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Sample records for cessation intervention istaps

  1. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention (ISTAPS study: design of a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarza Elvira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable body of evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions in individuals who wish to quit smoking. However, there are no large-scale studies testing the whole range of interventions currently recommended for helping people to give up smoking; specifically those interventions that include motivational interviews for individuals who are not interested in quitting smoking in the immediate to short term. Furthermore, many of the published studies were undertaken in specialized units or by a small group of motivated primary care centres. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on a trans-theoretical model of change, applied to an extensive group of Primary Care Centres (PCC. Methods/Design Cluster randomised clinical trial. Unit of randomization: basic unit of care consisting of a family physician and a nurse, both of whom care for the same population (aprox. 2000 people. Intention to treat analysis. Study population: Smokers (n = 3024 aged 14 to 75 years consulting for any reason to PCC and who provided written informed consent to participate in the trial. Intervention: 6-month implementation of recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline which includes brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation – contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help, and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. Control group: usual care. Outcome measures: Self-reported abstinence confirmed by exhaled air carbon monoxide concentration of ≤ 10 parts per million. Points of assessment: end of intervention period and 1 and 2 years post-intervention; continuous abstinence rate for 1 year; change in smoking cessation stage; health status measured by SF-36. Discussion The

  2. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  3. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review a...

  4. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete;

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text......; pooled RR 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55 to 25.46, two trials) and RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.63, five trials) respectively. Four trials evaluating the effect on long-term smoking cessation found a significant effect; pooled RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.33). However, when pooling intensive...

  5. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  6. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive...... interval 0.41 to 0.78); P smoking cessation rates both before operation and up to 12 months thereafter. The effects of medium to less intensive interventions were not significant. Meta-analysis of the effect on smoking cessation was not done owing...

  7. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts......BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647...... pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...

  8. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McIvor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.

  9. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  10. A Model Curriculum for Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…

  11. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, M; Rigotti, N; Lancaster, T; Stead, L; Murphy, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—An admission to hospital provides an opportunity to help people stop smoking. Individuals may be more open to help at a time of perceived vulnerability, and may find it easier to quit in an environment where smoking is restricted or prohibited. Providing smoking cessation services during hospitalisation may help more people to attempt and sustain an attempt to quit. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients.
METHODS—We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register, CINAHL, and the Smoking and Health database for studies of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of behavioural, pharmacological, or multi-component interventions to help patients stop smoking conducted with hospitalised patients who were current smokers or recent quitters were included. Studies of patients admitted for psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, those that did not report abstinence rates, and those with follow up of less than 6 months were excluded. Two of the authors extracted data independently for each paper, with assistance from others.
RESULTS—Intensive intervention (inpatient contact plus follow up for at least 1 month) was associated with a significantly higher cessation rate compared with controls (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.82,95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Any contact during hospitalisation followed by minimal follow up failed to detect a statistically significant effect on cessation rate, but did not rule out a 30% increase in smoking cessation (Peto OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.31). There was insufficient evidence to judge the effect of interventions delivered only during the hospital stay. Although the interventions increased quit rates irrespective of whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was used, the results for NRT were compatible with other data indicating that it increases quit rates. There was no

  12. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  13. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefo...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  14. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefore...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  15. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were......-report and verified by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Fewer patients than expected were recruited, which renders this report a pilot study. RESULTS: The 6-month self-reported smoking cessation rate was 37.8% in the minimal intervention group and 42.9% in the intensive intervention group. Smoking...... randomized to minimal smoking cessation intervention or intensive smoking cessation intervention. All patients attended a 30-min individual counseling by the study nurse. Patients randomized to intensive smoking cessation intervention also participated in a 5-session outpatient smoking cessation program...

  16. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  17. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, David; Sadr Azodi, Omid; Wladis, Andreas;

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications.......To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications....

  18. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2003-01-01

    of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...

  19. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally op...

  20. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O;

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling).......To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  1. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V.; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70–80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Materials ...

  2. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  3. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs......, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention....... After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. ITALIC! Results We found...

  4. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  5. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. A

  6. A randomized controlled trial of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women: preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Bernstein, Kunsook; Fang, Hua; Choi, Won S; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking. Methods This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to either a video arm or a telephone arm. Both arms received eight 30-minute weekly individualized counseling sessions of a deep cultural smoking cessation intervention and nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Participants were followed over 3 months from the quit day. Results The videoconferencing intervention was acceptable and feasible for Korean women aged effective, and personal preference is likely an important factor in treatment matching. The deep cultural smoking cessation intervention may account for the outcomes of telephone counseling being better than prior studies in the literature for Korean women.

  7. One year effectiveness of an individualised smoking cessation intervention at the workplace: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Lafuente, U; Guallar-Castillon, P; Garteizaurrekoa, D.; Sainz, M.; Diez, A; Foj, A; Banegas, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace. The intervention was adapted to smokers‘ tobacco dependence, and included minimal structured counselling at the first visit (5–8 minutes), nicotine patches for three months, and three sessions of counselling for reinforcement of abstinence (2–3 minutes) over a three month period.

  8. Toward an mHealth Intervention for Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, G. M. Tanimul; Addo, Ivor D.; Ahamed, S. Iqbal; Petereit, Daniel; Kanekar, Shalini; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Krebs, Linda U.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tobacco dependence in the United States (US) remains alarming. Invariably, smoke-related health problems are the leading preventable causes of death in the US. Research has shown that a culturally tailored cessation counseling program can help reduce smoking and other tobacco usage. In this paper, we present a mobile health (mHealth) solution that leverages the Short Message Service (SMS) or text messaging feature of mobile devices to motivate behavior change among tobacco u...

  9. A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking reduction or cessation interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, C; Rick, J; Leaviss, J.; Fishwick, D; BOOTH, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to reduce smoking rates is a recognised public health policy issue in many countries. The workplace offers a potential context for offering smokers’ programmes and interventions to assist smoking cessation or reduction. A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees’ views about such programmes might explain why some interventions appear effective and others not, and can be used to develop evidence-based interventions for this population and setting. Methods A qua...

  10. Abstinence and Use of Community-Based Cessation Treatment After a Motivational Intervention Among smokers with Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Joelle C; Devitt, Timothy; McHugo, Gregory J; A Jonikas, Jessica; Cook, Judith A; Brunette, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    Motivational interventions help people with mental illness try to quit smoking, but few studies have evaluated factors associated with this groups' cessation with community treatment. We examined predictors of abstinence after a brief motivational intervention among smokers with severe mental illness. Education, stage of change post intervention, and use of cessation treatment predicted any 1-week period of self-reported abstinence over 6 months (29%). Cessation treatment mediated the relationship between stage of change and abstinence. Because treatment was the key modifiable predictor of abstinence, future research should establish strategies that improve motivation for, access to, and retention in cessation treatment. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01412866.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of an Intensive Smoking Cessation Intervention for COPD Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christenhusz, L.C.A.; Prenger, H.C.; Pieterse, M.E.; Seydel, E.R.; Palen, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To determine the cost-effectiveness of a high-intensity smoking cessation program (SmokeStop Therapy; SST) versus a medium-intensity treatment (Minimal Intervention Strategy for Lung patients [LMIS]) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. Methods: The cost-effectiven

  12. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions : a dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Talitha L; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in terms of costs p

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions by professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-van Reenen; R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: 1) Telephone Counseling (TC), 2) Minimal counseling by a general practitioner (H-MIS), 3) Minimal counseling by a general practitioner combined with Nicotine Replacement Therapy (H-MIS+NR

  14. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: A dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-Van Reenen (Heleen); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in term

  15. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J; Zehner, Mark E; Smith, Stevens S; Jorenby, Douglas E; Valdez, José A; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Gustafson, David H

    2006-12-01

    Internet interventions for smoking cessation are ubiquitous. Yet, to date, there are few randomized clinical trials that gauge their efficacy. This study is a randomized clinical trial (N= 284, n= 140 in the treatment group, n= 144 in the control group) of an Internet smoking cessation intervention. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive either bupropion plus counseling alone, or bupropion and counseling in addition to 12 weeks of access to the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System for Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention (CHESS SCRP; a Web site which provided information on smoking cessation as well as support). We found that access to CHESS SCRP was not significantly related to abstinence at the end of the treatment period (OR= 1.13, 95% CI 0.66-2.62) or at 6 months postquit (OR= 1.48, 95% CI 0.66-2.62). However, the number of times participants used CHESS SCRP per week was related to abstinence at both end of treatment (OR= 1.79, 95% CI 1.25-2.56) and at the 6-month follow-up (OR= 1.59, 95% CI 1.06-2.38). Participants with access to CHESS SCRP logged in an average of 33.64 times (SD=30.76) over the 90-day period of access. Rates of CHESS SCRP use did not differ by ethnicity, level of education or gender (all p>.05). In sum, results suggest that participants used CHESS SCRP frequently, CHESS SCRP use was related to success, but the effects in general did not yield intergroup effects. PMID:17491172

  16. Smoking-cessation interventions in people living with HIV infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Farley, Jason; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a prevalent behavior in people living with HIV infection (PLWHs) and is associated with impaired immune functioning, increased cardiovascular risk, and decreased response to antiretroviral therapy. This review presents a critique and synthesis of evidence on effective smoking-cessation interventions for PLWHs. A comprehensive search identified nine peer-reviewed intervention studies published between 1989 and 2012. The highest likelihood of smoking cessation (range of odds ratios 4.33-5.6) were in two randomized controlled trial interventions using cell phone technology. Clinically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, weight gain, and increased CD(4+) T-cell count were reported in participants who ceased smoking in three of the nine studies. Overall, multistrategy smoking-cessation interventions, delivered over multiple sessions, were effective. However, the most effective interventions were tailored to the unique individual needs of PLWHs, including assessment of and intervention for polysubstance abuse and mental health issues, as well as the inclusion of access-promoting elements.

  17. Patient education for alcohol cessation intervention at the time of acute fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Egholm, Julie Weber; Oppedal, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    meetings at the orthopaedic outpatient clinic. Furthermore, patients are provided with thiamine and B-vitamins, alcohol withdrawal prophylaxis and treatment, and disulfiram to support abstinence. Alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly intervention meetings......BACKGROUND: Patients with hazardous alcohol intake are overrepresented in emergency departments and surgical wards. These patients have an increased risk of postoperative complications with prolonged hospital stays and admissions to intensive care unit after surgery. In elective surgery......, preoperative alcohol cessation interventions can reduce postoperative complications, but no studies have investigated the effect of alcohol cessation intervention at the time of acute fracture surgery. This protocol describes a randomised clinical trial that aims to evaluate the effect of a new gold standard...

  18. A randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention delivered by dental hygienists: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins William

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use continues to be a global public health problem. Helping patients to quit is part of the preventive role of all health professionals. There is now increasing interest in the role that the dental team can play in helping their patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of undertaking a randomised controlled smoking cessation intervention, utilising dental hygienists to deliver tobacco cessation advice to a cohort of periodontal patients. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients who attended consultant clinics in an outpatient dental hospital department (Periodontology were recruited into a trial. Data were available for 116 participants, 59 intervention and 57 control, and were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The intervention group received smoking cessation advice based on the 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange follow-up and were offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, whereas the control group received 'usual care'. Outcome measures included self-reported smoking cessation, verified by salivary cotinine measurement and CO measurements. Self-reported measures in those trial participants who did not quit included number and length of quit attempts and reduction in smoking. Results At 3 months, 9/59 (15% of the intervention group had quit compared to 5/57 (9% of the controls. At 6 months, 6/59 (10% of the intervention group quit compared to 3/57 (5% of the controls. At one year, there were 4/59 (7% intervention quitters, compared to 2/59 (4% control quitters. In participants who described themselves as smokers, at 3 and 6 months, a statistically higher percentage of intervention participants reported that they had had a quit attempt of at least one week in the preceding 3 months (37% and 47%, for the intervention group respectively, compared with 18% and 16% for the control group. Conclusion This study has shown the potential that trained dental hygienists

  19. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  20. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits. PMID:25975798

  1. Interventions for waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention and cessation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Waziry, Reem K; Ballout, Rami A; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is growing in popularity despite adverse health effects among users. We systematically reviewed the literature, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science, for interventions targeting prevention and cessation of waterpipe tobacco smoking. We assessed the evidence quality using the Cochrane (randomised studies), GRADE (non-randomised studies) and CASP (qualitative studies) frameworks. Data were synthesised narratively due to heterogeneity. We included four individual-level, five group-level, and six legislative interventions. Of five randomised controlled studies, two showed significantly higher quit rates in intervention groups (bupropion/behavioural support versus placebo in Pakistan; 6 month abstinence relative risk (RR): 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8); group behavioural support versus no intervention in Egypt, 12 month abstinence RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.9). Non-randomised studies showed mixed results for cessation, behavioural, and knowledge outcomes. One high quality modelling study from Lebanon calculated that a 10% increase in waterpipe tobacco taxation would reduce waterpipe tobacco demand by 14.5% (price elasticity of demand -1.45). In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence of effectiveness for most waterpipe interventions. While few show promising results, higher quality interventions are needed. Meanwhile, tobacco policies should place waterpipe on par with cigarettes. PMID:27167891

  2. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  3. Smoking cessation intervention practices in Chinese physicians: do gender and smoking status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare settings provide a major arena for administering smoking cessation interventions. However, few studies have reported differences in the frequency of practice in healthcare professionals by gender and smoking status. This might also be influenced by a difference in smoking prevalence by gender, especially in China and other developing countries. This study examined factors associated with the frequency of cessation intervention practices by smoking status among Chinese physicians in men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006 in physicians with direct patient contact from nine hospitals in Guangzhou with a response rate of 60.8%. Significantly more female physicians who were non-smokers (79.7%) reported "initiation and/or advice" smoking cessation interventions than male physicians who were smokers (71.2%) and non-smokers (71.6%). Factors significantly associated with "initiation and/or advice" were prior smoking cessation training (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-9.6) and lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) among male physicians who smoked; and organisational support (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) and successful past experience (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) among male physicians who did not smoke. Among female physicians who did not smoke, significant factors were agreeing that quitting smoking is the most cost-effective way to prevent chronic disease and cancer (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.1), helping patients stop smoking is part of expected role and responsibility (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) and organisational support (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) for non-smoking female physicians. This study is the first to show that male physicians were less likely to provide smoking cessation counselling regardless of their smoking status while non-smoking female physicians were more active in advising patients on quitting. The findings highlight the need for developing

  4. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steven C; Pokorny, Steven B; Schroeder, Darrell R; Tan, Winston; Werch, Chudley E

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. The primary aim of this investigation was to complete a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of an integrated intervention that targets both cigarette smoking and binge drinking on the cigarette smoking and binge behavior of young adults at 6-month follow-up. Participants were 95 young adult (M=24.3; SD=3.5 years) smokers (≥1 cigarettes per day) who binge drink (≥1 time per month) and who were randomly assigned to standard treatment (n=47) involving six individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (integrated intervention; n=48). Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both 3 month end of treatment and 6 month follow-up, more participants who received integrated intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received standard treatment at 3 months (19% vs. 9%, p=0.06) and 6 months (21% vs. 9%, p=0.05). At 6 months, participants who completed the study and who received integrated intervention consumed fewer drinks per month (psmoking cessation and reduces binge drinking compared to standard treatment.

  5. Self-reported smoking cessation interventions among dental practitioners: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes and practices of dentists toward smoking cessation intervention (SCI; to identify the barriers that prevent them from advising their patients to quit smoking and to determine the level of interest in future training in smoking cessation. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all (122 dentists practicing in private sectors in the Emirate of Ajman, United Arab Emirates. The questionnaire was personally administered, and the dental practitioners were given explanations regarding how to complete it. Only descriptive statistics was calculated. Results: More than half of the respondents (55% inquired about their patients smoking status, whereas 40% of the dentists documented it. The most common barrier cited by the respondents was the lack of training and preparation in the smoking cessation techniques, followed by lack of availability of educational material. Almost three-quarters of the respondent were interested in further training in SCI; being provided to them through full-day training course. Conclusions: Dentists require more access to appropriate forms of training in the SCI and more support needed to enable the dentist to help their patient to quit the habit. Providing training program to the dental practitioners in the United Arab Emirates to equip them with the required skill to deliver SCI would be highly beneficial.

  6. Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

  7. Empowering smokers with a web-assisted tobacco intervention to use prescription smoking cessation medications: a feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Peter; Hussain, Sarwar; Voci, Sabrina; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Background Varenicline and bupropion, efficacious smoking cessation medications, have had suboptimal impact due to barriers at the patient, practitioner and system level. This study explored the feasibility of a web-assisted tobacco intervention offering free prescription smoking cessation medication by mail if the smoker visited a physician for authorization. Methods Adult Ontarians, smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily, intending to quit within 30 days, with no contraindications to bupropio...

  8. Application of a CBPR Framework to Inform a Multi-level Tobacco Cessation Intervention in Public Housing Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Tingen, Martha S.; Jarriel, Stacey Crawford; Caleb, Maudesta; Simmons, Alisha; Brunson, Juanita; Mueller, Martina; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Newman, Susan D.; Cox, Melissa J.; Magwood, Gayenell; Hurman, Christina

    2012-01-01

    African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional “outsider driven” interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation in...

  9. Making the journey with me:a qualitative study of experiences of a bespoke mental health smoking cessation intervention for service users with serious mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Sarah; Planner, Claire; Bradshaw, Tim; Peckham, Emily; Man, Mei-See; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors contributing to early mortality for people with serious mental illness. However, only a minority of service users access smoking cessation interventions and there are concerns about the appropriateness of generic stop-smoking services for this group. The SCIMITAR (Smoking Cessation Intervention for Severe Mental Ill-Health Trial) feasibility study explored the effectiveness of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention delivered by...

  10. RCT of a client-centred, caseworker-delivered smoking cessation intervention for a socially disadvantaged population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged groups are an important target for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking rates are markedly higher among severely socially disadvantaged groups such as indigenous people, the homeless, people with a mental illness or drug and alcohol addiction, and the unemployed than in the general population. This proposal aims to evaluate the efficacy of a client-centred, caseworker delivered cessation support intervention at increasing validated self reported smoking cessation rates in a socially disadvantaged population. Methods/Design A block randomised controlled trial will be conducted. The setting will be a non-government organisation, Community Care Centre located in New South Wales, Australia which provides emergency relief and counselling services to predominantly government income assistance recipients. Eligible clients identified as smokers during a baseline touch screen computer survey will be recruited and randomised by a trained research assistant located in the waiting area. Allocation to intervention or control groups will be determined by time periods with clients randomised in one-week blocks. Intervention group clients will receive an intensive client-centred smoking cessation intervention offered by the caseworker over two face-to-face and two telephone contacts. There will be two primary outcome measures obtained at one, six, and 12 month follow-up: 1 24-hour expired air CO validated self-reported smoking cessation and 2 7-day self-reported smoking cessation. Continuous abstinence will also be measured at six and 12 months follow up. Discussion This study will generate new knowledge in an area where the current information regarding the most effective smoking cessation approaches with disadvantaged groups is limited. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN85202510

  11. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  13. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation:A review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

    OpenAIRE

    West, Robert; Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester-George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Methods: Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health-care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage-point increases relative t...

