countries with several billions of people living at risk. In the present review, we focus on three members of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. They are transmitted to humans by mosquito bites, namely those viruses leading to Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever and mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis. All three virus groups have a spherical structure with a diameter of approximately 50 nm. Although sharing a similar genomic structure and intracellular life cycle, they show different clinical manifestations. Infections are incurable, as there is no antiviral treatment available for either of the three viruses. Thus, prevention and vaccination are the best defenses. The most promising vaccines are live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), such as the YF17D strain against Yellow Fever or the SA-14-14-2 strain against Japanese encephalitis. Additionally, recombinant vaccines for Japanese encephalitis are in development. Although Dengue Fever is the most prevalent arthropode-borne flaviviral infection and a lot of research to develop a vaccine against all four Dengue Fever serotypes was undertaken, no vaccine is available on the market yet. Promising tetravalent vaccine candidates are currently undergoing clinical phase trials, including LAVs, recombinant and chimeric candidates as well as non-replicating vaccine approaches. Additionally, encouraging anti-flaviviral approaches target non-structural proteins, virus-specific proteases essential for cellular maturation of viral particles. Peptide inhibitors against the highly conserved NS2B and NS3 proteases are attractive as pan-flaviviral drug candidates.

  8. Cestode parasitism in invasive and native brine shrimps (Artemia spp.) as a possible factor promoting the rapid invasion of A. franciscana in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, B B; Sánchez, M I; Vasileva, G P; Nikolov, P N; Green, A J

    2007-11-01

    Artemia franciscana is an invasive crustacean expanding its range in hypersaline wetlands in the Mediterranean region and replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. Native brine shrimps are known as intermediate hosts of cestodes; infected individuals exhibit changes in their behaviour and appearance, thus facilitating the parasite transmission to the avian hosts by predation. To assess whether invasive brine shrimps participate in the cestode life cycles to the same extent as the native species, we examined the natural infections in seven populations of Artemia spp. along the southern coast of Spain and Portugal: three populations of each A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica and one population of A. salina. Ten cestode species were found in A. parthenogenetica, while only six were recorded in each of A. salina and A. franciscana. The overall infection was consistently higher in native than in invasive populations. For a particular cestode species, the prevalence or abundance was significantly higher in a native population for 54 pairwise comparisons and only higher for an invasive population for 4 pairwise comparisons. These results suggest that cestodes may influence competitive interactions between native and invasive brine shrimps, thus partly explaining the invasive success of A. franciscana.

  9. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paveza, G. Neglect in the elderly patient. (1998). Nursing Clinics of North America. 33(3), 457-467. Rathborn-McCuan, E., & Fabian, D.R. (Eds.). (1992). Self-neglecting elders: A clinical dilemma. Westport, CT: Auburn House Home | About NCPEA | Elder ...

  10. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T

  11. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T

  12. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

  13. Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) of cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Uriel

    2017-09-01

    Cestodes (tapeworms) have complex adaptations to their obligatory parasitic life-style. Among these adaptations, they show many evolutionary innovations in their development, including complex life-cycles with multiple hosts and life-stages, several independent origins of asexual reproduction, and the evolution of segmentation as a mean to generate massive reproductive output. Therefore, cestodes offer many opportunities for the investigation of the evolutionary origins of developmental novelties (evo-devo). However, cestodes have not been exploited as major models for evo-devo research due to the considerable technical difficulties involved in their study. In this review, a panoramic view is given of classical aspects, methods and hypothesis of cestode development, together with recent advances in phylogenetics, genomics, culture methods, and comparative analysis of cestode gene expression. Together with the availability of powerful models for related free-living flatworms, these developments should encourage the incorporation of these fascinating parasites into the first-line of evo-devo research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia.

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    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5% school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5% young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2% boys and 296 (53.8% girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6% and hookworm infection (13.5%. It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032 compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38-4.60; p = 0.002, non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06-2.31; p = 0.013, low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14-3.59; p = 0.015, T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21-3.81; p = 0.008 and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04-2.55; p = 0.032 were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33-2.58; p<0.001 was a significant predictor for IDA in these children. CONCLUSION: It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children.

  15. Association between Anaemia, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Neglected Parasitic Infections and Socioeconomic Factors in Rural Children of West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong Kin, Liam; Sek Chuen, Chow; Jaffar, Shukri

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5%) school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5%) young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2%) boys and 296 (53.8%) girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6%) and hookworm infection (13.5%). It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032) compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38–4.60; p = 0.002), non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06–2.31; p = 0.013), low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14–3.59; p = 0.015), T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21–3.81; p = 0.008) and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04–2.55; p = 0.032) were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33–2.58; pchildren. Conclusion It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children. PMID:22413027

  16. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  17. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  18. Immunity against HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis during co-infections with neglected infectious diseases: recommendations for the European Union research priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Boraschi

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases remain a major health and socioeconomic problem in many low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. For many years, the three most devastating diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB have received most of the world's attention. However, in rural and impoverished urban areas, a number of infectious diseases remain neglected and cause massive suffering. It has been calculated that a group of 13 neglected infectious diseases affects over one billion people, corresponding to a sixth of the world's population. These diseases include infections with different types of worms and parasites, cholera, and sleeping sickness, and can cause significant mortality and severe disabilities in low-income countries. For most of these diseases, vaccines are either not available, poorly effective, or too expensive. Moreover, these neglected diseases often occur in individuals who are also affected by HIV/AIDS, malaria, or TB, making the problem even more serious and indicating that co-infections are the rule rather than the exception in many geographical areas. To address the importance of combating co-infections, scientists from 14 different countries in Africa and Europe met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on September 9-11, 2007. The message coming from these scientists is that the only possibility for winning the fight against infections in low-income countries is by studying, in the most global way possible, the complex interaction between different infections and conditions of malnourishment. The new scientific and technical tools of the post-genomic era can allow us to reach this goal. However, a concomitant effort in improving education and social conditions will be needed to make the scientific findings effective.

  19. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  20. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  1. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh

    2011-06-21

    The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  2. Taenia multiceps: a rare human cestode infection in Israel

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    Mony Benifla MD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain infestation caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps is a rare phenomenon in humans, but is fairly common among sheep in Mediterranean countries. No more than 150 human cases have been reported. In this present study, we report an unusual case of a huge intra-parenchymal cyst in a four-year-old girl caused by T. multiceps. No cross-reactivity between Echinococcus granulosus and T. multiceps antigens was demonstrated. After surgical removal of the cyst, followed by chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazole combined with praziquantel, the child recovered completely.

  3. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda--neglected or emerging human parasite?

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    Roman Kuchta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1 data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. CONCLUSIONS: The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic, where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of

  4. The occurrence of the larval cestode Cysticercus fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Panti-May, J A; Parada-López, J; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Ruiz-Piña, H A

    2011-12-01

    Cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, whose definitive hosts are mainly cats. This larval stage uses a wide variety of small rodents, and occasionally birds and humans, as intermediate hosts. In the Yucatan, there are no reports of the presence of this cestode in animal populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of C. fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico. Trapping of rodents was conducted from October 2009 to April 2010 in 40 households in Molas, in which Sherman traps were placed both inside and outside backyards. Rodents were dissected to inspect the liver for the presence of the worm. To determine risk factors associated with infection, univariate analysis was performed using sex, age, species, trapping site, and season as independent variables. Variables with a P value rodent species were trapped; Mus musculus was the most abundant (78%), followed by Rattus rattus (13%) and the wild species Peromyscus yucatanicus, Ototylomys phyllotis, Heteromys gaumeri and Reithrodontomys gracilis (9%). Only 7.5% (n = 31) of M. musculus and R. rattus were infected with C. fasciolaris (demonstrated by the presence of liver cysts) with a prevalence of 9.0% and 3.5%, respectively. Both adults and male mice were 4.33 and 3.46 (OR values) times more likely to have C. fasciolaris than juveniles and females respectively. We can conclude that in the Cuxtal Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, the prevalence of C. fasciolaris is higher in M. musculus, and that adult males had a higher probability of infection. Wild species, mainly P. yucatanicus, were not found to be infected with the cestode, but its presence in the backyards of households could result in a potential risk of acquiring this infection.

  5. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  6. Annotated checklist of fish cestodes from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Philippe V.; de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes), parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. As expected, the current knowledge is quite uneven regarding the number of taxa and host-associations reported from the principal river basins and marine ecoregions. These differences may not only reflect the actual cestode richness but may also be due to the research effort that has been devoted to unravelling the diversity of these endoparasitic helminths in individual countries. A total of 297 valid species, 61 taxa identified to the generic level, in addition to unidentified cestodes, were recorded from 401 species of fish hosts. Among the recognized cestode orders, 13 have been recorded in South America, with the Onchoproteocephalidea displaying the highest species richness, representing c. 50% of all species diversity. The majority of records include teleost fish hosts (79%) that harbour larval and adult stages of cestodes, whereas stingrays (Myliobatiformes) exhibit the highest proportion of records (39%) among the elasmobranch hosts. Fish cestodes are ubiquitous in South America, being mostly recorded from the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific (WTSP; 31%) for marine hosts and the Amazon River basin (45%) for freshwater ones. The following problems were detected during the compilation of literary data: (i) unreliability of many records; (ii) poor taxonomic resolution, i.e. identification made only to the genus or even family level; (iii

  7. Annotated checklist of fish cestodes from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V. Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes, parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. As expected, the current knowledge is quite uneven regarding the number of taxa and host-associations reported from the principal river basins and marine ecoregions. These differences may not only reflect the actual cestode richness but may also be due to the research effort that has been devoted to unravelling the diversity of these endoparasitic helminths in individual countries. A total of 297 valid species, 61 taxa identified to the generic level, in addition to unidentified cestodes, were recorded from 401 species of fish hosts. Among the recognized cestode orders, 13 have been recorded in South America, with the Onchoproteocephalidea displaying the highest species richness, representing c. 50% of all species diversity. The majority of records include teleost fish hosts (79% that harbour larval and adult stages of cestodes, whereas stingrays (Myliobatiformes exhibit the highest proportion of records (39% among the elasmobranch hosts. Fish cestodes are ubiquitous in South America, being mostly recorded from the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific (WTSP; 31% for marine hosts and the Amazon River basin (45% for freshwater ones. The following problems were detected during the compilation of literary data: (i unreliability of many records; (ii poor taxonomic resolution, i.e. identification made only to the genus or even family level

  8. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M S; Riffat, S

    1991-08-01

    Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e-Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested.

  9. On cestode and digenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 from the Rietvlei Dam, South Africa

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    M. Barson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, from the Rietvlei Dam near Pretoria, South Africa were examined for internal platyhelminth parasites. Two adult cestodes, Polyonchobothrium clarias (stomach (prev alence 71 %, mean intensity = 5, n = 7 and Proteocephalus glanduliger (anterior intestine (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 2, n = 7, were found in the gut while metacercariae of one larval digenean, Ornithodiplostomum sp. (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 140, n = 7, were found encysted in the muscles. The morphology of these species, based on light and scanning electron microscopy as well as histological analysis, and how they differ from previously described specimens, are discussed. Ornithodiplostomum is a new record in southern Africa. Infection levels of the host fish were mild compared to records from previous surveys.

  10. Intersectoral approaches to neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    The neglected diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that affect principally the world's poorest people. They are linked to poverty, as both a cause and a consequence of same, and affect community security and family productivity. The neglected diseases cause acute and chronic illness, disability, and sometimes death, and they may carry stigma for those infected. Current interventions for neglected diseases emphasize the health sector, but to achieve sustainability and simultaneously combat poverty, an intersectoral approach to their prevention and control is needed. This chapter outlines some concepts for an intersectoral approach, including interventions from the nutrition and food security, education, and environmental sectors.

  11. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Lazure, Thierry; Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  12. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

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    Abderaouf Damouche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are (i viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication and (ii chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF; the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV. The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART. Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low

  13. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

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    Marta I Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50 and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases among two indigenous subtribes in peninsular Malaysia: highlighting differences and co-infection of helminthiasis and sarcocystosis.

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    Soo Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar. Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171 compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98. Trichuris trichiura (46.2% was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7% and hookworm (4.1%. In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8% was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7% and finally hookworm (8.3%. There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0, followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5. In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8, Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8 and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8. In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these

  15. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

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    Mallé Ndom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species.

  16. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species. PMID:27597893

  17. Specific Identification of a Taeniid Cestode from Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia Schreber, 1776 (Felidae in Mongolia

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    Sumiya Ganzorig

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An unknown taeniid cestode, resembling Taenia hydatigena, was recovered from a snow leopard, Uncia uncia in Mongolia. Morphology and nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunit 1 gene (mt DNA COI ofthe cestode found was examined. The cestode is differed from T hydatigena both morphologically and genetically. The differences between two species were in the gross length, different number of testes, presence of vaginal sphincter and in egg size. The nucleotide sequence of this cestode differed from that of 7: hydatigena at 34 of the 384 (8.6% nucleotide positions examined. The present cestode is very close to 7: kotlani in morphology and size of rostellar hooks. However, the adult stages of the latter species are unknown, and further comparison was unfeasible.

  18. On cestodes of Passer domesticus I. Choanotaenia, Raillietine and Proparuterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, S C; Saxena, S K

    1976-09-01

    An investigation on the cestode fauna of the common sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) was carried out for about five years. In all 445 birds were examined during this period and only five species of cestodes were found to parasitize this bird: of these, three are known while two are new forms, the latter are the rarities. This part includes critical accounts of Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907), Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) and Proparuterina lali sp. nov. - Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907) has been previously studied by Fuhrmann (1907), Johnston (1909), Stunkard & Milford (1937) and Kintner (1938). The present study provides additional data. The writers find two rows of rostellar hooks in the present material. Fuhrmann and Johnston reported two rows of rostellar hooks, but Kintner apparently found a single row of rostellar hooks. Variations have been found in the number of testes and extent of cirrus sac. Amongst the previous workers, only Johnston (1909) paid attention to study the protective coverings present around the hexacanth and described two envelopes, but the writers find three. - Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) has been restudied and redescribed from fresh material. Previously Mahon (1958) studied this species from P. domesticus. The present account includes important variations and some additions too. Suckers have been found to be armed in contradiction to what Mahon stated. Gravid proglottides have been found to develop a velum. Egg capsules contain 3-13 eggs each. Two protective envelopes have been found around the hexacanth. This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in P. domesticus in India. Proparuterina lali sp. nov. is a rare parasite of Passer domesticus. Only one more species viz. P. aruensis Fuhrmann, 1911 is known. The present species differs from P. aruensis in the number and distribution of testes, bilobed nature and median position of ovary, position of vitellarium and of genital

  19. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  20. Attention to neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2007-03-15

    Patients with spatial neglect fail to attend to stimuli in the contralesional visual world. He et al. used fMRI to reveal how disrupted functional connectivity, independent of task-evoked activation, in ventral and dorsal attentional networks may explain behavioral impairment in neglect and recovery from acute neglect.

  1. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites

  2. Prose reading in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  3. [Biotope distribution of cestodes from the common shrew Sorex araneus in southern Karelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P; Bugmyrin, S V; Borodina, K A

    2003-01-01

    Specific features in the formation of cestode species composition in the common shrew in different biotopes have been analyzed. Four categories of parasites have been recognized depending on a degree of dominance: dominants (Neoskrjabinolepis singularis, Molluscotaenia crassiscolex), subdominants (Ditestolepis diaphana), adominants A (Staphylocystis furcata, Vigisolepis spinulosa, adominants B (Hymenolepis scutigera, Dilepis undula, D. secunda, Taenia mustelae). A significant similarity was discovered between the species diversity and the dominance characteristics of cestodes. It was found that the distribution of mass species of parasites in the host population corresponds to the gamma distribution model. In regard to cestodes examined, a hypothesis considering the spatial structure and size of territory occupied by stable parasitic system is put forward.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

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    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  5. Advocacy and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  6. Elder Abuse and Neglect

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    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  7. The musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Tibben, J.H.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Gro

  8. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  9. Dental neglect among children in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child′s basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t, pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT, PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student′s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001. A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003, deft (P = 0 < 0.001, pufa (P = 0.011, and debris index (P = 0.002 scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Conclusion: Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  10. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  11. [Characteristics of the Effect of Cestodes Parasitizing the Fish Intestine on the Activity of the Host Proteinases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, G I; Solovyev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The activity and spectrum of proteinases in the intestines of host fishes change upon infestation with cestodes. Serine proteinases are found to make a greater contribution to the total proteolytic activity. The reduction of proteolytic activity is associated with adsorption of the enzymes of the host on the surface of cestodes, and the increase in the activity is caused by the injury of the intestinal mucosa by the attachment apparatuses of cestodes. The inhibition of proteainase activity indicates the possible participation of microbiota enzymes in protein hydrolyses.

  12. The ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) as an intermediate host for the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona (Molin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, O B; Hussein, H S; Elowni, E E

    1988-01-01

    The role of several species of ants as intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes in the Sudan was investigated by a search for cysticercoids in specimens from poultry houses in various localities in the country. Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Messor galla and Acantholepis sp. were the only species collected from the areas surveyed. All these ants were examined for cysticercoids of poultry tapeworms but only P. sennaarensis was found to carry cysticercoids, all of which were identical to those of the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona. This tapeworm was recovered from all chicks fed the cysticercoids obtained from P. sennaarensis. R. tetragona cysticercoids were present in 63.3% of the P. sennaarensis sampled with 1-40 cysticercoids per ant, which is the heaviest recorded infestation of an ant species with these cysticeroids.

  13. The Neglect of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  14. Echinococcus metacestodes as laboratory models for the screening of drugs against cestodes and trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, A; Stadelmann, B; Scholl, S; Müller, J; Spiliotis, M; Müller, N; Gottstein, B; Siles-Lucas, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the cestodes, Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia solium represent the most dangerous parasites. Their larval stages cause the diseases cystic echinococcosis (CE), alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cysticercosis, respectively, which exhibit considerable medical and veterinary health concerns with a profound economic impact. Others caused by other cestodes, such as species of the genera Mesocestoides and Hymenolepis, are relatively rare in humans. In this review, we will focus on E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestode laboratory models and will review the use of these models in the search for novel drugs that could be employed for chemotherapeutic treatment of echinococcosis. Clearly, improved therapeutic drugs are needed for the treatment of AE and CE, and this can only be achieved through the development of medium-to-high throughput screening approaches. The most recent achievements in the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of E. multilocularis cells and metacestodes, and the accessability of the E. multilocularis genome and EST sequence information, have rendered the E. multilocularis model uniquely suited for studies on drug-efficacy and drug target identification. This could lead to the development of novel compounds for the use in chemotherapy against echinococcosis, and possibly against diseases caused by other cestodes, and potentially also trematodes.

  15. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David Alexander; Ferreira, José Antonio; Ansah, Deidra; Teixeira, Herica Sa; Kitron, Uriel; Filippis, Thelma de; Alcântara, Marcelo H de; Fairley, Jessica K

    2017-04-01

    Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas.

  16. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David Alexander; Ferreira, José Antonio; Ansah, Deidra; Teixeira, Herica SA; Kitron, Uriel; de Filippis, Thelma; de Alcântara, Marcelo H; Fairley, Jessica K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. METHODS Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. FINDINGS A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. CONCLUSIONS The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas. PMID:28327791

  17. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue requiring attention. ... in Nigeria are sexually transmitted infections and hormonal abnormalities. ... a proper diagnosis, and adequate treatment given where causes are treatable.

  18. Neglected diseases amid wealth in the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are not exclusive to low-income countries. In the United States, such infections account for a sizable but largely hidden disease burden among minority populations living in poverty and among people of African descent in particular. Similar infections also occur in Europe. As efforts to control neglected tropical diseases expand throughout Africa, parallel efforts should also target poor and forgotten people in wealthy nations.

  19. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...

  20. Neglected vaginal pessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal pessary may be opted for management of uterine prolapse as a safe option, but to avoid complications regular follow-up is a must. We are reporting a case of neglected vaginal pessary in a 72 year old female which got embedded in vaginal mucosa and required excision of vaginal band for its removal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 291-292

  1. Interactions between the intestinal cestode Polyonchobothrium clarias (Pseudophyllidea: Ptychobothriidae) from the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus and heavy metal pollutants in an aquatic environment in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, R; Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Bashtar, A-R; Morsy, K; Saleh, R

    2016-11-01

    In an aquatic environment, there is a profound and inverse relationship between environmental quality and disease status of fish. Parasites are one of the most serious limiting factors in aquaculture. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out during the period of February-December 2014 to determine the parasitic infections in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus, relative to the capability of internal parasites to accumulate heavy metals. Up to 100 catfish were examined for gastrointestinal helminths and 38% of fish were found to be infected with the cestode Polyonchobothrium clarias. The morphology of this parasite species, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, revealed that the adult worm was characterized by a rectangular scolex measuring 0.43-0.58 (0.49 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.15-0.21 (0.19 ± 0.1) mm wide, with a flat to slightly raised rostellum armed with a crown with two semicircles each bearing 13-15 hooks, followed by immature, mature and gravid proglottids which were about 29-55 (45), 16-30 (24) and 15-39 (28) in number, respectively. The mature proglottid contained a single set of genitalia in which medullary testes measured 0.09-0.13 (0.11 ± 0.01) mm long and 0.05-0.08 (0.06 ± 0.01) mm wide; a bi-lobed ovary was situated near the posterior margin of the proglottid, extending laterally up to the longitudinal excretory canals; the tubular uterus arose from the ootype up to the anterior margin of the proglottid; and vitelline follicles were cortical. The greater portion of the gravid proglottid was occupied by a uterus filled with unoperculate and embryonated eggs. Chemical analysis confirmed that the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Ni and Pb) accumulated in P. clarias were higher than in fish tissues and values recommended by FAO/WHO, with the exception of Zn, which was found to be higher in fish kidneys than in the cestode. This supports the hypothesis that cestodes of fish can be regarded

  2. Semiology of neglect: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, G; Pagliari, C; Huchon, L; Rossetti, Y; Pisella, L

    2017-06-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common disabling condition following brain damage to the right hemisphere. Generally, it involves behavioral bias directed ipsilaterally to the damaged hemisphere and loss of spatial awareness for the contralesional side. In this syndrome, several clinical subtypes were identified. The objective of this article is to provide a nosological analysis of the recent data from the literature on the different subtypes of neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, egocentric, allocentric and representational neglect), associated ipsilesional and contralesional productive manifestations and their anatomical lesion correlates. These different anatomical-clinical subtypes can be associated or dissociated. They reflect the heterogeneity of this unilateral neglect syndrome that cannot be approached or interpreted in a single manner. We propose that these subtypes result from different underlying deficits: exogenous attentional deficit (visual, auditory neglect); representational deficit (personal neglect, representational neglect, hyperschematia); shift of the egocentric reference frame (egocentric neglect); attentional deficit between objects and within objects (allocentric neglect), endogenous attentional deficit (representational neglect) and transsaccadic working memory or spatial remapping deficit (ipsilesional productive manifestations). Taking into account the different facets of the unilateral neglect syndrome should promote the development of more targeted cognitive rehabilitation protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cestodes from Hector's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon hectori ) and spectacled porpoise ( Phocoena dioptrica ) from Argentinean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Pavel N; Cappozzo, H Luis; Berón-Vera, Bárbara; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2010-08-01

    Single individuals of 2 little-known cetacean species, Mesoplodon hectori and Phocoena dioptrica , stranded and died on the coast of Argentina (Buenos Aires and Chubut provinces, respectively) and were studied for the presence of helminths. The cestodes found were described and illustrated using light microscopy. The following cestode taxa were recovered: Tetrabothrius ( Tetrabothrius ) hobergi n. sp. (several fragmented specimens, at least 1 gravid) and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 (several fragmented immature specimens) from M. hectori , and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 2 (single fragmented immature specimen) and 2 morphotypes of tetraphyllidean larvae from P. dioptrica. Tetrabothrius ( T. ) hobergi n. sp. can be distinguished from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri by the greater number of testes and larger eggs and oncospheres, from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) curilensis by the smaller testes and vitellarium, the shape and size of the ovary, and the larger oncospheres and longer embryonic hooks, and from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) sp. from Ziphius cavirostris by the narrower strobila, smaller scolex, and smaller number of testes. The generic designations of Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 2 were based on the scolex morphology. Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 is closest to Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri and Tetrabothrius ( Biamniculus ) innominatus based on the number of testes, while the scolex size of Tetrabothrius ( Tetrabothrius ) sp. 2 is within the variability range reported for Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri . More definite identification of the 2 species was not possible due to the condition of the available material. The present study provides the first descriptions of cestodes from M. hectori and P. dioptrica , thus enriching the knowledge regarding the helminths of insufficiently studied marine mammals.

  4. Estudios de contactos para infecciones de transmisión sexual: ¿Una actividad descuidada? Partner notification in sexually transmitted infections: A neglected activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vallès

    2011-06-01

    cabo proyectos de investigación en esta área y se desarrollen el marco legal y las guías específicas adaptadas a nuestro ámbito.Objectives: To undertake a critical literature review of published evidence on the effectiveness of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections, mechanisms of referral, and the criteria for initiating this activity. To describe how these factors vary by causative agent and to characterize the current state of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections in developed countries. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken using online databases and scientific publications, as well as guidelines and documents pertaining to the legal framework within which contact tracing takes place. Results: Contact tracing is specifically recommended for infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis and HIV. The principal approaches to contact tracing reported were patient referral, provider referral or conditional patient referral. In addition, patient-dispensed partner treatment and the use of new technologies were reported. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy, effectiveness and social and legal context of contact tracing in different countries and populations. This situation contrasts with that in Spain, where there is a notable absence of guidelines, legal framework and formal studies dealing with contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: Contact tracing is an increasingly important tool in the public health management of sexually transmitted infections and should be valued as such. This activity should be an integral and effective component of the control and prevention of sexually transmitted infection programmes in all autonomous regions in Spain. Research in this field is required to develop the legal framework and practice guidelines appropriate to the local context.

  5. Biochemical analysis of a recombinant glutathione transferase from the cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harispe, Laura; García, Gabriela; Arbildi, Paula; Pascovich, Leticia; Chalar, Cora; Zaha, Arnaldo; Fernandez, Cecilia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2010-04-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are believed to be a major detoxification system in helminths. We describe the expression and functional analysis of EgGST, a cytosolic GST from Echinococcus granulosus, related to the Mu-class of mammalian enzymes. EgGST was produced as an enzymatically active dimeric protein (rEgGST), with highest specific activity towards the standard substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB; 2.5 micromol min(-1)mg(-1)), followed by ethacrynic acid. Interestingly, rEgGST displayed glutathione peroxidase activity (towards cumene hydroperoxide), and conjugated reactive carbonyls (trans-2-nonenal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal), indicating that it may intercept damaging products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, classical GST inhibitors (cybacron blue, triphenylthin chloride and ellagic acid) and a number of anthelmintic drugs (mainly, hexachlorophene and rafoxanide) were found to interfere with glutathione-conjugation to CDNB; suggesting that they may bind to EgGST. Considered globally, the functional properties of rEgGST are similar to those of putative orthologs from Echinococcus multilcularis and Taenia solium, the other medically important cestodes. Interestingly, our results also indicate that differences exist between these closely related cestode GSTs, which probably reflect specific biological functions of the molecules in each parasitic organism.

  6. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  7. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease.

  9. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  10. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  11. A note on neglect defaulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Margolis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the notion of ``neglect defaulting,'' which labels the propensity to neglect possibilities which are ordinarily sensibly neglected. In familiar contexts we are well-tuned to recognize when to override the default. But outside the range of familiar experience --- here in the artificial context of puzzles --- these ordinarily benign defaults can make it difficult for even sophisticated subjects, such as readers of this note, to avoid responses which on reflection will be seen as obviously mistaken. A detail of particular importance is that, although subjects are easily prompted to take one step in the direction of reaching a sound response, the tendency to then neglect to consider that another step may be needed is remarkably strong. In each of the five examples the needed but usually neglected second step is quite trivial. Concluding remarks point to consequences for larger questions outside the range of familiar experience, in politics and other contexts out of scale with everyday experience.

  12. Enterobiasis: a neglected infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Megumi; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somchit; Kusolsuk, Teera

    2008-03-01

    In this study, adult patients were treated with praziquantel to expel intestinal flukes. Unexpectedly, dozens of adult Enterobius vermicularis worms with disfigured morphology, which had not been detected on fecal examination using Kat's modified thick-smear technique, were expelled from 6 of 33 patients.

  13. Characterization of a diversity of tetraphyllidean and rhinebothriidean cestode larval types, with comments on host associations and life-cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-07-01

    Life-cycles of marine tapeworms of the orders Tetraphyllidea and Rhinebothriidea are poorly known primarily because their larvae typically lack species level, taxonomically distinguishing adult characteristics and using morphology they can be identified to genus, family or order only. This large-scale study conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico includes adult cestodes (25 species) collected from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii, eight species) and larval cestodes (27 species) collected from teleosts (Neopterygii, 46 species), bivalves and gastropods (Mollusca, 24 species), and shrimps (Crustacea, five species), comprising a phylogenetically (75 species in three phyla, 14 orders and 46 families) and ecologically (e.g., benthic, epibenthic, pelagic, euryhaline, stenohaline) diverse array of hosts of larval cestode. Molecular biology and morphology informed larval identification and facilitated the circumscription of suites of morphological features representing distinct larval types (i.e., collective groups). A total of 198 specimens comprising adult and larval tetraphyllideans and rhinebothriideans assigned to 12 genera were characterized for the partial (D1-D3) lsrDNA gene and analyzed separately and in combination with data derived from species belonging to an additional 21 genera available from GenBank. Eight larval types were identified and matched to one or several genera of Tetraphyllidea or Rhinebothriidea; morphological variation within these larval types was also documented. In combination with published reports of unique larval morphologies, 15 larval types were established and a key to their larvae presented. Overall, teleosts figured prominently in the life-cycles of tetraphyllideans and rhinebothriideans. Intermediate host specificity at the level of cestode genus was euryxenous, but limited host records suggest that host specificity at the level of cestode species may be more strict. To our knowledge, this is the first published study that approaches

  14. Dipylidium caninum infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the g...

  15. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  16. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  17. Long neglected neurogenic bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Binnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion is indicated for the management of the neurogenic bladder. However, there is a risk for developing pyocystitis in this type of patients. We present a case of young female who presented with a history of frequent urinary tract infection (UTI post urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder. Ever since she underwent simple cystectomy, there have been no further episodes of UTI.

  18. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo di Procolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs, through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%, and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%, especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%, which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%, followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%, foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%. Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%, whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location

  19. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  20. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  1. Chemistry and pharmacology of neglected helminthic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllner, A; Helfer, A; Kotlyar, D; Oswald, J; Efferth, T

    2011-01-01

    Neglected helminthic diseases cause many social, economic and health care challenges in developing countries. The high number of patients suffering from these parasitic infections and the lack of sufficient treatment options represent severe problems. Research on new drugs and therapies to meet this urgent requirement has to be intensified. This review focuses on infections caused by four helminthic parasites, which have been declared as neglected diseases by the World Health Organization: namely drancunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchoceriasis, and schistosomiasis. They show a considerable overlap in their world-wide prevalence and treatment strategies. Nevertheless, treatment is not without complications. The most efficient lymphatic filariasis drug, diethylcarbamazine, causes severe adverse effects in onchocerciasis patients and completely fails in the treatment of drancunculiasis. In this review, we discuss these incongruities at the molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, established or investigational drug combination regimens are highlighted. In the past years, progress has been made in the area of schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis. The molecular biology of underlying mechanisms, signalling pathways and related targets affected by drug therapy are discussed in detail. Finally, successful treatment strategies and remaining future challenges are summarized.

  2. Albert's test: a neglected test of perceptual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, K J; McSherry, D; Stout, R W

    1986-02-22

    Disorders of perception are thought to be important in predicting the outcome from stroke, but their exact significance is difficult to define because of lack of standardised terminology and diagnostic methods. In a prospective study of 205 unselected stroke patients, perceptual neglect, assessed by a standardised test battery, was found in 49% of patients with lesions of the non-dominant hemisphere and in 25% with lesions of the dominant hemisphere. One component of the test battery was a simple test described by Albert in which patients cross out lines ruled in a standard fashion on a sheet of paper; this was easy to administer and related closely to neglect diagnosed by the test battery as a whole. Results of Albert's test were a significant predictor of both mortality and functional activity six months after the stroke, independent of the influence of other clinical, neurological, laboratory, and social factors. The full test battery for perceptual neglect was of no significant additional predictive value.

  3. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  4. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  5. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  6. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  7. Cestode communities in non-breeding populations of four grebe species (Aves: Podicipedidae) from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, G P; Georgiev, B B

    1999-09-01

    Cestode communities in Podiceps cristatus, P. grisegena, P. nigricollis and Tachybaptus ruficollis during their migrations and overwintering are studied at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The infracommunities exhibit high richness, abundance and dominance, and low diversity and similarity. The component communities have a similar taxonomic structure at the levels higher than species, a small number of core species and a high portion of grebe specialists in the richness and abundance. The comparison with cestode communities in grebes from Canada (Stock & Holmes, 1987) reveals several differences and similarities. The higher richness and abundance of the infracommunities in Canada are explained by the constant conditions of breeding habitats enhancing higher transmission rates. At the component community level, there is a significant difference between the two species lists. The degree of parasite exchange among the grebe species in Bulgaria is lower. Several characters of cestode component communities in grebes do not depend on either historical factors or different habitats. These are the similar patterns of the taxonomic structure at the levels higher than species, almost the same list of generalists, the participation of specialists of anatids, and the leading role of grebe specialists in the structure.

  8. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  9. Congruent and synchronic patterns in biogeography and speciation among seabirds, pinnipeds, and cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P

    1992-08-01

    Congruence in biogeographic patterns among diverse assemblages of taxa indicates uniformity in the historical determinants of biotic distributions. Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies and the elucidation of distributional area relationships are requisite components of analyses in historical biogeography. Host-parasite associations with broad geographic ranges are often archaic and have been structured largely by coevolutionary processes. In contrast, the origins and radiation of the primary cestode faunas of some seabirds (Alcataenia spp./Alcidae) and pinnipeds (Anophryocephalus spp./Phocidae and Otariidae) are associated with colonization. These young colonizing faunas, in the Holarctic Region, were influenced by a common history during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Periodic range contraction, with isolation in refugial centers, and subsequent expansion into postglacial habitats for hosts and parasites coincided with the cyclic pattern of stadials and interstadials. During the past 2-3 million years following colonization, these dramatic climatic fluctuations strongly influenced the continuity of ecological associations in marine habitats and appear to have been the determinants of congruent and synchronic patterns of speciation among these disparate taxa of marine homeotherms and eucestodes.

  10. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  11. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  12. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  13. Dipylidium caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  14. Hyperparasitism by helminths: new records of cestodes and nematodes in proteocephalid cestodes from South American siluriform fishes Hiperparasitismo por helmintos: novas ocorrências de cestóides e nematóides em cestóides proteocefalídeos de peixes siluriformes da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalid cestode hyperparasite are reported from numerous proteocephalids occurring in pimelodid fishes in different regions of Brazil. In addition, three specimens of a nematode hyperparasite are reported from the proteocephalid cestode Choanoscolex abscissus from the pimelodid fish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in Brazil. Previous records of cestode and nematode hyperparasite of cestode are listed, and the possible identities of the Brazilian records are discussed.Cestóides hiperparasitos são descritos de espécies de proteocefalídeos, que ocorrem em peixes pimelodídeos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Referimos ainda, a ocorrência de nematóide hiperparasito em espécimes de Choanoscolex abscissus, do peixe pimelodídeo, Pseudoplatystoma carruscans. São citadas as referências anteriores de cestóides e nematóides hiperparasitos, e discutida a possível identificação dos mesmos.

  15. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center (NAPSRC) Training Research Exploitation Resources Technical Assistance Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect Other safety concerns ... APS office for additional information. When To Report Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect? If you witness ...

  16. Childhood neglect: The role of the paediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Neglect is a pervasive form of child maltreatment. Health care practitioners often struggle with deciding when an action (or lack of action) by a caregiver constitutes inadequate care and is neglectful. The present article discusses the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of neglect. In addition, assessment using objective markers, such as harm and potential harm, in the identification of neglect is described, and unique factors that impact assessing and addressing issues of neglect in the clinical setting are discussed. Practical strategies for intervening in cases of neglect are discussed, including how to engage families in which there are concerns for neglect, mandated reporting, working collaboratively with children's services, ongoing monitoring of families, and how health care professionals can effectively engage in neglect prevention and advocacy.

  17. Stem cell proliferation during in vitro development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva to adult worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Estela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In free-living flatworms somatic differentiated cells do not divide, and a separate population of stem cells (called neoblasts is responsible for cell proliferation and renewal. In cestodes, there is evidence that similar mechanisms of cell renewal exist. Results In this work, we have characterized proliferative cells during the development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva (tetrathyridium to young segmented worm. This was done by two complementary strategies with congruent results: characterizing cells in S phase and their progeny by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, and characterizing cells in M phase by arresting mitotic cells with colchicine and studying their morphology and distribution. Proliferative cells are localized only in the inner parenchyma, particularly in close proximity to the inner muscle layer, but not in the cortical parenchyma nor in the sub-tegumental tissue. After proliferation some of these cells migrate to the outer regions were they differentiate. In the larvae, proliferative cells are more abundant in the anterior regions (scolex and neck, and their number diminishes in an antero-posterior way. During the development of adult segments periodic accumulation of proliferative cells are observed, including a central mass of cells that constitutes the genital primordium, which grows at least in part due to in situ proliferation. In later segments, the inner cells of genital primordia cease to proliferate and adopt a compact distribution, and proliferative cells are also found in the testes primordia. Conclusions Proliferative cells have a characteristic localization and morphology throughout development from larva to adult of Mesocestoides corti, which is similar, and probably evolutionary conserved, to that described in other model cestodes. The characteristics of proliferative cells suggest that these consist of undifferentiated stem cells.

  18. Strongyloidiasis--the most neglected of the neglected tropical diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A.; L., van Lieshout; Marti, H.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides (S. fuelleborni and the more prevalent S. stercoralis) are currently believed to infect an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. The health consequences of S. stercoralis infections range from asymptomatic light infections to chronic symp...

  19. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  20. Evaluation of coproantigen diagnosis for natural Echinococcus multilocularis infection in red foxes

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Yasuyuki; TSUKADA, Hideharu; NONAKA, Nariaki; OKU, Yuzaburo; KAMIYA, Masao

    1999-01-01

    The validity of a coproantigen ELISA for Echinococcus multilocularis was evaluated by comparison of three diagnostic methods ; autopsy, egg examination and the ELISA. Of 71 foxes, 39 were found to be infected with the cestode at autopsy. The overall mean of worm burdens was 3,451, but the number varied (1-34,522). The ELISA could detect 94.9% (37/39) of the worm positives and there were no false-positives. Two false-negatives were infected with 1 and 4 cestodes, whereas 3 cases with similar w...

  1. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Katia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  2. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  3. [To overcome neglected tropical diseases by global health governance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Wen; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-04-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are common infections of the poorest people of the world. The WHO publication of a roadmap that lays out the vision for ending the misery caused by NTDs has inspired the London Declaration on NTDs, which demonstrates that the global public-health agenda now embraces NTDs. This review discusses the advantages of global health governance in overcoming NTDs, and points out the potential ways of the involvement of China in global health through international collaboration.

  4. Human Echinococcosis: A Neglected Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Menezes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is among the most neglected parasitic diseases. Development of new drugs and other treatment modalities receives very little attention, if any. In most developed countries, Cystic Echinococcosis (CE is an imported disease of very low incidence and prevalence and is found almost exclusively in migrants from endemic regions. In endemic regions, predominantly settings with limited resources, patient numbers are high. Whole communities do not have access to appropriate treatment. The choice of treatment modalities is limited because of poor infrastructure and shortage of equipment and drugs. In this context, CE meets the criteria for a neglected disease. Furthermore, the terminology related to the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures is not uniform and sometimes inappropriate terms and wrong designations are used based on incorrect concepts. Although all of us know the different aspects of the disease it is pertinent to remember some important points and, above all, to clarify some aspects concerning the hydatid cyst's nomenclature in order to understand better the therapeutic options in the liver locations, particularly the different surgical approaches.

  5. Self-neglect and neglect of vulnerable older adults: reexamination of etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Kim, Jinseok; Asseff, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Using assessment and investigation data from the reported APS cases in Texas, this study examines the types of elder self-neglect and neglect, including medical neglect. It then examines the association between self-neglect and neglect and individual economic resources as well as health care and social service programs for the poor. The findings show that elder self-neglect/neglect is, in large part, attributable to frail older adults' and their families' lack of resources to pay for essential goods and services and the inadequate healthcare and other formal support programs for the older adults and their caregivers. This inadequate public policy coverage, rather than individual and intrafamily risk factors per se, needs to be considered as a significant cause of elder self-neglect/neglect.

  6. Drug discovery and development for neglected diseases: the DNDi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chatelain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chatelain, Jean-Robert IosetDrugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: New models of drug discovery have been developed to overcome the lack of modern and effective drugs for neglected diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, which have no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry. With the purpose of combining the skills and research capacity in academia, pharmaceutical industry, and contract researchers, public–private partnerships or product development partnerships aim to create focused research consortia that address all aspects of drug discovery and development. These consortia not only emulate the projects within pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, eg, identification and screening of libraries, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, formulation development, and manufacturing, but also use and strengthen existing capacity in disease-endemic countries, particularly for the conduct of clinical trials. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi has adopted a model closely related to that of a virtual biotechnology company for the identification and optimization of drug leads. The application of this model to the development of drug candidates for the kinetoplastid infections of HAT, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis has already led to the identification of new candidates issued from DNDi’s own discovery pipeline. This demonstrates that the model DNDi has been implementing is working but its DNDi, neglected diseases sustainability remains to be proven.Keywords: R&D, screening, lead optimization, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, product development partnerships

  7. Sequelae of neglected senile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhany Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. An attack of phacolytic and phacomorphic glaucoma as a result of neglected cataract constitutes a medical emergency that must be addressed immediately. Ocular emergencies such as these is challenging for the surgeon with guarded or poor prognosis. We describe the presentation, management and prognosis of three cases of phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma. All three patients underwent aggressive management of intraocular pressure. Despite successful cataract operation with implantation of intraocular lens, there was only mild improvement of the vision. Optic nerve and pupil functions were permanently affected following the insult. Phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma present a very challenging problem to the surgeon with poor visual outcome. Public health education and awareness are important and health workers should encourage patients with cataract to seek early treatment for better prognosis.

  8. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  9. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  10. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong XQ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  11. Types of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  12. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Cyclophyllidean cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924), an endoparasite of domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. The A + T and G + C contents were obtained as 49.82 and 50.18 % respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that C. cuneata branched with its closest cluster comprising of Raillietina tunetensis, Raillietina australis, Fuhrmannetta malakartis and Raillietina sonini with 99 % bootstrap support.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Cladotaenia vulturi (Cestoda: Paruterinidae): gene arrangement and phylogenetic relationships with other cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijiang

    2016-08-31

    Tapeworms Cladotaenia spp. are among the most important wildlife pathogens in birds of prey. The genus Cladotaenia is placed in the family Paruterinidae based on morphological characteristics and hosts. However, limited molecular information is available for studying the phylogenetic position of this genus in relation to other cestodes. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cladotaenia vulturi was amplified using "Long-PCR" and then sequenced by primer walking. Sequence annotation and gene identification were performed by comparison with published flatworm mt genomes. The phylogenetic relationships of C. vulturi with other cestode species were established using the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Cladotaenia vulturi is 13,411 kb in size and contains 36 genes. The gene arrangement of C. vulturi is identical to those in Anoplocephala spp. (Anoplocephalidae), Hymenolepis spp. (Hymenolepididae) and Dipylidium caninum (Dipylidiidae), but different from that in taeniids owing to the order shift between the tRNA (L1) and tRNA (S2) genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of the concatenated 12 protein-coding genes showed that the species in the Taeniidae form a group and C. vulturi is a sister taxon to the species of the family Taeniidae. To our knowledge, the present study provides the first molecular data to support the early proposal from morphological evidence that the Taeniidae is a sister group to the family Paruterinidae. This novel mt genome sequence will be useful for further investigations into the population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics of the family Paruterinidae and inferring phylogenetic relationships among several lineages within the order Cyclophyllidea.

  14. Staphylococcal disease in Africa: another neglected 'tropical' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W; Fuhr, Günther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V; Kremsner, Peter G; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; Peters, Georg; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Müller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in tropical and developing countries, particularly in children, with much higher incidence rates than those reported from developed countries. Staphylococcus aureus is among these pathogens. The African-German StaphNet consortium uses microbiological characterization of African S. aureus isolates, including identification of virulence factors, alongside the gathering of epidemiological and clinical data in an innovative research network between a European country (Germany) and several African partners. By creating an accessible strain repository and by implementing personnel training and capacity building, this network aims to put staphylococcal disease on the international agenda as a truly neglected condition with a major global impact on public health.

  15. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  16. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, M.E. van; Fasotti, L.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic st

  17. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  18. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  19. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  20. Prisms and neglect: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Roger; Schenk, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Since Rossetti et al. (1998) reported that prism adaptation (PA) can lead to a substantial reduction of neglect symptoms PA has become a hot topic in neglect-research. More than 280 articles have been published in this area. Not all of those studies investigated the therapeutic potential of this technique, many studies examined the responsiveness to PA as a way to subdivide neglect into separate subsyndromes, other studies focussed on the process of PA itself in an effort to illuminate its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this article we will review research in all of these three areas to determine whether and to what extent research on PA in neglect patients has fulfilled its promise as a new way to improve the treatment of neglect, enhance our understanding of this complex syndrome and provide new insights into the neurobiology of sensorimotor learning.

  1. Innate immune defence mechanisms of tench, Tinca tinca (L.), naturally infected with the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giari, L; Castaldelli, G; Shinn, A P; Lorenzoni, M

    2012-11-01

    A histochemical and ultrastructural investigation of the cellular inflammatory response within the intestines of tench Tinca tinca L. naturally infected with the caryophyllidean cestode Monobothrium wageneri was conducted and the data obtained compared to those in uninfected counterparts. Cestode infections within the intestines were evident through the appearance of raised inflammatory swellings induced by the deep penetration of their scolices into the intestinal wall. Cestodes typically attached in tight clusters, inducing a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response of mast cells and neutrophils, which were significantly more numerous (P < 0·01) in the intestines of infected (n = 14) than of uninfected (n = 9) tench. Neutrophils were more abundant than mast cells (P < 0·01) in host tissues in close proximity to the parasite tegument. In transmission electron microscopy sections, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in contact with or inside capillaries, and in close proximity to the cestode. Degranulation of both cell types was seen in the submucosa and lamina muscularis, notably in the immediate tissues surrounding the scolex of M. wageneri. No tegumental secretions were seen at the host-parasite interface. Occasional rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa of infected fish.

  2. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Tina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii, both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively. Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.

  3. Thymus dependency of induced immune responses against Hymenolepis nana (cestode) using congenitally athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1985-01-01

    Anti-parasite antibody responses were compared among several strains of mice experimentally infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The antibody titres were highly variable among the mouse strains in addition to variation in worm fecundity and longevity. The influence of the thymus on both infection and anti-parasite antibody production (especially of IgE isotype) was studied by the use of congenitally athymic (nu/nu) nude and their phenotypically normal (nu/+) CD-1(ICR) mice infected with H. nana. All nude (nu/nu) mice harboured fully mature 70 day old adult tapeworms of the first generation derived from eggs initially given on day 0. In addition, they contained (a) younger second generation adults derived from autoinfection and present in the intestinal lumen, (b) a number of abnormally large (about 1-2 mm in diameter) balloon like, fluid filled cysticercoids in not only the intestinal tissue but also parenteral tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung, and (c) normal cysticercoids derived from challenging eggs in the intestinal tissue. Infected nude mice produced no antibodies detectable by PCA (IgE) and double diffusion (IgG) tests. In contrast, normal (nu/+) mice and nude mice reconstituted with thymocytes expelled almost all luminal adults of the primary infection by day 70 and produced antibodies to extracts of adult H. nana. Neither autoinfection nor reinfection following egg challenge occurred in any of these normal (nu/+) and reconstituted nude mice. Therefore, acquired immune responses against H. nana (as assessed by resistance not only to the tissue phase measured by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery from egg challenge, but also to the lumen phase assessed by the failure of autoinfection adult recovery and 'worm expulsion' of the initially established adults) are all thymus-dependent in mice. The antibody responses examined are also thymus-dependent. PMID:4006301

  4. Thymus dependency of induced immune responses against Hymenolepis nana (cestode) using congenitally athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1985-04-01

    Anti-parasite antibody responses were compared among several strains of mice experimentally infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The antibody titres were highly variable among the mouse strains in addition to variation in worm fecundity and longevity. The influence of the thymus on both infection and anti-parasite antibody production (especially of IgE isotype) was studied by the use of congenitally athymic (nu/nu) nude and their phenotypically normal (nu/+) CD-1(ICR) mice infected with H. nana. All nude (nu/nu) mice harboured fully mature 70 day old adult tapeworms of the first generation derived from eggs initially given on day 0. In addition, they contained (a) younger second generation adults derived from autoinfection and present in the intestinal lumen, (b) a number of abnormally large (about 1-2 mm in diameter) balloon like, fluid filled cysticercoids in not only the intestinal tissue but also parenteral tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung, and (c) normal cysticercoids derived from challenging eggs in the intestinal tissue. Infected nude mice produced no antibodies detectable by PCA (IgE) and double diffusion (IgG) tests. In contrast, normal (nu/+) mice and nude mice reconstituted with thymocytes expelled almost all luminal adults of the primary infection by day 70 and produced antibodies to extracts of adult H. nana. Neither autoinfection nor reinfection following egg challenge occurred in any of these normal (nu/+) and reconstituted nude mice. Therefore, acquired immune responses against H. nana (as assessed by resistance not only to the tissue phase measured by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery from egg challenge, but also to the lumen phase assessed by the failure of autoinfection adult recovery and 'worm expulsion' of the initially established adults) are all thymus-dependent in mice. The antibody responses examined are also thymus-dependent.

  5. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  6. Drug discovery and development for neglected diseases: the DNDi model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2011-03-16

    New models of drug discovery have been developed to overcome the lack of modern and effective drugs for neglected diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness), leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, which have no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry. With the purpose of combining the skills and research capacity in academia, pharmaceutical industry, and contract researchers, public-private partnerships or product development partnerships aim to create focused research consortia that address all aspects of drug discovery and development. These consortia not only emulate the projects within pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, eg, identification and screening of libraries, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, formulation development, and manufacturing, but also use and strengthen existing capacity in disease-endemic countries, particularly for the conduct of clinical trials. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has adopted a model closely related to that of a virtual biotechnology company for the identification and optimization of drug leads. The application of this model to the development of drug candidates for the kinetoplastid infections of HAT, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis has already led to the identification of new candidates issued from DNDi's own discovery pipeline. This demonstrates that the model DNDi has been implementing is working but its DNDi, neglected diseases sustainability remains to be proven.

  7. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  8. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does My Child Need? How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Common Childhood Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? Chickenpox Cold Sores Common Cold Diarrhea Fever and ...

  9. Evaluation of Ponseti method in neglected clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Painless, supple, plantigrade, and cosmetically acceptable feet were achieved in neglected clubfeet without any extensive surgery. A fair trial of conservative Ponseti method should be tried before resorting to extensive soft tissue procedure.

  10. Observational measure of elder self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Ridings, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve measurement of elder self-neglect by testing the psychometric properties of the Elder Self-Neglect Assessment (ESNA). Social workers, case managers, and adult protective services providers from 13 Illinois agencies completed a 77-item assessment for 215 clients suffering from self neglect. Analyses used Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches to test for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation, resulting in a 62-item assessment. The ESNA met Rasch fit criteria with good internal consistency, item reliability, and construct validity. A 25-item short form also met Rasch criteria. A hierarchy of items associated with severity of abuse was produced by frequency of occurrence. ESNA indicators of self-neglect align into two broad categories: behavioral characteristics and environmental factors, which must be accounted for in a comprehensive evaluation. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  11. Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-27

    Jul 27, 2012 ... Key words: Inversion of uterus, acute puerperal inversion, shock, post partum bleeding, neglect ... anesthesia, vaginal manual reposition was attempted, which failed due to tight cervical ring. Then, O .... Int J Gynecol Cancer.