  14. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

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    Lisa M. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012 and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment.

  15. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Paul; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men’s use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. Methods A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. Results At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men’s health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend Quit

  16. Diagnóstico y tratamiento psicosocial del tabaquismo Smoking cessation: Diagnosis and psychosocial intervention

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    SERGIO BELLO S

    2009-01-01

    . The current treatment of smoking has two pillars: psycho-social intervention and pharmacological therapy. The current interventions are based on two theoretical models that try to understand changes of smoking behavior: The Stages of Change and PRIME Theory. Brief intervention is a strategy internationally approved because of its population impact on smoking cessation. The methodology used is named "5A's": Ask, Advise, Asses, Assist and Arrange follow-up. For not motivated patients at the intervention time it can be used the "5R 's" methodology: Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks and Repetition. The actual approach used in smokers management, is Motivational Interview, which tries to produce the behavioral change from inside and not imposing it. Its four tools are: express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance and support self efficacy. The useful psychosocial strategies, in which exists consensus, are: 1 Give practical counseling of problem solving and skills training to face risky situations; 2 Intra-treatment support, encouraging attempts of smoking cessation and communicate caring and concern.

  17. Diffusion of an Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Through Facebook: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K.; Jacobs, Megan A.; Wileyto, Paul; Valente, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the diffusion of an evidence-based smoking cessation application (“app”) through Facebook social networks and identify specific intervention components that accelerate diffusion. Methods. Between December 2012 and October 2013, we recruited adult US smokers (“seeds”) via Facebook advertising and randomized them to 1 of 12 app variants using a factorial design. App variants targeted components of diffusion: duration of use (t), “contagiousness” (β), and number of contacts (Z). The primary outcome was the reproductive ratio (R), defined as the number of individuals installing the app (“descendants”) divided by the number of a seed participant’s Facebook friends. Results. We randomized 9042 smokers. App utilization metrics demonstrated between-variant differences in expected directions. The highest level of diffusion (R = 0.087) occurred when we combined active contagion strategies with strategies to increase duration of use (incidence rate ratio = 9.99; 95% confidence interval = 5.58, 17.91; P < .001). Involving nonsmokers did not affect diffusion. Conclusions. The maximal R value (0.087) is sufficient to increase the numbers of individuals receiving treatment if applied on a large scale. Online interventions can be designed a priori to spread through social networks. PMID:27077358

  18. Effectiveness of dentist’s intervention in smoking cessation: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Omaña Cepeda, Carlos; Jane Salas, Enric; Estrugo Devesa, Albert; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; López López, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is one of the main public health problems in developed countries. Despite extensive evidence on the effects of smoking on both oral and general health, the rate of smoking cessation is not promising. Material and Methods To review the evidence on knowledge and programs for smoking cessation developed by dentists, a literature review was carried out on programs for smoking cessation from the dentist’s perspective, as well as a review of behavioral guidelines that have been...

  19. Influence of dental education in motivational interviewing on the efficacy of interventions for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schoonheim-Klein; C. Gresnigt; U. van der Velden

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2 ye

  20. A Randomized Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women at a WIC Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates a randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers at the Kent County Health Department in Grand Rapids, (Michigan). Results indicate larger quit rates amongst program participants than those in the usual care group. Suggests that smoking cessation programs for low-income pregnant WIC clients are…

  1. The SCIDOTS Project: Evidence of benefits of an integrated tobacco cessation intervention in tuberculosis care on treatment outcomes

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    Syed Sulaiman Syed Azhar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence to support the association between tuberculosis (TB and tobacco smoking and that the smoking-related immunological abnormalities in TB are reversible within six weeks of cessation. Therefore, connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions may produce significant benefits and positively impact TB treatment outcomes. However, no study has extensively documented the evidence of benefits of such integration. SCIDOTS Project is a study from the context of a developing nation aimed to determine this. Methods An integrated TB-tobacco intervention was provided by trained TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS providers at five chest clinics in Malaysia. The study was a prospective non-randomized controlled intervention using quasi-experimental design. Using Transtheoretical Model approach, 120 eligible participants who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis were assigned to either of two treatment groups: conventional TB DOTS plus smoking cessation intervention (integrated intervention or SCIDOTS group or conventional TB DOTS alone (comparison or DOTS group. At baseline, newly diagnosed TB patients considering quitting smoking within the next 30 days were placed in the integrated intervention group, while those who were contemplating quitting were assigned to the comparison group. Eleven sessions of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy with or without nicotine replacement therapy were provided to each participant in the integrated intervention group. The impacts of the novel approach on biochemically validated smoking cessation and TB treatment outcomes were measured periodically as appropriate. Results A linear effect on both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and continuous abstinence was observed over time in the intervention group. At the end of 6 months, patients who received the integrated intervention had significantly higher rate of success in quitting smoking when

  2. A review of strategies to stimulate dental professionals to integrate smoking cessation interventions into primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of various implementation strategies to stimulate the delivery of smoking cessation advice and support during daily dental care. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Search of online medical and psychological databases, correspondence with authors and c

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Smoking Cessation Interventions in Japan Using a Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Ataru; Goto,Rei; Suwa, Kiyomi; Yoshikawa, Reiko; Ward, Alexandra J; Moller, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation medications have been shown to yield higher success rates and sustained abstinence than unassisted quit attempts. In Japan, the treatments available include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and varenicline; however, unassisted attempts to quit smoking remain common. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the health and economic consequences in Japan of using pharmacotherapy to support smoking cessation with unassisted attempts and the current mix o...

  4. Effectiveness of Non-Primary Care-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070

  5. Web-based smoking cessation intervention that transitions from inpatient to outpatient: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington Kathleen F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E-health tools are a new mechanism to expand patient care, allowing supplemental resources to usual care, including enhanced patient-provider communication. These applications to smoking cessation have yet to be tested in a hospitalized patient sample. This project aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored web-based and e-message smoking cessation program for current smokers that, upon hospital discharge, transitions the patient to continue a quit attempt when home (Decide2Quit. Design A randomized two-arm follow-up design will test the effectiveness of an evidence- and theoretically-based smoking cessation program designed for post-hospitalization. Methods A total of 1,488 patients aged 19 or older, who smoked cigarettes in the previous 30 days, are being recruited from 27 patient care areas of a large urban university hospital. Study-eligible hospitalized patients receiving usual tobacco cessation usual care are offered study referral. Trained hospital staff assist the 744 patients who are being randomized to the intervention arm with registration and orientation to the intervention website. This e-mail and web-based program offers tailored messages as well as education, self-assessment and planning aids, and social support to promote tobacco use cessation. Condition-blind study staff assess participants for tobacco use history and behaviors, tobacco use cost-related information, co-morbidities and psychosocial factors at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported 30-day tobacco abstinence at 6 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes include 7-day point prevalence quit rates at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, 30-day point prevalence quit rates at 3 and 12 months, biologically confirmed tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up, and multiple point-prevalence quit rates based on self-reported tobacco abstinence rates at each follow-up time period. Healthcare utilization and quality

  6. Intervention to assess and improve the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in brief counseling for smoking cessation: The B.O.A.T program (Brief Opportunistic Advice Training Program for smoking cessation

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    Konstantina Kikkini-Paschou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care professionals can contribute to controlling the epidemic of smoking by applying brief counseling for smoking cessation in clinical practice. Purpose: The program B.O.A.T was implemented to increase knowledge and enhance health professionals’ attitudes on the brief counseling for smoking cessation. The purpose of the intervention was to enforce participants' intention to implement counseling. Material and Method: The research project was a pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. The sample consisted of 33 health professionals of various specialties. The intervention consisted of a two-hour training course and distribution of printed material. Attitudes, subjective norm, perceived control and intention of health professionals were measured, regarding the counseling in smoking cessation. Results: Statistical analysis showed an increase of perceived control in the experimental group (p = 0.031 and increase of its intention to implement smoking cessation counseling compared to the comparison group (p = 0.003. There was no difference between and within groups before and after the intervention for the variables of attitudes and subjective norm. The evaluation also showed an increase of knowledge in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study reinforces the current literature which supports that training health professionals on smoking cessation counseling can be effective. The theoretical background turns out to be important. In the future more time and resources should be invested to increase effectiveness and efficiency of such programs.

  7. A teachable moment communication process for smoking cessation talk: description of a group randomized clinician-focused intervention

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    Flocke Susan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments

  8. User Preferences for a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C.; Heron, Kristin E.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Magee, Joshua C.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants ("N" = 21, "M" age = 25.6…

  9. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. PMID:26454232

  10. Participant-level meta-analysis of mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation across different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Jiang, Yannan; Free, Caroline; Abroms, Lorien C; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-08-01

    With meta-analysis, participant-level data from five text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention studies were pooled to investigate cessation patterns across studies and participants. Individual participant data (N=8315) collected in New Zealand (2001-2003; n=1705), U.K. (2008-2009; n=5792), U.S. (2012; n=503; n=164) and Turkey (2012; n=151) were collectively analyzed in 2014. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day continuous abstinence at 4weeks post-quit day. Secondary outcomes were: (1) self-reported 7-day continuous abstinence at 3months and (2) self-reported continuous abstinence at 6months post-quit day. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to estimate the overall treatment effect, while accounting for clustering within individual studies. Estimates were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, previous quit attempts, and baseline Fagerstrom score. Analyses were intention to treat. Participants lost to follow-up were treated as smokers. Twenty-nine percent of intervention participants and 12% of control participants quit smoking at 4weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.89, 95% CI [2.57, 3.26], pcost and scalable programs, along with ongoing evaluation, appear warranted. PMID:27154349

  11. Speed of engagement with support generated by a smoking cessation smartphone Just In Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI

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    Felix Naughton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: An advantage of the high portability and sensing capabilities of smartphones is the potential for health apps to deliver advice and support to individuals close in time to when it is deemed of greatest relevance and impact, often referred to as Just In Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAI. However, little research has been undertaken to explore the viability of JITAI in terms of how long it takes users to engage with support triggered by real time data input, compared to scheduled support, and whether context affects response. This paper is focused on Q Sense, a smoking cessation app developed to deliver both Just in Time and scheduled support messages (every morning during a smoker’s quit attempt. The Just in Time cessation support generated by Q Sense is triggered by and tailored to real time context using location sensing. Objectives: To assess: 1 the time to engage with the app after a Just in Time support notification is delivered and whether this is influenced by the context in which the notification was initially delivered, 2 whether the time to engage with the app differs between Just in Time support notifications and scheduled support message notifications and 3 whether findings from objectives 1 and 2 differ between smokers receiving or not receiving NHS smoking cessation support. Methods: Data are from two studies evaluating the use of Q Sense: a feasibility study using an opportunity sample of smokers initiating a quit attempt with Q Sense without NHS cessation support (N=15 and an ongoing acceptability study of smokers receiving NHS smoking cessation support alongside app use (target N=40, recruitment due to be completed end of November 2015. Time elapse between notification generation and the user opening the app will be calculated and compared between message types (Just in Time vs. scheduled messages, contexts (home, work, socialising, other and samples (receiving or not receiving NHS cessation support using t

  12. Changes in risk perception following a smoking cessation intervention: the role of acculturation in a sample of Latino caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Busch, Andrew M; Dunsiger, Shira I; Chiang, Karl S; Borrelli, Belinda

    2014-10-01

    The present exploratory study examined the role of acculturation in the perception of the risks of smoking following a smoking cessation induction intervention among Latino caregivers of children with asthma. The sample consisted of 131 Latino smokers (72.9% female; 18.3% born in the U.S.) who were caregivers of a child with asthma. Caregivers were randomized to one of two smoking cessation interventions that were part of a home-based asthma program. Self-report measures of risk-perception were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 months after baseline), and 2- and 3-months post-treatment. At baseline, caregivers, regardless of level of acculturation, reported moderate to high levels of concern about the effects of secondhand smoke on their child's health as well as perceived risk regarding the effect of smoking on their own health. However, caregivers who were low in acculturation had a greater increase in concern about the effects of smoking on their child from pre-to post treatment compared to those who were high in acculturation (p = .001). Lastly, level of acculturation moderated the association between caregivers' concern about smoking on their child's health and their motivation to quit smoking (p .05). Specifically, motivation to quit at 3 months was greater for those with low acculturation. Though exploratory, these findings suggest that risk perception may be more easily influenced in low versus high acculturated populations and this should be considered in the design of clinical interventions and potentially mass media campaigns seeking to influence risk of caregiver behavior on child health with ethnic and racial minorities.

  13. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S; Godfrey, C

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  14. Smoking cessation interventions within the context of Low-Dose Computed Tomography lung cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Simmons, Vani N; Palmer, Amanda M; Correa, John B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2016-08-01

    The integration of smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) within the context of lung cancer screening programs is strongly recommended by screening guidelines, and is a requirement for Medicare coverage of screening in the US. In Europe, there are no lung cancer screening guidelines, however, research trials are ongoing, and prominent professional societies have begun to recommend lung cancer screening. Little is known about the types and efficacy of SCIs among patients receiving low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. This review addresses this gap. Based on a systematic search, we identified six empirical studies published prior to July 1, 2015, that met inclusion criteria for our review: English language, SCI for LDCT patients, and reported smoking-related outcomes. Three randomized studies and three single-arm studies were identified. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated self-help SCIs, whereas one pilot RCT evaluated the timing (before or after the LDCT scan) of a combined (counseling and pharmacotherapy) SCI. Among the single-arm trials, two observational studies evaluated the efficacy of combined SCI, and one retrospectively assessed the efficacy of clinician-delivered smoking assessment, advice, and assistance. Given the limited research to date, and particularly the lack of studies reporting results from RCTs, assumptions that SCIs would be effective among this population should be made with caution. Findings from this review suggest that participation in a lung screening trial promotes smoking cessation and may represent a teachable moment to quit smoking. Findings also suggest that providers can take advantage of this potentially teachable moment, and that SCIs have been successfully implemented in screening settings. Continued systematic and methodologically sound research in this area will help improve the knowledge base and implementation of interventions for this population of smokers at risk for chronic disease. PMID:27393513

  15. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

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    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  16. Randomized controlled trial examining the adjunctive use of nicotine lozenges with MyLastDip: An eHealth smokeless tobacco cessation intervention

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    Brian G. Danaher

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with previous research, the MyLastDip Web-based tobacco cessation intervention encouraged long-term levels of tobacco and smokeless tobacco abstinence. The addition of nicotine lozenges significantly improved both participant engagement and self-reported 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 3 months and when considering 3- and 6-month repeated point prevalence tobacco abstinence.

  17. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

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    Ford Daniel E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group. Methods The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website. We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Discussion Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation. Trial Registration Web-delivered Provider Intervention for

  18. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA

    2005-01-01

    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  19. Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M; Lightwood, James M; Humfleet, Gary L; Bostrom, Alan; Reus, Victor I; Muñoz, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Sustained-release bupropion and nortriptyline have been shown to be efficacious in treating cigarette smoking. Psychological intervention is also recognized as efficacious. The cost and cost-effectiveness of the 2 drug therapies have not been estimated. It was hypothesized that nortriptyline would be more cost-effective than bupropion. Hypotheses were not originally proposed concerning the cost-effectiveness of psychological versus drug treatment, but the 2 were compared using exploratory analyses. This was a 3 (bupropion versus nortriptyline versus placebo) by 2 (medical management alone versus medical management plus psychological intervention) randomized trial. Participants were 220 cigarette smokers. Outcome measures were cost and cost-effectiveness computed at week 52. Nortriptyline cost less than bupropion. Nortriptyline was more cost-effective than bupropion; the difference was not statistically significant. Psychological intervention cost less than the 2 drug treatments, and was more cost-effective, but not significantly so. Prospective investigations of the cost and cost-effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological intervention, using adequate sample sizes, are warranted. PMID:16215448

  20. Efficacy of a Brief Intervention to Improve Emergency Physicians' Smoking Cessation Counseling Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Cabral, Lisa; Cydulka, Rita K.; Schwegman, David; Larkin, Gregory L.; Adams, Annette L.; McCullough, Lynne B.; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether a brief educational/administrative intervention could increase tobacco counseling by emergency physicians (EPs). Pre-/post-study at eight emergency departments (EDs) with residency programs were carried out. EPs received a 1-hour lecture on the health effects of smoking and strategies to counsel…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sharon M.; Lightwood, James M; Humfleet, Gary L.; Bostrom, Alan; Victor I. Reus; Muñoz, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Sustained-release bupropion and nortriptyline have been shown to be efficacious in treating cigarette smoking. Psychological intervention is also recognized as efficacious. The cost and cost-effectiveness of the 2 drug therapies have not been estimated. It was hypothesized that nortriptyline would be more cost-effective than bupropion. Hypotheses were not originally proposed concerning the cost-effectiveness of psychological versus drug treatment, but the 2 were compared using exploratory ana...

  2. Effectiveness of training health professionals to provide smoking cessation interventions: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Silagy, C; Lancaster, T.; Gray, S.; Fowler, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effectiveness of interventions that train healthcare professionals in methods for improving the quality of care delivered to patients who smoke. DESIGN--Systematic literature review. SETTING--Primary care medical and dental practices in the United States and Canada. Patients were recruited opportunistically. SUBJECTS--878 healthcare professionals and 11,228 patients who smoked and were identified in eight randomised controlled trials. In each of these trials healthcar...

  3. Smoking cessation, physicians, and medical office staff. Clinical tobacco intervention in Prince Edward Island.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, M S; Coambs, R. B.; Jensen, P.; Balderston, M.; MacKenzie, D; Kothari, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and self-reported behaviours of physicians and medical office staff in Prince Edward Island concerning clinical tobacco intervention (CTI). DESIGN: Mail survey of PEI primary care physicians and their medical office staff. Most surveys were not mailed back but picked up in person by research staff. SETTING: Primary care settings in PEI. PARTICIPANTS: All active primary care physicians in PEI identified in the Canadian Medical Association database and medical off...

  4. Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien Jon; Paul Christine; Bonevski Billie; Bryant Jamie; Oakes Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO) are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible interventions appro...

  5. Does Effectiveness of Adolescent Smoking-Cessation Intervention Endure Into Young Adulthood? 7-Year Follow-Up Results from a Group-Randomized Trial.