  12. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  13. Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — There are more than 6,500 identified rare and neglected diseases, yet only about 250 treatments are available for these conditions. The limited numbers of patients...

  14. Effects of Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa on functional characteristics of Raillietina echinobothrida (Phylum: Platyhelminthes; Class: Cestoidea), a poultry cestode parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shyamashree; Roy, Bishnupada; Venkataswamy, Manivel; Giri, Bikash Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    The histochemical distribution and quantification of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase have been investigated in the adult cyclophyllidean cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida after treatment with crude ethanol extract of traditionally used medicinal plants Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosa. Estimation of free amino acid pool and vital trace elements like calcium and magnesium were also performed to study the effect of the plant extracts on the parasite. A decrease in the levels of phosphatases and trace elements was noticed in the treated parasites when compared to control groups. At the same time, a lot of disparity was noted in the free amino acid pool as the levels of many amino acids were seen to increase or decrease in relation to the levels observed in control parasites. Role of phyto-products in the changed physiology of cestode and their possible chemotherapeutic targets are discussed.

  15. Description of Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in France, with a review of anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukisalmi V.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in Bourg-Saint-Maurice, French Alps, compare it with several related species from rodents, and review the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe. Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. is primarily distinguished from the related species by its large scolex of characteristic shape, robust neck region, and the structure of the cirrus sac, vitellarium and vagina. We show that the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe, representing the genera Anoplocephaloides and Paranoplocephala, include at least seven species. This fauna consists primarily of species that snow voles share with other voles inhabiting the high-mountain areas. Some of the species, including P. yoccozi n. sp., appear to have a very localized distribution, which is assumed to be a consequence of the historical fragmentation of snow vole populations.

  16. Exploring Self-neglect in Older Adults: Preliminary Findings of the Self-Neglect Severity Scale and Next Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, P Adam; Dyer, Carmel B.; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect, and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST), collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The...

  17. Identification of thioredoxin glutathione reductase inhibitors that kill cestode and trematode parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Fabiana; Hernández, Paola; Porcal, Williams; López, Gloria V; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Basika, Tatiana; Carmona, Carlos; Fló, Martín; Maggioli, Gabriela; Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Boiani, Mariana; Salinas, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential core enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites. In this work, we searched for flatworm TGR inhibitors testing compounds belonging to various families known to inhibit thioredoxin reductase or TGR and also additional electrophilic compounds. Several furoxans and one thiadiazole potently inhibited TGRs from both classes of parasitic flatworms: cestoda (tapeworms) and trematoda (flukes), while several benzofuroxans and a quinoxaline moderately inhibited TGRs. Remarkably, five active compounds from diverse families possessed a phenylsulfonyl group, strongly suggesting that this moiety is a new pharmacophore. The most active inhibitors were further characterized and displayed slow and nearly irreversible binding to TGR. These compounds efficiently killed Echinococcus granulosus larval worms and Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles in vitro at a 20 µM concentration. Our results support the concept that the redox metabolism of flatworm parasites is precarious and particularly susceptible to destabilization, show that furoxans can be used to target both flukes and tapeworms, and identified phenylsulfonyl as a new drug-hit moiety for both classes of flatworm parasites.

  18. Identification of thioredoxin glutathione reductase inhibitors that kill cestode and trematode parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ross

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR is an essential core enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites. In this work, we searched for flatworm TGR inhibitors testing compounds belonging to various families known to inhibit thioredoxin reductase or TGR and also additional electrophilic compounds. Several furoxans and one thiadiazole potently inhibited TGRs from both classes of parasitic flatworms: cestoda (tapeworms and trematoda (flukes, while several benzofuroxans and a quinoxaline moderately inhibited TGRs. Remarkably, five active compounds from diverse families possessed a phenylsulfonyl group, strongly suggesting that this moiety is a new pharmacophore. The most active inhibitors were further characterized and displayed slow and nearly irreversible binding to TGR. These compounds efficiently killed Echinococcus granulosus larval worms and Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles in vitro at a 20 µM concentration. Our results support the concept that the redox metabolism of flatworm parasites is precarious and particularly susceptible to destabilization, show that furoxans can be used to target both flukes and tapeworms, and identified phenylsulfonyl as a new drug-hit moiety for both classes of flatworm parasites.

  19. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts...

  20. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  1. Scolex morphology of the cestode Silurotaenia siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), a parasite of European wels (Silurus glanis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Zd'árská, Z; de Chambrier, A; Drábek, R

    1999-01-01

    The morphology of the scolex of the tapeworm Silurotaenica siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), a specific parasite of European wels (Silurus glanis L.), was studied using light, scanning (SEM), and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. The scolex of S. siluri is rather uniform in shape and size; it is globular, and has four prominent, anteriorly directed suckers and a spherical, muscular apical organ corresponding to the rostellum of cyclophyllidean cestodes. The rostellum-like apical organ is armed with five to six irregular rows of small hooklets with a wide, oval basal plate and a short, posteriorly curved blade. The excretory system of the scolex is formed by sinuous secondary canals ending blindly beneath the distal layer of the tegument, not opening outside. The surface of the scolex is covered with filiform microtriches; giant spine-like and blade-like microtriches, incorrectly interpreted as spines or hooklets in previous descriptions of S. siluri, are present on the neck region and posterior margins and internal cavities of the suckers. It is assumed that tegumental spines reported in the scolices of other proteocephalideans (subfamilies Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae, genera Spasskyellina and Nomimoscolex) could indeed be spiniform microtriches.

  2. Cloning and expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from a cestode parasite and its solubilization from inclusion bodies using l-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Asim K; Ramnath; Dkhar, Barilin; Tandon, Veena; Das, Bidyadhar

    2016-09-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida, and is considered a potential target for anthelmintic action because of its differential activity from that of its avian host. However, due to the unavailability of its structure, the mechanism of regulation of PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (rePEPCK) and its interaction with possible modulators remain unclear. Hence, in this study, the rePEPCK gene was cloned into pGEX-4T-3 and overexpressed for its characterization. On being induced by IPTG, the recombinant rePEPCK was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs); hence, various agents, like different inducer concentrations, temperature, time, host cell types, culture media, pH, and additives, were used to bring the protein to soluble form. Finally, a significant amount (∼46%) of rePEPCK was solubilized from IBs by adding 2M l-arginine. Near-UV circular dichroism spectra analysis indicated that l-arginine (2M) had no effect on the conformation of the protein. In this study, we have reported a yield of ∼73mg of purified rePEPCK per 1L of culture. The purified rePEPCK retained its biological activity, and Km of the enzyme for its substrate was determined and discussed. The availability of recombinant rePEPCK may help in biochemical- and biophysical-studies to explore its molecular mechanisms and regulations.

  3. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-11-15

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments.

  4. Prodrugs for the Treatment of Neglected Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Blau

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, World Health Organization (WHO and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people, mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999, 1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases [3]. These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis, malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  5. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eFasotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalisation to (untrained tasks lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuo-spatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into 4 categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of

  6. Neglect's perspective on the Ponzo illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, A; Ferrè, E R; Striemer, C L; Bottini, G

    2013-06-01

    Visual illusions have been used to explore implicit perception in neglect. Previous studies have highlighted differences between length and surface illusion perception in neglect, but much less is known about depth illusion perception. In the Ponzo illusion (a classic depth illusion), two converging oblique lines modulate the perceived length of two horizontal lines. In the current study, we presented modified versions of the Ponzo illusion in which only one of the converging oblique lines was presented (alternatively the right or the left one). This manipulation allowed us to explore (1) how acute patients with neglect process depth illusions, and (2) whether awareness of both converging lines is necessary for the full effect of the illusion. To examine these questions, we had participants (i.e. healthy controls, patients with neglect and right brain-damaged patients) to make a perceptual judgment regarding the perceived length of the upper versus lower horizontal line within the Ponzo frame in four conditions: (1) the classic Ponzo illusion, (2) a "modified left" Ponzo illusion with a single oblique line on the left, (3) a "modified right" Ponzo illusion with a single oblique line on the right and (4) a control condition with parallel lines. The results indicated that all participants perceived the canonical Ponzo illusion and the modified right illusion. Critically, patients with neglect did not perceive the modified left illusion. In addition, for neglect patients, there was no difference in the strength of the perceived illusion when comparing the canonical illusion with the modified right illusion. Importantly, single case analysis revealed a high degree of variability in the neglect group that seemed to be linked with the amount of damage to occipital areas. Overall our results indicate that: (1) the classic Ponzo illusion might be perceived in neglect patients based solely on perception of the right side of the stimulus configuration, and (2) differences

  7. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  8. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  9. Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vanzzini Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed.

  10. Error Types and Error Positions in Neglect Dyslexia: Comparative Analyses in Neglect Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to…

  11. Penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis secondary to neglected false penile fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Reshaid Reshaid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile infection and abscess formation have been described in association with priapism, cavernosography, intracavernosal injection therapy, trauma and penile prosthesis. We report a case of penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis of penile skin in a 37-year-old male, presented 3 weeks after neglected false penile fracture.

  12. Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Kissal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findings of abuse. Health professionals who support elder-especially nurse- shouldn’t only deal with this subject but also they should be educated about diagnosing, reporting and attempting. This paper’s aim is to inform people about the evaluation of risk-factors, findings and prevention of elder abuse and neglect and to increase sensitivity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 357-364

  13. Elder abuse and neglect: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbien, Martin J; Eisenstein, Amy R

    2005-05-01

    The dramatic growth of the American elderly population has great implications for our health care system. The "demographic imperative" that has fueled the awareness of the needs of older adults has a major impact on issues related to social welfare, justice, and economics. There are 45 million people over the age of 60 and 3 million over the age of 85. Those over age 85 represent the fastest growing segment of the elderly population. With this trend comes a segment of the population that is at risk for abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. We are challenged to be aware of the many faces of elder mistreatment and to understand it in the broader context of domestic violence. All health care professionals working with older adults need to become familiar with the recognition, treatment, and prevention of elder abuse and neglect.

  14. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Interactions between biofilms and the environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1997;20:291–303. 4. Webb LX, Wagner W, Carroll D, et al. Osteomyelitis and...treatment of osteomyelitis . Biomed Mater. 2008;3: 034114. 6. Gristina AG. Biomaterial-centered infection: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration...vertebral osteomyelitis . Spine. 2007;32: 2996–3006. 15. Beckham JD, Tuttle K, Tyler KL. Reovirus activates transforming growth factor ß and bone

  15. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet the biological basis of maternal neglect is poorly understood and a rodent model is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study characterizes a population of mice (MaD1 which naturally exhibit maternal neglect (little or no care of offspring at an average rate of 17% per generation. We identified a set of risk factors that can predict future neglect of offspring, including decreased self-grooming and elevated activity. At the time of neglect, neglectful mothers swam significantly more in a forced swim test relative to nurturing mothers. Cross-fostered offspring raised by neglectful mothers in turn exhibit increased expression of risk factors for maternal neglect and decreased maternal care as adults, suggestive of possible epigenetic contributions to neglect. Unexpectedly, offspring from neglectful mothers elicited maternal neglect from cross-fostered nurturing mothers, suggesting that factors regulating neglect are not solely within the mother. To identify a neurological pathway underlying maternal neglect, we examined brain activity in neglectful and nurturing mice. c-Fos expression was significantly elevated in neglectful relative to nurturing mothers in the CNS, particularly within dopamine associated areas, such as the zona incerta (ZI, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and nucleus accumbens. Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker for dopamine production was significantly elevated in ZI and higher in VTA (although not significantly in neglectful mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase levels were unaltered, suggesting a dysregulation of dopamine activity rather than cell number. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32, a marker for dopamine D1-like receptor activation, was elevated within nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen in neglectful versus nurturing dams. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that atypical dopamine activity within the maternal brain

  16. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Welburn, Sue; Johansen, Maria Vang

    on accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2013 have enhanced visibility of zoonotic NTDs¬ – notably rabies, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, human African trypanosomiasis, foodborne...

  17. Mirror neuron therapy for hemispatial neglect patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Xiangtong; Ye, Qian; Chen, Wenli; Ni, Jun; Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Bing; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neuron system(MNS) based therapy has been employed to treat stroke induced movement disorders. However, its potential effects on patients with hemispatial neglect were uninvestigated. The present study set out to test the therapeutic efficiency of video watching of series of hand actions/movements (protocol A) in two patients with left hemispatial neglect, due to the right hemisphere stroke. The video containing dynamic landscape of natural scene or cities but not human/animals was used as the protocol B. The “ABA” training procedure for 3 weeks therefore allows us to internally control the individual differences. Before and after each week of training, the Chinese behavioral inattention test- Hongkong version (CBIT-HK) was implemented to evaluate the hemispatial neglect severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment was implemented in two health subjects to reveal the difference of brain activation between protocol A and B. The results showed that protocol A rather than protocol B significantly improved the CBIT-HK scores at first and third weeks, respectively. Protocol A induced more bilateral activations including right inferior parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus), which belongs to MNS and is also critical region resulting to hemineglect. Conclusion: MNS activation can provide a novel therapy for hemispatial neglect patients. PMID:25727354

  18. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arrangspan>ed along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  19. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  20. Preserved semantic access in neglect dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavas, E; Shallice, T; Zanella, M T

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation of semantic access in patients with severe neglect dyslexia for words and non-words. Patients were given the following tasks: (1) reading aloud letter strings (first basic reading task), (2) making semantic decisions (categorial and inferential judgements), (3) making semantic decisions and reading the letter strings immediately afterwards (semantic-reading tasks), (4) reading letter strings again (final basic reading tasks) and (5) auditory control tasks. Of 23 patients with visual neglect, four showed neglect dyslexia for both words and non-words. Of these four patients, three showed a performance in the semantic tasks that was as good as in the auditory condition. Moreover, the reading of the patients improved dramatically in the semantic-reading tasks but this was not maintained in the final basic reading task. Non-words showed only a minor improvement. Findings are discussed in terms of an interaction between the attentional system and the different reading routes, and provide evidence that semantic routes are less affected by neglect.

  1. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  2. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Welburn, Sue; Johansen, Maria Vang;

    on accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2013 have enhanced visibility of zoonotic NTDs¬ – notably rabies, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, human African trypanosomiasis, foodborne...

  3. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  4. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Darren L; Jose, Rajive Mathew; Aldlyami, Ehab; King, Helen; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2006-03-01

    Although many studies have described burn abuse in detail, burns that have occurred as a result of neglect have been studied to a much lesser degree. A retrospective study of 440 hospitalised paediatric burns patients during 2000-2002 inclusive was performed. A multidisciplinary team investigation of suspicious cases was used. This included a home assessment. There were 41 cases of neglect (9.3%) and 395 cases of accidental burning (89.8%). Parental drug abuse, single parent families, delay to presentation and a lack of first aid were statistically more prevalent in the "neglect" group than in the "accidental" group. Children in the "neglect" group were also statistically more likely to have deeper burns and require skin grafting. 82.9% of children whose burns were deemed to be due to neglect had a previous entry on the child protection register. 48.8% were transferred into foster care. This study shows that burning by neglect is far more prevalent than abuse. We advocate a multidisciplinary investigation coupled with the use of home assessments to aid diagnosis. It may be possible to target preventative strategies on the children with the above risk factors.

  5. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  6. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  7. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  8. Medicolegal aspects of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D; Bross, Donald C

    2002-04-01

    Neurosurgeons that see children and care for those with traumatic injury are highly likely to see cases of child abuse and neglect. That fact makes it inevitable that they will encounter the legal system. It is hoped that this article has demystified the legal process and systems that one encounters in day-to-day practice. Avoiding the diagnosis of abuse because of lack of knowledge or phobia of the legal system is hazardous to the health and well-being of children.

  9. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  10. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data System Glossary Listen Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  11. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the...

  12. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  13. Educational neglect: Understanding 20 years of child welfare trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wert, Melissa; Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2017-05-18

    Educational neglect is an understudied phenomenon that is difficult to define and also to address. While it is clear that attending to children's academic needs is important to child development, few studies focus on educational neglect and therefore little is known about its associated risk factors and the outcomes following this form of maltreatment. The purpose of this research was to (a) determine the rate at which child welfare service providers investigate educational neglect in Canada and identify any trends in rates over time, (b) better understand educational neglect and its distinction from other types of neglect and truancy, and (c) understand how child welfare services respond to allegations of educational neglect. Data from five cycles of the Ontario Incidence Studies of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect were examined. A trend analysis was conducted followed by a mixed-method examination of educational neglect investigations. Results indicate that rates of investigated educational neglect in Ontario have been consistently low over time. However, these investigations are significantly more likely to be substantiated and to be transferred to ongoing child welfare services compared to investigations of other subtypes of neglect. Educational neglect investigations involving younger children are more likely to note risk factors for caregivers whereas those involving adolescents are more likely to note functioning issues for youth. The findings are discussed in relation to international trends in educational neglect and policy and practice implications are explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  15. Exploring self-neglect in older adults: preliminary findings of the self-neglect severity scale and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P Adam; Dyer, Carmel B; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST) collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The SSS assesses three domains of self-neglect (hygiene, functioning, and environment) and relies on observational ratings assigned by trained observers. After pilot testing and revision, the SSS was field tested in the homes of subjects who had been reported to and substantiated by Texas Adult Protective Services (APS) as self-neglecting and compared with results of subjects recruited from a local geriatric clinic who were reported to APS but had no history of self-neglect. The first field test demonstrated that the SSS could distinguish elderly self-neglecters from community dwellers who do not self-neglect. The SSS exhibited adequate scale reliability (Cronbach alpha) and correlation with case status. Interrater reliability also appeared adequate, although sensitivity and specificity fell below the conventional acceptable range. Future methods are proposed for refining the SSS to improve its use as the benchmark for identifying elder self-neglect.

  16. Functional Assessment of Region-Specific Neglect: Are There Differential Behavioural Consequences of Peripersonal versus Extrapersonal Neglect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. W. Nijboer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-specific neglect, using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS. Methods. 118 stroke patients were screened within the first two weeks after admission to the rehabilitation center for inpatient rehabilitation. Results. Patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions had significantly higher total score on the CBS compared to nonneglect patients. Total scores for patients with extrapersonal neglect were comparable to non-neglect patients. ADL impairments were found across activities (e.g., looking towards one side, forgetting body parts, colliding for both patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions. Patients with extrapersonal neglect were only impaired on the item on way finding. Conclusions. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, where needed, to adjust the rehabilitation program accordingly. As the CBS is not developed to typically measure ADL in extrapersonal neglect, it would be of importance to add other (instrumental activities that heavily rely on processing information in farther space.

  17. Personal neglect-a disorder of body representation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Ulrike; de Haan, Bianca; Grässli, Tanja; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mueri, René; Perrig, Walter J; Wurtz, Pascal; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underlying personal neglect are not well known. One theory postulates that personal neglect is due to a disorder of contralesional body representation. In the present study, we have investigated whether personal neglect is best explained by impairments in the representation of the contralesional side of the body, in particular, or a dysfunction of the mental representation of the contralesional space in general. For this, 22 patients with right hemisphere cerebral lesions (7 with personal neglect, 15 without personal neglect) and 13 healthy controls have been studied using two experimental tasks measuring representation of the body and extrapersonal space. In the tasks, photographs of left and right hands as well as left and right rear-view mirrors presented from the front and the back had to be judged as left or right. Our results show that patients with personal neglect made more errors when asked to judge stimuli of left hands and left rear-view mirrors than either patients without personal neglect or healthy controls. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that errors in interpreting left hands were the best predictor of personal neglect, while other variables such as extrapersonal neglect, somatosensory or motor impairments, or deficits in left extrapersonal space representation had no predictive value of personal neglect. These findings suggest that deficient body representation is the major mechanism underlying personal neglect.

  18. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  19. Using narratives and discourses in neglect-prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2013-06-01

    Training in neglect prevention for healthcare professionals should incorporate understanding of who is at risk, what represents neglect, how signs might be identified quickly and what should be done to rectify neglectful practice and minimise further risk. It must also cover accurate reporting in line with safeguarding vulnerable adults legislation and the evaluation of what healthcare systems have contributed to the risk of neglect. Neglect is an ambiguous term, so it is important to explore how it is understood and why sometimes it is not challenged. This article discusses various issues around neglect and suggests a new approach to training that involves the analysis of clients' and practitioners' narratives and discourses about care. Understanding these narratives and discourses can help identify situations of institutional neglect.

  20. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  1. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Acehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

  2. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  3. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  4. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  5. Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Armandina Garza; David J Tweardy; Joel Weinstock; Balaji Viswanathan; Prema Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1β, TN...

  6. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  7. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Chung

    Full Text Available Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients.We made the computerized table setting test (CTST to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically.Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect.The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.

  8. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  9. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  10. Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae), of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanelli, G C; Takemoto, R M

    2000-11-01

    One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78%) were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935). The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.

  11. [Description of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A

    1986-01-01

    Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura.

  12. Neglected Fournier's Gangrene Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Arif; Sertkaya, Mehmet; Duman, Yakup; Kale, Ilhami Taner

    2016-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene, rare but life threatening disease, is characterized by an acute necrotic infection of the scrotum, penis, or perineum. Fournier's gangrene is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fournier's gangrene caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported rarely. The mainstay of treatment is prompt recognition and a combination of antibiotics with radical debridement. We describe a case of a 56-year-old male patient presenting with neglected Fournier's gangrene caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Many treatment modalities including broad-spectrum antibiotics, aggressive debridement, negative pressure wound therapy, diversion colostomy, and partial-thickness skin grafts were applied to save the patient's life. PMID:27725892

  13. Assessing capacity in suspected cases of self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D; Lai, James M; Kunik, Mark E; Dyer, Carmel B

    2008-02-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and burgeoning public health challenge representing the most common problem faced by Adult Protective Services agencies. Among older adults who are vulnerable to self-neglect, the capacity to make decisions may remain intact. However, the capacity to identify and extract oneself from harmful situations, circumstances, or relationships may be diminished. A key ethical and clinical branch point in identifying older adults at risk for self-neglect involves determining whether the individual can both make and implement decisions regarding personal needs, health, and safety. The Articulate --> Demonstrate method is a practical and efficient way to screen capacity in the setting of suspected self-neglect. Once self-neglect has been identified, common clinical interventions can be targeted to the diagnosed deficits that foster vulnerability to neglect in older adults.

  14. Neglected isolated fracture of the trochlea humeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Ish Kumar Dhammi; Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain

    2010-01-01

    A 15 years old girl was found to have isolated trochlea fracture 10 weeks after an injury caused by a fall on her left elbow. Movement of the elbow was severely restricted. Radiographs showed a half moon-shaped and anterosuperiorly displaced osteochondral fragment. Medial approach capsulotomy of the elbow and excision of the intraarticular adhesions were done to expose the isolated trochlea fracture. Headless screws were used for fixation,combined with bone grafting. The follow-up showed union and excellent functional recovery of the elbow. Isolated trochlea fracture in adults is rare and usually associated with capitellar fractures and/or elbow dislocations. A neglected trochlea fracture is rarely reported in the English language literature to the best of our knowledge. Recognition of isolated trochlea fracture is vital to apprehend the pathomechanics of the injury and to devise a suitable treatment approach.

  15. Priority setting and the 'neglected' tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David

    2006-06-01

    In this paper David Canning argues that interventions against 'neglected' tropical diseases should be thought of as investments in human capital and form an integral part of global poverty reduction. He argues that overall burden of disease should not be the criterion for priority setting; if the goal is to maximize health benefits from a fixed health budget then cost-effective interventions should be prioritized. Whilst many people find objectionable the assignment of a monetary value to health, a cost-benefit approach, combining health and economic benefits, would allow the health sector to present arguments to policy makers, based on the rate of return on investment. Since many health interventions in low-income countries have exceptionally high rankings in terms of cost-benefit ratios, this should result in large flows from other sectors to the health sector.

  16. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... Alterations of orgasmic function are experienced by approximately 80% after RP. Erectile dysfunction seems to play an important role in waning orgasmic function. OAP is only experienced by a subset of the patients with reported rates varying between 3% and 19%. Sparing of the tips of the seminal vesicles has...... been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: The sexually related side effects summarized...

  17. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-02

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group.

  18. Parasitic Infections Based on 320 Clinical Samples Submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

  19. Self-neglect and adult safeguarding: findings from research

    OpenAIRE

    Braye, Suzy; Orr, David; Preston-Shoot, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Department of Health (DH) and examines the concept of self-neglect. The relationship between self-neglect and safeguarding in the UK is a difficult one, partly because the current definition of abuse specifies harmful actions by someone other than the individual at risk. Safeguarding Adults Boards’ policies and procedures commonly contain no reference to self-neglect; occasionally they explicitly exclude it or set criteria for its inclusion\\ud \\ud The perce...

  20. Assessing capacity in suspected cases of self-neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Aanand D; Lai, James M.; Kunik, Mark E.; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2008-01-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and burgeoning public health challenge representing the most common problem faced by Adult Protective Services agencies. Among older adults who are vulnerable to self-neglect, the capacity to make decisions may remain intact. However, the capacity to identify and extract oneself from harmful situations, circumstances, or relationships may be diminished. A key ethical and clinical branch point in identifying older adults at risk for self-neglect involves determining w...

  1. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

  2. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect.

  3. Are drawing perseverations part of the neglect syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Lorenzo; Folegatti, Alessia; Guagliardo, Marilena; Genero, Rosanna; Gindri, Patrizia

    2009-03-01

    Unilateral neglect patients typically omit to cancel contralesional targets. Moreover, they can repeatedly cancel ipsilesional stimuli exhibiting what is termed 'perseverative behavior'. Two alternative accounts of this behavior have been proposed. According to one of them, it is considered as integral to neglect and due either to a perceptual (allochiria), or a premotor (directional hypokinesia) pathological mechanism leading to the ipsilesional displacement of contralesional responses. According to the other one, perseverations are interpreted as the consequence of motor-control-disinhibition co-occurring with, although independent of, spatial neglect. We compared some crucial predictions of these two hypotheses on a group of 10 right-brain-damaged patients, eight with neglect and two without neglect, showing a perseverative behavior in both conventional and experimental cancellation tasks. In our experiment, the spatial location and the numerosity of targets were manipulated to obtain different degrees of horizontal alignment between targets on the left and on the right of the central vertical axis of the sheet. We found that ipsilesional perseverations were not influenced by left neglected targets and were not correlated to neglect severity. Additionally, perseverative errors were associated with right basal ganglia lesions rather than with presence of neglect. These findings support the view that two different pathological mechanisms might be involved in left spatial neglect and ipsilesional perseverative behavior.

  4. Effects of attentional and cognitive variables on unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Garbarini, Francesca; Ronga, Irene; Genero, Rosanna; Berti, Anna; Neppi-Mòdona, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Patients with visuospatial neglect when asked to cancel targets partially or totally omit to cancel contralesional stimuli. It has been shown that increasing the attentional demands of the cancellation task aggravates neglect contralesionally. However, some preliminary evidence also suggests that neglect might be worsened by engaging the patient in a demanding, non-spatial, cognitive activity (i.e. a mathematical task). We studied cancellation performance of 16 patients with right-hemisphere lesions, 8 with neglect, 8 without neglect, and 8 age-matched healthy control participants by means of five cancellation tasks which varied for the degree of attentional and/or high level cognitive demands (preattentive and attentive search of a visual target, searching for numbers containing the digit 3, even numbers, and multiples of 3). Results showed that attentive search of visual targets, relative to the preattentive search condition, aggravated neglect patients' performance. Moreover, searching for multiples not only worsened spatial neglect contralesionally, but also slowed down performance of patients with right-hemisphere lesions without neglect. Our findings further demonstrate the presence of specific deficits of attention in neglect. In addition, the worse performance of patients without neglect in the 'multiples of 3' task is consistent with the evidence that right-hemisphere lesions per se impair the ability to maintain attention (i.e. sustained attention). This suggests that the exacerbation of neglect during execution of a demanding, non-spatial, cognitive task might be explained by a deficit of sustained attention in addition to a selective deficit of spatial attention.

  5. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  6. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A. S.; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation (EO) is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ), which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers. PMID:26678393

  7. Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Adams, John H.; Silva, Joana C.; Bidwell, Shelby L.; Lorenzi, Hernan; Caler, Elisabet; Crabtree, Jonathan; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Merino, Emilio F.; Amedeo, Paolo; Cheng, Qin; Coulson, Richard M. R.; Crabb, Brendan S.; del Portillo, Hernando A.; Essien, Kobby; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Gilson, Paul R.; Gueye, Amy H.; Guo, Xiang; Kang’a, Simon; Kooij, Taco W. A.; Korsinczky, Michael; Meyer, Esmeralda V.-S.; Nene, Vish; Paulsen, Ian; White, Owen; Ralph, Stuart A.; Ren, Qinghu; Sargeant, Tobias J.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Yamamoto, Marcio Massao; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.

    2008-01-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the ~515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is little studied because it cannot be propagated in the laboratory except in non-human primates. We determined the genome sequence of P. vivax in order to shed light on its distinctive biologic features, and as a means to drive development of new drugs and vaccines. Here we describe the synteny and isochore structure of P. vivax chromosomes, and show that the parasite resembles other malaria parasites in gene content and metabolic potential, but possesses novel gene families and potential alternate invasion pathways not recognized previously. Completion of the P. vivax genome provides the scientific community with a valuable resource that can be used to advance scientific investigation into this neglected species. PMID:18843361

  8. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A S; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Clements, Archie C A

    2015-12-01

    Earth observation (EO) is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ), which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers.

  9. Development assistance for neglected tropical diseases: progress since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bernhard H; Houghton, Natalia; Teplitskaya, Lyubov

    2014-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is an umbrella term for a diverse group of debilitating infections that represent the most common afflictions for 2.7 billion people living on less than US$2 per day. Major efforts have recently re-focused attention on NTDs, including structured advocacy by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, technical and political support by WHO and large-scale drug donation programs by pharmaceutical companies. An analysis of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) for NTDs in 2009 showed that Development Assistance Committee members and multilateral donors had largely ignored funding NTD control projects. This study reviews the changes since 2009 and finds an increased engagement by pharmaceutical manufacturers through drug donation programs substantially increased by the 'London Declaration' in 2012, a focused effort of 77 public and private partners on control or elimination of the 10 most common NTDs, but no increase in ODA for NTDs between 2008 and 2012. The allocation of ODA still does not reflect the respective importance of these diseases.

  10. Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium.

  11. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the child's...

  12. Intervention Strategies for School Counselors in Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen

    School counselors and school personnel have a vital role in three areas of suspected child abuse and neglect: (1) as frontline professionals in the process of identification; (2) as persons required to report suspected abuse or neglect; and (3) as contributors to the treatment process. Signs of child maltreatment are described with reference to…

  13. Familial Correlates of Selected Types of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Walters, James

    1982-01-01

    Studied 489 cases of child abuse and neglect to determine specific patterns of family circumstance which tended to be present in families in which abandonment, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse had been substantiated. Findings indicated that different kinds of abuse are related to different antecedent variables. (Author)

  14. Three Views of Child Neglect: Expanding Visions of Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald

    1984-01-01

    Child neglect prevention is discussed at three levels: the individual, the social system, and fundamental beliefs and cultural agreements. An outline of a preventive child neglect intervention strategy is presented. Practices of government, the impact of business and technology and economic theory, and practice are shown as plausible areas for…

  15. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  16. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  17. Motor Response Deficits of Unilateral Neglect: Assessment, Therapy, and Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevarsson, Styrmir

    2013-04-16

    The clinical impact of the motor deficits of unilateral neglect is indisputable. The diagnosis criteria are confusing and complicated, and assessment has been extended and modified gradually during the last few decades, which has led to inconsistency and confusion. Many different attempts have been made to overcome various assessment shortcomings. In this article, different examinations of previous studies and analyses are discussed in a systematic and critical way. Research databases were used to identify 254 reports, including 26 different empirical studies on motor neglect and 44 studies on premotor neglect. Most of the studies address the gross neuroanatomical location of lesions. The main findings indicate that frontal lesions are more common in motor neglect than in premotor neglect, and parietal lesions are more common in premotor neglect than in motor neglect. Few studies have evaluated therapeutic programs for the motor deficits of neglect. Unfortunately, most studies suffer from various diagnostic problems that result in inconsistent and controversial findings. Different assessment issues need to be addressed systematically in future studies in light of current findings to increase our understanding and awareness of these important neuropsychological motor deficits. Implications of and possible solutions to the current assessment shortcomings are discussed.

  18. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  19. Reflection a neglected art in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation and quality assurance have, over time, become the bedrock of health promotion practice in ensuring effectiveness and efficiency of programme planning and delivery. There has been less emphasis, however, on formal recognition of the contribution of the personal characteristics and perspectives of those who plan and deliver programmes and to the more subtle underlying effects of prevailing societal and professional norms. This paper seeks to highlight the neglect of formal reflection as a key professional skill in professional health promotion practice. It outlines key theories underpinning the development of the concepts of reflection and reflective practice. The role of reflection in critical health education as it contributes to critical consciousness raising is highlighted through its contribution to the empowerment of change agents in a societal change context. A conceptual typology of reflective practice is described which provides a flexible structure with which professionals can reflect on the role of self, the context and the process of health promotion programme planning. Its use is illustrated from the author's published work in health promotion which is related to prevention of workplace violence.

  20. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  1. Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites: Implications for development of recombinant vaccines produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts.

  2. Anurans as Intermediate and Paratenic Hosts of Helminth Infections in the Rainforest and Derived Savanna Biotopes of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail A. Imasuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans from the rainforest (Okomu National Park and derived savanna (Agbede locations in Nigeria were investigated for their role either as intermediate or paratenic hosts of helminth infections. A total of 269 anuran specimens (157 from the Okomu National Park and 112 from Agbede were examined. Metacercariae of a strigeoid trematode, two nematode species, a proteocephalid cestode, and an acanthocephalan were recovered from infected hosts. Except for the strigeoid trematode, which was only recorded in the rainforest, there was no ecological dichotomy in the distribution of the larval parasites recorded. Tree frogs from the rainforest only served as second intermediate hosts for the strigeoid trematode. The two nematode larvae (type I and type II found in the body cavity of the infected host are believed to use them as paratenic hosts. Tree frogs were the predominant intermediate hosts of the proteocephalid cestode larvae in the rainforest, while Ptychadena and Phrynobatrachus spp. served this function in the derived savanna. The occurrence of cystacanths in the anurans from both biotopes confirms their known role as paratenic host for acanthocephalans. Afrixalus dorsalis is a new host record for the ascaridoid nematode while the finding of the strigeoid trematode, the proteocephalid cestode larvae and acanthocephalan cystacanths in the anurans investigated represents new geographical records.

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect.

  4. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution.

  5. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended.

  6. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Horstick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD. But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D (2003-2013. NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a poverty related, b endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c lacking public health attention, d having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  7. Temporal variation of the cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924) in their host, domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica (Gmelin, 1789).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-06-01

    A study of the temporal variation of Cotugnia cuneata, on a monthly basis, was carried out from January 2008 to December 2010. The study revealed a similarity in the percentage prevalence and mean intensity of infection with higher values in the beginning of the year that gradually declined towards the middle and rose to moderate values towards the end of the year. The periodicity clearly shows a correlation with the seasonal changes throughout the year and provides important insights to the survival strategies of the parasite as well as its life-cycle.

  8. Factors Affecting the Clinical Measurement of Visuo-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzamiglio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined a battery of tests to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect; the tests included different tasks involving several modalities of spatial exploration mapping perceptual, motor, attentional and personal or extrapersonal space dimensions. The subjects, 121 right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral neglect, were studied in seven laboratories in four European countries. Relationships among the various tests were examined by correlations, a cluster analysis and by an analysis of individual cases. Different sensitivity was found among various tests for detecting neglect performances. Both the cluster analysis and the single case analysis clearly showed a segregation between personal and extrapersonal neglect. Analysis of the large cluster, including a variety of tests of extra personal neglect, together with the study of single cases, suggests the possibility of differentiating the various manifestations of spatial neglect which can be interpreted on the basis of the descriptions of other individual cases previously reported in the literature. Finally, the present study indicated the relative stability of neglect following the acute phase and its independence from age.

  9. Redescription and systematic position of Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a cestode species parasitic in shrews of the genus Sorex, including erection of Gulyaevilepis gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Svetlana A; Binkiene, Rasa

    2014-04-01

    Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the type host Sorex araneus Linnaeus from Lithuania, Latvia and Russia (Republic of Karelia and Republic of Komi - a new geographical record) as well as from Sorex satunini Ognev and Sorex volnuchini Ognev from Russia (Nalchik Area in the Caucasus Mountains). The strobilar morphology of S. tripartita is compared with that of other hymenolepidid cestodes of shrews with an unarmed scolex and serial development of proglottides in the strobila, i.e. species of Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948, Ditestolepis Soltys, 1952, Spasskylepis Schaldybin, 1964, Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko, 1983 and Diorchilepis Lykova, Gulyaev, Melnikova et Karpenko, 2006. It was noted that S. tripartita does not correspond to any of the known genera. The following unique characters are found for S. tripartita: heteronomous serial strobilation with one or two sterile proglottides at the end of each series in the strobila and the whole copulatory part of the vagina covered with numerous, fine spines. Therefore, the new genus Gulyaevilepis is erected, with Gulyaevilepis tripartita (Zarnowski, 1955) comb. n. as its type and only species. Since the type material of Soricinia tripartita is not known to exist, a neotype from the same host species and from a locality close to the type locality is designated.

  10. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  11. Statistical learning as a tool for rehabilitation in spatial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena eShaqiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect.

  12. Medical Imaging of Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patrick; Mazal, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are a group of protozoan, parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases endemic in 149 countries causing substantial illness globally. Extreme poverty and warm tropical climates are the 2 most potent forces promoting the spread of neglected tropical diseases. These forces are prevalent in Central and South America, as well as the U.S. Gulf Coast. Advanced cases often require specialized medical imaging for diagnosis, disease staging, and follow-up. This article offers a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis (with special attention to medical imaging), and treatment of neglected tropical diseases specific to the Americas.

  13. Integrated dataset of screening hits against multiple neglected disease pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Nwaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New chemical entities are desperately needed that overcome the limitations of existing drugs for neglected diseases. Screening a diverse library of 10,000 drug-like compounds against 7 neglected disease pathogens resulted in an integrated dataset of 744 hits. We discuss the prioritization of these hits for each pathogen and the strong correlation observed between compounds active against more than two pathogens and mammalian cell toxicity. Our work suggests that the efficiency of early drug discovery for neglected diseases can be enhanced through a collaborative, multi-pathogen approach.

  14. Computational models for neglected diseases: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Elizabeth L; Freundlich, Joel S; Sarker, Malabika; Ekins, Sean

    2014-02-01

    Neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, and intestinal worms, affect millions of the world's poor. They disproportionately affect marginalized populations, lack effective treatments or vaccines, or existing products are not accessible to the populations affected. Computational approaches have been used across many of these diseases for various aspects of research or development, and yet data produced by computational approaches are not integrated and widely accessible to others. Here, we identify gaps in which computational approaches have been used for some neglected diseases and not others. We also make recommendations for the broad-spectrum integration of these techniques into a neglected disease drug discovery and development workflow.

  15. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals.

  16. Novelties on amoebiasis: A neglected tropical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ximénez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the 1997 documents of the World Health Organization (WHO, amoebiasis is defined as the infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica with or without clinical manifestations. The only known natural host of E. histolytica is the human with the large intestine as major target organ. This parasite has a very simple life cycle in which the infective form is the cyst, considered a resistant form of parasite: The asymptomatic cyst passers and the intestinal amoebiasis patients are the transmitters; they excrete cysts in their feces, which can contaminate food and water sources. E. histolytica sensu stricto is the potentially pathogenic species and E. dispar is a commensal non-pathogenic Entamoeba. Both species are biochemical, immunological and genetically distinct. The knowledge of both species with different pathogenic phenotypes comes from a large scientific debate during the second half of the 20 th century, which gave place to the rapid development of diagnostics technology based on molecular and immunological strategies. During the last ten years, knowledge of the new epidemiology of amoebiasis in different geographic endemic and non-endemic areas has been obtained by applying mostly molecular techniques. In the present work we highlight novelties on human infection and the disease that can help the general physician from both endemic and non-endemic countries in their medical practice, particularly, now that emigration is undoubtedly a global phenomenon that is modifying the previous geography of infectious diseases worldwide.

  17. A handful of 'antipoverty' vaccines exist for neglected diseases, but the world's poorest billion people need more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2011-06-01

    So-called neglected tropical diseases are the most common infections of the world's poor. Almost all of the "bottom billion"--the 1.4 billion people who live below the poverty level defined by the World Bank--suffer from one or more neglected diseases including hookworm infection, sleeping sickness, or Chagas disease. These diseases are actually a cause of poverty because of their adverse effects on child growth and development and worker productivity. Vaccines to combat such diseases have come to be known as "antipoverty vaccines." Unfortunately, the recent surge in the development and delivery of vaccines to combat the major childhood killers--such as pneumococcal pneumonia and measles--has bypassed neglected diseases. Nevertheless, some vaccines for these neglected diseases are now entering the clinical pipeline. In this article I describe how some antipoverty vaccine development is proceeding and offer recommendations for stimulating further development such as through pooled funding for innovation, developing-country manufacturers, and public-private partnerships for product development.

  18. Have agricultural economists neglected poverty issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesenhusen, W C

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural economists concerned with development issues devote effort to researching agriculture's inputs to produce a surplus and transfer it to nonagriculture, to provide markets for urban-based industry, to maintain a labor reservoir, to assist in capital formation, and to accumulate foreign exchange. Little attention is focused on broader and more sweeping economic problems. Discussion is directed toward answering some questions about why agricultural economists neglect rural poverty. Also, attention is given to why the extent of rural poverty imperils development, in what location should poverty be addressed, what are the issues in the agricultural growth and inequality debate as it affects rural poverty, and whether there are any new or promising ways to combat rural poverty. The extent of poverty is measured by the World Bank as 20% of world population, or 1 billion people, Rural poverty accounts for 60% of the hungry poor in Latin America, 80% in Asia, and 90% in Africa. 11 items are used to define the rural poor, such as a heterogeneous population of primarily small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists, and fisherfolk. 5 reasons are given why economists avoid rural poverty, including the difficulty in modeling the complex problems of rural poverty and the political considerations of free market vs. socialist economies. Other reasons involve land reform which reduces labor needs and a commitment to commercial farming rather than small-scale, labor-intensive farming; the rural agricultural poor's contributions to development are underrated. East Asian countries have been successful in linking growth, distribution, and amelioration of poverty among the peasantry. Environmental degradation may be encouraged by inequalities and unequal access to resources. The example is given of Brazil which has promoted migration to cities due to commercialization of rural agriculture and created urban poverty instead of dealing directly with rural poverty by

  19. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.

  20. Neglected diseases of neglected populations: Thinking to reshape the determinants of health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ault Steven K

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in poverty throughout the developing world are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases and often marginalized by the health sector. These diseases are currently referred to as Neglected Diseases of Neglected Populations. The neglected diseases create social and financial burdens to the individual, the family, the community, and the nation. Discussion Numerous studies of successful individual interventions to manage communicable disease determinants in various types of communities have been published, but few have applied multiple interventions in an integrated, coordinated manner. We have identified a series of successful interventions and developed three hypothetical scenarios where such interventions could be applied in an integrated, multi-disease, inter-programmatic, and/or inter-sectoral approach for prevention and control of neglected diseases in three different populations: a slum, an indigenous community, and a city with a mix of populations. Summary The objective of this paper is to identify new opportunities to address neglected diseases, improve community health and promote sustainable development in neglected populations by highlighting examples of key risk and protective factors for neglected diseases which can be managed and implemented through multi-disease-based, integrated, inter-programmatic, and/or inter-sectoral approaches. Based on a literature review, analysis and development of scenarios we visualize how multiple interventions could manage multiple disease problems and propose these as possible strategies to be tested. We seek to stimulate intra- and inter-sectoral dialogue which will help in the construction of new strategies for neglected diseases (particularly for the parasitic diseases which could benefit the poor and marginalized based on the principle of sustainability and understanding of key determinants of health, and lead to the establishment of pilot projects and

  1. The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Claudia; Selwood, Amber; Livingston, Gill

    2008-01-01

    to perform a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of elder abuse or neglect, either reported by older people themselves, or family and professional caregivers or investigated using objective measures...

  2. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  3. Ethical perspectives on self-neglect among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Kristen L

    2011-01-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and growing problem among older adults. A 2004 survey from Adult Protective Services (APS) showed that adults age 60 or older were named in 85,000 reports of self-neglect from 21 states (Naik, Lai, Kunik, & Dyer, 2008; Teaster, Dugar, Mendiondo, Abner, & Cecil, 2006). Although rehabilitation nurses are obligated to uphold the autonomy of older adults and strengthen their independence, dilemmas result when people's poor health behaviors put them or others at risk for negative consequences. When making decisions about nursing actions related to self-neglecting elderly people, the basic principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and capacity must be considered. The purpose of this article is to discuss major ethical perspectives related to self-neglect among older adults.

  4. Neglected Outcomes of Customer Orientation in Urban Public Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neglected Outcomes of Customer Orientation in Urban Public Water Utilities in Uganda and Tanzania. ... a positive correlation between customer orientation and customer satisfaction ... Keywords · Customer orientation · Service quality · DEA ...

  5. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  6. Maltreatment, abuse and neglect seniors from the perspective of nurse.

    OpenAIRE

    HAMPERGROVÁ, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    This thesis called "Mistreat, abuse and neglect of seniors from the point of view of a nurse" comprises of theoretical and empirical part. It deals with violence against seniors and the point of view of a nurse on this problem. The theoretical part of this thesis comprehensively summarizes the issue of physical and emotional abuse and neglect of seniors. It contains definitions and important concepts and forms of violence, which are described in detail. Very important part is also the descrip...

  7. Right-hemisphere (spatial?) acalculia and the influence of neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela; Marco ePitteri; Konstantinos ePriftis; Laura ePassarini; Francesca eMeneghello; Carlo eSemenza

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients [12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+), 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN−)], and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as cou...

  8. Is pain a significant factor in elder self-neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Sabrina; Burnett, Jason; Naik, Aanand D; Holmes, Holly M; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2006-01-01

    Pain is a worldwide health concern leading to cognitive impairments, depression, and decline in activities of daily living when poorly controlled. Self-neglect is also a serious public health issue being the most common allegation reported to Adult Protective Services (APS). The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether self-reported pain is associated with validated cases of self-neglect compared with matched controls. This is a cross-sectional study of 80 (APS) validated cases of self-neglect aged 65 years and older and 80 control participants recruited from a geriatric clinic at Harris County Hospital District. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender, and zip code. Both groups were administered the Wong-Baker FACES rating scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination in their homes by a geriatric nurse practitioner and a research assistant. Self-reported pain was noted in 43% of the self-neglect group compared with only 28% in the control group (X2 = 3.85, df = 1, p = .05). This difference became non-significant after stratifying for MMSE scores of 19 or greater (X2 = 3.38, df = 1, p = .066). The self-neglecting elderly also reported significantly higher levels of pain compared with the matched controls (t = 2.5, df = 143, p = .014). This mean difference remained significant after stratifying by MMSE scores of 19 or greater (t = 2.6, df = 124, p = .009). The data provide preliminary support for the relationship between self-reported pain and elder self-neglect. Research is needed to determine whether pain is a causal or associated factor in self-neglect and whether therapeutic intervention can improve the syndrome of self-neglect.

  9. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada León

    Full Text Available Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz and lower alpha (8-10 Hz bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  10. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  11. Walking and wheelchair navigation in patients with left visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; Dewar, Sophie J; Lievesley, Alex; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Jude; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2009-04-01

    Patients with neglect veer to one side when walking or driving a wheelchair, however there is a contradiction in the literature about the direction of this deviation. The study investigated the navigational trajectory of a sample of neglect patients of mixed mobility status in an ecological setting. Fifteen patients with left-sided neglect after right hemisphere stroke were recorded walking or driving a powered wheelchair along a stretch of corridor. Their position in the corridor and the number of collisions was recorded. The results showed that the patients' path was dependent on their mobility status: wheelchair patients with neglect consistently deviated to the left of the centre of the corridor and walking patients with neglect consistently deviated to the right. A further two ambulant patients with neglect were recorded both walking and using the wheelchair to determine whether the differences were task or patient dependent. These two patients also exhibited leftward deviation when driving the wheelchair, but a rightward deviation when walking. These results suggest that the direction of the deviation is task dependent. Further work will be required to identify what features of the two modes of navigation lead to this dissociation.

  12. Neglect subtypes, race, and poverty: individual, family, and service characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Zhou, Pan

    2013-02-01

    Recent child maltreatment research has highlighted the very different context of poverty for Black and White children. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment and strongly associated with poverty. Neglect is, however, not a unitary construct. We lack an understanding of whether reporting of and responding to different types of neglect may vary by poverty, race, or the intersection of the two. Administrative census, child welfare, welfare, health, and education data were used to examine how family and community poverty factors associate with various subtypes of neglect and subsequent case dispositions for Black and White children. Black children reported to child welfare reside in far poorer communities than Whites, even after taking into account family income (Aid to Families with Dependent Children [AFDC]/Temporary Aid to Needy Families [TANF]). Black children were more commonly reported and substantiated for severe and basic needs neglect. Community poverty indicators had a different relationship to report disposition for Black as compared to White children after controlling for neglect subtypes, child and family characteristics. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  13. Maternal neglect: oxytocin, dopamine and the neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathearn, L

    2011-11-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. I provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, aiming to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified that contribute to maternal caregiving behaviour, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioural response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarised that demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomised placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioural interventions for maternal neglect.

  14. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias.

  15. [Noma/Cancrum oris: a neglected disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moro, Maria; García-Merino, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Angel; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-Sánchez, José Elías

    2015-10-01

    Noma is an aggressive orofacial gangrenous pathology that damages hard and soft tissues of the mouth and the face. Throughout the centuries it has been present around the globe, but nowadays it has practically disappeared from developed countries and mainly affects children from the most disadvantaged places, especially in Africa. Noma disease is a multifactorial process; malnutrition, debilitating diseases (bacterial or viral systemic diseases, HIV-associated immunosuppression, etc.) and intraoral infections are some of the factors implied. The characteristic tissue necrosis is produced by a polymicrobial infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus cereus, Trueperella pyogenes, spyrochetes, etc, are some of the species that have been isolated from the affected areas. Without treatment, noma is lethal in a short period of time, and the patients that survive show severe sequelae that hinder their life and interpersonal relationships. The aim of this paper is to unify the existing information and to promote wider knowledge and awareness among the population.

  16. Leprosy-related mortality in Brazil: a neglected condition of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Assunção-Ramos, Adriana Valéria; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Wand-Del-Rey de Oliveira, Maria Leide; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-10-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem and a neglected condition of morbidity and mortality in several countries of the world. We analysed time trends and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study using secondary mortality data. We included all deaths that occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which leprosy was mentioned in any field of death certificates. Leprosy was identified in 7732/12 491 280 deaths (0.1%). Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.43 deaths/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 0.40-0.46). The burden of leprosy deaths was higher among males, elderly, black race/colour and in leprosy-endemic regions. Lepromatous leprosy was the most common clinical form mentioned. Mortality rates showed a significant nationwide decrease over the period (annual percent change [APC]: -2.8%; 95% CI -4.2 to -2.4). We observed decreasing mortality rates in the South, Southeast and Central-West regions, while the rates remained stable in North and Northeast regions. Spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk clusters for leprosy-related deaths were distributed mainly in highly endemic and socio-economically deprived regions. Leprosy is a neglected cause of death in Brazil since the disease is preventable, and a cost-effective treatment is available. Sustainable control measures should include appropriate management and systematic monitoring of leprosy-related complications, such as severe leprosy reactions and adverse effects to multidrug therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  18. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  19. Neglected Fournier’s Gangrene Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene, rare but life threatening disease, is characterized by an acute necrotic infection of the scrotum, penis, or perineum. Fournier’s gangrene is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fournier’s gangrene caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported rarely. The mainstay of treatment is prompt recognition and a combination of antibiotics with radical debridement. We describe a case of a 56-year-old male patient presenting with neglected Fournier’s gangrene caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Many treatment modalities including broad-spectrum antibiotics, aggressive debridement, negative pressure wound therapy, diversion colostomy, and partial-thickness skin grafts were applied to save the patient’s life.