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    Arthur V Peterson

    Full Text Available The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking was the first randomized trial to show effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention on 6-months prolonged smoking abstinence at one year post-intervention in a large population-based sample of adolescent smokers. An important question remains: Do the positive effects from teen smoking cessation interventions seen at up to 12 months post-intervention endure into young adulthood? This study examines for the first time whether such positive early effects from teen smoking cessation intervention can endure into young adulthood in the absence of additional intervention.High school smokers (n = 2,151 were proactively recruited into the trial from fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools randomized to the experimental (Motivational Interviewing + Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training telephone counseling intervention or control (no intervention condition. These smokers were followed to 7 years post high school to ascertain rates of six-year prolonged smoking abstinence in young adulthood. All statistical tests are two-sided.No evidence of intervention impact at seven years post high school was observed for the main endpoint of six-year prolonged abstinence, neither among all smokers (14.2% in the experimental condition vs. 13.1% in the control condition, difference = +1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI = -3.4 to 5.8, p = .61, nor among the subgroups of daily smokers and less-than-daily smokers, nor among other a priori subgroups. But, observed among males was some evidence of an intervention impact on two endpoints related to progress towards quitting: reduction in number of days smoked in the past month, and increase in the length of the longest quit attempt in the past year.There was no evidence from this trial among adolescent smokers that positive effectiveness of the proactive telephone intervention for smoking abstinence, observed previously at one year post-intervention, was sustained

  6. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach - 'prevention is better than cure' - would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would help in

  7. Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden – a randomized trial

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    Rosenblad Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is still the number one life style risk factor for ill health and premature death and also one of the major contributors to oral problems and diseases. Dentistry may be a potential setting for several aspects of clinical public health interventions and there is a growing interest in several countries to develop tobacco cessation support in dentistry setting. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative effectiveness of a high intensity intervention compared with a low intensity intervention for smoking cessation support in a dental clinic setting. Methods 300 smokers attending dental or general health care were randomly assigned to two arms and referred to the local dental clinic for smoking cessation support. One arm received support with low intensity treatment (LIT, whereas the other group was assigned to high intensity treatment (HIT support. The main outcome measures included self-reported point prevalence and continuous abstinence (≥ 183 days at the 12-month follow-up. Results Follow-up questionnaires were returned from 86% of the participants. People in the HIT-arm were twice as likely to report continuous abstinence compared with the LIT-arm (18% vs. 9%, p = 0.02. There was a difference (not significant between the arms in point prevalence abstinence in favour of the HIT-protocol (23% vs. 16%. However, point prevalence cessation rates in the LIT-arm reporting additional support were relatively high (23% compared with available data assessing abstinence in smokers trying to quit without professional support. Conclusion Screening for willingness to quit smoking within the health care system and offering smoking cessation support within dentistry may be an effective model for smoking cessation support in Sweden. The LIT approach is less expensive and time consuming and may be appropriate as a first treatment option, but should be integrated with other forms of available support in the community. The

  8. Effectiveness of a web-based self-help smoking cessation intervention: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Willemsen, M.C.; Conijn, B.; Emst, van A.J.; Brunsting, S.; Riper, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for many chronic and fatal illnesses. Stopping smoking directly reduces those risks. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a web-based interactive self-help programme for smoking cessation, known as the StopSite, by comparin

  9. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

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    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  10. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  11. Smoking cessation and COPD

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    Philip Tønnesen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5–10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD.

  12. Acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management intervention for smoking cessation: views of smokers, nonsmokers, and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R; Jarvis, Brantley P; Turturici, Marissa; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-06-01

    The acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management (CM) intervention for cigarette smoking was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants (46% female) completed an Internet-based CM intervention and then answered questions about the intervention. Experiment 2 assessed the acceptability of the intervention among potential treatment users who had never used the intervention, (smokers, n = 164, 52% female), nonsmokers (n = 166, 73% female), and health-care providers (n = 139, 63% female). Participants in Experiment 2 were randomly assigned to either watch a video describing the standard CM intervention (no-deposit group) or to watch a video about the standard intervention plus a deposit incentive (deposit group). Overall, results of both experiments indicated high acceptability across all dimensions of the intervention. In Experiment 1, 74% (n = 26 of participants in the treatment group) of participants said they would use it if they needed to quit, as well as 92% (n = 150 among smokers) of those in Experiment 2. Of the health-care providers, 81% (n = 113) reported that they would be very likely to recommend the intervention to patients. Participants in both experiments reported that monitoring their progress and earning vouchers were strengths of the intervention. The no-deposit group rated voucher earnings, cash earnings, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention higher than the deposit group. Health-care professionals did not differ in their ratings across video conditions. Overall, the results suggest that Internet-based CM is acceptable as a method to help people quit smoking.

  13. Acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management intervention for smoking cessation: views of smokers, nonsmokers, and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R; Jarvis, Brantley P; Turturici, Marissa; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-06-01

    The acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management (CM) intervention for cigarette smoking was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants (46% female) completed an Internet-based CM intervention and then answered questions about the intervention. Experiment 2 assessed the acceptability of the intervention among potential treatment users who had never used the intervention, (smokers, n = 164, 52% female), nonsmokers (n = 166, 73% female), and health-care providers (n = 139, 63% female). Participants in Experiment 2 were randomly assigned to either watch a video describing the standard CM intervention (no-deposit group) or to watch a video about the standard intervention plus a deposit incentive (deposit group). Overall, results of both experiments indicated high acceptability across all dimensions of the intervention. In Experiment 1, 74% (n = 26 of participants in the treatment group) of participants said they would use it if they needed to quit, as well as 92% (n = 150 among smokers) of those in Experiment 2. Of the health-care providers, 81% (n = 113) reported that they would be very likely to recommend the intervention to patients. Participants in both experiments reported that monitoring their progress and earning vouchers were strengths of the intervention. The no-deposit group rated voucher earnings, cash earnings, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention higher than the deposit group. Health-care professionals did not differ in their ratings across video conditions. Overall, the results suggest that Internet-based CM is acceptable as a method to help people quit smoking. PMID:23750691

  14. At the Crossroads: Development and Evaluation of a Dementia Caregiver Group Intervention to Assist in Driving Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert A.; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A.; Mohyde, Maureen; Carruth, Anastasia; Tracton-Bishop, Beth; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Coughlin, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Deciding when an individual with dementia must reduce or stop driving can be a stressful issue for family caregivers. The purpose of this study was to develop a group intervention to assist these caregivers with driving issues and to provide a preliminary evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of this At the Crossroads intervention.…

  15. Minimal-Intervention on smoking cessation: a Meta-analysis%简短戒烟干预研究的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蕾; 姜斌; 曾静; 何耀

    2015-01-01

    目的 采用Meta分析评价简短戒烟干预的有效性.方法 计算机检索2000年1月至2014年9月中外生物医学数据库(The Cochrane Library、Medline、EMbase、中文期刊全文数据库、万方电子期刊数据库、维普中文科技期刊数据库和中国生物医学文献数据库)中有关简短戒烟干预随机对照试验,采用Revman 5.1软件进行Meta分析.结果 最终纳入9篇文献,随机效应模型合并RR值(95%CI)=1.57(1.01 ~ 2.44).与未进行干预的吸烟者相比,接受了简短戒烟干预的吸烟者,其戒烟的可能性提高了57%.研究对象为孕妇和就诊患者,干预时间≤10 min的亚组更易戒烟,但各亚组分析结果之间的差异均无统计学意义.结论 简短戒烟干预可提高戒烟率,但该结论尚需纳入更多高质量大样本的随机对照试验加以证实.%Objective To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Minimal Smoking Cessation Intervention Program (MSCIP) and to provide theoretical basis for the feasibility of implementation in China.Methods Systematically,we searched data from studies published between January,2000 and September,2014 on the database that including Cochrane Library,Medline,EMbase,CNKI,Wanfang,Vip,etc.Studies related to MSCIP were designed by random controlled trials.Meta analysis was performed by Revman 5.1.Results Nine studies were included,with the Random-Effect Model Relative Risk as 1.57 (1.01-2.44),which indicated that the probability of being tobacco abstinent had increased by 57% in the treating group than in the control group.Participants who developed other diseases,being pregnant or the time of receiving intervention messages ≤ 10 minutes,were more likely to quit the program.There were no significant statistically differences noticed between the different subgroups.Conclusion Minimal smoking cessation intervention increased cessation rates,RCTs with a larger sample size are needed to draw the related conclusions.

  16. Online Advertising as a Public Health and Recruitment Tool: Comparison of Different Media Campaigns to Increase Demand for Smoking Cessation Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Amanda L.; Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E.; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the overall impact (reach × efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently s...

  17. Update on Smoking Cessation: E-Cigarettes, Emerging Tobacco Products Trends, and New Technology-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Smita; Tonelli, Makenzie; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use disorders (TUDs) continue to be overly represented in patients treated in mental health and addiction treatment settings. It is the most common substance use disorder (SUD) and the leading cause of health disparities and increased morbidity/mortality amongst individuals with a psychiatric disorder. There are seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications and excellent evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions to use in TUD treatment. In the past few years, access to and use of other tobacco or nicotine emerging products are on the rise, including the highly publicized electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). There has also been a proliferation of technology-based interventions to support standard TUD treatment, including mobile apps and web-based interventions. These tools are easily accessed 24/7 to support outpatient treatment. This update will review the emerging products and counter-measure intervention technologies, including how clinicians can integrate these tools and other community-based resources into their practice. PMID:27040275

  18. Does tailoring really make a difference? : the development and evaluation of tailored interventions aimed at benzodiazepine cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, Geeske Brecht ten

    2008-01-01

    Because of the problems associated with chronic benzodiazepine use, there is impetus to prevent and reduce chronic benzodiazepine use. The overall aim was to develop a 'tailor-made' intervention in order to reduce chronic use. Before developing tailored patient education, it is first of all importan

  19. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  20. Speed of engagement with support generated by a smoking cessation smartphone Just In Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI)

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Naughton

    2015-01-01

    Background: An advantage of the high portability and sensing capabilities of smartphones is the potential for health apps to deliver advice and support to individuals close in time to when it is deemed of greatest relevance and impact, often referred to as Just In Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAI). However, little research has been undertaken to explore the viability of JITAI in terms of how long it takes users to engage with support triggered by real time data input, compared to scheduled ...

  1. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H;

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... that in COPD patients, pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling is more effective than each strategy separately. Neither the intensity of counselling nor the type of anti-smoking drug made a difference....

  2. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  3. Age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to three population-level tobacco control interventions: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Nagelhout; M.R. Crone; B. van den Putte; M.C. Willemsen; G.T. Fong; H. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International To

  4. [Smoking cessation for COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, Reiko

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent the annual decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All primary healthcare providers should routinely ask all patients whether tobacco use is active or not, and advise tobacco users to stop smoking. In Japan a treatment of nicotine addiction with varenicline or nicotine patch has been started under health insurance coverage since 2006. About half of the patients taking varenicline could stop smoking. Education on the health risks of smoking in schools for younger ages is essential for prevention of COPD. PMID:27254947

  5. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis.

  6. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial...

  7. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Anthony L.; Yuan Ming Di; Christopher Worsnop; Brian H. May; Cliff Da Costa; Xue, Charlie C.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP) as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP) or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP) intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were fol...

  8. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M;

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  9. 手机戒烟干预和网络戒烟干预的国际进展研究%Domestic and International Progress of Mobile Phone-based and Web-based Smoking Cessation Interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立立; 王燕玲; 姜垣

    2011-01-01

    提供戒烟帮助是控烟工作的重点之一.该文对国际上新显现的手机戒烟干预和网络戒烟干预的发展进行了总结,以期为我国的控烟工作提供借鉴支持.手机和网络戒烟干预方式的共同优势在于:无时间和地域性的限制,范围更广;规避了有些人不愿意面对面交流的忧虑,保护了咨询者的隐私;成本相对较低.二者在可及性、沟通效果、成本效益等方面则各有利弊.%Providing smoking cessation assistance is a key way in tobacco control practice. This paper summarized the progress of mobile phone-based and web-based smoking cessation interventions newly emerged around internationally, which could be experience for China. The mutual advantages of these two ways of interventions were: no time limitation and as well as geography; no necessary of face to face communication for the sake of privacy; and high cost-effective ratio. Meanwhile, the two ways of interventions are different in accessibility, communication effect, and cost, etc.

  10. Influence of Recruitment Strategy on the Reach and Effect of a Web-Based Multiple Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention among Dutch Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Eline Suzanne; Hoving, Ciska; Cox, Vincent Cornelis Maria; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different recruitment strategies on the reach and effect of a web-based multiple tailored smoking cessation program. From May 2009 until June 2010, Dutch adult smokers were recruited via mass media or general practices. Those who completed the baseline questionnaire were followed up during 6 weeks (two…

  11. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  12. A study of smoking and smoking cessation on the curricula of UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Roddy, E; Rubin, P.; Britton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify current practice in teaching on smoking and smoking cessation in UK medical schools, and establish whether newly qualified UK doctors feel prepared to deliver smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  14. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  15. Intervenciones de consejería para la cesación de la adicción al tabaco: revisión sistemática de la literatura Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Alba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar los resultados de una revisión sistemática de la literatura médica sobre eficacia y seguridad de la consejería para cesación del tabaquismo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se siguió la metodología ADAPTE buscando guías de práctica clínica (GPC en Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS y Cochrane. Mediante DELBI se seleccionaron GPC con puntaje mayor a 60 en rigor metodológico y aplicabilidad. Se evaluó la cesación a seis meses según proveedor, modelo y formato de consejería. De 925 referencias se seleccionaron cinco GPC que incluyen 44 revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis. RESULTADOS La consejería breve por médicos y la intensiva por profesionales capacitados (individual, grupal, telefónica proactiva son eficaces con incremento en la abstinencia de 2.1 a 17.4%. Únicamente el consejo práctico y la entrevista motivacional tienen eficacia en consejería intensiva. El efecto clínico es pequeño y la duración del efecto incierta. CONCLUSIÓN: Se requieren evaluaciones económicas para su implementación en programas de salud pública.OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and metaanalyses. RESULTS: Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking

  16. Indiana family physician attitudes and practices concerning smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, R M; Jay, S J; Lukas, P J; Casebeer, L L; Mybeck, K C; Parchman, M L; Haley, A J

    1996-01-01

    Most physicians are aware of the health benefits of smoking cessation and agree they have a responsibility to help smokers quit. Many physicians, however, do not regularly address smoking cessation with their patients. Questionnaires were sent to 2,095 family practice physicians in Indiana. Information obtained included: demographic data; office-based smoking cessation practices; counseling; and physicians' perceptions of intervention outcomes. Most physicians (86%) asked new patients if they smoked, and 23% questioned patients about their exposure to passive smoke. Younger physicians, female physicians and urban physicians were more likely to ask new patients if they smoked. A formal smoking cessation program was used by 28% of the responding physicians. Among those not using a program, 7% reported plans to implement one in the coming year, 40% were not planning to implement one, and 53% were unsure. Physician and practice characteristics were not correlated with the use of smoking cessation programs. Only 11% of physicians considered their smoking cessation counseling skills to be excellent; 27% indicated the need for improvement in skills. One-half (52%) believed their counseling efforts were effective; almost half (45%) believed that current reimbursement policies limited their involvement in smoking cessation interventions. Most respondents have not instituted smoking cessation programs in their practices. It is likely that a combination of strategies, including both undergraduate, graduate and continuing medical education programs and reform in reimbursement practices for cessation programs, will be required to achieve significant increases in long-term smoking abstinence rates.

  17. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  18. Brief preoperative smoking cessation counselling in relation to breast cancer surgery: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Samuelsen, Susanne;

    2009-01-01

    of cancer diagnosis was difficult for some women. They relapsed to smoking as an ingrown response to emotional distress. The smoking intervention heightened the women's awareness of their addiction to smoking; however, they expressed a need for prolonged smoking cessation support. For others, the smoking......: In newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, brief preoperative smoking intervention motivated smoking cessation. However, prolonged intervention, pre- and postoperatively, may more effectively support cessation in breast cancer patients and should therefore be evaluated in this patient population....

  19. Efficacy and use of an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle intervention, targeting saturated fat intake, physical activity and smoking cessation : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; Dijkstra, Arie; de Weerdt, Inge; de Vries, Hein

    2008-01-01

    Background Although experts claim that computer-tailored interventions provided over the Internet have great potential to promote health behavior change, few studies have tested the efficacy of computer-tailored lifestyle interventions online-delivered over the Internet. Purpose To evaluate the shor

  20. Engagement and attrition in Internet smoking cessation interventions: Insights from a cross-sectional survey of “one-hit-wonders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie E. Saul

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: One third of participants that had disengaged from an Internet intervention reported abstinence at follow-up, suggesting that low levels of engagement are not synonymous with treatment failure in all cases. Paid incentives above $25 may be needed to elicit survey responses, especially among those with longer intervals of disengagement from an intervention.

  1. 不同干预措施对战士吸烟行为的影响%Effects of psychological intervention, auricular acupuncture and smoking cessation medication on cigarette smoking behavior in soldiers: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜斌; 左芳; 吴蕾; 何耀; 陈肇始; 郑家强; 林大庆

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of different smoking cessation interventions on cigarette consumption for young soldiers.Methods Sixty-eight soldiers were prospectively investigated in this randomly controlled clinical trial and assigned to the psychological intervention group,auricular acupuncture group,and smoking cessation medication group.Results All the participants showed significant reduction(33.3% to 73.9%)in post-treatment cigarette consumption.The highest quit rate was found at 7 days,although this declining trend was faded over time.One-year follow-up indicated a 6-month quit rate of 16.7%,23.8% and 30.4% in three groups,respectively.Conclusion Psychological intervention,auricular acupuncture and smoking cessation medication may be effective methods of reducing cigarette consumption and improving quit rate in young soldiers.%目的 探讨和评价不同的干预措施对集体生活年轻人群吸烟行为的影响.方法 将68名吸烟战士随机分为3组,分别采取心理干预、心理干预+耳针和心理干预+药物对其吸烟行为进行干预.采用统一问卷进行基线调查,在1、3、6个月和1年进行随访,观察不同随访时点吸烟量的减少和戒烟率.结果 三组研究对象可比性较好.在1、3、6个月随访时点,各组吸烟者的吸烟量均有不同程度的下降(33.3%~73.9%).在上述各随访时点,7d时点戒烟率均较高,而持续1个月的戒烟率和持续3个月的戒炯率有随时间下降的趋势.但3组1年随访时,持续6个月的戒烟率仍可达到16.7%、23.8%、30.4%.结论 集体管理生活环境中的戒烟心理干预是年轻战士吸烟量的减少和提高戒烟成功率的有效措施之一,药物和耳针等辅助戒烟方法的使用亦有一定的促进作用.

  2. Smoking Cessation: The Role of the Anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Amir; Chung, Frances; Wong, David T; Warner, David O; Wong, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Smoking increases the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Smoking cessation before surgery reduces the risk of complications. The perioperative period may be a "teachable moment" for smoking cessation and provides smokers an opportunity to engage in long-term smoking cessation. Anesthesiologists as the perioperative physicians are well-positioned to take the lead in this area and improve not only short-term surgical outcomes but also long-term health outcomes and costs. Preoperative interventions for tobacco use are effective to reduce postoperative complications and increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. If intensive interventions (counseling, pharmacotherapy, and follow-up) are impractical, brief interventions should be implemented in preoperative clinics as a routine practice. The "Ask, Advise, Connect" is a practical strategy to be incorporated in the surgical setting. All anesthesiologists should ask their patients about smoking and strongly advise smokers to quit at every visit. Directly connecting patients to existing counseling resources, such as telephone quitlines, family physicians, or pharmacists using fax or electronic referrals, greatly increases the reach and the impact of the intervention.