  20. Development of and access to products for neglected diseases.

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    Joshua Cohen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prior research on neglected disease drug development suggested inadequate funding was responsible for relatively few new approvals. In response, significantly more resources have been allocated towards development of drugs targeting neglected diseases. Our objective was to reassess drug development between 1975 and 1999, evaluate progress in neglected disease drug development since 2000, and explain how increased numbers of approvals are a necessary but insufficient condition to improving access. METHODS: To assess numbers of approvals targeting neglected diseases, we employed two distinct methodologies: First, to revisit numbers published in Trouiller et al. (2002 we used their method to count marketed new chemical entities (NCEs between 1975 and 1999. Second, using the G-Finder report as a benchmark, we identified which diseases are currently considered "neglected" to tally approvals in the 1975-1999 and 2000-2009 periods. Searching PharmaProjects and IMS R&D Focus databases as well as websites from numerous drug regulatory agencies, we identified new drug approvals and indications. Also, we examined the World Health Organization's (WHO Essential Drug List (EDL to see which drugs and indications were on the list. FINDINGS: Upon recount, using Trouiller et al. methodology, we found that between 1975 and 1999 more NCEs (n = 32 targeting tropical diseases and tuberculosis were approved than reported in Trouiller et al. (n = 16. Using the G-Finder method of defining neglected diseases, we found 46 new drug approvals between 1975 and 1999. WHO included 85% of these drugs on the EDL. In the period 2000 to May 2009, despite much greater funding, only 26 new drugs and vaccines for neglected diseases were marketed. Of these, WHO placed 50% on the EDL. CONCLUSIONS: Product approvals for neglected diseases have increased, though progress has been uneven, with malaria appearing to benefit most in the short run from increased funding, while

  1. Mycetoma: a unique neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Eduard E; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Welsh, Oliverio; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Goodfellow, Michael; Fahal, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Mycetoma can be caused by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma) and typically affects poor communities in remote areas. It is an infection of subcutaneous tissues resulting in mass and sinus formation and a discharge that contains grains. The lesion is usually on the foot but all parts of the body can be affected. The causative microorganisms probably enter the body by a thorn prick or other lesions of the skin. Mycetoma has a worldwide distribution but is restricted to specific climate zones. Microbiological diagnosis and characterisation of the exact organism causing mycetoma is difficult; no reliable serological test exists but molecular techniques to identify relevant antigens have shown promise. Actinomycetoma is treated with courses of antibiotics, which usually include co-trimoxazole and amikacin. Eumycetoma has no acceptable treatment at present; antifungals such as ketoconazole and itraconazole have been used but are unable to eradicate the fungus, need to be given for long periods, and are expensive. Amputations and recurrences in patients with eumycetoma are common. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  3. Severe self-neglect: an epidemiological and historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Edward Lee; Burnett, Jason; Naik, Aanand D; Pickens, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2006-01-01

    Older adults with severe self-neglect have multiple deficits in various social, functional and physical domains, and often live insqualor. These individuals often present with poor personal hygiene, domestic squalor and hoarding which results in a threat to their own health as well as personal and public safety. Severe self-neglect occurs along a continuum with older adults often having cognitive and affective disorders compared with younger individuals presenting with psychiatric illnesses. In cases of severe self-neglect with hoarding, evidence has shown this behavior occurs in diverse social strata and not among the wealthy and professionals alone as believed earlier. Due to the multiple conditions associated with severe self-neglect, this population will require an interdisciplinary, multidimensional approach to reduce morbidity and mortality rates including nursing home placement. Research on this group has been limited and is rarely described in the medical and nursing literature. Future research is needed to provide practitioners with effective screening instruments and interventions on cases of severe self-neglect.

  4. The impact of neglect on initial adaptation to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first 4 years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty (NP). Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency (ER) in shaping children's school outcomes. A total of 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for 2 years (ages 4-6). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first-grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children's cognitive performance at age 4, controlling for maternal intelligence quotient, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children's behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children's ER at age 4. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of NP moderated the link between ER and classroom behavior, such that at lower levels of poverty, ER mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when NP was extreme, the effects of ER were attenuated and ER ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  5. Is Persistent Visual Neglect Associated with Poor Survival?

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    M. Jehkonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The association of visual neglect with survival after right hemisphere (RH stroke has received only limited attention. Objective This study explores the relationship of visual neglect and its spontaneous recovery to survival in a homogenous patient group with first-ever RH stroke. Methods Fifty-one RH stroke patients who suffered an infarct between 1994 and 1997 were retrospectively followed for survival until August 31, 2009. Acute-phase neurological, neuropsychological and neuroradiological data were studied to identify predictors of survival. Results Twenty-eight patients died during the follow-up. Age, education, and poor recovery of visual neglect emerged as significant single predictors of death. The best set of predictors for poor survival in the multivariate model was poor recovery of visual neglect and low education. Conclusions Poor recovery of visual neglect is associated with long-term mortality in RH infarct patients. The follow-up of RH patients’ neuropsychological performance gives additional information about the prognosis.

  6. Susceptibility and resistance to Echinococcus granulosus infection: Associations between mouse strains and early peritoneal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Merlino, Alicia; Capurro, Rafael; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2016-03-01

    In helminth infections, there are no easy associations between host susceptibility and immune responses. Interestingly, immunity to cestodes - unlike most helminths - seems to require Th1-type effectors. In this sense, we reported recently that Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice are high and low susceptible strains, respectively, to experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus. However, the role of the early cellular peritoneal response in such differential susceptibility is unknown. Here, we analyzed the kinetics of cytokines expression and cellular phenotypes in peritoneal cells from infected Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Additionally, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were conducted to highlight the most relevant differences between strains. Finally, the anti-parasite activities of peritoneal cells were assessed through in vitro systems. PCAs clustered C57Bl/6 mice by their early mixed IL-5/TNF-α responses and less intense expression of Th2-type cytokines. Moreover, they exhibited lower counts of eosinophils and higher numbers of macrophages and B cells. Functional studies showed that peritoneal cells from infected C57Bl/6 mice displayed greater anti-parasite activities, in accordance with higher rates of NO production and more efficient ADCC responses. In conclusion, mild Th2-responses and active cellular mechanisms are key determinants in murine resistance to E. granulosus infection, supporting the cestode immune exception among helminth parasites.

  7. Genetic manipulation of Schistosoma haematobium, the neglected schistosome.

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    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minimal information on the genome and proteome of Schistosoma haematobium is available, in marked contrast to the situation with the other major species of human schistosomes for which draft genome sequences have been reported. Accordingly, little is known about functional genomics in S. haematobium, including the utility or not of RNA interference techniques that, if available, promise to guide development of new interventions for schistosomiasis haematobia. METHODS/FINDINGS: Here we isolated and cultured developmental stages of S. haematobium, derived from experimentally infected hamsters. Targeting different developmental stages, we investigated the utility of soaking and/or square wave electroporation in order to transfect S. haematobium with nucleic acid reporters including Cy3-labeled small RNAs, messenger RNA encoding firefly luciferase, and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Three hours after incubation of S. haematobium eggs in 50 ng/µl Cy3-labeled siRNA, fluorescent foci were evident indicating that labeled siRNA had penetrated into miracidia developing within the egg shell. Firefly luciferase activity was detected three hours after square wave electroporation of the schistosome eggs and adult worms in 150 ng/µl of mRNA. RNA interference knockdown (silencing of reporter luciferase activity was seen following the introduction of dsRNA specific for luciferase mRNA in eggs, schistosomules and mixed sex adults. Moreover, introduction of an endogenous gene-specific siRNA into adult schistosomes silenced transcription of tetraspanin 2 (Sh-tsp-2, the apparent orthologue of the Schistosoma mansoni gene Sm-tsp-2 which encodes the surface localized structural and signaling protein Sm-TSP-2. Together, knockdown of reporter luciferase and Sh-tsp-2 indicated the presence of an intact RNAi pathway in S. haematobium. Also, we employed laser scanning confocal microscopy to view the adult stages of S. haematobium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings

  8. [Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.

  9. Self-neglect in older adults: a primer for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, Maria P; Lachs, Mark S

    2008-11-01

    Self-neglect in older adults is an increasingly prevalent, poorly understood problem, crossing both the medical and social arenas, with public health implications. Although lacking a standardized definition, self-neglect is characterized by profound inattention to health and hygiene. In light of the aging demographic, physicians of all specialties will increasingly encounter self-neglectors. We outline here practical strategies for the clinician, and suggestions for the researcher. Clinical evaluation should include attention to medical history, cognition, function, social networks, psychiatric screen and environment. The individual's capacity is often questioned, and interventions are case-based. More research is needed in basic epidemiology and risk factors of the problem, so that targeted interventions may be designed and tested. The debate of whether self-neglect is a medical versus societal problem remains unresolved, yet as health sequelae are part of the syndrome, physicians should be part of the solution.

  10. [Self-neglect in older adults--a complex problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Fransje E; Boelaarts, Leo; Weinstein, Henry C

    2009-01-01

    A 76-year-old man presented at the emergency department with functional decline and extreme self-neglect. He died after a few days. The probable cause of death was pneumonia. His family consented to autopsy. Surprisingly, the neuropathological findings showed a tauopathy consistent with fronto-temporal dementia. Self-neglect in the elderly is a common and complex problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. This syndrome requires a thorough workup to detect possible causes. The most common etiologies are neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse. It is important to elucidate the cause of self-neglect in order to give the proper treatment and support to the patient and family.

  11. Is Iatrogenic Cushing s a New Form of Child Neglect?

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    Habip Almis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasingly important issue. One of the main types of abuse is child neglect, that is, behavior in which the child is knowingly or unknowingly injured. In this article; we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing%u2019s syndrome due to clobetasol 17-propionate treatment that was used inappropriately, in order to discuss whether or not this is a form of child neglect. It is one of the basic tasks of families to protect the health of the child and learn how to treat that child when he or she is ill. We believe that by being adequately informed by the health professionals, families may reduce the risk of child neglect.

  12. ETHICAL, SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CHILD NEGLECT

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    Smaranda Diaconescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child neglect was and continues to be a matter of both professional and public interest, thoroughly debated by child protection researchers and specialists, sociologists, psychologists and social workers, specialists in education and health. Drawing on some examples encountered in current medical practice, we tried to identify the causal factors of child neglect from a medical point of view and the attitude that healthcare professionals should adopt towards such situations. The correct and efficient management of medical neglect cases requires an assessment of the child’s needs, the identification of the parents’ resources and guidance of their efforts so as to properly cater to the child’s needs for the purpose of ensuring the optimum health of the latter.

  13. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Martin Müri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living (ADL measures such as the Barthel Index or more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in 3 studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence.The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  14. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René Martin; Cazzoli, Dario; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs P; Hopfner, Simone; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies) fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living measures such as the Barthel Index or, more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in three studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence. The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta-burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  15. Right hemispatial ipsilesional neglect with chronic right hemisphere strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John B; Lamb, Damon G; Burtis, D Brandon; Haque, Salsabil; Zilli, Eduardo M; Kesayan, Tigran; Harciarek, Michal; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2017-08-16

    Patients who present with spatial neglect after stroke often perform normally on tests for neglect after a few weeks. Whereas tests for neglect are often performed directly in front of a patient, in their actual environments many important stimuli may be present within their left or right hemispace. The presence and severity of neglect often depends on the hemisphere injured. It is possible, in chronic stroke, for spatial judgments to be influenced by an interaction of stroke laterality and the spatial location of stimuli. The objective of this study was to learn if unilateral hemispheric chronic strokes contribute to a spatial bias with laterally presented stimuli. There were 70 participants, 62 with unilateral chronic strokes (>6 months post onset) including 35 with left hemisphere damage (LHD), 27 with right hemisphere damage (RHD), and 8 demographically similar people without history of stroke. Participants were asked to bisect 300 lines presented with distractors on the left, right, or both sides of the line, or no distractor, on a touch-screen monitor in right, center or left hemispace. There was a significant interaction between the side of the hemispheric lesion and the side of the body where these lines were presented. Specifically, in right space, patients with RHD deviated leftward in comparison to the other groups. Furthermore, there was an interaction between group and distractor induced bias. All three groups approached the left distractor, and the patients with LHD also approached the right distractor. Although spatial neglect is more severe in contralesional than ipsilesional hemispace in the period immediately following a stroke, over time patients with RHD may develop ipsilesional neglect that is more severe in ipsilesional than contralesional space. The mechanism underlying this bias is not known and may be related to attempted compensation or the development of a contralateral attentional/intentional grasp.

  16. Psychosocial determinants of nutritional neglect in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnaz, Aisha; Shah, Nusrat; Mala, Ashfaq; Rai, Krishan; Arif, Fehmina; Munnawar, Uzma; Raj, Rakesh; Tariq, Abida; Yasin, Shahnaz

    2014-05-01

    To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Cross-sectional, observational study. Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues.

  17. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  18. Neglected Distal Humeral Epiphyseal Injury - Two Case Reports

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    Dr. Pankaj Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury in children, which can be missed or misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Awareness of this injury and appropriate radiological assessment helps in proper management. Neglected cases because of inappropriate diagnosis can result in cubitus varus deformity. Full range of movements of elbow can be achieved if properly diagnosed and managed. We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management.

  19. Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative model of drug development for neglected diseases: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioset, Jean-Robert; Chang, Shing

    2011-09-01

    The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) is a patients' needs-driven organization committed to the development of new treatments for neglected diseases. Created in 2003, DNDi has delivered four improved treatments for malaria, sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis. A main DNDi challenge is to build a solid R&D portfolio for neglected diseases and to deliver preclinical candidates in a timely manner using an original model based on partnership. To address this challenge DNDi has remodeled its discovery activities from a project-based academic-bound network to a fully integrated process-oriented platform in close collaboration with pharmaceutical companies. This discovery platform relies on dedicated screening capacity and lead-optimization consortia supported by a pragmatic, structured and pharmaceutical-focused compound sourcing strategy.

  20. Morphology meets molecules: a new genus and two new species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei, from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lauren McKenna; Caira, Janine N

    2014-06-01

    Two morphologically disparate undescribed species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei , from South Africa were included in a recent molecular phylogenetic study aimed at revising diphyllidean classification. From a molecular standpoint, these species were determined to be only distantly related to one another. One (originally referred to as Echinobothrium n. sp. 2) showed affinities with species of the batoid-parasitizing Echinobothrium sensu stricto and is described here as Echinobothrium marquesi n. sp. This species most closely resembles Echinobothrium joshuai, an affinity supported by the previous molecular study, but differs in the form of its "B" hooks and degree of overlap between bothria and cephalic peduncle. The other species (originally referred to as New genus n. sp. 1), although exhibiting the full complement of scolex armature, grouped among primarily shark-hosted genera, most of which lack or exhibit reduced scolex armatures. That unexpected result suggested that erection of a novel genus might be warranted, but morphological grounds supporting the action were not apparent at that time. The present study aimed to explore the morphology of this taxon in more detail. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed this taxon to be exceptional in that its lateral hooklets, which are arranged in 2 clusters like those of Echinobothrium and Coronocestus, are unique in being arranged in anterior and posterior rows, rather than in a single row. Andocadoncum n. gen. is erected, with Andocadoncum meganae n. sp. as its type, to accommodate this taxon. A minor adjustment to the existing hook formula by presenting counts for the anterior hooklets (a) separately from the posterior hooklets (b) readily accommodates this new form. Leucoraja wallacei is distinctive among skates in hosting 2 different genera of diphyllideans. In the context of the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, it appears that the presence of

  1. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases, accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases and onchocerciasis (37 million cases are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases. However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  2. Relationship between untreated dental caries and dental neglect among mentally handicapped children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is the most prevalent disease among mentally handicapped (MH children worldwide. Dental neglect may throw light on complex relationships between individual behavior, environmental factors, and dental caries in children. Objectives: The objective was to assess the prevalence and severity of untreated dental caries and to explore the relationship between untreated dental caries and dental neglect among MH children and healthy children in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 130, 6-17 years MH and 152 healthy school children in Bangalore city. A questionnaire on the children′s sociodemographic background, oral health-related behaviors, and dental neglect scale was completed by the parents. Caries was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria (1997. Odontogenic infections were recorded using the pufa/PUFA index. Statistical tests such as Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, Spearmans correlation, and step-wise linear regression were performed at significance level P < 0.05. Results: Dental caries was present in 89.2% of MH children as compared with 88.15% of the healthy children. Caries experience significantly correlated with consequences of untreated dental caries in both the groups (P = 0.001. No statistical significant correlation was observed between dental neglect and dental caries experience and its consequences in both the groups. Conclusions: High prevalence of dental caries and dental neglect in both the groups calls for an integrated approach. Oral health promotion and intervention programs should be targeted and concentrated toward these risk groups.

  3. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  4. fibular osteosynthesis of neglected femoral neck fracture in a young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where there are no facilities for microvascular surgery, non- ... fixation of a neglected femoral neck fracture associated with aseptic necrosis of femoral head in ... After a follow-up of two years, he had a Harris hip ... applied on the fifth postoperative day and patient was ... radiographic features that suggested aseptic necrosis.

  5. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Ayache, Samar S; Zouari, Hela G; Aoun-Sebaïti, Mehdi; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    The rehabilitation of neuropsychological sequels of cerebral stroke such as hemispatial neglect by noninvasive cortical stimulation (NICS) attracts increasing attention from the scientific community. The NICS techniques include primarily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). They are based on the concept of either reactivating a hypoactive cortical region affected by the stroke (the right hemisphere in case of neglect) or reducing cortical hyperactivity of the corresponding cortical region in the contralateral hemisphere (the left hemisphere). In the studies published to date on the topic of neglect rehabilitation, rTMS was used to inhibit the left parietal cortex and tDCS to either activate the right or inhibit the left parietal cortex. Sham-controlled NICS studies assessed short-term effects, whereas long-term effects were only assessed in noncontrolled rTMS studies. Further controlled studies of large series of patients are necessary to determine the best parameters of stimulation (including the optimal cortical target location) according to each subtype of neglect presentation and to the time course of stroke recovery. To date, even if there are serious therapeutic perspectives based on imaging data and experimental studies, the evidence is not compelling enough to recommend any particular NICS protocol to treat this disabling condition in clinical practice.

  6. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  7. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  8. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  9. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  10. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  11. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Tavakoli, Marjaneh

    2016-01-01

    The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested…

  12. Vulnerability to Elder Abuse and Neglect in Assisted Living Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Stephens, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making abilities of residents in assisted living regarding abuse and neglect. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven residents in assisted living facilities were recruited for this descriptive study. Participants were administered an interview to assess baseline knowledge of support…

  13. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  14. Leadership and Leader Behavior in Counseling: Neglected Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Louis Vincent; Ceballos, Peggy T.; Hall, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Leadership and leader behavior are important topics for any professional discipline. However, these issues have been neglected throughout the entire short history of counseling. Despite the fact that many counselors attain various leadership positions, little attention has been paid to training for leadership. While much has been written about the…

  15. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  16. The Policy Context: Reversing a State of Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the neglect of families within previous UK policy documents relating to drugs and alcohol, and discusses the significant progress that has been made in focusing on the family over the past decade. Although substance misuse causes major problems for many family members, this was not even recognized across the Western…

  17. Severe Neglect and Computer-based Home Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2014-01-01

    . For this reason, this case study tests the possibility of using computer-based training in the rehabilitation efforts for a patient with severe neglect who had no previous skills in computer usage. The article describes the results of the training both in terms of neuro-psychological tests and the reading ability...

  18. The Neglected 95%, a Challenge to Psychology's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Responds to the comments of LoSchiavo F. M. and Shatz M. A.; Webster G. D., Nichols A. L., and Schember T. O.; Stroebe W. and Nijstad B.; and Haeffel et al. on the author's original article regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The author…

  19. In the best of families: crossing the line into neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadworny, S W

    1994-11-01

    Home care professionals are in a good spot to identify abuse of their elderly patients; unfortunately, this is a delicate issue because so many of the caregivers are family members and the abuse arises out of unintentional neglect. What can nurses and social workers do when they identify such a situation?

  20. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean varian

  1. Severe Neglect and Computer-based Home Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cognitive rehabilitation from a functional perspective often requires intensive training over a longer period of time. In the case of rehabilitation of unilateral neglect, the frequency and intensity needed is expensive and difficult to implement both for the therapists and the patients...

  2. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, J M; Widom, C S

    2001-01-01

    Although an extensive literature has accumulated documenting the maladaptive outcomes associated with childhood victimization, a limited body of knowledge addresses resilience. This paper sought to operationalize the construct of resilience across a number of domains of functioning and time periods and to determine the extent to which abused and neglected children grown up demonstrate resilience. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family social class with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995. 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hr in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment. Resilience requires meeting the criteria for success across six of eight domains of functioning: employment, homelessness, education, social activity, psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, and two domains assessing criminal behavior (official arrest and self-reports of violence). Results indicate that 22% of abused and neglected individuals meet the criteria for resilience. More females met the criteria for resilience and females were successful across a greater number of domains than males. We speculate on the meaning of these findings and discuss implications for the child maltreatment field. Limitations of the study are also acknowledged.

  3. Three views of child neglect: expanding visions of preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J R

    1984-01-01

    The failure to address child neglect prevention efforts from a system viewpoint is presented as a major impediment to the generation of truly preventive interventions. Child neglect prevention is discussed at three levels: at the level of the individual, at the level of social systems and at the level of fundamental beliefs and cultural agreements. A process of component selection and placement is suggested with component selection based on components drawn from recent research and clinical work. Interventions would be geared to meet the particular needs of individual settings and at the same time be constructed so that each component would mesh with and build on previous components. An outline of a preventive child neglect intervention strategy is presented. Practices of government, the impact of business and technology and economic theory and practice are shown as plausible areas for preventive intervention. Core beliefs upon which social systems are built are challenged. It is stated that too narrow a view of child neglect often limits problem definition and encourages placement of blame at the family level. This decreases the effectiveness of the clinician who is coping with an individual problem as well as the researcher who is exploring the basic issues.

  4. Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect in a Nigerian City. ... where they are not protected against child abuse; many die as a result of denial of appropriate treatment. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajm.v28i5.55009.

  5. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Neglected Tropical Diseases: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike); M.C. Kulik (Margarete); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E.J. Lenk (Edeltraud J.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are generally assumed to be concentrated in poor populations, but evidence on this remains scattered. We describe within-country socioeconomic inequalities in nine NTDs listed in the London Declaration for intensified control and/or

  6. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  7. Snakebite envenomation turns again into a neglected tropical disease!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    On June 9(th), 2017 WHO categorized snakebite envenomation into the Category A of the Neglected Tropical Diseases. This new situation will allow access to new funding, paving the way for wider and deeper researches. It should also expand the accessibility of antivenoms. Let us hope that it also leads to cooperation among stakeholders, aiming at improving the management of snakebites in developing countries.

  8. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  9. Evidence for a disturbance of the body schema in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslett, H B

    1998-08-01

    Subjects with left neglect often fail to use and, in some instances, recognize the left side of the body. We performed a series of investigations to determine if this deficit is, at least in part, attributable to an impairment in the "body schema," an internal three-dimensional, dynamic representation of the spatial and biomechanical properties of one's body. First, subjects were shown a series of pictures of a single hand and asked to determine if the stimulus was a right or left hand. Subjects with neglect but not other subjects with brain lesions identified pictures of left (contra-lesional) hands significantly less reliably than pictures of right hands. On the basis of evidence demonstrating that the identification of pictured hands involves the matching of the stimuli to an on-line mental representation of one's body, these data suggest that neglect may be associated with a disruption of, or failure to attend to, the body schema. Data from subsequent investigations contrasting patients with left neglect and Gerstmann's syndrome argue for a distinction between a body schema and a "body image," or conceptual representation of the body which articulates with language.

  10. Unilateral neglect syndrome after stroke: the role of Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pereira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the results of occupational therapy intervention and treatment in a single Unilateral Neglect Syndrome post CVA patient. Data were obtained from a survey of the patient’s medical records and interviews of his therapist and caretaker. The analysis of the patient’s medical records and his therapist’s report showed that the patient responded satisfactorily to treatment, presenting a decrease of the left unilateral neglect at the end of the study period. The favorable outcome of the patient outlined the relevance of evaluating the effects of Occupational Therapy interventions for clinical unilateral neglect syndrome.

  11. Invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease: an emerging and neglected tropical disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2012-06-30

    Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonellae have emerged as a prominent cause of bloodstream infection in African adults and children, with an associated case fatality of 20-25%. The clinical presentation of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease in Africa is diverse: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory symptoms are common, and features of enterocolitis are often absent. The most important risk factors are HIV infection in adults, and malaria, HIV, and malnutrition in children. A distinct genotype of Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged as a new pathogenic clade in sub-Saharan Africa, and might have adapted to cause invasive disease in human beings. Multidrug-resistant ST313 has caused epidemics in several African countries, and has driven the use of expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. Studies of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in adults infected with HIV have revealed key host immune defects contributing to invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease. This emerging pathogen might therefore have adapted to occupy an ecological and immunological niche provided by HIV, malaria, and malnutrition in Africa. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this neglected disease will open new avenues for development and implementation of vaccine and public health strategies to prevent infections and interrupt transmission.

  12. The Quest for a Vaccine Against Coccidioidomycosis: A Neglected Disease of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo N. Kirkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever is a disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. This neglected disease has substantial public health impact despite its geographic restriction to desert areas of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. The incidence of this infection in California and Arizona has been increasing over the past fifteen years. Several large cities are within the endemic region in the U.S. Coccidioidomycosis accounts for 25,000 hospital admissions per year in California. While most cases of coccidioidomycosis resolve spontaneously, up to 40% are severe enough to require anti-fungal treatment, and a significant number disseminate beyond the lungs. Disseminated infection involving the meninges is fatal without appropriate treatment. Infection with Coccidioides spp. is protective against a second infection, so vaccination seems biologically plausible. This review of efforts to develop a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis focuses on vaccine approaches and the difficulties in identifying protein antigen/adjuvant combinations that protect in experimental mouse models. Although the quest for a vaccine is still in the early stage, scientific efforts for vaccine development may pave the way for future success.

  13. [Immunization for children travelling to the tropics: neglected vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, P; Guérin, N; Sorge, F

    2008-06-01

    Each year hundreds of thousands of children leave France to travel to developing countries where they are exposed to infectious agents that can be prevented by vaccination. During the child's pre-travel check-up, practitioners should check that all mandatory immunizations are up-to-date and provide advice on relevant vaccines in function of the epidemiological situation at the chosen destination. However various factors hinder full compliance with this approach and some vaccines are underused. Underused vaccines are referred to as neglected vaccines. In the French vaccination schedule three vaccinations can be considered as neglected. The first is the hepatitis B vaccine that has a low coverage level in France due to strong reluctance to its use despite the fact that the virus is widespread in tropical areas. The second is pneumococcal vaccine that should be administered to all infants less than 2 years of age, especially for travel to areas where pneumonia and meningitis are frequent. The third is BCG vaccine that is now at greater risk of being neglected in child travellers because its use has been downgraded from a general requirement to a recommendation only for children at risk. A serious limitation on the use of travel vaccinations is cost that can lead families to neglect some infectious risk such as hepatitis A that is a major risk for child travellers as well as for their relatives during or after the trip and typhoid fever that is essentially an imported disease. Rabies vaccine is also underused due to its cost and to poor understanding of the risk by many practitioners and families. The purpose of this article is to underline the need to improve information and access to vaccines that are all too often neglected in child travellers.

  14. Improving left spatial neglect through music scale playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Ronchi, Roberta; Maravita, Angelo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Zigiotto, Luca; Perucca, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed whether the auditory reference provided by a music scale could improve spatial exploration of a standard musical instrument keyboard in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. As performing music scales involves the production of predictable successive pitches, the expectation of the subsequent note may facilitate patients to explore a larger extension of space in the left affected side, during the production of music scales from right to left. Eleven right-brain-damaged stroke patients with left spatial neglect, 12 patients without neglect, and 12 age-matched healthy participants played descending scales on a music keyboard. In a counterbalanced design, the participants' exploratory performance was assessed while producing scales in three feedback conditions: With congruent sound, no-sound, or random sound feedback provided by the keyboard. The number of keys played and the timing of key press were recorded. Spatial exploration by patients with left neglect was superior with congruent sound feedback, compared to both Silence and Random sound conditions. Both the congruent and incongruent sound conditions were associated with a greater deceleration in all groups. The frame provided by the music scale improves exploration of the left side of space, contralateral to the right hemisphere, damaged in patients with left neglect. Performing a scale with congruent sounds may trigger at some extent preserved auditory and spatial multisensory representations of successive sounds, thus influencing the time course of space scanning, and ultimately resulting in a more extensive spatial exploration. These findings offer new perspectives also for the rehabilitation of the disorder.

  15. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich; Chang, Li-Yen; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goodenow, Maureen M; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-04-01

    The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines

  16. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN: overview and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF. Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional

  17. Preliminary clinical study in patients with hemispatial neglect after stroke by neglect test battery and 99mTc-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yafu; Li, Xuena; Li, Yaming; Gu, Hui; Han, Chunqi; Liu, Hao

    2009-05-01

    To explore the presence, clinical characteristics, anatomical foci in image and mechanism of hemispatial neglect (HSN), neglect test battery and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging were performed on patients with stroke. Thirty dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as having unilateral stroke clinically were recruited. A neglect test battery including line bisection test, star cancellation test and drawing test was performed on the subjects. The severity of neglect was measured on neglect tests. The lowest rCBF, the range with decreased rCBF, number of the foci with decreased rCBF, the flow deficit size and the total number of pixels in the foci were measured on SPECT rCBF imaging. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed as having HSN by the neglect test battery. Contralateral neglect (CN) and ipsilateral neglect (IN) were observed in both right and left hemisphere strokes. On SPECT imaging, the patients with neglect had decreased rCBF in the frontal cortex most often; followed by the parietal, occipital and temporal cortices; and basal ganglia and thalamus in some cases. The patients who had two or more regions damaged showed neglect more often and severity. The correlation coefficients between rCBF in the foci, the decreased percentage of rCBF of the foci and the severity of neglect were -0.119 (P>.05) and 0.221 (P>.05). The correlation coefficients between the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size, the total number of pixels of the foci and the severity of neglect were 0.537 (Prange, number of foci, the flow deficit size and the total numbers of pixels of the foci significantly. And the patients with CN and IN did not show any difference in the presence of HSN, the manifestation on the neglect test battery and SPECT images. HSN showed damage on multiple sites, with combined damages resulting in more severe neglect.

  18. Functional assessment of region-specific neglect: are there differential behavioural consequences of peripersonal versus extrapersonal neglect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Ten Brink, A.F.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal) have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-

  19. Research on molecular identification of mema cestode from 4 ethnic populations in Yunnan Province%云南4个少数民族带绦虫分子鉴定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨昊; 杨毅梅

    2009-01-01

    目的 利用分子遗传标志对采自云南西部彝族(楚雄)、傈僳族(怒江)、普米族(怒江)、白族(大理)等4个少数民族带绦虫标本作生物多态性的研究. 方法取云南彝族分离株、傈僳分离株、普米分离株、白族分离株和贵州从江分离株带绦虫成虫节片,提取线粒体DNA,PCR扩增线粒体DNA细胞色素B(mtDNA-Cytb)序列部分片段测序;结合GenBank中已知猪带绦虫、牛带绦虫和牛带绦虫亚洲亚种 mtDNA-Cytb序列,使用PHYLIP软件包运用最大似然法和最大简约法构建系统发育树.结果系统发育树显示云南傈僳族、普米族和白族带绦虫标本与台湾牛带绦虫业洲业种的遗传距离最接近,距云南彝族、贵州从江牛带绦虫标本较远,与猪带绦虫则更远. 结论云南傈僳族(怒江)、普米族(怒江)和白族(大理)带绦虫标本属于牛带绦虫亚洲弧种,云南彝族(楚雄)带绦虫标本属于牛带绦虫;mtDNA-Cytb 序列分析可以用于带绦虫生物多态性研究.%Objective To study the biologic polymorphism of taenia cestode samples from Yi population (Chuxiong),Lisu population (Nujiang),Pumi population (Nujiang) and Bai population (Dali) in the west of Yunnan by molecular genetic markers.Methods Mitochondrial DNA were extracted from the proglottis of adult taenia cestode strains from Yi population,Lisu population,Pumi population,Bai population and Congjiang District respectively,partial segments of mitochondrial DNA-cytochrome B (mtDNA-Cytb) sequences were amplified by polymcrase chain reaction (PCR),then sequenced.Phylogenetic tree of species and geographical isolates was constructed with other known mtDNA-Cytb sequence of T.solium.T.saginata and T.saginata asiatica in GenBank.Results The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed that the taenia cestode samples from Lisu population,Pumi population and Bai population in Yunnan Province were close to Taiwan strain genetically,but far from Yi population in Yunnan

  20. Neural bases of personal and extrapersonal neglect in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committeri, Giorgia; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galati, Gaspare; Patria, Fabiana; Pelle, Gina; Sabatini, Umberto; Castriota-Scanderbeg, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2007-02-01

    Human awareness of left space may be disrupted by cerebral lesions to the right hemisphere (hemispatial neglect). Current knowledge on the anatomical bases of this complex syndrome is based on the results of group studies that investigated primarily the best known aspect of the syndrome, which is visual neglect for near extrapersonal (or peripersonal) space. However, another component-neglect for personal space-is more often associated with, than double-dissociated from, extrapersonal neglect, especially, in chronic patients. The present investigation aimed at exploring the anatomical substrate of both extrapersonal and personal neglect by using different advanced methodological approaches to lesion-function correlation. Fifty-two right ischaemic patients were submitted to neuropsychological assessment and in-depth MRI evaluation. The borders of each patient's lesion were delimited onto its own high-resolution anatomical image and then submitted to an automated spatial normalization algorithm. Besides conventional lesion density plots and subtraction analysis, region-based statistical analyses were performed on percentage values of the lesioned tissue also using a new parcellation of the white matter (WM). Data were finally submitted to voxelwise statistical analysis using a recently proposed method (voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping). Results converged in showing that awareness of extrapersonal space is based on the integrity of a circuit of right frontal (ventral premotor cortex and middle frontal gyrus) and superior temporal regions, whereas awareness of personal space is rooted in right inferior parietal regions (supramarginal gyrus, post-central gyrus and especially the WM medial to them). Common but less crucial regions for both neglect sub-types were located in the temporo-peri-Sylvian cortex. We suggest that extrapersonal space awareness critically involves a ventral circuit recently described for the exogenous allocation and reorienting of attention in

  1. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2015-12-18

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2 weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations.

  2. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  3. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  4. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  5. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases. PMID:27582934

  6. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxinos, Odysseas; Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases.

  7. Inattention, Working Memory, and Goal Neglect in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, Rebecca N.; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Parris, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function deficits have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been theorized that the symptom inattention is specifically related to problems with complex verbal working memory (WM). Using the Conners Adult ADHD rating scale, adults aged 18–35 were assessed for ADHD symptoms, and completed tasks designed to tap verbal and spatial aspects of WM (Experiment 1). Results showed that high inattention predicted poor performance on both simple and complex verbal WM measures. Results relating to spatial WM were inconclusive. In a follow up experiment based on the theory that those with inattention have problems receiving verbal instructions, a measure of goal neglect assessing integration of information into a task model in WM was employed (Experiment 2). Results showed that high inattention uniquely predicted performance on this task, representing the first reported association between inattention and the phenomenon of goal neglect. The results from both experiments lend support to the WM theory of inattention. PMID:27713716

  8. Lexical Processes and Eye Movements in Neglect Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe di Pellegrino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C. with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length.

  9. Can soil respiration estimate neglect the contribution of abiotic exchange?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi CHEN; WenFeng WANG; GePing LUO; Hui YE

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that soil respiration can always be interpreted purely in terms of biotic processes, neglecting the contribution of abiotic exchange to CO2 fluxes in alkaline soils of arid areas that characterize 5%of the Earth’s total land surface. Analyses on flux data collected from previous studies suggested reconciling soil respiration as organic (root/microbial respiration) and inorganic (abiotic CO2 exchange) respiration, whose contributions in the total CO2 flux were determined by soil alkaline content. On the basis of utilizing mete-orological and soil data collected from the Xinjiang and Central Asia Scientific Data Sharing Platform, an incorpo-rated model indicated that inorganic respiration represents almost half of the total CO2 flux. Neglecting the abiotic module may result in overestimates of soil respiration in arid alkaline lands, which partly explains the long-sought“missing carbon sink”.

  10. Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme

    2010-11-01

    In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

  11. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  12. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Khalili Sabet; Marjaneh Tavakoli

    2016-01-01

    The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested in the literature; however, the model of Bachman and Palmer (1996) is the one considered in the present study. It includes two major nodes of organi...

  13. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Hemi-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n=52, mean age=66 years. To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25mins, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude=1mA. Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change=28%, SD=18 was still evident 1month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study.

  14. Development of Novel Therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Disease Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    developmental need of lead optimization in the context of drug potency and specificity. Solubility and stability, key parameters in the development of... research team from CIDEIM in Colombia has established a robust assay to estimate the susceptibility of Leishmania spp parasites to various drugs used in...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0169 TITLE: Development of Novel Therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Disease Leishmaniasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  15. Effect of eye patching in rehabilitation of neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eSmania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eye patching (monocular or right hemifield has been proposed to improve visuospatial attention to the ignored field in patients with neglect. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of eye patching in hemispatial neglect after stroke in order to convey evidence-based recommendations to clinicians in stroke rehabilitation. Thirteen intervention studies were selected from the Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EBRSR and Health Star databases. Methodological quality was defined according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Overall, seven studies used monocular eye patching, five used right hemifield patching and one compared right monocular with right hemifield patching. Seven studies compared normal viewing to monocular or hemifield patching conditions. Six studies included a period of treatment. Three studies included follow-up evaluations. As to the monocular eye patching, four studies reported positive effects of right monocular patching. One study showed an improvement in hemispatial neglect with left monocular patching. Two studies found no superiority of right versus left monocular patching. One study found no effects of right monocular patching. As to the right hemifield eye patching, one study showed improvements in neglect after right hemifield patching. Three studies found that right hemifield patching combined with another rehabilitation technique was more effective than that treatment alone. One study found no differences between right hemifield patching combined with another treatment and that treatment alone. One study found the same effect between right hemifield patching alone and another rehabilitation technique.Our results globally tend to support the usefulness of right hemifield eye patching in clinical practice. In order to define a level of evidence with the standard rehabilitation evidence rating tools, further properly powered randomized controlled trials or meta

  16. Neglect and extinction depend greatly on task demands: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eBonato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review illustrates how, after unilateral brain damage, the presence and severity of spatial awareness deficits for the contralesional hemispace depend greatly on the quantity of attentional resources available for performance. After a brief description of neglect and extinction, different frameworks accounting for spatial and non-spatial attentional processes will be outlined. The central part of the review will describe how the performance of brain damaged patients is negatively affected by increased task demands, which can result in the emergence of severe awareness deficits for contralesional space even in patients who perform normally on paper-and-pencil tests. Throughout the review neglect is described as a spatial syndrome that can be exacerbated in the presence and severity by both spatial and non-spatial tasks. The take-home message is that the presence and degree of contralesional neglect and extinction can be dramatically overlooked based on standard paper-and-pencil testing, where patients can easily compensate for their deficits. Only tasks where compensation is made impossible represent an appropriate approach to detect these disabling contralesional deficits of awareness that become subtle in post-acute stroke phases.

  17. Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Mark; Josephi, Eberhard; Zweihoff, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120 (2001) 155-159]. With forensic entomology, and forensic entomologists being more and more present, even lower profile cases like the neglect of elderly people (without violence being used against them; i.e., natural death) comes to our attention. Furthermore, much more people grow older than in the past years which leads to increased awareness of malpractice of caregivers in the professional, and personal environment [DPA (German Press Agency), Studie an 17000 Leichen: Jeder Siebte vor Tod falsch gepflegt (Every seventh elderly person not cared for sufficiently), German Press Agency dpa # 051402, Jan 3, Jan 5, 2003] . We briefly sketch three cases in which forensic entomology helped to better understand the circumstances of death, and the type and intensity of neglect before death.

  18. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  19. Right-hemisphere (spatial?) acalculia and the influence of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Pitteri, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients [12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+), 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-)], and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication, which do not require written visuo-spatial abilities. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  20. Assessing Capacity in the Setting of Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D.; Pickens, Sabrina; Burnett, Jason; Lai, James M.; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2010-01-01

    Summary Compared to older adults with disabilities and those who autonomously choose to live in squalor; self-neglect syndrome arises from a predicate state of vulnerability in frail older adults. This state of vulnerability is characteristically associated with a decline in decision-making capacity regarding the ability to care for and protect oneself. We developed the COMP Screen to evaluate vulnerable older adults to identify potential gaps in decision-making capacity using a screening tool. A total of 182 older adults were evaluated and consistent declines in cognitive ability and decision-making processes were present in this population. However, there were no significant differences between elders referred for self-neglect and matched older adults. These findings suggest that declines in decision-making processes are not uncommon in vulnerable older adults but traditional conceptualizations of decision-making capacity may be inadequate for differentiating the capacity for self care and protection in elders who self-neglect. PMID:17972661

  1. Visual neglect following stroke: current concepts and future focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Darren S J; Pollock, Alex; Dutton, Gordon N; Doubal, Fergus N; Ting, Daniel S W; Thompson, Michelle; Dhillon, Baljean

    2011-01-01

    Visual neglect is a common, yet frequently overlooked, neurological disorder following stroke characterized by a deficit in attention and appreciation of stimuli on the contralesional side of the body. It has a profound functional impact on affected individuals. A assessment and management of this condition are hindered, however, by the lack of professional awareness and clinical guidelines. Recent evidence suggests that the underlying deficit in visual attention is due to a disrupted internalized representation of the outer world rather than a disorder of sensory inputs. Dysfunction of the cortical domains and white-matter tracts, as well as inter-hemispheric imbalance, have been implicated in the various manifestations of visual neglect. Optimal diagnosis requires careful history-taking from the patient, family, and friends, in addition to clinical assessment with the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, and the Catherine Bergego Scale. Early recognition and prompt rehabilitation employing a multidisciplinary approach is desirable. Although no treatment has been definitively shown to be of benefit, those with promise include prism adaptation, visual scanning therapy, and virtual reality-based techniques. Further high quality research to seek optimum short- and long-term rehabilitative strategies for visual neglect is required.

  2. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  3. Moving Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs Forward: Improving Program Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Arlene; McCloskey, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen evaluations of programs to prevent child abuse and neglect are reviewed. The evaluations were characterized by careful attention to methodologic detail but lacked definitions of abuse or neglect. Important topics are omitted, such as the consequences and costs of medical neglect. (Author/JDD)

  4. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and the...

  5. Acute neglect rehabilitation using repetitive prism adaptation: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, G.M.S.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Kunneman, A.; de Kort, P.L.M.; Dijkerman, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: At present, prism adaptation is probably the most promising rehabilitation procedure for hemi-neglect. However, randomised controlled trials are lacking and no data are available on the effectiveness of prism adaptation in the treatment of acute neglect. Methods: We followed sixteen neglect

  6. Goal Neglect and Spearman's "g": Competing Parts of a Complex Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John; Parr, Alice; Woolgar, Alexandra; Thompson, Russell; Bright, Peter; Cox, Sally; Bishop, Sonia; Nimmo-Smith, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In goal neglect, a person ignores some task requirement though being able to describe it. Goal neglect is closely related to general intelligence or C. Spearman's (1904) "g" (J. Duncan, H. Emslie, P. Williams, R. Johnson, & C. Freer, 1996). The authors tested the role of task complexity in neglect and the hypothesis that different task components…

  7. Themes from a Grounded Theory Analysis of Elder Neglect Assessment by Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Firpo, Adolfo; Guadagno, Lisa; Easter, Tara M.; Kahan, Fay; Paris, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes one program that has developed a screening procedure for assessing elder mistreatment, with a special focus on elder neglect. The aim is to understand how expert neglect assessment teams process and diagnose complex geriatric cases referred for suspected elder neglect. What are the key themes that must be understood…

  8. Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect in Stroke Patients Using Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Michiel J. A.; Aznar, Miguel; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Peter; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is possible to assess neglect in the extrapersonal…

  9. Goal Neglect and Spearman's "g": Competing Parts of a Complex Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John; Parr, Alice; Woolgar, Alexandra; Thompson, Russell; Bright, Peter; Cox, Sally; Bishop, Sonia; Nimmo-Smith, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In goal neglect, a person ignores some task requirement though being able to describe it. Goal neglect is closely related to general intelligence or C. Spearman's (1904) "g" (J. Duncan, H. Emslie, P. Williams, R. Johnson, & C. Freer, 1996). The authors tested the role of task complexity in neglect and the hypothesis that different task components…

  10. Comparison of the Behavioural Inattention Test and the Catherine Bergego Scale in assessment of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkainen-Markkula, R; Tarkka, I M; Pitkanen, K; Sivenius, J; Hamalainen, H

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to correlate visual and behavioural assessments of hemispatial neglect caused by cerebrovascular accident. We assessed 17 consecutive right-hemisphere stroke patients with hemispatial neglect: the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) was used to evaluate neglect in spontaneous behaviour and the conventional subtests of the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT C) were used to assess visual neglect. The proportional severity of both visual and behavioural neglect was calculated in each individual patient. Dissociations were found between mild neglect in visual screening tasks and moderate or severe neglect in behaviour, although in most patients, neglect was equally evident in both tests. Only the line bisection subtest from the BIT correlated significantly with the CBS, yet both tests showed good internal consistency. The line bisection test and several items of the CBS were especially sensitive in detecting the combination of visual field deficit and hemispatial neglect. In conclusion, we propose that visual fields should always be assessed in patients with neglect because neglect may be exacerbated by a visual field deficit and this can cause prolonged functional disability in everyday life situations. Specific rehabilitation methods might also be needed in neglect with or without hemianopia.

  11. Emergency Medical Services Perspectives on Identifying and Reporting Victims of Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Self-Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Lien, Cynthia; Stern, Michael E; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mysliwiec, Regina; McCarthy, Thomas J; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Ribaudo, Daniel S; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl; Flomenbaum, Neal E

    2017-07-13

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers, who perform initial assessments of ill and injured patients, often in a patient's home, are uniquely positioned to identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. Despite this, few organized programs exist to ensure that EMS concerns are communicated to or further investigated by other health care providers, social workers, or the authorities. To explore attitudes and self-reported practices of EMS providers surrounding identification and reporting of elder mistreatment. Five semi-structured focus groups with 27 EMS providers. Participants reported believing they frequently encountered and were able to identify potential elder mistreatment victims. Many reported infrequently discussing their concerns with other health care providers or social workers and not reporting them to the authorities due to barriers: 1) lack of EMS protocols or training specific to vulnerable elders; 2) challenges in communication with emergency department providers, including social workers, who are often unavailable or not receptive; 3) time limitations; and 4) lack of follow-up when EMS providers do report concerns. Many participants reported interest in adopting protocols to assist in elder protection. Additional strategies included photographically documenting the home environment, additional training, improved direct communication with social workers, a dedicated location on existing forms or new form to document concerns, a reporting hotline, a system to provide feedback to EMS, and community paramedicine. EMS providers frequently identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, and self-neglect, but significant barriers to reporting exist. Strategies to empower EMS providers and improve reporting were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-neglect: a case study and implications for clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Day, Mary Rose

    2015-03-02

    Self-neglect is a worldwide and serious public health issue that can have serious adverse outcomes and is more common in older people. Cases can vary in presentation, but typically present as poor self-care, poor care of the environment and service refusal. Community nurses frequently encounter self-neglect cases and health and social care professionals play a key role in the identification, management and prevention of self-neglect. Self-neglect cases can give rise to ethical, personal and professional challenges. The aim of this article is to create a greater understanding of the concept of self-neglect among community nurses.

  13. Home care nurses' experiences with and perceptions of elder self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvonne O'Connell

    2015-01-01

    Self-neglect is a poorly understood phenomenon evident to home healthcare nurses who describe older adults who self-neglect as disheveled, unkempt individuals living in cluttered, filthy homes. In spite of the concerns nurses report about these individuals and their situations, individuals who self-neglect give no indication there is any reason for concern for their welfare, and in fact some refuse intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine how home healthcare nurses perceive elder self-neglect, their experiences with this phenomenon, and to explore the steps nurses take when self-neglect is suspected.

  14. Health care provision for older persons: the interplay between ageism and elder neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the link between neglect and ageism in health care provision for older persons. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 registered nurses with at least 2 years' experience in 10 long-term care facilities in Israel. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed according to the qualitative method. Three main themes emerged: ageism and neglect as the everyday routine (neglect is built into institution life on the platform of ageism); how the institutional system promotes neglect--between institutional and personal ageism (the ways institutions promote neglect in the shadow of ageism); from vision to reality--how neglect can be prevented in an ageist reality. The attempt to demonstrate the link between ageism and neglect and suggesting how to include them as interrelated phenomena in health care provision programs could promote older persons' quality of life.

  15. ADVANZ - Neglected zoonotc disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2013-01-01

    them especially at community level are very similar. Furthermore many of the endemic zoonoses are closely linked to poverty and the lack of basic infrastructure such as related to water and sanitation. Interventions that include engaging communities, creating public awareness and enhancing basic...... of the day-to-day practice (most). The need for political will and resources are further requirements to control endemic zoonotic diseases. Neglected zoonotic diseases are definitely not negligible as can be witnessed by their considerable impact on the lives and livelihoods especially for poor...

  16. Reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon ruptures using the quadriceps graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João Luiz Ellera; de Oliveira Alves, Jairo André; Zimmermann, José Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Several techniques using different grafts have been described for reconstruction of the patellar tendon after a neglected rupture. Retraction of the quadriceps tendon may compromise repair integrity due to progressive stretching of the graft. The authors present a surgical technique using the central one-third of the quadriceps tendon. This is supported by the fact that the resistance to traction of this segment of the quadriceps tendon equals that of a double-looped semitendinosus graft and that the harvesting of this specific graft promotes muscle inhibition, thus protecting the reconstruction during the recovery period.

  17. One Health and the neglected zoonoses: turning rhetoric into reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Gibbs, E Paul J; Vandersmissen, Alain; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-09-10

    Successful adoption of a One Health approach could have far-reaching impacts on poverty alleviation, health and food security, particularly in developing countries through integrated control of neglected zoonoses. However, the practical implementation of this approach presents many challenges. Anna Okello and colleagues argue that, for effective implementation, lessons learned and 'best practice' must be led by national and regional stakeholders drawn from a variety of disciplines. High-profile regional and international institutions can play an important role in the global governance of One Health by encouraging individual countries to devise appropriate tailored solutions that are workable within their own context.

  18. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Dharamsi, Shafik; Wasan, Kishor M; Yassi, Annalee; Singer, Burton; Hotez, Peter J; Hanson, Christy; Bundy, Donald A P

    2010-05-18

    This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  19. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M Spiegel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  20. The confederate's and others' self-conversion: a neglected phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Stéphane; Moscovici, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The authors analyzed a neglected phenomenon: self-conversion. Rather than concentrating on the influence exerted by a confederate on a naive participant, the authors studied how the confederate is himself or herself influenced by the position that he or she defends at the request of the experimenter. This experiment is particularly revealing with respect to a fundamental aspect of the psychology of the proselytizing of minority groups: In the process of convincing others, one also convinces oneself. Exerting influence on others thus leads to self-conversion, which allows the group to reinforce its beliefs and to stand up to conformity pressures.