  3. 冠状动脉介入治疗患者戒烟状况和动机分析%Analysis on smoking cessation status and motivation in coronary intervention patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓宁; 丁文惠; 龚艳君; 金黎英; 刘秀芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate smoking and smoking cessation status in patients with coronary intervention (PCI) and analyze the motivation to quit smoking. Methods A questionnaire was employed to 280 outpatients post PCI for information such as gender, age, year of first time treated with PCI, smoking status, and smoking cessation motivation. Compare initial coronary intervention age of patients with different smoking status. Compare number of cigarettes consumed in different groups. Results The initial PCI age in smokers was (56.7?6.0) years, and in non-smoker is (65.5?.8) years (t = -5.457, P = 0. 000). The initial PCI age of passive smokers in the non-smoking group was (61. 8 ?10. 3) years, lower than that of the non-passive smokers in the same group, (66.4?.5) years (t= -2.278, P = 0.024). Till the time of the survey, only 10% of patients remained the original amount of smoking. 83.0% of patients quit or reduced smoking after being discharged from hospital for initial PCI. Number of cigarettes of smoking cessation group (n = 91) was 20 (10, 20) , less than of the smoking reduction group (n = 26) , 20 (20, 30) (Z = -2.734, P = 0. 006). To choose a single smoking cessation motivation is higher in smoking cessation ahead of PCI group than the other groups, and the highest proportion of which need to quit smoking was suffering from other diseases. The motivation to reduce smoking need a few. Persuading from family, friends and doctors and worrying further harm of heart disease by smoking were selected the highest rate. Conclusions The initial PCI age in smokers was significantly lower than non-smokers. The vast majority of patients with coronary heart disease quit smoking or reduced the amount of smoking after the first interventional treatment. Persuading from doctors was one of the most important motivations to quit smoking.%目的 调查冠状动脉介入(PCI)治疗患者吸烟和戒烟状态,分析患者戒烟动机.方法 对280名目前正在冠心病随访门诊

  4. 戒烟干预对消化性溃疡患者临床治疗效果的影响分析%The Clinical Treatment Effect of Smoking Cessation Intervention on the Patients With Peptic Ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晨渔

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of smoking cessation intervention on the clinical treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, and to improve the clinical therapeutic effect of the disease.Methods 120 cases of digestive ulcer patients in gastroenterology department of our hospital from January 2014 to December 2015 were taken as the research object, according to the smoking control divided into not smoking group, smoking group and did not quit smoking group, 40 cases in each group. Three groups were given the same treatment method, compared clinical curative effect, positive rate of HP and recurrence rate among three group.Results After the treatment, the total effciency in non-smoking group was 95%, the total effciency in smoking cessation group was 87.75%, the total effective rate in did not quit smoking group was 70%, total efficiency of not smoking group and smoking group was signiifcantly higher than that in non smoking group, with statistically significant,P<0.05. Conclusion Smoking can significantly reduce the clinical curative effect of peptic ulcer, smoking cessation intervention can effectively ensure the treatment effect, reduce the recurrence rate.%目的:分析戒烟干预对消化性溃疡患者临床治疗效果的影响,以提高该病的临床治疗效果。方法以我院消化内科于2014年1月~2015年12月收治的120例消化性溃疡患者作为研究对象,根据其吸烟控制情况将其分为不吸烟组、戒烟组与未戒烟组各40例,三组均给予相同的治疗方法,对比三组患者的临床治疗效果、HP阳性率以及复发率。结果治疗后,不吸烟组的总有效率为95%;戒烟组的总有效率为87.75%;未戒烟组的总有效率为70%;不吸烟组与戒烟组的总有效率高于未戒烟组,差异具有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论吸烟会明显降低消化性溃疡的临床疗效,采取戒烟干预可以有效保证治疗效果,减少复发率。

  5. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach.

  6. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  7. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  8. Meta analysis of influence of psychological interventions for smoking cessation effect in diabetic patients%心理干预对糖尿病吸烟者控烟效果影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展恩欣; 宋欢; 柳韦华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for smoking cessation in diabet-ic patients.Methods:By searching the Cochrane Library,the Joanna Briggs Institute Library,PubMed,Springer, MEDLINE,EMBASE,EBSCO,CBM,CNKI,VIP and WanFang Data from inception to August 31,2015,ran-domized controlled trials(RCTs)on psychosocial interventions versus usual care in smokers with diabetes were collected.RevMan 5.3 software was adopted for Meta analysis.Results:Twelve RCTs were included involving 2 089 patients.The results of meta analysis indicated that psychosocial interventions significantly increased the absti-nence rate at 1 months[RR=2.18,95%CI(1.28,3.71),P=0.004]and 3 months[RR=2.52,95%CI(1.32,4.80), P=0.005].However,the point prevalence abstinence rates at 4 months[RR=0.93,95%CI(0.49,1.76),P=0.82], 6 months[RR=1.32,95%CI(0.23,7.43),P=0.76;RR=1.73,95%CI(0.84,3.55),P=0.14],8 months[RR=1.24,95%CI(0.76,2.01),P=0.38]and 12 months[RR=0.77,95%CI(0.10,5.71),P=0.80;RR=1.74,95%CI(0.33,9.05),P=0.51].There were no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusions:Psycho-logical interventions are effective in short term(within 3 months)smoking cessation.However,the effective-ness is not clear for medium and long term smoking cessation.Owing to the limited quantity and quality of the included studies,more large scale high quality RCTs are required to verify the aforementioned conclusion.%[目的]评价心理干预对糖尿病吸烟者控烟效果的影响。[方法]计算机检索 the Cochrane Library,the Joanna Briggs Institute Library,PubMed,Springer,MEDLINE,EMBASE,EBSCO,中国生物医学文献服务系统(CBM)、中国知网(CNKI)、中国科技期刊数据库(VIP)和万方数据库,搜集相关随机对照(RCT)试验,进行文献质量评价后,采用 RevMan 5.3软件进行 Meta分析。[结果]共纳入12个 RCT,共2089例病人。Meta分析结果显示:与常规治疗护理措施相比,心理干预可提高糖尿病吸烟者1个月[RR=2

  9. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M.P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. Objective To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Methods Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. Results In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ2(1)=7.08, P=.008). Conclusion This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self

  10. Cost-Utility Analysis of Varenicline, an Oral Smoking-Cessation Drug, in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ataru Igarashi; Hiroki Takuma; Takashi Fukuda; Kiichiro Tsutani

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a cost-utility analysis of two 12-week smoking-cessation interventions in Japan: smoking-cessation counselling by a physician compared with use of varenicline, an oral smoking-cessation drug, in addition to counselling. Abstract: Methods: A Markov model was constructed to analyse lifetime medical costs and QALYs from the perspective of the healthcare payer. The cycle length was 5 years. Both costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. The cohort of smokers was class...

  11. Workplace tobacco cessation program in India: A success story

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra Gauravi; Majmudar Parishi; Gupta Subhadra; Rane Pallavi; Uplap Pallavi; Shastri Surendra

    2009-01-01

    Context: This paper describes the follow-up interventions and results of the work place tobacco cessation study. Aims: To assess the tobacco quit rates among employees, through self report history, and validate it with rapid urine cotinine test; compare post-intervention KAP regarding tobacco consumption with the pre-intervention responses and assess the tobacco consumption pattern among contract employees and provide assistance to encourage quitting. Settings and Design: This is a cohor...

  12. An evaluation study of a gender-specific smoking cessation program to help Hong Kong Chinese women quit smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wan, Zoe Siu Fung; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a lack of population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting woman smokers in Hong Kong, and in Asia generally. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers in Hong Kong. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of the service, a total of 457 eligible smokers were recruited. After the baseline questionnaire had been completed, a cessation counseling intervention was given by a trained counselor accord...

  13. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  14. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Ghorai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape.

  15. Efficacy of a Single Computer-Tailored E-Mail for Smoking Cessation: Results after 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poel, Fam Te; Bolman, Catherine; Reubsaet, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    To date, few Internet-delivered smoking cessation interventions have been tested. This study tested the efficacy, understandability, credibility and personal relevance of an e-mail-delivered computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. It included tailored action plan feedback, as recent studies have demonstrated the importance of planning in…

  16. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness.

  17. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  18. Patient navigation and financial incentives to promote smoking cessation in an underserved primary care population: A randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Russinova, Zlatka L; Bloch, Philippe P; Truong, Ve; Xuan, Ziming; Pbert, Lori; Lasser, Karen E

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high risk of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality among low-income persons, few studies have connected low-income smokers to evidence-based treatments. We will examine a smoking cessation intervention integrated into primary care. To begin, we completed qualitative formative research to refine an intervention utilizing the services of a patient navigator trained to promote smoking cessation. Next, we will conduct a randomized controlled trial combining two interventions: patient navigation and financial incentives. The goal of the intervention is to promote smoking cessation among patients who receive primary care in a large urban safety-net hospital. Our intervention will encourage patients to utilize existing smoking cessation resources (e.g., quit lines, smoking cessation groups, discussing smoking cessation with their primary care providers). To test our intervention, we will conduct a randomized controlled trial, randomizing 352 patients to the intervention condition (patient navigation and financial incentives) or an enhanced traditional care control condition. We will perform follow-up at 6, 12, and 18 months following the start of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention will target several implementation variables: reach (participation rate and representativeness), effectiveness (smoking cessation at 12 months [primary outcome]), unintended consequences (e.g., purchase of illicit substances with incentive money), adoption (use of intervention across primary care suites), implementation (delivery of intervention), and maintenance (smoking cessation after conclusion of intervention). Improving the implementation of smoking cessation interventions in primary care settings serving large underserved populations could have substantial public health impact, reducing cancer-related morbidity/mortality and associated health disparities. PMID:26362691

  19. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation.

  20. Development and application of culturally appropriate decision aids for smoking cessation in Korea: a pragmatic clustered randomization crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Suh, Beomseok; Chun, Sohyun; Nam, You-Seon; Cho, Belong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Asian countries, reluctance to seek pharmacological intervention is a major barrier for smoking cessation. Culturally appropriate decision aids are expected to help people in the decision making for the use of smoking cessation medication. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally tailored decision aid for smoking cessation and evaluate its effect on the use of smoking cessation medication. Patients and methods A 7-minute video on smoking cessation information and options was developed. Physicians were randomized into intervention and control groups. The decision aid was provided to patients in the intervention group, and they watched it, while those in the control group were provided usual medical care for smoking cessation. The primary outcome was the proportion of smokers who were prescribed smoking cessation medication within 1 month after consultation. The secondary outcomes were abstinence rate and use of smoking cessation medication within 6 months. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of the decision aid on the outcomes. Results In total, 414 current smokers (intervention group: 195; control group: 219) were enrolled. The mean age of the participants was 48.2 years, and 381 subjects (92%) were males. In total, 11.8% of the participants in the intervention group and 10.5% in the control group were prescribed smoking cessation medications within 1 month. The odds ratio was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.40–2.63) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Within 6 months, 17.4% of the participants in the intervention group and 15% in the control group were prescribed medication (adjusted odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI: 0.59–2.13). Conclusion The culturally tailored smoking cessation decision aid developed in this study did not show a significant impact on the decision to use smoking cessation medication. Further research to develop more effective and more interactive interventions is expected.

  1. Smoking cessation: How compelling is the evidence? A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2009-01-01

    with scientific well-documented efficacy when used for 2-3 months and mostly mild side effects. Alternative therapies such as hypnosis and acupuncture have no scientifically proven effects. CONCLUSIONS: With the most optimal drugs and counseling today a 1-year abstinence rate of approximately 25% can be expected...... in smoking cessation. On-going research is examining the potential effects of nicotine vaccination as relapse prevention.......OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking...

  2. ROLE OF VARENICLINE IN SMOKING CESSATION: INDIAN SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of worldwide morbidity as well as mortality which are largely preventable. Smoking cessation, though a difficult task to achieve, can lead to both immediate and long term health benefits such as reduction of the risk of lung cancer, chronic lung disease, stroke etc. This article reviews the various pharmacological interventions of smoking cessation like nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and nortryptiline etc., especially the role of a novel agent Varenicline in reducing nicotine dependence as well as in decreasing craving after nicotine withdrawal that holds promising effectiveness in Indian scenario.

  3. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Ponce Martinez, Caridad; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  4. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter HM; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are sensitive to assumptions

  5. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshuizen Hendriek C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are

  6. Model for implementing cognitive behavioural therapy for smartphone app based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alsharif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation programs are widely implemented to assist smokers in the process of quitting smoking. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT is a psychological approach that is increasingly used in smoking cessation programs. CBT has also been implemented for smoking cessation programs and has been successful in helping smokers to quit. Another advantage of CBT is that it can be combined with different tools and technologies and hence made to deliver effective health intervention programs. The recent advancements in smartphone technologies have been widely explored to develop smoking cessation apps as tools to assist with quitting smoking. However, most existing smartphone apps lack follow-up and adherence to clinical guidelines for treatment. To date, there are no studies which have explored implementing CBT modules into smoking cessation apps. Therefore, there is a need for implementing behavioural change mechanisms in smoking cessation apps to help smokers quit effectively. In this study, we propose a new approach that combines mobile health technology and CBT methods to provide an effective smoking cessation program. The ubiquitous presence of smartphones and the various communication benefits they provide are utilized by our proposed system to provide a CBT paradigm into smoking cessation app systems and hence enhance their success potential. Currently, the proposed system is at the implementation stage, which is soon to be followed by a clinical trial to study the impact of this system on smoking cessation.

  7. Effectiveness of group counselling for smoking cessation in hospital staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schoonis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking prevalence among hospital staff is still considerable. It is well known that smoking cessation is difficult to establish without any help. Group counselling is effective for smoking cessation. In 2004, therefore, we decided to offer group counselling for smoking cessation to our hospital staff. (1 To assess the efficacy of group counselling given by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. (2 To determine the quit rate after group counselling in hospital staff. The program is based on 10 group sessions of 90 min each. Each group contains a maximum of 16 participants. The group sessions were led by a nurse specialized in smoking cessation and consisted of education and behavioural interventions provided by health care professionals (respiratory physician, psychologist and a dietician. To improve smoking cessation motivation, spirometry (FEV1 and FVC and exhaled CO were measured both at the start and at the end of the group counselling. In total, 38 participants of 3 different groups entered group counselling. The mean age was 48 years, and 71% was female. They smoked an average of 20 cigarettes per day. Based on exhaled CO measurements and self-reports, smoking cessation, the quit rates after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were, 27/35 (77%, 25/35 (72% and 23/35 (66%, respectively. Group counselling program on smoking cessation in hospital staff based on 10 group sessions was able to induce a remarkably high amount of quitters. The hospital setting offered the opportunity to meet the group participants frequently afterwards, what might have helped in keeping the quitting results at about the same level, even after 2 years’ follow-up.

  8. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movsisyan Narine K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. Methods This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. Results The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159 for physicians and 72.2% (122/169 for nurses. Smoking prevalence was almost five times higher in physicians compared to nurses (31.2% vs. 6.6%, p  Conclusions This study was the first to explore differences in smoking-related attitudes and behavior among hospital physicians and nurses in Yerevan, Armenia. The study found substantial behavioral and attitudinal differences in these two groups. The study revealed a critical need for integrating cessation counseling training into Armenia’s medical education. As nurses had more positive attitudes toward cessation counseling compared to physicians, and more often reported having cessation training, they are an untapped resource that could be more actively engaged in smoking cessation interventions in healthcare settings.

  9. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students. PMID:15495883

  10. Sensation Seeking as a Predictor of Treatment Compliance and Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Heavy Social Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of sensation seeking has been positively associated with risk of smoking initiation and level of tobacco use. However, its role in smoking cessation is much less established. This study examined the association between sensation seeking and smoking cessation among 236 heavy social drinkers participating in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of incorporating brief alcohol intervention into smoking cessation treatment. As hypothesized, higher sensation seeking predicted...

  11. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Chao Duan; Hai-Juan Tang; Xiao-Ning Zhong; Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm)...

  12. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A’s and 5 R’s approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation in the management of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temitayo Orisasami, Isimat; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the fifth leading cause of death in the world and smoking leads to COPD in more than 80% of cases. Smoking cessation aids are considered the most effective intervention to improve quality of life and prevent further deterioration in COPD. Evidence based on the use of pharmacotherapies, patient support and motivation as part of smoking cessation strategies were evaluated and discussed. The findings demonstrate that pharmacotherapies, support and counselling in smoking cessation help reduce hospital stay and hospitalisation and improve symptoms and quality of life. In addition, nurses need more education on how to use open-ended questions and motivation when giving advice on smoking cessation to patients with COPD. PMID:27467642

  14. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Steffenssen, Mia; Bakholdt, Vivi T.;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... variables were smoking cessation counseling and smoking cessation interventions. The outcome was smoking cessation. Data collection and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 of the authors. Selected publications were assessed for potential risk of bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated...... using National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Review Manager 5.3 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 1,239 patients were included (3 randomized controlled trials, 3 cohorts, and 2 case series). Smoking cessation was achieved considerably more often...

  15. Self-efficacy and acceptance of cravings to smoke underlie the effectiveness of quitline counseling for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined why smoking cessation interventions are effective. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating processes underlying the effectiveness of cessation counseling administered by the Dutch national quitline. Methods: Data were used of a two-arm randomized cont

  16. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  17. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  18. Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Brigitte Wilhelmina Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of 1-year smoking cessation on airway inflammation in smokers with COPD and asymptomatic smokers. Since it has been shown that smoking cessation may improve clinical features, the effects of smoking cessation on respiratory symptoms, lung functio

  19. Workplace tobacco cessation program in India: A success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Gauravi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper describes the follow-up interventions and results of the work place tobacco cessation study. Aims: To assess the tobacco quit rates among employees, through self report history, and validate it with rapid urine cotinine test; compare post-intervention KAP regarding tobacco consumption with the pre-intervention responses and assess the tobacco consumption pattern among contract employees and provide assistance to encourage quitting. Settings and Design: This is a cohort study implemented in a chemical industry in rural Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: All employees (104 were interviewed and screened for oral neoplasia. Active intervention in the form of awareness lectures, focus group discussions and if needed, pharmacotherapy was offered. Medical staff from the industrial medical unit and from a local referral hospital was trained. Awareness programs were arranged for the family members and contract employees. Statistical Analysis Used: Non-parametric statistical techniques and kappa. Results: Forty eight per cent employees consumed tobacco. The tobacco quit rates increased with each follow-up intervention session and reached 40% at the end of one year. There was 96% agreement between self report tobacco history and results of rapid urine cotinine test. The post-intervention KAP showed considerable improvement over the pre-intervention KAP. 56% of contract employees used tobacco and 55% among them had oral pre-cancerous lesions. Conclusions: A positive atmosphere towards tobacco quitting and positive peer pressure assisting each other in tobacco cessation was remarkably noted on the entire industrial campus. A comprehensive model workplace tobacco cessation program has been established, which can be replicated elsewhere.

  20. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Richard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that will test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of linking inpatient smoking care with ongoing community cessation support for smokers with a mental illness. Methods/Design This study will be conducted as a randomised controlled trial. 200 smokers with an acute mental illness will be recruited from a large inpatient mental health facility. Participants will complete a baseline survey and will be randomised to either a multimodal smoking cessation intervention or provided with hospital smoking care only. Randomisation will be stratified by diagnosis (psychotic, non-psychotic. Intervention participants will be provided with a brief motivational interview in the inpatient setting and options of ongoing smoking cessation support post discharge: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; referral to Quitline; smoking cessation groups; and fortnightly telephone support. Outcome data, including cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts, and self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (validated by exhaled carbon monoxide, will be collected via blind interview at one week, two months, four months and six months post discharge. Process information will also be collected, including the use of cessation supports and cost of the intervention. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the potential of an integrated, multimodal smoking cessation intervention for persons with an acute mental illness, linking inpatient with community cessation support. Trial Registration

  1. Smoking Cessation and Chronic Pain: Patient and Pain Medicine Physician Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooten, W. Michael; Vickers, Kristin S.; Shi, Yu; Ebnet, Kaye L.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Patten, Christi A.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies suggest that the clinical setting of an interdisciplinary pain treatment program may provide an optimal environment to promote smoking cessation, currently available smoking cessation interventions may be less effective for adults with chronic pain due, in part, to unrecognized clinical factors related to chronic pain. The specific aim of this qualitative study was to solicit information from adult smokers with chronic pain participating in an interdisciplinary pain ...

  2. Intervenciones para dejar de fumar en México: análisis de disponibilidad a pagar por un método efectivo de cesación Smoking cessation interventions in Mexico: analysis of the willingness to pay for an effective method to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson E Serván-Mori

    2012-06-01

    policymakers in the design of smoking cessation interventions improving national health system interventions for quit smoking.

  3. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  4. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  5. Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Faulkner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Michele A FaulknerCreighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Despite efforts to decrease tobacco use, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. The associated economic burden is substantial, both in the form of direct costs (healthcare expenditures and indirect costs (lost productivity, regardless of whether the burden is assessed from the standpoint of an employer, a health plan, or society as a whole. Cessation programs are considered among the most cost-effective in healthcare, and are often used as a benchmark for other medical interventions. This analysis specifically considers the cost-effectiveness of varenicline, a novel α4β2 partial agonist used for smoking cessation, in comparison to other approved therapies. Clinical trial data have demonstrated that varenicline has the ability to decrease cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and lessen positive reinforcement associated with smoking. Varenicline’s novel mechanism has translated into superior efficacy in comparison to other available therapies. For this reason, despite an initial cost that typically exceeds that of other medications, varenicline is a cost-effective option for smoking cessation.Keywords: cost-effectiveness, economic analysis, smoking cessation, varenicline 

  6. A before-after implementation trial of smoking cessation guidelines in hospitalized veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisinger Heather

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most hospitalized smokers receive some form of cessation counseling during hospitalization, few receive outpatient cessation counseling and/or pharmacotherapy following discharge, which are key factors associated with long-term cessation. US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals are challenged to find resources to implement and maintain the kind of high intensity cessation programs that have been shown to be effective in research studies. Few studies have applied the Chronic Care Model (CCM to improve inpatient smoking cessation. Specific objectives The primary objective of this protocol is to determine the effect of a nurse-initiated intervention, which couples low-intensity inpatient counseling with sustained proactive telephone counseling, on smoking abstinence in hospitalized patients. Key secondary aims are to determine the impact of the intervention on staff nurses' attitudes toward providing smoking cessation counseling; to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in VA hospitals; and to determine the short-term cost-effectiveness of implementing the intervention. Design Pre-post study design in four VA hospitals Participants Hospitalized patients, aged 18 or older, who smoke at least one cigarette per day. Intervention The intervention will include: nurse training in delivery of bedside cessation counseling, electronic medical record tools (to streamline nursing assessment and documentation, to facilitate prescription of pharmacotherapy, computerized referral of motivated inpatients for proactive telephone counseling, and use of internal nursing facilitators to provide coaching to staff nurses practicing in non-critical care inpatient units. Outcomes The primary endpoint is seven-day point prevalence abstinence at six months following hospital admission and prolonged abstinence after a one-month grace period. To compare abstinence rates during the

  7. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  8. 吸烟对早期血管病变的影响及戒烟的干预作用%Impact of smoking on early arterial stiffness and the intervention of smoking cessation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂福根; 李美根; 金伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study influence of smoking on early vascular disease and the improvement after smoking cessation. Methods These 495 young and middle-aged persons aged 33 ±6 years old,on average,were divided into three groups:Smoking group (>5 cigarettes per day and >1 year),no smoking group,smoking cessation group (stop smoking at lest one month). The three groups contained 186,157,152 cases separately. The smoking cessation group were divided into three subgroups according to smoking cessation time,which shows as follows:0. 05). Conclusion ⑴Smoking could decrease the compliance and increase the baPWV of vascular in a short time. ⑵Giving up smoking could improve the compliance of vascular,and even reach the level of no smoking group if giving up for 10 year.%目的:探讨吸烟对早期血管病变的影响及戒烟后不同时间段血管病变的改善程度。方法随机选择不同中青年人群495例[(平均年龄39±6)岁],吸烟组186例(≥5支/d,持续≥1年),不吸烟组157例(从不吸烟),戒烟组152例(停止吸烟至少1个月),戒烟组又分三组,戒烟<1年,1年≤戒烟<10,戒烟≥10年。室温下测定肱动脉一踝动脉脉搏波传导速度(baP-WV)、踝臂指数(ABI)、颈动脉内膜中层厚度(CIMT)、流量介导的肱动脉扩张(FMD),计算体重指数(BMI),测量肱动脉血压,标准方法检测总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白、甘油三脂、血糖、肌酐。结果⑴吸烟组的baPWV及CIMT分别为1503.65±18.45及0.92±0.26,较不吸烟组明显增加(分别为1168.54±13.57及0.72±0.12),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),吸烟组的ABI及FMD分别为0.86±0.12及9.73±1.26,较不吸烟组明显降低(分别为1.15±0.65及13.32±1.34),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);⑵即使戒烟后,在一定时期内,戒烟组baPWV较不吸烟组仍增加;⑶戒烟10年以上组的baPWV与从不吸烟者baPWV相

  9. Clinical management of smoking cessation: patient factors affecting a reward-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jeanette M; Halpern, Michael T

    2010-12-10

    Although the majority of current smokers indicate they would like to quit, only about half of smokers make a quit attempt each year. Of those who attempt to quit, only about 5% are successful. Many effective products and programs are available to assist in smoking cessation; however those interested in quitting often do not make use of these resources. To increase use of cessation products in order to improve successful cessation rates, the Consumer Demand Roundtable has argued that smokers need to be viewed as consumers of cessation products rather than as patients needing treatment. With this consumer-based approach in mind, the current review examines how participant characteristics, perceptions, and behavior influence, and are influenced by, contingency management (CM) paradigms in various settings. Findings suggest that participant factors associated with success in these programs include demographic characteristics (eg, gender, marital status), self-efficacy, motivation to quit, and impulsivity. Overall, participants perceive incentives for successful cessation as motivating. However, such programs may involve greater withdrawal symptoms (eg, craving for cigarettes) initially, but these symptoms tend to decrease at a greater rate over time compared with nonincentive group participants. CM programs have also been shown to be successful across a number of settings (eg, communities, schools), including settings in which smokers are often considered difficult to treat (eg, substance abuse treatment centers). Overall, CM programs are perceived positively by participants and can increase rates of successful cessation. Furthermore, CM interventions have the flexibility to adapt to individual preferences and needs, leading to greater participation and likelihood of successful cessation. Thus, CM provides an important framework for addressing the need for consumer-focused smoking cessation interventions.

  10. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  11. In the Clinic. Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Steinberg, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of smoking cessation, focusing on health consequences of smoking, prevention of smoking-related disease, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  12. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  13. NCI launches smoking cessation support for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new effort to help teens quit smoking will use one of today’s teen’s most constant companions—the mobile phone. Developed by smoking cessation experts, SmokefreeTXT is a free text message cessation service that provides 24/7 encouragement, advice, and

  14. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  15. Putting tobacco cessation and prevention into undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training medical students in tobacco prevention and cessation skills is critical to have competent physicians who are prepared to address the grave levels of morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco use. However, in India, enough attention has not been given to elicit the active participation of physicians in tobacco control. Keeping this in view, a program was undertaken to develop the skills and competence of medical students with the objective of improving medical student inquiry into smoking and the delivery of advice accordingly for patients in their clinical year′s routine consultations. Methods: The targeted learners were 149 1 st -year medical and dental students of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India, who had appeared the second semester examination; 84 of the participants were male. Students were allowed to appear a test before the training session on knowledge of tobacco cessation and post test was done after 1.5 months of training. The knowledge score was evaluated to evaluate the learning outcome. Results: We observed that a curriculum on tobacco intervention could improve relevant knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence and be applied in students early clinical experiences. Conclusions: There is need of joint action by practicing clinicians, the medical faculty and the curriculum planners of the country to incorporate tobacco cessation into the curriculum.

  16. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates. PMID:16878254

  17. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bonevski, Billie; McDonald, Christine F; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as "lung age" should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large. PMID:27445499

  18. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  19. Self-reported smoking cessation activities among Swiss primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffieux Christiane

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual counselling, pharmacotherapy, and group therapy are evidence-based interventions that help patients stop smoking. Acupuncture, hypnosis, and relaxation have no demonstrated efficacy on smoking cessation, whereas self-help material may only have a small benefit. The purpose of this study is to assess physicians' current clinical practice regarding smokers motivated to stop smoking. Methods The survey included 3385 Swiss primary care physicians. Self-reported use of nine smoking cessation interventions was scored. One point was given for each positive answer about practicing interventions with demonstrated efficacy, i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, counselling, group therapy, and smoking cessation specialist. No points were given for the recommendation of acupuncture, hypnosis, relaxation, and self-help material. Multivariable logistic analysis was performed to identify factors associated with a good practice score, defined as ≥ 2. Results The response rate was 55%. Respondents were predominately over the age of 40 years (88%, male (79%, and resided in urban areas (74%. Seventeen percent reported being smokers. Most of the physicians prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (84%, bupropion (65%, or provided counselling (70%. A minority of physicians recommended acupuncture (26%, hypnosis (8%, relaxation (7%, or self-help material (24%. A good practice score was obtained by 85% of respondents. Having attended a smoking cessation-training program was the only significant predictor of a good practice score (odds ratio: 6.24, 95% CI 1.95–20.04. Conclusion The majority of respondents practice recommended smoking cessation interventions. However, there is room for improvement and implementing an evidence-based smoking cessation-training program could provide additional benefit.

  20. Costo-efectividad del uso de la Vareniclina versus las alternativas existentes para la cesación del fumado usando el modelo BENESCO en la población adulta costarricense Cost-Effectiveness of Varenicline versus all Interventions for Quitting Smoking Cessation in the Adult Population of Costa Rica using the BENESCO Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Lutz-Ramírez

    2010-12-01

    diseases related to smoking that were included were: Coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke and lung cancer. The prevalence, annual incidence and mortality were obtained and calculated from the Costa Rica Social Security data base and the Institute of Alcoholism and Pharmacodependence of Costa Rica. The costs of the diseases were calculated and updated to September, 2008. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: Of all the strategies for smoking cessation, Varenicline was the herapeutic alternative that obtained less mortality and morbility in the years studied with the model. Regarding costs, Varenicline was also the less expensive option from the fifth year. On the second year, motivational talks were ¢3.443.167 less expensive than Varenicline. The intervention that obtained the largest number of Quality-adjusted life years and Life years gained was Varenicline. Varenicline was the most effective option in the cost-incremental analysis, this means, it was clinically more effective and less expensive. Conclusion: The results obtained suggests that Varenicline is the most cost- effective intervention for smoking cessation in comparison with Bupropion, NRT, unaided cessation and motivational talks. It was proven that the use of Varenicline represents an important economic savings for the health system and the heath institutes that use it since it reduces morbidity and the costs related to the associated-smoking diseases.

  1. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret JL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Perret,1–3 Billie Bonevski,4 Christine F McDonald,2,3,5 Michael J Abramson6,7 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Institute for Breathing & Sleep, Melbourne, VIC, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 4School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, NSW, 5Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 6School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 7Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large

  2. Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Ibrahim, Normala; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Tee, Eng Ong; Lai, Wai Yee; Nik Mohamad, Mohd Haniki; Sidek, Sherina Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

  3. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  4. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  5. Influences of Mood, Depression History, and Treatment Modality on Outcomes in Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L.; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Reus, Victor I.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment modality, and mood was evaluated in smokers participating in cessation programs. Participants (N = 549, 53.7% women, 46.3% men, 28% endorsing past MDD episodes) were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or health education (HE) intervention. Participants…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  7. Barriers to the provision of smoking cessation assistance : a qualitative study among Romanian family physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panaitescu, Catalina; Moffat, Mandy A.; Williams, Sian; Pinnock, Hilary; Boros, Melinda; Oana, Cristian Sever; Alexiu, Sandra; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent and slow down the progression of several respiratory and other diseases and improve patient outcomes. Romania has legislation and a national tobacco control programme in line with the World Health Organization Framework for

  8. Statewide Demonstration of Not On Tobacco: A Gender-Sensitive Teen Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Geri A.; Horn, Kimberly A.; Goldcamp, Jennifer; Maniar, Sameep D.; Fernandes, Ancilla; Massey, Catherine J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated Not On Tobacco, a gender-sensitive, smoking cessation program for adolescents, comparing experimental group and brief intervention (BI) group students. Overall, Not On Tobacco females were four times more likely to quit than BI females. Approximately 84 percent of experimental group teens quit or reduced smoking, compared to 55 percent…

  9. Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, P; Carrozzi, L; Fagerström, K O; Gratziou, C; Jimenez-Ruiz, C; Nardini, S; Viegi, G; Lazzaro, C; Campell, I A; Dagli, E; West, R

    2007-02-01

    Smoking cessation is the one of the most important ways to improve the prognosis of patients with respiratory disease. The Task Force on guidelines for smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases was convened to provide evidence-based recommendations on smoking cessation interventions in respiratory patients. Based on the currently available evidence and the consensus of an expert panel, the following key recommendations were made. 1) Patients with respiratory disease have a greater and more urgent need to stop smoking than the average smoker, so respiratory physicians must take a proactive and continuing role with all smokers in motivating them to stop and in providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. 2) Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into the management of the patient's respiratory condition. 3) Therapies should include pharmacological treatment (i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline) combined with behavioural support. 4) Respiratory physicians should receive training to ensure that they have the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to deliver these interventions or to refer to an appropriate specialist. 5) Although the cost of implementing these recommendations will partly be offset by a reduction in attendance for exacerbations, etc., a budget should be established to enable implementation. Research is needed to establish optimum treatment strategies specifically for respiratory patients. PMID:17264326

  10. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Muhammad Aziz Rahman

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97. Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18% reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28. Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More

  11. Youth tobacco use cessation: 2008 update

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    Sussman Steve

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an empirical review of 64 teen tobacco use cessation studies is provided. Examined include program contents, delivery modalities, number of contacts, and expected quit rates. In addition, means of recruitment and retention of smokers in programming are discussed. Also, promising contemporary methods of teen smoking cessation are examined, including use of pharmacologic adjuncts, electronic technology, and cigarette price increases (and no smoking policy. Conclusions are made regarding implications for developing and implementing teen tobacco use cessation programs.

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Pranav; Kumar Raj

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer) being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was cond...

  13. The physician's role in smoking cessation. A present and future agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, L M

    1990-02-01

    Medical views in the United States on the effects of smoking have shifted dramatically since the published evidence in 1958 established the link between smoking and fatal disease. Today's physician should be a nonsmoking role model, whose workplace both directly and indirectly teaches smoking cessation skills. Publications on smoking cessation techniques from the National Institutes of Health along with intervention tools such as patient smoking history questionnaires are available free of charge to physicians. Patient histories are critical to the intervention process, for they provide essential clues and information about which stage in cessation of smoking the patient has already reached: precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance. Different approaches and techniques are required at each stage. The most important objective for the physician with a patient at the stage of contemplating quitting is to initiate a conversation leading to a directive to quit, with benefits of quitting stressed as reinforcement. Actively motivated patients committed to quit dates may need both educational and pharmacologic support; issues such as nicotine dependence and withdrawal symptoms must be addressed. Pharmacologic therapy at this time may consist of substitution of nicotine-containing gum (nicotine polacrilex) for cigarettes. Used in sufficient, regular dosages, the nicotine gum has been found to help diminish withdrawal symptoms following smoking cessation. Other drug therapies are currently under study. For now, nicotine replacement therapy (where indicated) is to be used for at least three months, the period of greatest chance of relapse. The physician should continue to encourage patients who have quit smoking to forestall relapses, while tacitly understanding that the incidence of relapse is high in first-time quitters. Hospital inpatients provide an opportunity to initiate bedside smoking cessation programs. The hope is that, in the future, hospitals will

  14. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

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    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  15. Smoking cessation in cardiac patients: the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac patients completed a baseline questionnaire (N = 245) assessing demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, intention, self-efficacy, relapse self-efficacy and action and coping plans. Six months later (N = 184) continued abstinence from smoking was assessed. Self-efficacy predicted intention to quit smoking and was an indirect predictor of continued abstinence, through intention. Intention to quit smoking and making action plans both directly influenced continued abstinence. Future interventions to facilitate smoking cessation in cardiac patients should put strong emphasis on enhancing self-efficacy and on making specific action plans to increase the likelihood of smoking cessation.

  16. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care : ITADI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roura Pilar; Armengol Angelina; Advani Mamta; Martin Carlos; Prieto Gemma; Perez Santiago; Roig Lydia; Maria Manresa Josep; Briones Elena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies ab...