  1. NTDs V.2.0: “Blue Marble Health”—Neglected Tropical Disease Control and Elimination in a Shifting Health Policy Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) was established in the aftermath of the Millennium Development Goals. Here, we summarize the emergence of several new post-2010 global health documents and policies, and how they may alter the way we frame the world's major NTDs since they were first highlighted. These documents include a new Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study that identifies visceral leishmaniasis and food-borne trematode infections as priority diseases beyond the seven ...

  2. The role of nutrition in integrated programs to control neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are strong and direct relationships between undernutrition and the disease caused by infectious organisms, including the diverse pathogens labeled as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Undernutrition increases the risk of infection, the severity of disease and the risk that children will die, while the physical damage, loss of appetite, and host responses during chronic infection can contribute substantially to undernutrition. These relationships are often synergistic. This opinion article examines the role of nutrition in controlling NTDs and makes the point that mass drug treatment - the major strategy currently proposed to control several diseases - is crucial to controlling disease and transmission, but is only the start of the process of physical recovery. Without adequate energy and nutrients to repair damaged tissues or recover lost growth and development, the benefits of treatment may not be evident quickly; the effects of control programs may be not appreciated by beneficiaries; while vulnerability to reinfection and disease may not be reduced. There is substantial potential for nutritional interventions to be added to large-scale programs to deliver drug treatments and thereby contribute, within a broad strategy of public health interventions and behavior change activities, to controlling and preventing NTDs in populations, and to restoring their health.

  3. Estimating Burdens of Neglected Tropical Zoonotic Diseases on Islands with Introduced Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Luz A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Newton, Kelly M; Spatz, Dena R; Holmes, Nick D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    AbstractMany neglected tropical zoonotic pathogens are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the pathogens these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management. However, epidemiological data are only available from a small subset of islands where these introduced mammals co-occur with people. We examined socioeconomic and climatic variables as predictors for disease burdens of angiostrongyliasis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and rabies from 57 islands or island countries. We found strong correlates of disease burden for leptospirosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection, angiostrongyliasis, and toxocariasis with more than 50% of the variance explained, and an average of 57% (range = 32-95%) predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data. We used these relationships to provide estimates of leptospirosis incidence and T. gondii seroprevalence infection on islands where nonnative rodents and cats are present. These predicted estimates of disease burden could be used in an initial assessment of whether the costs of managing introduced mammal reservoirs might be less than the costs of perpetual treatment of these diseases on islands.

  4. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  5. Multidisciplinary Teams in Child Abuse and Neglect Programs. A Special Report from the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, August, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner and Co., Washington, DC.

    The monograph examines the rationale and scope of multidisciplinary teams in child abuse and neglect cases; and reviews operation of hospital-based, interagency, and state-mandated multidisciplinary team programs. The bulk of the document is composed of two appendixes: a directory of child abuse and neglect programs which use a multidisciplinary…

  6. The neglected zoonoses--the case for integrated control and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welburn, S C; Beange, I; Ducrotoy, M J; Okello, A L

    2015-05-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries, but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This neglect is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. Increasing awareness about the causes of NZDs and how they can be prevented could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Addressing NZDs by targeting the animal reservoir can deliver a double benefit, as enhanced animal health means a reduced risk of infection for humans, as well as improved livelihoods through increased animal productivity. Advocacy for NZD control is increasing, but with it comes a growing awareness that NZD control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time. Moreover, despite the promise of cheap, effective vaccines or other control tools, these endemic diseases will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. NZD intervention costs can seem high when compared with the public health benefits alone, but these costs are easily outweighed when a full cross-sector analysis is carried out and monetary/non-monetary benefits--particularly regarding the livestock sector--are taken into account. Public-private partnerships have recently provided advocacy for human disease control, and could prove equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses through harnessing social impact investments. Evidence of the disease burdens imposed on communities by the NZDs and demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of integrated control can strengthen the case for a One Health approach to endemic zoonotic disease control.

  7. Repositioning of an existing drug for the neglected tropical disease Onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, Christian; Garner, Amanda L; Mersha, Fana; Oksov, Yelena; Tricoche, Nancy; Eubanks, Lisa M; Lustigman, Sara; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D

    2010-02-23

    Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that affects more than 37 million people, mainly in third world countries. Currently, the only approved drug available for mass treatment is ivermectin, however, drug resistance is beginning to emerge, thus, new therapeutic targets and agents are desperately needed to treat and cure this devastating disease. Chitin metabolism plays a central role in invertebrate biology due to the critical structural function of chitin for the organism. Taken together with its absence in mammals, targeting chitin is an appealing therapeutic avenue. Importantly, the chitinase OvCHT1 from O. volvulus was recently discovered, however, its exact role in the worm's metabolism remains unknown. A screening effort against OvCHT1 was conducted using the Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library that contains over 1,500 existing drugs. Closantel, a veterinary anthelmintic with known proton ionophore activities, was identified as a potent and specific inhibitor of filarial chitinases, an activity not previously reported for this compound. Notably, closantel was found also to completely inhibit molting of O. volvulus infective L3 stage larvae. Closantel appears to target two important biochemical processes essential to filarial parasites. To begin to unravel closantel's effects, a retro-fragment-based study was used to define structural elements critical for closantel's chitinase inhibitor function. As resources towards the development of new agents that target neglected tropical diseases are scant, the finding of an existing drug with impact against O. volvulus provides promise in the hunt for new therapies against river blindness.

  8. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states were mapped, showing the presence of the disease ("hotspots" and overlap of diseases ("major hotspots". In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states, onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states, schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states, trachoma in three countries (29 states, and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states. Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas ("major hotspots". Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables.

  9. Levels of helminth infection in the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C H; Ávila, R W; Passos, D C; Zanchi-Silva, D; Galdino, C A B

    2016-11-01

    Parasites represent a great, unknown component of animal biodiversity. Recent efforts have begun to uncover patterns of infection by helminth parasites in several Neotropical lizards. The present study reports, for the first time, levels of helminth infection in a population of the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus. One hundred and thirty-nine lizards were examined and evidence of five intestinal helminth species was found, comprising four species of nematodes, one species of cestode and an unidentified encysted larval nematode. The most frequently occurring species was the intestinal nematode Parapharyngodon alvarengai, which did not exhibit differences in prevalence and intensity of infection relative to host sex or age/body size. Furthermore, helminth species richness was not related to host body size.

  10. [The influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larval infection on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Jerzy; Nosał, Paweł; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed.

  11. Detecting elder abuse and neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol

    2014-03-15

    Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians.

  12. Neglect and extinction in kinesthesia and thesesthesia: understanding proprioceptive inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgiou, Elissaios

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new observation of neglect and extinction of kinesthesia and thesesthesia (movement and position imperception), jointly reflecting proprioceptive inattention, in a series of patients with parietal lesions. A prototypical case is discussed in detail and unaddressed aspects of proprioceptive inattention are discussed through findings from four additional cases. Thesesthetic and kinesthetic extinction were tested through simultaneous antidromic vertical displacement of index fingers, while having patients report on finger proprioceptive perception with eyes closed. Patients had variable degrees of proprioceptive inattention affecting a specific limb, but without pallesthetic inattention or somatoagnosia, whereas symptoms often resolved with visual feedback or active limb movements. Findings support that kinesthesia and thesesthesia (a) are subserved by near-identical brain networks, (b) relate more to tactile perception than pallesthesia in higher order cortical areas, and (c) have a somatotopic cortical organization even in association brain areas. Furthermore, proprioceptive extinction and neglect involve (i) "attention network" structures, (ii) either hemisphere, (iii) gray or subcortical white matter damage, (iv) defective vigilance mechanisms possibly through premature habituation of spatiotemporally saturated neural capacitor circuits, and (v) are not the result of somatoagnosia, while (vi) their resolution is observed through reafferent motor-sensory or visual feedback.

  13. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases in Africa: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adrian D

    2016-03-01

    Programmes to control onchocerciasis have been ongoing for over 40 years. What was once a devastating blinding and disabling disease, particularly in West Africa, has largely been eliminated at least as a public health problem. Efforts continue to eliminate the transmission of the disease. However, as the elimination agenda has developed so have efforts to control/eliminate other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control will close at the end of 2015. There has been considerable discussion as to what should replace it and the World Health Organization Africa Region has been consulting widely during the first part of 2015 and has established a new project framework that will be presented to a wider group of stakeholders to mobilise support with the aim of the coordination of NTD activities in the region. This will be called the Expanded Special Project for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN). This will put the countries in the driving seat but offer technical advice, capacity building and financial support, where needed, to enable countries to implement their NTD Master Plans, and also to implement recommendations of the Regional Programme Review Group. An NTD forum will be held periodically to consult with stakeholders.

  15. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  16. Neglect dyslexia: a review of the neuropsychological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Burani, Cristina; Arduino, Lisa S

    2010-10-01

    Neglect dyslexia (ND) is reviewed, based on published single-patient and group studies. ND is frequently associated with right hemispheric damage and unilateral spatial neglect (USN), and typically involves the left side of the letter string. Left-brain-damaged patients showing ND, ipsilateral (left) or contralateral (right) to the side of the left-sided hemispheric lesion, have also been reported, as well as a few patients with bilateral damage, with more frequently left than right ND. As USN, ND is temporarily ameliorated by lateralized stimulations (vestibular caloric, visual prism adaptation). ND may occur independent of USN, suggesting the damage to specific visuospatial representational/attentional systems, supporting reading. ND errors comprise omission, substitution, and, less frequently, addition of letters on one side of the stimulus, resulting in words or nonwords, also with reference to the stimulus' linguistic features. Patients with ND may show preserved lexical-morphological effects and implicit processing, up to the semantic level, of the misread string. This preserved processing is a feature of ND, shared with the USN syndrome. The mechanisms modulating error type and lexical-morphological effects are partly independent of each other. Different levels of representation of the letter string may be affected, giving rise to egocentric, stimulus-centred, and word-centred patterns of impairment. The anatomical correlates of ND include the temporo-parieto-occipital regions.

  17. Spatial analysis of neglected diseases in Brazil, 2007 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe a set of epidemiological information regarding the spatial distribution of selected neglected diseases in Brazil from 2007 to 2009 and health care infrastructure and socio-economic indicators 2010. An ecological study of the spatial analysis, based on the incidence of tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, American cutaneous leishmaniasis, malaria and prevalence of leprosy and schistosomiasis. Maps with the spatial distribution of the prevalence and incidence rates were drawn, as well as cluster detection maps, applying spatial statistical analysis techniques. A thematic map with the total distribution of priority municipalities was developed for each disease. Malaria and schistosomiasis had the highest incidence and prevalence rates respectively. All diseases analyzed showed dependence in the spatial correlation measure. A total of 1,630 Brazilians municipalities (29% were considered by the Ministry of Health as a priority to receive control actions for at least one of the studied diseases. North and Northeast regions concentrate municipalities with at least three simultaneous diseases, which overlap with the lowest socio-economic indicators. Spatial analysis studies may contribute to a better planning and organizing health care and services, aiming to reduce the existent gap regarding scientific knowledge on neglected diseases.

  18. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  19. A literature review of economic evaluations for a neglected tropical disease: human African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, C Simone; Yukich, Joshua; Goeree, Ron; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense. It is transmitted to humans via the tsetse fly. Approximately 70 million people worldwide were at risk of infection in 1995, and approximately 20,000 people across Africa are infected with HAT. The objective of this review was to identify existing economic evaluations in order to summarise cost-effective interventions to reduce, control, or eliminate the burden of HAT. The studies included in the review were compared and critically appraised in order to determine if there were existing standardised methods that could be used for economic evaluation of HAT interventions or if innovative methodological approaches are warranted. A search strategy was developed using keywords and was implemented in January 2014 in several databases. The search returned a total of 2,283 articles. After two levels of screening, a total of seven economic evaluations were included and underwent critical appraisal using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist 6: Economic Evaluations. Results from the existing studies focused on the cost-effectiveness of interventions for the control and reduction of disease transmission. Modelling was a common method to forecast long-term results, and publications focused on interventions by category, such as case detection, diagnostics, drug treatments, and vector control. Most interventions were considered cost-effective based on the thresholds described; however, the current treatment, nifurtomix-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT), has not been evaluated for cost-effectiveness, and considerations for cost-effective strategies for elimination have yet to be completed. Overall, the current evidence highlights the main components that play a role in control; however, economic evaluations of HAT elimination strategies are needed to assist national decision makers, stakeholders, and

  20. Neglected organization and management issues in mental health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R

    1992-10-01

    Fragmented and often uncoordinated public services for the more severely mentally ill are often characteristic of the current U.S. mental health system. The creation of local mental health authorities has been promoted as part of a solution, as has happened in Wisconsin at the county level and is championed in the ongoing Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded innovative service sites for severely mentally ill adults. There are indications that these innovative mental health authorities will fall short of fulfilling their promise. Basic principles from the management and organizations literature are used to identify several organization and management issues that may have been neglected. These include resource management, attention to system goals, monitoring and feedback, and the promotion of desirable interorganizational cultures.

  1. The untapped cell biology of neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization lists a constellation of 17 tropical diseases that afflict approximately one in six individuals on the planet and, until recently, few resources have been devoted to the treatment and eradication of those diseases. They are often referred to as the diseases of the “bottom billion,” because they are most prevalent among the poorest individuals in impoverished tropical nations. However, the few studies that have been performed reveal an extraordinary world of molecular and cellular adaptations that facilitate the pathogens’ survival in hosts ranging from insects to humans. A compelling case can be made that even a modest investment toward understanding the basic molecular and cell biology of these neglected pathogens has a high probability of yielding exciting new cellular mechanisms and insights into novel ways of combating these diseases. PMID:26915691

  2. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Lipponen, Antti; Arola, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Publications in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution (bias of the ordinary least squares line fitting) and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. We use synthetic observations mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due to regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus, we argue that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider these features in research.

  3. Effect of neglecting geothermal gradient on calculated oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Majid; Sedighi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Reduced recovery rate with time is a common challenge for most of the oil producing reservoirs. Water flooding is one of the most common methods used for enhanced oil recovery. Simulating water-flooding process is sometimes carried out without considering the effect of geothermal gradient, and an average temperature is assumed for all the grid blocks. However, the gradient plays a significant role on the reservoir fluid properties. So neglecting its effect might result in a large error in the calculated oil recovery results, especially for the thick reservoirs, which in theory can show significant variations in temperature with depth. In this paper, first, advancing the waterfront during injection into a geothermal oil reservoir is discussed. Then, the performance of considering either an average temperature or gradient temperature, are considered and compared with each other. The results suggest that assuming a fixed average reservoir temperature with no geothermal gradient, can lead to a pronounced error for calculated oil recovery.

  4. Frailty in self-neglecting older adults: A secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Burnett, Jason; Dyer, Carmel B

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect (SN) and frailty in older adults is associated with increased disability and mortality. Despite these commonalities, there have been no studies objectively assessing frailty in older adults who SN. This secondary analysis classified frailty in N = 37 older adults with Adult Protective Services validated SN using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) of weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, activity level, and walking speed. Overall, 3% were classified as robust, 62% as prefrail, and 35% as frail. Most (72%) were overweight/obese, with clinically significant decreases in activity level (60%) and walking speed (97%). Compared to the original FFP population, older adults who SN exhibit important differences in frailty phenotypes, and finding that the largest percentage of older adults who SN were prefrail may indicate a critical opportunity for intervening in this population to reduce future functional decline and mortality.

  5. Unplugging the Universe: the neglected electromagnetic consequence of decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan A

    2007-01-01

    This letter concentrates on the non-equilibrium evolution of magnetic field structures at the onset of recombination, when the charged particle current densities decay as neutrals are formed. We consider the effect that a decaying magnetic flux has on the acceleration of particles via the transient induced electric field. Since the residual charged-particle number density is small as a result of decoupling, we shall consider the magnetic and electric fields essentially to be imposed, neglecting the feedback from any minority accelerated population. We find that the electromagnetic treatment of this phase transition can produce energetic electrons scattered throughout the Universe. Such particles could have a significant effect on cosmic evolution in several ways: (i) their presence could delay the effective end of the recombination era; (ii) they could give rise to plasma concentrations that could enhance early gravitational collapse of matter by opposing cosmic expansion to a greater degree than neutral matt...

  6. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers: neglected tropical diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MacNeil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the "classic" NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease.

  7. Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the “classic” NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease. PMID:22761967

  8. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides; Troncoso

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases(NTDs) are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa’s poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea,Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world′s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it′s a poverty crisis.The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  9. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  10. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa's poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world´s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it´s a poverty crisis. The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  11. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  12. Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion crit...

  13. Interdisciplinary communication in inpatient rehabilitation facility: evidence of under-documentation of spatial neglect after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; McKenna, Cristin; Kutlik, Ann M.; Frisina, Pasquale G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spatial neglect commonly occurs after stroke and predicts poor rehabilitation outcomes. However, this disorder is under-recognized in clinical practices, which may result from the failure to document its presence. This study aimed to identify the predictors for documentation of spatial neglect in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Method We performed a comprehensive chart review to investigate whether the presence of spatial neglect was documented in 74 neglect patients’ clinical notes recorded by physicians, nurses, or occupational therapists (OTs), or in team conference notes. Independent variables included neglect severity, length of stay, Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. Results Of the 74 neglect patients, 75.7% were documented by OTs, 63.5% by physicians, and 17.6% by nurses. Although 93.2% of neglect patients were recognized by at least one clinician group, only 31.1% were discussed in multidisciplinary team conferences. Neglect patients who were documented by physicians were more likely to be documented in team conferences. While no factors predicted whether a neglect patient would be documented by nurses or OTs, we found significant predictors for neglect documentation in physician and team conference notes. The odds of being documented by physicians were increasingly greater with poorer efficiency of cognitive rehabilitation (odds ratio = 0.70). The odds of being discussed in team conferences were increasingly greater with more severe neglect (odds ratio = 0.98), and with longer stay in hospitalization (odds ratio = 1.06). Conclusions Multidisciplinary care may not involve as much interdisciplinary communication as needed to document important disease states. Stroke rehabilitation professionals should be able to recognize spatial neglect independently and document it consistently. PMID:23072734

  14. Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    08-2-0189 TITLE: Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen...10      4 | P a g e INTRODUCTION The Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in the U.S. Army study...was conducted to identify the effects of child neglect within and around military installations. Data for this study was collected from clinical

  15. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls foll...

  16. Recurrent, protracted and persistent lower respiratory tract infection : A neglected clinical entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting children worldwide. Recurrent pneumonia episodes can lead to the development of chronic respiratory morbidity. Chronic wet cough, a common pediatric complaint, is defined as a wet cough indicating excessive airway mucus

  17. Recurrent, protracted and persistent lower respiratory tract infection : A neglected clinical entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting children worldwide. Recurrent pneumonia episodes can lead to the development of chronic respiratory morbidity. Chronic wet cough, a common pediatric complaint, is defined as a wet cough indicating excessive airway mucus

  18. Recurrent, protracted and persistent lower respiratory tract infection: A neglected clinical entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting children worldwide. Recurrent pneumonia episodes can lead to the development of chronic respiratory morbidity. Chronic wet cough, a common pediatric complaint, is defined as a wet cough indicating excessive airway mucus

  19. Long-Term Efficacy of Prism Adaptation on Spatial Neglect: Preliminary Results on Different Spatial Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Rusconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the long-term effectiveness on spatial neglect recovery of a 2-week treatment based on prism adaptation (PA. Seven right-brain-damaged patients affected by chronic neglect were evaluated before, after two weeks of the PA treatment and at a follow-up (variable between 8 and 30 months after the end of PA. Neglect evaluation was performed by means of BIT (conventional and behavioral, Fluff Test, and Comb and Razor Test. The results highlight an improvement, after the PA training, in both tasks performed using the hand trained in PA treatment and in behavioral tasks not requiring a manual motor response. Such effects extend, even if not significantly, to all BIT subtests. These results support previous findings, showing that PA improves neglect also on imagery tasks with no manual component, and provide further evidence for long-lasting efficacy of PA training. Dissociations have been found with regard to PA efficacy on peripersonal, personal, and representational neglect, visuospatial agraphia and neglect dyslexia. In particular, we found no significant differences between the pre-training and post-training PA session in personal neglect measures, and a poor recovery of neglect dyslexia after PA treatment. The recruitment of a larger sample could help to confirm the effectiveness of the prismatic lenses with regard to the different clinical manifestations of spatial neglect.

  20. Long-term efficacy of prism adaptation on spatial neglect: preliminary results on different spatial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Carelli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the long-term effectiveness on spatial neglect recovery of a 2-week treatment based on prism adaptation (PA). Seven right-brain-damaged patients affected by chronic neglect were evaluated before, after two weeks of the PA treatment and at a follow-up (variable between 8 and 30 months after the end of PA). Neglect evaluation was performed by means of BIT (conventional and behavioral), Fluff Test, and Comb and Razor Test. The results highlight an improvement, after the PA training, in both tasks performed using the hand trained in PA treatment and in behavioral tasks not requiring a manual motor response. Such effects extend, even if not significantly, to all BIT subtests. These results support previous findings, showing that PA improves neglect also on imagery tasks with no manual component, and provide further evidence for long-lasting efficacy of PA training. Dissociations have been found with regard to PA efficacy on peripersonal, personal, and representational neglect, visuospatial agraphia and neglect dyslexia. In particular, we found no significant differences between the pre-training and post-training PA session in personal neglect measures, and a poor recovery of neglect dyslexia after PA treatment. The recruitment of a larger sample could help to confirm the effectiveness of the prismatic lenses with regard to the different clinical manifestations of spatial neglect.

  1. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  2. Corpus Callosum and Neglect Syndrome: Clinical Findings After Meningioma Removal and Anatomical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, David; Fonseca, Madalena; Garrotes, Maria; Lima, Maria Rita; Mendonça, Marta; Pereira, Mariana; Lourenço, Miguel; Oliveira, Edson; Lavrador, José Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Two types of neglect are described: hemispatial and motivational neglect syndromes. Neglect syndrome is a neurophysiologic condition characterized by a malfunction in one hemisphere of the brain, resulting in contralateral hemispatial neglect in the absence of sensory loss and the right parietal lobe lesion being the most common anatomical site leading to it. In motivational neglect, the less emotional input is considered from the neglected side where anterior cingulate cortex harbors the most frequent lesions. Nevertheless, there are reports of injuries in the corpus callosum (CC) causing hemispatial neglect syndrome, particularly located in the splenium. It is essential for a neurosurgeon to recognize this clinical syndrome as it can be either a primary manifestation of neurosurgical pathology (tumor, vascular lesion) or as a postoperative iatrogenic clinical finding. The authors report a postoperative hemispatial neglect syndrome after a falcotentorial meningioma removal that recovered 10 months after surgery and performs a clinical, anatomical, and histological review centered in CC as key agent in neglect syndrome. PMID:28149091

  3. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy associated with neglected pediatric Monteggia fracture-dislocation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demirel

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We recommend anatomic and stable restoration of radiocapitellar joint by correcting ulna deformity. Radiocapitellar fixation and PIN exploration may not be necessary in all neglected Monteggia lesions.

  4. Correlate of self-care and self-neglect among community-dwelling older adults

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    Mardan, Homa; Hamid, TengkuAizan; Redzuan, Ma’rof; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of self-neglect among the elderly is expected to rise with a rapid increase in the growth of the older population. However, self-neglect in the elderly and the factors related to it are not fully understood due to the limited research in the area, lack of consensus in the definition of the concept, and limited instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selected socio-demographic factors on self-care and self-neglect among older persons living in the community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design with cluster sampling was adopted for the study. Data were gathered from 201 older persons aged 60 years and over in the state of Selangor, Malaysia, through face-to-face interviews in their homes with a team of trained enumerators. A new instrument was developed to measure self-neglect. Results: The internal consistency of the new instrument showed a reliability of 0.90. A significant bivariate relationship was noted between self-care and self-neglect. The socio-demographic factors were also reported between self-care and self-neglect. Conclusions: The new instrument of elder self-neglect (ESN) could be used to measure self-neglect in a community dwelling. The need to increase the self-care skills and the capacity of self-care among older adults is crucial in order to reduce self-neglect and enhance their well-being. PMID:25949256

  5. Association of personality traits with elder self-neglect in a community-dwelling population.

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    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2011-08-01

    Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Population-based study conducted from 1993 to 2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N = 9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N = 1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders.

  6. Association of Personality Traits with Elder Self-Neglect in a Community Dwelling Population

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    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Objective Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Methods Population-based study conducted from 1993–2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N=9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N=1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. Results In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Conclusion Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders. PMID:21788924

  7. Theory synthesis for self-neglect: a health and social phenomenon.

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    Gibbons, Susanne W

    2009-01-01

    Self-neglect, best known for its prominent place in the elder mistreatment framework, is a phenomenon associated with a variety of health and social conditions. However, a second, less worrisome group of older adults with chronic disease exhibits similar patterns of nonadherence and inadequate self-care practices and has the potential for progression. The purpose of this theory-validating research was to describe characteristics and behaviors of self-neglect in adults (aged 55 years and older) who reside in the community. This research described characteristics and behaviors of self-neglect in early stages of this phenomenon and described the influence of several variables of significance in the clinical evolution and course of self-neglect in identified cases. A descriptive, exploratory mixed-method design was employed for a comprehensive analysis of the research questions. A convenience sample of seven healthcare providers identified a purposive sample of 20 patient participants. Demographic information, geriatric assessments, and structured interview data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. Characteristics and behaviors of self-neglect, before significant deterioration, are described in intentional (n = 9) and nonintentional (n = 11) self-neglect study participants. Fourteen themes emerged and were grouped into five categories. Coping problems appeared to affect operable self-care agency of each self-neglect study participant. The results validate a framework for self-neglect research and practice and indicate a need to consider coping abilities of all patients exhibiting self-neglect.

  8. Functional assessment of spatial neglect: a review of the Catherine Bergego scale and an introduction of the Kessler foundation neglect assessment process.