  17. 基于认知干预的戒烟方法在 COPD 患者戒烟中的效果研究%Study on the effects of smoking cessation methods based on the cognitive intervention in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷思; 陈沁源; 陈平; 蔡珊; 彭红

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究轻中度吸烟慢性阻塞性肺病( COPD)患者戒烟意愿,并评价认知干预戒烟方法对其戒烟的效果。方法在门诊部收集轻中度吸烟COPD患者102例,根据戒烟意愿分为4个区组,区组内再随机分为干预组和对照组。应用社会认知干预指导的戒烟方法对干预组进行6个月的干预,并进行随访评价戒烟效果。结果⑴全部调查对象中,年龄(61.3±12.3)岁,男女性别比为99∶3,体质量指数(23.06±3.39)kg/m2,吸烟指数(包/年)39.81±11.53,每日吸烟量(14.22±2.30)支,学历低者占55.9%,尼古丁依赖程度高者占49.0%,39例(38.2%)希望戒烟,20例(19.6%)强烈希望戒烟;⑵吸烟原因中享乐(7.02)、依赖(6.88)和镇静(6.55)分量表分数较高;⑶干预组与对照组半年持续戒烟率(χ2=4.993, P =0.025)、6月点戒烟率(χ2=6.668, P =0.010)差异均具有统计学意义,3个月( t =2.65, P <0.01)和6个月( t =2.07, P <0.05)后干预组与对照组体质量的差异具有统计学意义。结论轻中度COPD患者戒烟意愿不高,基于认知干预的戒烟方法是其戒烟成功的有效途径。%Objective To investigate quitting motivation of smoking patients with mild and moder-ate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) and evaluate the effects of smoking cessation methods based on cognitive intervention.Methods A total of 102 smoking patients with mild and moderate COPD from the outpatient department was divided into 4 blocks according to their intention of quitting smoking.Pa-tients in each block were randomly divided into intervention and control groups.Results ⑴All the re-spondents were at an average age of (61.3 ±12.3) years old.The sex ratio of men to women was 99∶3. The average smoking index (bag/year) in all the respondents was (39.81 ±11.53).The average

  18. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Pain in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Hooten, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers are at increased risk of developing chronic pain and suffering higher pain intensity. However, nicotine has analgesic properties, and smokers may view smoking as a means to cope with pain. Smoking cessation is clearly beneficial to the long-term health of smokers. However, it is not known how abstinence from smoking affects pain. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking cessation and changes in pain symptoms by secondary analysis of a large longitudinal dataset of older adults. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed of longitudinal biennial survey data (1992 through 2006) from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study of United States adults older than 50 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were utilized to determine the relationship between the changes in smoking status and changes in pain symptoms, controlling for demographics, depression, self-rated health, history of arthritis, and body mass index. Results: In multivariate analyses, among the 4,695 smokers who reported no pain or mild pain at enrollment, smoking status was not independently associated with exacerbation of pain (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08). Among the 1,118 smokers who reported moderate to severe pain at enrollment, smoking status was not independently associated with improvement of pain (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.08). Conclusions: Smoking cessation was not independently associated with changes in pain symptoms in older adults. These results suggest that concerns regarding the effects of abstinence from smoking on pain should not pose a barrier to offering tobacco use interventions to smokers with chronic pain. PMID:21571690

  19. Correlates of Cessation Success among Romanian Adults

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco smoking and its consequences are a serious public health problem in Romania. Evidence-based data on factors associated with successful smoking cessation are crucial to optimize tobacco control. The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and other factors associated with smoking cessation success among adults. Materials and Methods. Data was from a sample of 4,517 individuals derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Romania in 2011. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. Results. Among females, the quit rate was 26.3% compared with 33.1% in males (P<0.02. We found disparities in cessation success among the analyzed groups of respondents. Being economically active, being aged 40 and above, and having an awareness of smoking health consequences were associated with long-term quitting smoking among men, while initiating smoking at a later age increased the odds of quitting smoking among women. However, cohabitation with nonsmokers was the strongest predictor of successful cessation among both genders. Conclusion. Programs increasing quit rates and encourage cessation among groups less likely to quit, adopting voluntary smoke-free homes, and increasing the awareness of smoking and tobacco pollution risks are needed.

  20. Tobacco cessation: what role can dental professionals play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mehta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco dependence is classified as a disease by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, but, medical and dental professionals have neither seriously taken this fact nor made any serious attempt to tackle this disease. Apart from supporting wider tobacco control measures, oral health professionals can help patients to stop using tobacco. This may be the single most important service dentists can provide for their patients’ overall health. Objective: This review is prepared with the object to help both clinicians and oral health professionals to scale up their involvement in tobacco control activities, including advocacy and smoking cessation programs. Literature review: Studies have shown that Studies have shown that 70% smokers indicate smokers indicatethat they want to quit, but a meagre 2% succeed. The dental practice The dental practice setting provides a unique opportunity to assist tobacco users in achieving tobacco abstinence. Still, More than 40% of dentists do not routinely ask about tobacco use and 60% do not routinely advise tobacco users to quit, while 61.5% of dentists believe their patients do not expect tobacco cessation services. Conclusion: Interventions by dentist has been found to be effective in helping people to quit tobacco consumption. A step-wise approach and patience must be adopted while dealing with such patients.

  1. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  2. Long term follow-up of a tobacco prevention and cessation program in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Álvarez, Alberto; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Villalona, Seiichi; Mondejar-López, Pedro; Pastor-Vivero, María Dolores; Mira Escolano, Pilar; James-Vega, Diana Carolina; Sánchez-Solís, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact over time of a telephone-based intervention in tobacco cessation and prevention targeting patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Mediterranean region of Murcia, Spain. We conducted an experimental prospective study with a cohort of CF patients using an integrative smoking cessation programme, between 2008 and 2013. The target population included family members and patients from the Regional CF unit. The study included an initial tobacco exposure questionnaire, measurement of lung function, urinary cotinine levels, anthropomorphic measures and the administered intervention at specific time intervals. Of the 88 patients tracked through follow-up, active smoking rates were reduced from 10.23% to 4.55% (p = 0.06). Environmental tobacco exposure was reduced in non-smoker patients from 62.03% to 36.90% (p smoke exposure were also observed with a decrease of 12.60%, from 31.65% (n = 25/79) to 19.05% (n = 16/84) in 2013 (p = passive exposure (psmoke-free home) was 1.26 (1.05-1.54). Telephone based interventions for tobacco cessation and prevention is a useful tool when applied over time. Trained intervention professionals in this area are needed in the environmental health approach for the treatment of CF. PMID:26990263

  3. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  4. Changes in body weight and food choice in those attempting smoking cessation: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wilma S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation and significant cause of relapse for many people. The provision of nutritional advice as part of a smoking cessation programme may assist some in smoking cessation and perhaps limit weight gain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured programme of dietary advice on weight change and food choice, in adults attempting smoking cessation. Methods Cluster randomised controlled design. Classes randomised to intervention commenced a 24-week intervention, focussed on improving food choice and minimising weight gain. Classes randomised to control received “usual care”. Results Twenty-seven classes in Greater Glasgow were randomised between January and August 2008. Analysis, including those who continued to smoke, showed that actual weight gain and percentage weight gain was similar in both groups. Examination of data for those successful at giving up smoking showed greater mean weight gain in intervention subjects (3.9 (SD 3.1 vs. 2.7 (SD 3.7 kg. Between group differences were not significant (p = 0.23, 95% CI −0.9 to 3.5. In comparison to baseline improved consumption of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal were reported in the intervention group. A higher percentage of control participants continued smoking (74% vs. 66%. Conclusions The intervention was not successful at minimising weight gain in comparison to control but was successful in facilitating some sustained improvements in the dietary habits of intervention participants. Improved quit rates in the intervention group suggest that continued contact with advisors may have reduced anxieties regarding weight gain and encouraged cessation despite weight gain. Research should continue in this area as evidence suggests that the negative effects of obesity could outweigh the health benefits achieved through reductions in smoking prevalence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  5. [An inter-university diploma on tobacco and smoking cessation: pedagogical evaluation and professional impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louam, A; Jung, F; Kruchen, A; Quoix, E

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the post-graduate degree course on tobacco and smoking cessation is to train professionals who have dedicated themselves to the fight against tobacco and smoking. An educational assessment of the degree programme was carried out in order to evaluate its impact on practice. A questionnaire was mailed to 60 students registered in the programme at Strasbourg University between 1997 and 2002 (with a response rate of 71.6%). The evaluation was able to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching in the programme and the level of student satisfaction. The tobacco control and smoking cessation interventions of the students before and after completing the course were compared in order to assess the impact on their professional practice. The programme's participants came from a variety of professions including medical doctors (74.4%), paramedical staff (16.3%) and other professions (6.9%). The students acknowledged the course's high level of quality (the teachers were appreciated, and the programme was comprehensive). The structure of the course was operational; however, the students admitted that they felt that the practical application and the interactive aspects of the learning (such as case studies, role playing, training in a specific smoking cessation intervention were insufficient. They also noted a lack of emphasis on treatments that do not rely on pharmacotherapy such as behavioural therapy and psychological support. Tobacco cessation related problems or side effects of quitting like weight gain, anxiety or insomnia were not appropriately developed. The majority of students were very satisfied with the theoretical basis of the curriculum and with their internship in a tobacco cessation consultation intervention. Today, 69% of the students trained are working in smoking cessation and tobacco control. They have been able to diversify their activities, going from prevention to tobacco cessation, and vice versa. Course tracks focusing on

  6. The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Dalum, Peter; Bech, Mickael;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling, reactive telephone counselling and an internet- and text messages-based intervention with a self-help booklet for smoking cessation. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial with equal allocation to four conditions: 1) Proactive...... telephone counselling (n=452), 2) Reactive telephone counselling (n=453), 3) Internet- and text-message-based intervention (n=453), 4) Self-help booklet (control) (n=452) SETTING: Denmark PARTICIPANTS: Smokers who had previously participated in two national health surveys were invited. Eligibility criteria...... counselling group compared with the booklet group (7.3% vs. 3.6%, OR=2.2 (95% CI 1.2-4.0)), There was no clear evidence of a difference in prolonged abstinence between the reactive telephone counselling group or the internet-based smoking cessation program and the booklet group: 1.8% vs. 3.6%, OR=0.8 (95% CI...

  7. Enabling the NSW health workforce to provide evidence-based smoking-cessation advice through competency-based training delivered via video conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elayne N; Hawkshaw, Barbara N; Naylor, Carlie-Jane; Soewido, Dias; Sanders, John M

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco-related disease is estimated to cost the NSW health system more than $476 million in direct health care costs annually. Population-based smoking-cessation interventions, including brief intervention by health professionals, are effective and cost effective. As the prevalence of smoking in the general community declines, more highly dependent 'treatment-resistant' smokers may present a challenge to the health system. International guidelines recommend that health systems invest in training for health professionals in best practice smoking cessation. As part of the NSW Tobacco Action Plan 2005-2009, NSW Department of Health developed national competency standards in smoking cessation, designed learning and assessment materials and delivered training to more than 300 health professionals via video conference. Building the capacity of the NSW Health workforce to address smoking cessation as part of their routine practice is essential for addressing future challenges in tobacco control. PMID:18507967

  8. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD.......Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  9. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  10. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 58199) dated September 20, 2011, for a 60-day... Cessation, one comment was received from a retiree who was upset that he might be forced to pay more for..., except that the following are not excluded: (i) Services provided by a certified marriage and...

  11. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  12. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  13. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  14. Application of motivational interviewing to prenatal smoking cessation: training and implementation issues

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, M.; J. Hecht; V. Quinn; Emmons, K; DiClemente, C.; Dolan-Mullen, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Three of the Smoke-Free Families projects incorporated motivational interviewing (MI) into prenatal smoking cessation interventions. This paper describes the process involved in training healthcare providers to use MI and the issues encountered in implementing the protocols.
DESIGN—Health care providers at all three sites attended local training workshops in which they learned to apply the basics of MI to their study protocol. All sites followed a similar outline and schedule for tr...

  15. Smoking cessation care among patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Kristen; Martínez, Úrsula; Britton, Ben; Baker, Amanda; Bonevski, Billie; Carter, Gregory; Beck, Alison; Wratten, Chris; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Halpin, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in improving cessation rates and smoking related behaviour in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Design A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Methods We searched the following data sources: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to February 2016. A search of reference lists of included studies and Google Scholar (first 200 citations published online between 2000 and February 2016) was also undertaken. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). 2 study authors independently screened and extracted data with disagreements resolved via consensus. Results Of the 5167 studies identified, 3 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of included studies were 2 randomised controlled trials and 1 non-randomised controlled trial. 2 studies received a weak methodological rating and 1 received a moderate methodological rating. The trials examine the impact of the following interventions: (1) nurse delivered cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) via telephone and accompanied by a workbook, combined with pharmacotherapy; (2) nurse and physician brief advice to quit and information booklets combined with pharmacotherapy; and (3) surgeon delivered enhanced advice to quit smoking augmented by booster sessions. Only the trial of the nurse delivered CBT and pharmacotherapy reported significant increases in smoking cessation rates. 1 study measured quit attempts and the other assessed consumption of cigarettes per day and readiness to change. There was no significant improvement in quit attempts or cigarettes smoked per day among patients in the intervention groups, relative to control. Conclusions There are very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions that report results specific to the HNC

  16. Systematic critical review of previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew; Lewis, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify and critically assess previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions delivered during pregnancy. Design: Qualitative review of studies with primary data collection or hypothetical modelling. Quality assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies checklist. Data sources: Electronic search of 13 databases including Medline, Econlit, Embase, and PubMed, and manual search of the UK's National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline...

  17. Influences of mood, depression history, and treatment modality on outcomes in smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Amie L; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Victor I. Reus; Hall, Sharon M.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment modality, and mood was evaluated in smokers participating in cessation programs. Participants (N = 549, 53.7% women, 46.3% men, 28% endorsing past MDD episodes) were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or health education (HE) intervention. Participants with a history of recurrent MDD (MDD-R) had higher rates of abstinence in CBT compared with HE even when the contribution of mood and the interaction b...

  18. ‘Someone batting in my corner’: experiences of smoking-cessation support via text message

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Nicolas; Free, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background The txt2stop trial demonstrated that smoking-cessation support delivered by text message doubles biochemically verified abstinence at 6 months. There was no significant heterogeneity in any of the pre-specified subgroups. Aim To explore participants’ experiences of the txt2stop intervention via a qualitative study using telephone interviews. Design and setting Qualitative telephone interviews in the community. Method Thematic content analysis of 1283 feedback forms was conducted to...

  19. Protocol for the Proactive Or Reactive Telephone Smoking CeSsation Support (PORTSSS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgelly Paula

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone quit lines are accessible to many smokers and are used to engage motivated smokers to make quit attempts. Smoking cessation counselling provided via telephone can either be reactive (i.e. primarily involving the provision of evidence-based information, or proactive (i.e. primarily involving repeated, sequenced calls from and interaction with trained cessation counsellors. Some studies have found proactive telephone counselling more effective and this trial will investigate whether or not proactive telephone support for smoking cessation, delivered through the National Health Service (NHS Smoking Helpline is more effective or cost-effective than reactive support. It will also investigate whether or not providing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, in addition to telephone counselling, has an adjunctive impact on smoking cessation rates and whether or not this is cost effective. Methods This will be a parallel group, factorial design RCT, conducted through the English national NHS Smoking Helpline which is run from headquarters in Glasgow. Participants will be smokers who call the helpline from any location in England and who wish to stop smoking. If 644 participants are recruited to four equally-sized trial groups (total sample size = 2576, the trial will have 90% power for detecting a treatment effect (Odds Ratio of 1.5 for each of the two interventions: i proactive versus reactive support and ii the offer of NRT versus no offer. The primary outcome measure for the study is self-reported, prolonged abstinence from smoking for at least six months following an agreed quit date. A concurrent health economic evaluation will investigate the cost effectiveness of the two interventions when delivered via a telephone helpline. Discussion The PORTSSS trial will provide high quality evidence to determine the most appropriate kind of counselling which should be provided via the NHS Smoking Helpline and also whether or not an

  20. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  1. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated. There

  2. Experienced barriers and facilitators for integrating smoking cessation advice and support into daily dental practice. A short report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Hilberink, S.R.; Maassen, I.M.; Segaar, D.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In a controlled study, primary care dental professionals in the intervention group were encouraged to provide smoking cessation advice and support for all smoking patients with the help of a stage-based motivational protocol. The barriers and facilitators reported by the dental professionals on two

  3. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  4. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  5. 我院戒烟成功率与戒烟策略的研究%Research and smoking cessation strategies smoking cessation success rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 王琼; 余荣环

    2013-01-01

    The harm of tobacco is one of the most serious public health problem in the world. Smoking and quit smoking as at ract sb.'s at ention. 3 years in our hospital, in creating smoke-free hospital process, how the effective smoking cessation strategies to protect and promote smoking cessation success achieved some experience. Smoking cessation strategies mainly include:clarify smoking and smoking status, the health hazards of smoking, smoking relapse rate high reason, to strengthen publicity and education;the specific method to quit smoking, including administrative intervention, rewards and punishment regulations create smoking, smoking cessation clinic, smoking cessation in patients with clubs, quit smoking patients to quit smoking exchange etc. The comprehensive measures must be used to smoking cessation education and behavior intervention combined to achieve the desired purpose.%烟草危害是当今世界最严重的公共健康问题之一。吸烟与戒烟成为引人注目的话题。我院3年来,在创建无烟医院过程中,如何通过有效可行的戒烟策略来保障和促进戒烟成功取得了一些经验。戒烟策略上主要包括:阐明吸烟与控烟现状、吸烟对健康的危害、吸烟复吸率高的原因,加强宣传和教育;戒烟的具体方法上,主要包括行政干预,戒烟奖惩条例,创建戒烟门诊,戒烟患者俱乐部,戒烟患者戒烟交流会等多方面。阐述了戒烟必须使用教育与行为干预相结合的综合措施才能达到预期目的。

  6. Analysis of effect of smoking cessation intervention on application 5A and 5R strategy for tuberculosis outpatients%应用5A和5R策略对肺结核门诊患者进行戒烟干预的实施效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景红; 孙业桓; 阚晓宏

    2014-01-01

    目的:针对吸烟的肺结核患者进行戒烟劝导,了解吸烟的肺结核患者对戒烟的态度、信心,评价戒烟干预效果。方法对前来就诊的肺结核患者中吸烟者应用5 A和5 R策略进行戒烟劝导,记录戒烟信心、动机分值,收集5次随访信息建立Epida-ta数据库,利用SPSS软件对数据进行分析,评价项目门诊医师劝导戒烟的效果。结果登记肺结核患者491例,其中有302例吸烟患者,可随访到的患者第2个月、第5个月、第6个月以及12个月后的戒烟率分别为32.1%、30.6%、27.9%和18.0%;第5个月、第6个月、12个月的连续3个月戒烟成功率分别为4.1%、5.0%和3.7%,采用非参数检验中的Friedman法对5次戒烟动机和信心进行比较,5次动机得分都各不相等,动机分值呈下降趋势,信心分值呈下降趋势。结论在肺结核患者接受督导治疗的同时,给予戒烟宣传、劝导的措施是可行的。%Objective By giving advice about quitting smoking to smoking patients at county tuberculosis outpatient department,to provide the basis for establishing an effective and enforceable quitting-smoking advising model.Methods The patients who visited the tuber-culosis outpatient department were registered so that their conditions of tobacco using,attitudes and willingness to quitting could be learned a-bout.Doctors conducted smoking-control intervention by using the 5 As and 5 Rs.At the same time of issuing treatment cards,smoking cessa-tion and motivation scores and confidence scores were recorded.Information was collected in five follow-ups and a database was established with Epidata.The data was analyzed with Software SPSS,and the effect of advising quitting smoking by clinic doctors was assessed.Results The project implementation lasted one year,during which 49 1 tuberculosis patients were registered in total,and 302 of them smoked.In follow up cases,smoking-quitting rate at

  7. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  8. Smoking Cessation for Crohn's Disease: Clearing the Haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-03-01

    The TABACROHN Study Group conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study, demonstrating that smoking cessation improved the prognosis of Crohn's disease. Patients who continued to smoke were 50% more likely to relapse compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation reduced the risk of flaring, regardless of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial, many patients do not quit smoking after their diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Lack of awareness, physical addiction, and social context of smoking inhibit smoking cessation. In spite of this, comprehensive smoking cessation programs have been shown to be effective and reduce costs.

  9. Experience of a smoking cessation program among high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, the prevalence of smoking among teenagers has led to a required smoking cessation program in schools. Students caught smoking in school are required to participate in a weekly smoking cessation class. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of high school students in a smoking cessation program. Fifteen adolescents participated in a one-on-one in-depth semistructured interview, and the content was analyzed for patterns based on the methods of Miles and Huberman. In addition, Lewin's change theory of drive forces and restraining forces was used to describe the change in behavior as a result of the program. Five major themes were identified: the onset of smoking-change influenced by families and friends; intention to quit smoking-driving force; the irresistible temptation to smoke-restraining force; limited change effects-more attention and assistance needed; and change in attitude rather than behavior-smoking remained unchanged. Changes were seen in the perceptions and attitudes of these students toward smoking at the end of the program; however, none of them were able to really quit. Most participants revealed that they used improper means to pass the carbon monoxide test requirement that was used as a measure of not smoking. Alternative future intervention strategies for further study include change in health policy to support nicotine replacement methods for heavy adolescent smoker, use of teacher support, and exercise programs to support students going through the smoking cessation period.

  10. Smoking Cessation Counselling for Pregnant and Postpartum Women among Midwives, Gynaecologists and Paediatricians in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hannöver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers.The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for smokers in the care for pregnant and parenting women by midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians. A survey of all midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians registered for primary medical care in the federal state Saarland, Germany, was conducted. Participation in the postal questionnaires was 85 %. Depending on profession, 90 % to 100 % see smoking cessation counselling as their assignment, 17 % to 80 % screen for, 48 % to 90 % document smoking status, and 55 % to 76 % offer brief or extensive counselling. 61 % to 87 % consider training to enhance their knowledge and/or counselling skills necessary. The compliance of providers with the necessity to give support in smoking cessation is very high. However, the current status of cessation counselling does not sufficiently correspond to the evidence based requirements. Reports in medical press and advanced training courses should support health care providers and establish smoking as an inherent topic of the anamnesis and treatment of current and former pregnant or parenting smokers.

  11. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Illicit Drug Use among Opioid Maintenance Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Reimann, Edward; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Opioid treatment program patients and staff often have concerns that smoking cessation may jeopardize abstinence from illicit drug use. In this study, we evaluated whether smoking abstinence produced with a two-week contingency-management (CM) intervention was associated with relapse to illicit drug use among patients enrolled in opioid maintenance. Opioid-maintenance patients who were stable in treatment and abstinent from illicit drugs were enrolled in a 14-day smoking-cessation study. Participants were dichotomized into Abstainers (> 90% smoking-negative samples, n=12) and Smokers (< 10% smoking-negative samples, n=16). Illicit drug assays included opioids, oxycodone, propoxyphene, cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine and benzodiazepines. There were no differences between the Abstainers and Smokers, with 99% and 96% of samples testing negative for all illicit drugs in each group, respectively. Data from this study provide no evidence that smoking cessation among stable opioid-maintained patients undermines drug abstinence and lend support for programs that encourage smoking cessation during drug abuse treatment. PMID:20401340

  12. Organizational factors affecting participation in a smoking cessation program and abstinence among 68 auto dealerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emont, S L; Cummings, K M

    1990-01-01

    Abstract The effects of organizational factors on participation rates in a smoking cessation clinic and on one-year quit rates were examined among 68 private sector businesses. Free smoking cessation programs were offered to all smoking employees. Smokers (n = 844) were contacted to determine changes in smoking behavior; managers (n = 68) were also contacted to assess changes in smoking policy implementation over the past year. The participation rate in the clinic was 6.6 percent. Overall, 14.3 percent of smokers reported abstaining from cigarettes for at least one month prior to the one-year follow-up survey. Organization factors predicting clinic participation included having health promotion programs, increased motivation to stop smoking, and greater length of employment. Factors predicting cessation at one year included greater clinic participation rates, larger worksite size, a greater awareness of smoking restrictions, and agreement that passive smoking was dangerous to ones health. The only factor to significantly increase both participation and cessation rates was the presence of smoking policies. Employee, manager, and organizational characteristics can exert independent effects on behavior. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at each of these levels to maximize smoking-related behavior change.

  13. A Mood Management Intervention in an Internet Stop Smoking Randomized Controlled Trial Does Not Prevent Depression: A Cautionary Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Schueller, Stephen M; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking and depression are related, and mood management interventions included in smoking cessation interventions can increase smoking abstinence rates. Could a mood management intervention embedded in an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention prevent major depressive episodes? Spanish- and English-speaking smokers (N = 17,430) from 191 countries were randomized to one of four online self-help intervention conditions (two with mood management). We analyzed preventive effects among thos...

  14. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussher Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy, and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations. The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for

  15. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  16. The transtheoretical model use for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Eroğlu, Kafiye; KOYUN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Available Online at http://iassr.org/journal 2013 (c) EJRE published by International Association of Social Science Research - IASSR European Journal of Research on Education ISSN: 2147-6284 European Journal of Research on Education, 2014, Special Issue: Contemporary Studies in Social Science, 130-134 The transtheoretical model use for smoking cessation Ayşe Koyun a *, Kafiye Eroğlu b aAfyon Kocatepe University, Afyon School of Health, Afyonkarahisar, 03200...

  17. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  18. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation. PMID:27580193

  19. Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment initiated during psychiatric hospitalization: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment for psychiatric inpatients. Method Smokers, regardless of intention to quit, were recruited during psychiatric hospitalization and randomized to receive stage-based smoking cessation services or usual aftercare. Smoking cessation services, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed during 18-months of follow-up. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness during a lifetime horizon. Results Among 223 smokers randomized between 2006 and 2008, the mean cost of smoking cessation services was $189 in the experimental treatment group and $37 in the usual care condition (p < 0.001). At the end of follow-up, 18.75% of the experimental group was abstinent from cigarettes, compared to 6.80% abstinence in the usual care group (p <0.05). The model projected that the intervention added $43 in lifetime cost and generated 0.101 additional Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $428 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found the experimental intervention was cost-effective against the acceptance criteria of $50,000/QALY in 99.0% of the replicates. Conclusions A cessation intervention for smokers identified in psychiatric hospitalization did not result in higher mental health care costs in the short-run and was highly cost-effective over the long-term. The stage-based intervention was a feasible and cost-effective way of addressing the high smoking prevalence in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:26528651

  20. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: Results after 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisca Rosa, Ecinele; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were...... extended, resulting in 116 eligible among the 286 screened subjects. They received NSPT and concurrent smoking cessation interventions. Periodontal maintenance was performed every three months. A calibrated examined, blinded to smoking status, performed full-mouth periodontal examination in six sites per...... continued smoking (NQ) and 11 oscillated (O) at 24 months of follow-up. Thereby, Q showed significantly higher mean CAL gain in diseased sites and higher reduction in sites with CAL ≥ 3 mm, when compared to NQ. In addition, Q presented significantly higher mean probing depth reduction relative to NQ(p≤ 0...

  1. Effect of Smoking on Joint Replacement Outcomes: Opportunities for Improvement Through Preoperative Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Erik; Tzeng, Tony H; Ginnetti, Michael; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Jasmine; Lane, J M; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-01-01

    Because orthopaedic surgeons focus on identifying serious potential complications, such as heart attack, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis, during the preoperative assessment, correctable factors, such as smoking, may be overlooked. Chronic exposure to nicotine has been correlated with perioperative complications that lead to worse outcomes, including decreased patient satisfaction, longer hospitalization periods, and an increased rate of hospital readmission. It has been proven that smoking is a negative risk factor for decreased bone mineral density, which leads to increased fracture risk, heightened pain, postoperative wound and bone healing complications, decreased fusion rates, and postoperative tendon and ligament healing complications. Physician-led preoperative smoking cessation programs that include, but are not limited to, pharmacotherapy plans have been shown to improve primary surgical outcomes and smoking cessation rates. Smoking has detrimental effects on specialty-specific physiology; however, there are many effective options for intervention that can improve primary outcomes. PMID:27049216

  2. Health and economic implications of a work-site smoking-cessation program: a simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Smith, R J; Smith, D G; Fries, B E

    1996-10-01

    In this article, we examine the health and economic implications of a workplace smoking-cessation program by using a simulation model that includes, among its novel features, consideration of long-term as well as short-term implications and evaluation of the effects of employee turnover on benefits derived by both the firm and the broader community. As a result of employee turnover, approximately half of the program-generated benefits are realized by the community outside the firm. Still, smoking cessation is a very sound economic investment for the firm, and is particularly profitable when long-term benefits are included, with an eventual benefit-cost ratio of 8.75. Saving life-years at a cost of $894 each, the program is more cost-effective than most of the conventional medical care covered by the firm's insurance. Nevertheless, the intervention successfully addresses only a fraction of the costs that smoking imposes on the firm.

  3. Do counselor techniques predict quitting during smoking cessation treatment? A component analysis of telephone-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    No studies to date have examined the effect of counselor techniques on smoking cessation over the course of treatment. To address this gap, we examined the degree to which the use of specific Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) counseling techniques in a given session predicted smoking cessation reported at the next session. The data came from the ACT arm of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered smoking cessation intervention. Trained raters coded 139 counseling sessions across 44 participants. The openness, awareness and activation components of the ACT model were rated for each telephone counseling session. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive relationship between each component during any given telephone session and smoking cessation at the following telephone session. For every 1-unit increase in counselors' use of openness and awareness techniques there were 42% and 52% decreases in the odds of smoking at the next counseling session, respectively. However, there was no significant predictive relationship between counselors' use of activation techniques and smoking cessation. Overall, results highlight the theoretical and clinical value of examining therapists' techniques as predictors of outcome during the course of treatment.

  4. Driving cessation in patients attending a memory clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Conal

    2005-01-01

    PUBLISHED BACKGROUND: Driving is an increasingly important form of transport for older people. Dementia is common in later life and will eventually lead to driving cessation, which reduces the public health risk of impaired driving but also impairs access to services. The factors associated with driving cessation in dementia are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine the demographic, psychometric and personal factors associated with driving cessation in patients attending a memory cli...

  5. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  6. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  7. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  8. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  9. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410..., TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.432 Cessation of disability. (a) Where it has been determined that a miner is totally disabled under §...

  10. Drug cessation in complex older adults: Time for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); C. Rajkumar (Chakravarthi); G. Onder (Graziano); C.S. Sterke (Carolyn); M. Petrovic (Mirko)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: general opinion is growing that drug cessation in complex older patients is warranted in certain situations. From a clinical viewpoint, drug cessation seems most warranted in four situations, i.e., falls, delirium, cognitive impairment and endof-life situations. To date, litt

  11. Successful Smoking Cessation in COPD : Association with Comorbidities and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupiainen, H; Kinnula, V L; Lindqvist, A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M; Laitinen, T; Kilpeläinen, M

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD management, but difficult to achieve in clinical practice. The effect of comorbidities on smoking cessation and risk factors for mortality were studied in a cohort of 739 COPD patients recruited in two Finnish University Hospitals. The diagnosis of COPD w

  12. Pairing smoking-cessation services with lung cancer screening: A clinical guideline from the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; Czabafy, Sharon; Hendricks, Peter S; Kotsen, Chris; Richardson, Donna; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-04-15

    Smoking cessation is crucial for reducing cancer risk and premature mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently approved lung screening as a benefit for patients ages 55 to 77 years who have a 30 pack-year history. The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) and the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence (ATTUD) developed the guideline described in this commentary based on an illustrative literature review to present the evidence for smoking-cessation health benefits in this high-risk group and to provide clinical recommendations for integrating evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment with lung cancer screening. Unfortunately, extant data on lung cancer screening participants were scarce at the time this guideline was written. However, in this review, the authors summarize the sufficient evidence on the benefits of smoking cessation and the efficacy of smoking-cessation interventions for smokers ages 55 to 77 years to provide smoking-cessation interventions for smokers who seek lung cancer screening. It is concluded that smokers who present for lung cancer screening should be encouraged to quit smoking at each visit. Access to evidence-based smoking-cessation interventions should be provided to all smokers regardless of scan results, and motivation to quit should not be a necessary precondition for treatment. Follow-up contacts to support smoking-cessation efforts should be arranged for smokers. Evidence-based behavioral strategies should be used at each visit to motivate smokers who are unwilling to try quitting/reducing smoking or to try evidence-based treatments that may lead to eventual cessation.

  13. Pairing smoking-cessation services with lung cancer screening: A clinical guideline from the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; Czabafy, Sharon; Hendricks, Peter S; Kotsen, Chris; Richardson, Donna; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-04-15

    Smoking cessation is crucial for reducing cancer risk and premature mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently approved lung screening as a benefit for patients ages 55 to 77 years who have a 30 pack-year history. The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) and the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence (ATTUD) developed the guideline described in this commentary based on an illustrative literature review to present the evidence for smoking-cessation health benefits in this high-risk group and to provide clinical recommendations for integrating evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment with lung cancer screening. Unfortunately, extant data on lung cancer screening participants were scarce at the time this guideline was written. However, in this review, the authors summarize the sufficient evidence on the benefits of smoking cessation and the efficacy of smoking-cessation interventions for smokers ages 55 to 77 years to provide smoking-cessation interventions for smokers who seek lung cancer screening. It is concluded that smokers who present for lung cancer screening should be encouraged to quit smoking at each visit. Access to evidence-based smoking-cessation interventions should be provided to all smokers regardless of scan results, and motivation to quit should not be a necessary precondition for treatment. Follow-up contacts to support smoking-cessation efforts should be arranged for smokers. Evidence-based behavioral strategies should be used at each visit to motivate smokers who are unwilling to try quitting/reducing smoking or to try evidence-based treatments that may lead to eventual cessation. PMID:26916412

  14. Prize Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunctive behavioral smoking cessation treatments have the potential to improve outcomes beyond standard care. The present study had two aims: 1) compare standard care (SC) for smoking (four weeks of brief counseling and monitoring) to SC plus prize-based contingency management (CM), involving the chance to earn prizes on days with demonstrated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide (CO) ≤6ppm); and 2) compare the relative efficacy of two prize reinforcement schedules - one a traditional CM schedule, and the second an early enhanced CM schedule providing greater reinforcement magnitude in the initial week of treatment but equal overall reinforcement. Methods Participants (N = 81 nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Results Prize CM resulted in significant reductions in cigarette smoking relative to SC. These reductions were not apparent at follow-up. We found no meaningful differences between the traditional and enhanced CM conditions. Conclusions Our findings reveal that prize CM leads to significant reductions in smoking during treatment relative to a control intervention, but the benefits did not extend long-term. PMID:24793364

  15. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-08-01

    An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion. PMID:24515948

  16. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireman Theresa I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8% persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nations Breath of Life" (ANBL program compared to a non-tailored "Current Best Practices" smoking cessation program among AI smokers. Methods We will randomize 56 groups (8 smokers per group to the tailored program or non-tailored program for a total sample size of 448 American Indian smokers. All participants in the proposed study will be offered pharmacotherapy, regardless of group assignment. This study is the first controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians. If the intervention is successful, the potential health impact is significant because the prevalence of smoking is the highest in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106456

  17. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-08-01

    An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion.

  18. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia K. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N=198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5 were mostly White (70.4% and male (60.5% and had at least a college degree (58.4%. Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions. Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45, use of NRT (OR = 4.24, and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73 were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline and three different behavioral treatment formats for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitz, Harold S; Zbikowski, Susan M; Deprey, Mona; McAfee, Timothy A; McClure, Jennifer B; Richards, Julie; Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa M; Swan, Gary E

    2011-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence of the relative cost-effectiveness of proactive telephone counseling (PTC) and Web-based delivery of smoking cessation services in conjunction with pharmacotherapy. We calculated the differential cost-effectiveness of three behavioral smoking cessation modalities with varenicline treatment in a randomized trial of current smokers from a large health system. Eligible participants were randomized to one of three smoking cessation interventions: Web-based counseling (n=401), PTC (n=402), or combined PTC-Web counseling (n=399). All participants received a standard 12-week course of varenicline. The primary outcome was a 7-day point prevalent nonsmoking at the 6month follow-up. The Web intervention was the least expensive followed by the PTC and PTC-Web groups. Costs per additional 6-month nonsmoker and per additional lifetime quitter were $1,278 and $2,601 for Web, $1,472 and $2,995 for PTC, and $1,617 and $3,291 for PTC-Web. Cost per life-year (LY) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved were $1,148 and $1,136 for Web, $1,320 and $1,308 for PTC, and $1,450 and $1,437 for PTC-Web. Based on the cost per LY and QALY saved, these interventions are among the most cost-effective life-saving medical treatments. Web, PTC, and combined PTC-Web treatments were all highly cost-effective, with the Web treatment being marginally more cost-effective than the PTC or combined PTC-Web treatments.