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    Chen, Peii; Hreha, Kimberly; Fortis, Paola; Goedert, Kelly M; Barrett, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating poststroke neurocognitive disorder associated with prolonged hospitalization and poor rehabilitation outcomes. The literature suggests a high prevalence of this disorder, but clinicians have difficulty reliably identifying affected survivors. This discrepancy may result from suboptimal use of validated neglect assessment procedures. In this article, we suggest use of a validated assessment tool that is sensitive to identification of neglect and its functional consequences - the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). We provide detailed item-by-item instructions for observation and scoring - the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). Rehabilitation researchers may be able to use the CBS via the KF-NAP to measure ecological outcomes and specific, separable perceptual-attentional and motor-exploratory spatial behaviors.

  9. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY OF REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雅芙; 任艳; 李亚明

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To explore the correlations between the occurrence and severity of neglect and the region,range or extent of the decrease in regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF). Methods. Nineteen dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as unilateral stroke clinically and hemispatial neglect by a neglect test battery received single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) scans. Results. On images,the damages of patients with neglect were seen most frequently in the frontal cortex,and then in turn in the parietal cortex,occipital cortex,temporal cortex,basal ganglia and thalamus. Most patients with neglect had two or more regions damaged. The most significant region was temporal-parietal-occipi-tal(TPO)junction. The correlation coefficient between rCBF and the severity of neglect was -0.34(t=-1.5,P>0.05),and that between the decrease percentage of rCBF and the severity of neglect was 0.34(t=1.47,P>0.05). The correlation coefficients between the range,number of foci,the flow deficit size and the severity of neglect were 0.71(t=4.13,P<0.01),0.70(t=4.07,P<0.01)and 0.64(t=3.40, P<0.01),respectively. Conclusions. The severity of neglect correlates with rCBF and the decrease percentage of rCBF insignificantly,but correlates positively with the range,number of foci and the flow deficit size significantly. Hemispatial neglect is caused by the damage of multiple sites and combined damage results in more severe neglect.

  10. The effect of stimulus duration and motor response in hemispatial neglect during a visual search task.

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    Laura M Jelsone-Swain

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect exhibit a myriad of profound deficits. A hallmark of this syndrome is the patients' absence of awareness of items located in their contralesional space. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that neglect patients exhibit some level of processing of these neglected items. It has been suggested that unconscious processing of neglected information may manifest as a fast denial. This theory of fast denial proposes that neglected stimuli are detected in the same way as non-neglected stimuli, but without overt awareness. We evaluated the fast denial theory by conducting two separate visual search task experiments, each differing by the duration of stimulus presentation. Specifically, in Experiment 1 each stimulus remained in the participants' visual field until a response was made. In Experiment 2 each stimulus was presented for only a brief duration. We further evaluated the fast denial theory by comparing verbal to motor task responses in each experiment. Overall, our results from both experiments and tasks showed no evidence for the presence of implicit knowledge of neglected stimuli. Instead, patients with neglect responded the same when they neglected stimuli as when they correctly reported stimulus absence. These findings thus cast doubt on the concept of the fast denial theory and its consequent implications for non-conscious processing. Importantly, our study demonstrated that the only behavior affected was during conscious detection of ipsilesional stimuli. Specifically, patients were slower to detect stimuli in Experiment 1 compared to Experiment 2, suggesting a duration effect occurred during conscious processing of information. Additionally, reaction time and accuracy were similar when reporting verbally versus motorically. These results provide new insights into the perceptual deficits associated with neglect and further support other work that falsifies the fast denial account of non

  11. Association between elder self-neglect and hospice utilization in a community population.

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    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A

    2013-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is associated with substantial 1-year mortality. However, hospice utilization among those with self-neglect remain unclear. The objective of this study is to quantify the prospective relation between self-neglect and risk for hospice utilization in a community population of older adults. Prospective population-based study in a geographically defined community in Chicago of older adults who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Of the 8669 participants in the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a subset of 1438 participants was reported to social services agency for suspected elder self-neglect. Outcome of interest was the hospice utilization obtained from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid System. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent association of self-neglect with risk of hospice utilization using time-varying covariate analyses. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, elders who self-neglect was associated with increased risk for hospice utilization (HR, 2.43, 95% CI, 2.10-2.81). Greater self-neglect severity (mild: (HR, 2.12 (1.61-2.79); moderate: (HR, 2.36 (1.95-2.84); severe: (HR, 4.66 (2.98-7.30)) were associated with increased risk for hospice utilization. Interaction term analyses suggest that the significant relationship between self-neglect and hospice utilization was not mediated through medical conditions, cognitive impairment and physical disability. Moreover, self-neglect was associated with shorter length of stay in hospice (PE, -0.27, SE, 0.12, pself-neglect was associated with increased risk of hospice use in this community population. Elder self-neglect is associated with shorter length of stay in hospice care and shorter time from hospice admission to death. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

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    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  13. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

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    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  14. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

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    Monica Cartelle Gestal

    Full Text Available Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted.In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases.Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported.Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  15. Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa.

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    Quansah, Emmanuel; Sarpong, Esther; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-06-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded. However, reports indicate that trichuriasis, schistosomiasis and hookworm infection, among others, cause impairments in memory and cognition, negatively affecting school attendance rates and educational performance particularly among children, as well as agricultural productivity among adults. Consequently, the neurological impairments have substantial influence on education and economic productivity, thus aggravating and perpetuating poverty in affected societies. However, inadequate research, policy and public health attention has been paid to the neurological burdens associated with NTDs. In order to appropriately address these burdens, we recommend the development of policy interventions that focus on the following areas: (i) the introduction of training programs to develop the capacity of scientists and clinicians in research, diagnostic and treatment approaches (ii) the establishment of competitive research grant schemes to fund cutting-edge research into these neurological impairments, and (iii) the development of public health interventions to improve community awareness of the NTD-associated neurological problems, possibly enhancing disease prevention and expediting treatment.

  16. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

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    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  17. Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges.

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    Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H

    2013-08-05

    Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the 'endgame', such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases.

  18. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  19. Innovation for the 'bottom 100 million': eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the Americas.

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    Hotez, Peter J; Dumonteil, Eric; Heffernan, Michael J; Bottazzi, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 100 million people in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region live on less than US$2 per day, while another 46 million people in the US live below that nation's poverty line. Almost all of the 'bottom 100 million' people suffer from at least one neglected tropical disease (NTD), including one-half of the poorest people in the region infected with hookworms, 10% with Chagas disease, and up to 1-2% with dengue, schistosomiasis, and/or leishmaniasis. In the US, NTDs such as Chagas disease, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, and trichomoniasis are also common among poor populations. These NTDs trap the poorest people in the region in poverty, because of their impact on maternal and child health, and occupational productivity. Through mass drug administration (MDA), several NTDs are on the verge of elimination in the Americas, including lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and possibly leprosy. In addition, schistosomiasis may soon be eliminated in the Caribbean. However, for other NTDs including hookworm infection, Chagas disease, dengue, schistosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, a new generation of 'anti-poverty vaccines' will be required. Several vaccines for dengue are under development by multinational pharmaceutical companies, whereas others are being pursued through non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs), in collaboration with developing country manufacturers in Brazil and Mexico. The Sabin Vaccine Institute PDP is developing a primarily preventive bivalent recombinant human hookworm vaccine, which is about to enter phase 1 clinical testing in Brazil, as well as a new therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine in collaboration with several Mexican institutions. The Chagas disease vaccine would be administered to seropositive patients to delay or prevent the onset of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (secondary prevention). Together, MDA and the development of new anti-poverty vaccines afford an opportunity to implement effective control and

  20. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    South Kalimantan. Echinostoma lindoense which was highly endemic in lake Lindu area has disappeared completely. Among the 8 species of Cestodes, Taenia saginata and T. solium with its cysticercus are found more often. While endemic in a few areas only, cases been reported from many places. Infections with other Cestodes have been reported occasionally. On the whole, parasitic infections in Indonesia have been decreasing. Some parasites which were prevalent in the older days, have dissappeared, and human infections with animal parasites have been reported occasionally because of the difficult diagnosis.

  1. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  3. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

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    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  4. Profound activity of the anti-cancer drug bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes identifies the proteasome as a novel drug target for cestodes.

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    Britta Stadelmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ, a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors.

  5. Profound activity of the anti-cancer drug bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes identifies the proteasome as a novel drug target for cestodes.

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    Stadelmann, Britta; Aeschbacher, Denise; Huber, Cristina; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors.

  6. Dengue viral infections

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    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  7. Contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna Helmintológica da região Amazônica - Cestódeos On some Cestodes of the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Do material proveniente da Região Amazônica, os autores iniciam uma série de publicações, que atualizem o conhecimento de sua fauna helmintológica. Apresentando a parte referente aos Cestódeos, eles redescrevem três espécies: Raillietina (R. alouattae baylis, 1947, Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904, Fuhrmann, 1921 e Anomotaenia brasiliensis (Fuhrmann, 1908 e fazem referência a duas outras: Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 e Mathevotaenia bivittata (Janicki, 1904.Concerning to the Amazon Region, everything about it arises the greatest interest when one deals with its natural resources. For this reason, the authors, introducing this work, present its first part, which consists of some cestodes recovered from Vertebrates in 1969. So, three species, are redescribed and two only refered. Raillietina (R. alouattae Baylis, 1947 is marked for the first time in Brazil. The authors ratify the original descriptions of Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904 Fuhrmann, 1921 and Anomotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908, presenting original camera lucida drawings in order to accomplish their knowledge. Of Anomotaenia brasiliensis they also rectify the year of its proposition from 1907 to 1908, when the work was printed. Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 and Mathevotaenia bivittata Janicki, 1904 are only listed for they are well known by now, to justify a revision.

  8. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  9. How to Deal with Emotional Abuse and Neglect--Further Development of a Conceptual Framework (FRAMEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop further the understanding of emotional abuse and neglect. Methods: Building on previous work, this paper describes the further development of a conceptual framework for the recognition and management of emotional abuse and neglect. Training in this framework is currently being evaluated. The paper also briefly reviews more…

  10. Impairment in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Geriatric Syndrome of Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Pickens-Pace, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to characterize self-neglect definitively as a geriatric syndrome by identifying an association with functional impairment. Design and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional home evaluation of 100 community-living older adults referred by Adult Protective Services for geriatric self-neglect and 100 matched adults from a…

  11. Assessment of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients using virtual reality: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, M.J.A.; Aznar Alonso, M.A.; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is

  12. Gender differences in the impact of abuse and neglect victimization on adolescent offending behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment th

  13. The Prospective Assessment of Self-Concept in Neglectful and Physically Abusive Low Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Myra J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Pregnant women completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and protective service records were reviewed three years later. Of 459 women, 29 had maltreated their children. Neglectful mothers had lower scores on self-esteem, moral self-worth, and personal and social adequacy than nonreported mothers. Both neglectful and physically abusive mothers…

  14. The Expertise in Working with Pedagogically Neglected Adolescents on the Example of German Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypyk, Katherine N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the attitudes of German scientists towards the levels and identification methods of pedagogical neglect. The experience of German scientists in self-development and skills' development of academic staff to conduct relationship with pedagogically neglected adolescents was studied for the first time. The aim of the study is to…

  15. Reperfusion of specific cortical areas is associated with improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Shaan; Trupe, Lydia A; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Molitoris, John J; Medina, Jared; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E

    2012-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that restoring blood flow to specific right cortical regions in acute stroke results in improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect distinguished by reference frame: viewer-centered versus stimulus-centered neglect. Twenty five patients with acute right stroke were evaluated at Day 1 and Day 3-5 with a battery of neglect tests and Diffusion- and Perfusion-Weighted MR Imaging. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed Brodmann areas (BAs) where reperfusion predicted degree of improvement in scores on each type of neglect, independently of reperfusion of other areas, total change in the volume of infarct or hypoperfusion, and age. Reperfusion of dorsal frontoparietal cortex (including BAs 40, 46, and 4) independently predicted improvement in viewer-centered neglect, such as detecting stimuli on left in line cancellation and scene copying (r=.951; p<.0001). Reperfusion of a more ventral temporo-occipital cortex, including right BAs 37, 38, 21 and 18, independently contributed to improvement in stimulus-centered neglect, such as detecting left gaps in circles (r=.926; p<.0001). Reperfusion of right midfusiform gyrus (temporal occipital cortex), change in total volume of ischemia, change in volume of hypoperfusion and age predicted degree of improvement in reading (reduction in "neglect dyslexic" errors; r=.915; p<.0001). Results demonstrate that reperfusing specific cortical regions yields improvement in different types of neglect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  16. Impairment in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Geriatric Syndrome of Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Pickens-Pace, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to characterize self-neglect definitively as a geriatric syndrome by identifying an association with functional impairment. Design and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional home evaluation of 100 community-living older adults referred by Adult Protective Services for geriatric self-neglect and 100 matched adults from a…

  17. 76 FR 52958 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Developing World: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Developing World: Developing Drugs for Treatment or Prevention.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment or prevention of neglected diseases of the developing world. Specifically,......

  18. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…

  19. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  20. Benznidazole Shortage Makes Chagas Disease a Neglected Tropical Disease in Developed Countries: Data from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Miriam; Norman, Francesca F.; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease endemic in Latin America. The first-line treatment option is benznidazole, but stocks are expected to run out in the coming months. Spain would need around 5 million benznidazole tablets. This drug shortage could make Chagas disease a neglected tropical disease also in developed countries. PMID:22826485

  1. Unilateral spatial neglect, global processing deficit and prosopagnosia following right hemisphere stroke: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xue-song; YE Jing; ZHOU Shu; LU Bing-xun; CHEN Xian-hong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Although unilateral spatial neglect, global processing deficit, or prosopagnosia following brain damage has been usually reported separately, to our knowledge, a report on a patient with the three mentioned syndromes has not been reported. We now present a case that developed unilateral spatial neglect, global processing deficit and prosopagnosia after right hemisphere stroke in September 2004.

  2. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  3. Perceptions of Child Neglect among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 101 American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) parents in Los Angeles was conducted to explore perceptions of child neglect among urban AIAN parents and factors associated with perceptions. Participants rated substance abuse by parents as the most serious type of neglect. Providing material necessities and providing adequate structure were…

  4. Assessment and functional impact of allocentric neglect: a reminder from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyanka P; Spaldo, Nicole; Barrett, A M; Chen, Peii

    2013-01-01

    SR suffered a right hemispheric stroke more than 3 years ago, and now lives with left-sided hemiparesis and chronic spatial neglect due to damaged white matter pathways connecting the frontal, temporal and parietal regions. We report here that SR suffers from both viewer-centered (i.e., egocentric) and object-centered (i.e., allocentric) spatial neglect. Notably, unlike most neuropsychological and functional assessments that focus on egocentric deficits, a specialized neuropsychological figurative discrimination test (the Apples test) revealed SR's allocentric neglect. Further, using assessments sensitive to detect functional deficits related to allocentric neglect, we observed SR's difficulty in reading and using clocks, reflecting his object-centered errors in these everyday activities. SR's case suggests that allocentric-specific assessments, both neuropsychological and functional, are valuable in standard neglect examinations, particularly to predict daily function after stroke. We recommend that neglect-related functional disability be distinguished further with respect to allocentric spatial deficits, and functional assessments for allocentric neglect should be validated in future large sample studies. Identifying allocentric neglect early, and learning about its influence on daily function, may enhance care quality and facilitate effective rehabilitation planning for stroke recovery.

  5. When Knowledge Is Not Enough: The Phenomenon of Goal Neglect in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Lewis, Charlie; Knowles, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We argue that the concept of goal neglect can be fruitfully applied to understand children's potential problems in experimental tasks and real-world settings. We describe an assessment of goal neglect developed for administration to preschool children and report data on two measures derived from this task alongside the Dimensional Change Card Sort…

  6. Assessment of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients using virtual reality: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Michiel J.A.; Aznar, Miguel; Kort, de Alexander Cornelis; Vis, van de Wim; Veltink, Peter; Kooij, van der Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is pos

  7. Gender differences in the impact of abuse and neglect victimization on adolescent offending behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis: a disease neglected by travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haditsch, Martin; Kunze, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease that is primarily transmitted to humans by infected ticks and causes infection of the central nervous system. Clinical presentations range from meningitis to encephalitis with or without myelitis, and infection may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. TBE is endemic in regions of at least 27 European as well as in some Asian countries. Infection and disease, however, can be averted successfully by tick-bite prevention and active vaccination. The risk of infection has shifted from daily life and occupational exposure to leisure-time activities, including travelling. Outdoor activities during the tick season with contact with nature increase the risk of tick bites. Although the number of travel-associated cases is unknown, it is certainly under-estimated because there is hardly any awareness of TBE in non-endemic countries. Therefore, the majority of cases remain undiagnosed, also because of the lack of diagnostic serology, as there is no routine screening for TBE in non-endemic regions. Because of the increasing number of travellers from TBE non-endemic to endemic regions, and in view of the fact that TBE was included in the list of notifiable diseases in the European Union in September 2012, this disease needs to become an important issue in travel medicine.

  9. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  10. Citron kinase - renaissance of a neglected mitotic kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2017-05-15

    Cell division controls the faithful segregation of genomic and cytoplasmic materials between the two nascent daughter cells. Members of the Aurora, Polo and cyclin-dependent (Cdk) kinase families are known to regulate multiple events throughout cell division, whereas another kinase, citron kinase (CIT-K), for a long time has been considered to function solely during cytokinesis, the last phase of cell division. CIT-K was originally proposed to regulate the ingression of the cleavage furrow that forms at the equatorial cortex of the dividing cell after chromosome segregation. However, studies in the last decade have clarified that this kinase is, instead, required for the organization of the midbody in late cytokinesis, and also revealed novel functions of CIT-K earlier in mitosis and in DNA damage control. Moreover, CIT-K mutations have recently been linked to the development of human microcephaly, and CIT-K has been identified as a potential target in cancer therapy. In this Commentary, I describe and re-evaluate the functions and regulation of CIT-K during cell division and its involvement in human disease. Finally, I offer my perspectives on the open questions and future challenges that are necessary to address, in order to fully understand this important and yet unjustly neglected mitotic kinase. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Lactate, a Neglected Factor for Diabetes and Cancer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Dong, Yunzhou; Atefi, Mohammad; Liu, Yanjun; Elshimali, Yahya; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2016-01-01

    Increasing body of evidence suggests that there exists a connection between diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, the potential reasons for this association are still poorly understood and currently there is no clinical evidence available to direct the proper management of patients presenting with these two diseases concomitantly. Both cancer and diabetes have been associated with abnormal lactate metabolism and high level of lactate production is the key biological property of these diseases. Conversely, high lactate contribute to a higher insulin resistant status and a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells, promoting diabetes and cancer development and progression. In view of associations between diabetes and cancers, the role of high lactate production in diabetes and cancer interaction should not be neglected. Here, we review the available evidence of lactate's role in different biological characteristics of diabetes and cancer and interactive relationship between them. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind metabolic remodeling of diabetes- and cancer-related signaling would endow novel preventive and therapeutic approaches for diabetes and cancer treatment.

  12. NEOFLAVONOIDS WITH IMPLICATIONS IN NEGLECTED DISEASES: AN TECNOLOGICA FORECASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Laylson Da Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to make a technological forecasting about the neoflavonoids and its implications in treatment of neglected diseases (NDs. Thus, this research was carried out through a comprehensive and systematic bibliographic search in articles and patents. The articles were searched in the database of the Periodical of CAPES, Science Direct, Scopus, Pub Med, Web of Science and ACS Publications. The patent research was performed in bases of the INPI, EPO, WIPO, USPTO and SIPO. According to the results obtained, it was possible to observe that the neoflavonoids may be a new source of medications for the treatment of NDs, since were found studies that attributed activity for the treatment of malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Large part of published documents was in the form of scientific articles and a small part in the form of deposit of record of patent applications. In this way, this work can serve as an incentive of technological innovation for the development of new research involving neoflavonoids, seen that the record number of deposits of patent applications is still relatively insufficient to meet the current demand for technological and scientific innovation with relation to NDs.

  13. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

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    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested in the literature; however, the model of Bachman and Palmer (1996 is the one considered in the present study. It includes two major nodes of organizational and pragmatic competences. Under the organizational competence are grammatical and textual competences, and pragmatic competence includes illocutionary and sociolinguistic competences. In this paper it is argued that among the many competences required to be considered proficient in a language, metaphorical competence is also central. As such, after illuminating the concept of metaphor and metaphorical competence, some models of communicative competence (CC are presented. Moreover, in line with Littlemore and Low (2006, it is emphasized that metaphorical competence which is present in most of the components of CC should receive more attention in L2 classrooms. In fact, it is concluded that having an acceptable metaphorical competence contributes to the learners’ overall communicative competence. Keywords: Metaphor, Metaphorical competence, Communicative competence, L2

  14. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans.

  15. Surgical treatment of the neglected achilles tendon rupture with Hyalonect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Tekin, Cagri; Cakar, Murat; Bayraktar, Kursat; Saygili, Selcuk; Esenyel, Meltem; Tekin, Zeynep N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the management and outcomes of ten patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture treated with a turndown gastrocnemius-soleus fascial flap wrapped with a surgical mesh (Hyalonect). Ten men with neglected Achilles tendon rupture were treated with a centrally based turndown gastrocnemius fascial flap wrapped with Hyalonect. Hyalonect is a knitted mesh composed of HYAFF, a benzyl ester of hyaluronic acid. The Achilles tendon ruptures were diagnosed more than 1 month after injury. The mean patient age was 41 years. All of the patients had weakness of active plantarflexion. The mean preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 64.8. The functional outcome was excellent. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 97.8 at the latest follow-up. There were significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative scores. Ankle range of motion was similar in both ankles. Neither rerupture nor major complication, particularly of wound healing, was observed. For patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture with a rupture gap of at least 5 cm, surgical repair using a single turndown fascial flap covered with Hyalonect achieved excellent outcomes.

  16. Somatization and somatic symptom presentation in cancer: a neglected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Nanni, Maria Giulia

    2013-02-01

    Abstract The recognition of somatization process in cancer patients is a challenging and neglected area, for the extreme difficulty in differentiating and assessing the psycho(patho)logical components from those biologically determined and related to cancer and cancer treatment, as well as for the scarce usefulness of rigid categorical DSM criteria. However, several dimensions of somatization (and the interconnected concept of abnormal illness behaviour) have been shown to be diagnosable in cancer patients and to negatively influence coping and quality of life outcomes. An integration of the formal DSM-ICD nosology with a system specifically taking into account the patients' emotional responses to cancer and cancer treatment, such as the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR), is suggested. More data on some specific symptom dimensions, including pain, fatigue and sexual disorders, are needed to examine their possible psychological components. More research is also needed regarding the association of somatization with personality traits (e.g. type D distressed personality, alexithymia), developmental dimensions (e.g. attachment), and cultural issues (e.g. culturally mediated attributional styles to somatic symptoms). Also, the impact and effectiveness of specific therapeutic intervention in 'somatizing' cancer patients is necessary.

  17. Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Alma; Sylvain Clément; Moroni, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is an attention deficit in the contralesional side of space which occurs after a cerebral stroke, mainly located in the right hemisphere. USN patients are disabled in all daily activities. USN is an important negative prognostic factor of functional recovery and of socio-professional reinsertion. Thus, patient rehabilitation is a major challenge. As this deficit has been described in many sensory modalities (including hearing), many sensory and poly-sensory rehabilitation methods have been proposed to USN patients. They are mainly based on visual, tactile modalities and on motor abilities. However, these methods appear to be quite task-specific and difficult to transfer to functional activities. Very few studies have focused on the hearing modality and even fewer studies have been conducted in music as a way of improving spatial attention. Therefore, more research on such retraining needs is neccessary in order to make reliable conclusions on its efficiency in long-term rehabilitation. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that music could be a promising tool to enhance spatial attention and to rehabilitate USN patients. In fact, music is a material closely linked to space, involving common anatomical and functional networks. The present paper aims firstly at briefly reviewing the different procedures of sensory retraining proposed in USN, including auditory retraining, and their limits. Secondly, it aims to present the recent scientific evidence that makes music a good candidate for USN patients’ neuro-rehabilitation. PMID:25566165

  18. Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Alma; Sylvain Clément; Moroni, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is an attention deficit in the contralesional side of space which occurs after a cerebral stroke, mainly located in the right hemisphere. USN patients are disabled in all daily activities. USN is an important negative prognostic factor of functional recovery and of socio-professional reinsertion. Thus, patient rehabilitation is a major challenge. As this deficit has been described in many sensory modalities (including hearing), many sensory and poly-sensory rehabilitation methods have been proposed to USN patients. They are mainly based on visual, tactile modalities and on motor abilities. However, these methods appear to be quite task-specific and difficult to transfer to functional activities. Very few studies have focused on the hearing modality and even fewer studies have been conducted in music as a way of improving spatial attention. Therefore, more research on such retraining needs is neccessary in order to make reliable conclusions on its efficiency in long-term rehabilitation. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that music could be a promising tool to enhance spatial attention and to rehabilitate USN patients. In fact, music is a material closely linked to space, involving common anatomical and functional networks. The present paper aims firstly at briefly reviewing the different procedures of sensory retraining proposed in USN, including auditory retraining, and their limits. Secondly, it aims to present the recent scientific evidence that makes music a good candidate for USN patients' neuro-rehabilitation.

  19. Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma eGuilbert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN is an attention deficit in the contralesional side of space which occurs after a cerebral stroke, mainly located in the right hemisphere. USN patients are disabled in all daily activities. USN is an important negative prognostic factor of functional recovery and of socio-professional reinsertion. Thus, patient rehabilitation is a major challenge. As this deficit has been described in many sensory modalities (including hearing, many sensory and poly-sensory rehabilitation methods have been proposed to USN patients. They are mainly based on visual, tactile modalities and on motor abilities. However, these methods appear to be quite task-specific and difficult to transfer to functional activities. Very few studies have focused on the hearing modality and even fewer studies have been conducted in music as a way of improving spatial attention. Therefore, more research on such retraining needs is neccessary in order to make reliable conclusions on its efficiency in long-term rehabilitation. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that music could be a promising tool to enhance spatial attention and to rehabilitate USN patients. In fact, music is a material closely linked to space, involving common anatomical and functional networks. The present paper aims firstly at briefly reviewing the different procedures of sensory retraining proposed in USN, including auditory retraining, and their limits. Secondly, it aims to present the recent scientific evidence that makes music a good candidate for USN patients’ neuro-rehabilitation.

  20. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.