  20. Evaluation of knowledge change of internal medicine residents following a training program in smoking cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major barriers to smoking cessation practice is that many health professionals do not have the knowledge and skills on how to intervene. Objectives: To assess the effect of a training program on physicians' knowledge about tobacco dependence and cessation interventions. Subjects and Methods: A comprehensive training program was given to internal medicine residents in Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt during 2008-2009. An anonymous, 11- item questionnaire was administered before and after the training program. The training process was evaluated by participants' satisfaction using a 13- item checklist. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality. Results: A total of 163 internists entered the training program. Improvement in overall knowledge was evidenced by higher mean score in the post-test than pre-test (6.2 vs. 4.7; p<0.001). Significant improvement were seen in the participants' knowledge related to assessment of tobacco dependence (61% vs. 27%;p<0.001), interventions for smokers willing to quit (51.6 vs. 28.2%; p<0.001), interventions for smokers unwilling to quit (40.8 vs. 19.6%; p<0.001) and coping skills to handle withdrawal symptoms (52.9 vs. 30.7;p<0.001). Almost all participants reported that the training was very useful (96%) and applicable (85.6%) in their medical practices. Conclusions: Targeted training of health professionals has a potential to translate into improved smoking cessation counseling and to increase their inclination to intervene. Policy message: Continued medical education and regular/targeted training of health providers should be done. (author)

  1. Impact of weight gain following smoking cessation on one-yearoutcome after drug-eluting stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-ming; L(u) An-kang; SHEN Wei-feng; WU Qi-hong; MA Xiao-ye; YANG Er-li; ZHANG Rui-Yan; ZHANG Shi-jia

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight gain following smoking cessation increases cardiovascular risk,but its effects on prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain unclear.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between weight gain post smoking cessation and one-year clinical outcome in patients who underwent PCI with drug-eluting stent (DES).Methods A total of 895 consecutive male smoking patients were divided into quitters (n=437) and continuers (n=458)according to their smoking status after PCI.Weight gain,major adverse cardiac events (MACE,including cardiac deaths,myocardial infarction and revascularization),and recurrent angina were recorded during follow-up for one year.Results Average weight gain in quitters was more than that in continuers (1.5 kg vs.-0.03 kg,P<0.001).Weight was unchanged or increased by more than 1.5 kg in 78.17% of continuers,while 50.57% of quitters had a weight gain of less than 1.5 kg.Compared with continuers,MACE in quitters was significantly reduced after PCI (6.12% vs.4.81%,P=0.049),especially recurrent angina (13.97% in continuers vs.9.84% in quitters,P=-0.027).After adjusting for weight gain and other factors,smoking cessation was independently associated with a lower risk of MACE and recurrent angina (OR=0.73,P=0.035).However,weight gain >1.5 kg (OR=1.55,P=0.026) could curtail the benefits from smoking cessation.Conclusions Weight gain may reduce the benefits of smoking cessation after PCI with DES implantation.Thus,although smoking cessation is recommended after PCI,weight control should also be highly encouraged for these patients.

  2. Implementation of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Study at Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs: Smoking Behavior and Treatment Feasibility Across Varied Community-based Outpatient Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Nunes, Edward V; Lima, Jennifer; Jiang, Huiping; Tyson, Clare; Hiott, Robert; Arfken, Cynthia; Bohs, Rhonda; Orr, Deborah; Muir, Joan; Pihlgren, Eric; Loree, Amy; Fuller, Brett E; Giordano, Louis; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2007-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is widely prevalent among individuals in treatment for drug or alcohol dependence; however, the treatment of nicotine addiction in this population has numerous obstacles at both programmatic and patient levels. Despite these difficulties, recent studies have demonstrated moderate success in implementing smoking cessation treatment in drug rehabilitation programs. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network sponsored a smoking cessation study in 13 community-based outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation programs across the country. The study evaluated the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment provided as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual. This report summarizes the practical and clinical experiences encountered at each of the study sites with regard to implementing the smoking cessation treatment intervention. Smoking behavior of the treatment clientele was assessed by anonymous survey at each site. In addition, sites were systematically characterized by using program review and assessment tools completed by the respective staff and program directors at the site. Survey and recruitment data indicated that cigarette smoking is more prevalent and that smoking cessation treatment is more feasible, in methadone maintenance treatment programs. Other factors associated with smoking behavior and with the recruitment of drug- and alcohol-dependent individuals into the smoking cessation treatment study are described.

  3. A systematic review of peer-support programs for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-10-28

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  4. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Gartner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting, psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence. Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  5. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting participants with confirmed habit of tobacco smoking will be recruited and randomized into three arms to receive either auricular acupressure at five true acupoints (NADA protocol, auricular acupressure at five sham points, or no auricular acupressure at all. Participants having auricular acupressure will exert firm pressure to each acupoint bilaterally via the bead in the attached plasters whenever they feel the urge to smoke. The treatment phase will last for six weeks during which all participants will be assessed weekly to review their smoking log, state of abstinence, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and possible adverse effects including withdrawal reactions and stress levels. At any time, a successful quit date will be defined with continuous abstinence for the following consecutive 7 days. From then on, participants will be evaluated individually for continuous abstinence rate (CAR, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and adverse effects of stress and withdrawal at specified intervals up to 26 weeks. Expectancy of treatment will be assessed with a four-item Borkovec and Nau self-assessment credibility scale during and after intervention. Discussion We incorporate validated outcome measures of smoking cessation into our randomised controlled trial design with the objectives to evaluate the feasibility and possible benefits of self-administered auricular acupressure as a non-invasive alternative to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Trial

  6. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Nancy C. Raymond; Cooney, Ned L.; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals’ cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70 % or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies...

  7. Update on medicines for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  8. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  9. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...

  10. Does Acceptance and Relationship Focused Behavior Therapy Contribute to Bupropion Outcomes? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth V.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Pierson, Heather M.; Piasecki, Melissa P.; Antonuccio, David O.; Palm, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a treatment combining bupropion with a novel acceptance and relationship focused behavioral intervention based on the acceptance and relationship context (ARC) model. Three hundred and three smokers from a community sample were randomly assigned to bupropion, a widely used smoking cessation medication, or bupropion plus…

  11. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  12. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone;

    2009-01-01

    and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns......, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...

  13. [Smoking cessation--a "must have" in medical curricula. The European HERMES project--a supportive argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofor, Antigona; Mihăescu, Traian

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory Medicine is a complex domain of activity, moreover has enlarged its content in last decades by numerous areas of expertise, among which also smoking cessation, a field aiming to assist individuals to quit or prevent tobacco use. Introducing routinely this preoccupation in Romanian doctors' work is supposed to legitimate nicotine dependence as a disease, as already classified by world medical organizations. In agreement with HERMES project, an European Respiratory Society initiative to harmonize education in respiratory medicine across Europe, we recommend smoking cessation to be mandatory in Romanian medical curricula. Thus, students will earn theoretical, practical and behavioral skills to approach health effects of tobacco use, treatment and approach of smokers. Yet, considering real life situation in our country, for actual generations of practitioners we suggest intensive training in two modules: a basic one to cover lack of elementary knowledge during previous years and an advanced module for specialists. To future generations, a continuous, more coherent approach is to be settled, aiming to create brief advice expertise during medical university years of study. When graduating, future doctors willing to become smoking cessation experts will be provided postgraduate training to achieve this degree. Hopefully, within next two generations, many Romanian doctors will become capable to routinely deliver smoking cessation interventions, at European standards. PMID:19817311

  14. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby Peter; Brosky Gerald; Oh Paul I; Raymond Vincent; Ranger Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realisti...

  15. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  16. Assessment of professional competency and need of smoking cessation counseling for dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani A. Dable

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the smoking prevalence among dental students and to assess the need for promoting tobacco education and intervention by exploring their knowledge about smoking related risk factors. The study also examined the attitudes and practices of the students toward tobacco consumption, and their responsibilities toward the community. Methods: In total, 53 male students participated in the study (21 juniors and 32 seniors. The training program was divided into three modules, and the questionnaire was administered before and after the counseling sessions, which provided the comparative data on the students’ views about smoking cessation. Results: The most commonly practiced mode of tobacco consumption was found to be cigarette smoking (90.6 %, while a few consumed Gutkha (9.4%. All the junior students (100% reported to have been benefitted by the counseling program, while 68.8% of the students from the senior group reported the same. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the Pearson’s chi-square test for testing the difference across the age groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Curbing tobacco influence on dental students in their initial days can ensure a smoke-free life for them, as well as prevents them from feeling embarrassed or experiencing a lack of confidence while seeing their patients. Thus, tobacco education and intervention programs can motivate the students and increase their potential to be credible advisors regarding smoking cessation.

  17. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  18. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  19. Regulating Advertisements: The Case of Smoking Cessation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary J. Avery; Donald S. Kenkel; Lillard, Dean R.; Alan D. Mathios

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of pharmaceutical products in affected by regulations of the Food and Drug Administration and by market conditions. We focus on a relatively under-studied segment of the pharmaceutical market -- the market for smoking cessation products. Because of their proven effectiveness, these products could be the key to meeting public health goals to reduce smoking. However, in many ways, smoking cessation products have been more hea...

  20. Cessation of injecting drug use among street-based youth

    OpenAIRE

    Steensma, Colin; Boivin, Jean-François; Blais, Lucie; Roy, Élise

    2005-01-01

    Young injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for a number of negative health outcomes such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, very little is known about injecting drug-use patterns among this population, particularly with respect to cessation of injection. We sought to identify the factors associated with cessation of injection in a population of young street-based IDUs. A prospective cohort study design was used to assess long-term (...

  1. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pucchio, Alessandra Di; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therap...

  2. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  3. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm and destructive index (DI. The frequencies of CD8+IL-17+(Tc17 and CD4+IL-17+(Th17 cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema.

  4. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 cell expression upon smoking cessation in mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Min-Chao; Tang, Hai-Juan; Zhong, Xiao-Ning; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm) and destructive index (DI). The frequencies of CD8(+)IL-17(+)(Tc17) and CD4(+)IL-17(+)(Th17) cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema. PMID:24489575

  5. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  6. Smoking cessation counseling for Asian immigrants with serious mental illness: using RE-AIM to understand challenges and lessons learned in primary care-behavioral health integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Kim, Jin; Lim, Joyce; Powell, Catherine; Tong, Elisa K

    2013-09-01

    Engagement in modifiable risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, substantially contributes to early mortality rates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). There is an alarmingly high prevalence of tobacco use among subgroups of Asian Americans, such as immigrants and individuals with SMI, yet there are no empirically supported effective smoking cessation interventions that have been tailored to meet the unique cultural, cognitive, and psychological needs of Asian immigrants with SMI. In this article, we share the experiences of clinicians in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrants with SMI, in the context of an Asian-focused integrated primary care and behavioral health setting. Through a qualitative analysis of clinician perspectives organized with the RE-AIM framework, we outline challenges, lessons learned, and promising directions for delivering smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrant clients with SMI. PMID:23667056

  7. Effect of Smoking Reduction Therapy on Smoking Cessation for Smokers without an Intention to Quit: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective strategies are needed to encourage smoking cessation for smokers without an intention to quit. We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether smoking reduction therapy can increase the long-term cessation rates of smokers without an intention to quit. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the effect of smoking reduction therapy on long-term smoking cessation in smokers without an intention to quit. The primary outcome was the cessation rate at the longest follow-up period. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: Fourteen trials with a total of 7981 smokers were included. The pooled analysis suggested that reduction support plus medication significantly increased the long-term cessation of smokers without an intention to quit compared to reduction support plus placebo (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.44–2.7; I2, 52% or no intervention (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.41–2.64; I2, 46%. In a subgroup of smokers who received varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, the differences were also statistically significant. This suggests the safety of using NRT. The percentage of smokers with serious adverse events who discontinued because of these events in the non-NRT group was slightly significantly different than in the control group. Insufficient evidence is available to test the efficacy of reduction behavioural support in promoting long-term cessation among this population. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicated the efficacy of NRT- and varenicline-assisted reduction to achieve complete cessation among smokers without an intention to quit. Further evidence is needed to assess the efficacy and safety of reduction behavioural support and bupropion.

  8. Clinical trial on the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll Joana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation is beneficial for our health at any point in life, both in healthy people and in people already suffering from a smoking-related disease. Any help to quit smoking can produce considerable benefits for Public Health. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-oximetry technique together with brief advice in smoking cessation, in terms of reduction of the number of cigarettes or in the variation of the motivation to quit smoking at month 12 compared with brief advice alone. Methods/Design Randomised, parallel, single-blind clinical trial in a primary health care setting in Majorca (Spain. Smokers in contemplation or pre-contemplation phase will be included in the study. Exclusion criteria: Smokers in preparation phase, subjects with a terminal illness or whose health status does not allow them to understand the study or complete the informed consent, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the control group (CG or the intervention group (IG. The CG will receive brief advice, and the IG will receive brief advice together with a measurement of exhaled CO. There will be follow-up evaluations at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. 471 subjects will be needed per group in order to detect a difference between groups ≥ 5%. Primary outcome: sustained smoking cessation (at 6 and 12 months confirmed by urine cotinine test. Secondary outcomes: point smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months both confirmed by urine cotinine analysis and self-reported, reduction in cigarette consumption, and variation in phase of smoking cessation. Discussion CO-oximetry is an inexpensive, non-invasive, fast technique that requires little technical training; making it a technique for risk assessment in smokers that can be easily applied in primary care and, if proven effective, could serve as a reinforcement aid in smoking cessation intervention activities. Trial

  9. Measuring the costs of outreach motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Margaret H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory provides the philosophical foundation for valuing costs in judging medical and public health interventions. When evaluating smoking cessation interventions, accurate data on costs are essential for understanding resource consumption. Smoking cessation interventions, for which prior data on resource costs are typically not available, present special challenges. We develop a micro-costing methodology for estimating the real resource costs of outreach motivational interviewing (MI for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women and report results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT employing the methodology. Methodological standards in cost analysis are necessary for comparison and uniformity in analysis across interventions. Estimating the costs of outreach programs is critical for understanding the economics of reaching underserved and hard-to-reach populations. Methods Randomized controlled trial (1997-2000 collecting primary cost data for intervention. A sample of 302 low-income pregnant women was recruited from multiple obstetrical sites in the Boston metropolitan area. MI delivered by outreach health nurses vs. usual care (UC, with economic costs as the main outcome measures. Results The total cost of the MI intervention for 156 participants was $48,672 or $312 per participant. The total cost of $311.8 per participant for the MI intervention compared with a cost of $4.82 per participant for usual care, a difference of $307 ([CI], $289.2 to $322.8. The total fixed costs of the MI were $3,930 and the total variable costs of the MI were $44,710. The total expected program costs for delivering MI to 500 participants would be 147,430, assuming no economies of scale in program delivery. The main cost components of outreach MI were intervention delivery, travel time, scheduling, and training. Conclusion Grounded in economic theory, this methodology systematically identifies and

  10. Pilot Cases of Combined Cognitive Processing Therapy and Smoking Cessation for Smokers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, Eric A; Resick, Patricia A; McFall, Miles E; Dennis, Paul A; Olsen, Maren; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking are often comorbid, and both problems are in need of improved access to evidence-based treatment. The combined approach could address two high-priority problems and increase patient access to both treatments, but research is needed to determine whether this is feasible and has promise for addressing both PTSD and smoking. We collected data from 15 test cases that received a treatment combining two evidence-based treatments: cognitive processing therapy-cognitive version (CPT-C) for PTSD and integrated care for smoking cessation (ICSC). We explored two combined treatment protocols including a brief (six-session) CPT-C with five follow-up in-person sessions focused on smoking cessation (n=9) and a full 12-session CPT-C protocol with ICSC (n=6). The combined interventions were feasible and acceptable to patients with PTSD making a quit attempt. Initial positive benefits of the combined treatments were observed. The six-session dose of CPT-C and smoking cessation resulted in 6-month bioverified smoking abstinence in two of nine participants, with clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction in three of nine participants. In the second cohort (full CPT-C and smoking treatment), both smoking and PTSD symptoms were improved, with three of six participants abstinent from smoking and four of six participants reporting clinically meaningful reduction in PTSD symptoms. Results suggested that individuals with PTSD who smoke are willing to engage in concurrent treatment of these problems and that combined treatment is feasible.

  11. Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyego Mychell Moreira-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies.

  12. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B, end of treatment (EOT, and six-week followup (FU. We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P<.001 in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P<.05; however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.

  13. Promoting smoking cessation in Pakistani and Bangladeshi men in the UK: pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of trained community outreach workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Pelham

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence is high among Pakistani and Bangladeshi men in the UK, but there are few tailored smoking cessation programmes for Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities. The aim of this study was to pilot a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation outreach workers with standard care to improve access to and the success of English smoking cessation services. Methods A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in Birmingham, UK. Geographical lower layer super output areas were used to identify natural communities where more than 10% of the population were of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. 16 agglomerations of super output areas were randomised to normal care controls vs. outreach intervention. The number of people setting quit dates using NHS services, validated abstinence from smoking at four weeks, and stated abstinence at three and six months were assessed. The impact of the intervention on choice and adherence to treatments, attendance at clinic appointments and patient satisfaction were also assessed. Results We were able to randomise geographical areas and deliver the outreach worker-based services. More Pakistani and Bangladeshi men made quit attempts with NHS services in intervention areas compared with control areas, rate ratio (RR 1.32 (95%CI: 1.03-1.69. There was a small increase in the number of 4-week abstinent smokers in intervention areas (RR 1.30, 95%CI: 0.82-2.06. The proportion of service users attending weekly appointments was lower in intervention areas than control areas. No difference was found between intervention and control areas in choice and adherence to treatments or patient satisfaction with the service. The total cost of the intervention was £124,000; an estimated cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained of £8,500. Conclusions The intervention proved feasible and acceptable. Outreach workers expanded

  14. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing

  15. An exploration of health beliefs and attitudes of smokers with vascular disease who participate in or decline a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kim E; Aish, Arlene

    2002-09-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional aspect of this study compared a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who chose to participate in a smoking intervention with a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who declined to participate. The longitudinal aspect of this study used Ajzen and Fishbein's(1) Theory of Reasoned Action, Keeney's(2) Expected Utility Decision Theory, and Prochaska and DiClemente's(3) Transtheoretical Model of Change to describe the influence of this smoking cessation program on the beliefs and attitudes about smoking in group 1. Smokers completed a smoking beliefs questionnaire with vascular disease at baseline and after 13 weeks of smoking cessation intervention. Smokers who did not want to participate in the smoking cessation program also completed this questionnaire for comparison. Statistically significant differences were found to differentiate people who enrolled in the smoking cessation program from those who did not. Subjects in group 2 smoked less per day, were less educated, were less often diagnosed as having peripheral arterial disease, were found to be more in the precontemplation stage of change in smoking cessation, cared more about what their physician and family thought they should do, and perceived themselves to be at less risk for developing more severe circulatory problems if they did not quit smoking. After 13 weeks, participants in both groups 1 and 2 were found to smoke significantly less per day. No support was found for the expectation that the smoking intervention would influence stage of change in smoking behavior or attitudes and beliefs about the risks of smoking to the participants' health after 13 weeks. PMID:12370691

  16. Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Haddad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1 Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150 = 5.594, p = 0.0045. This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2 Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154 = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers.

  17. Differences between Men and Women Enrolling in Smoking Cessation Programs Using Yoga as a Complementary Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Herpreet; Jennings, Ernestine; Fava, Joseph L; Sillice, Marie A; Becker, Bruce M; Hartman, Sheri J; Bock, Beth C

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of men and women, respectively, participating in two randomized controlled pilot studies whose primary aims were to test the feasibility of yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Participants were aged 18-65, generally healthy and were daily smokers. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests examined gender differences in smoking rate, potential treatment mediators, and covariates (e.g., smoking history, health status, weight concerns, mood, and prior withdrawal symptoms). A total of 55 women and 38 men participated in the study. Differences between men and women at enrollment included: women reported significantly greater withdrawal (psmoking (p=0.003), had an existing smoking-related illness (33% vs. 13%; p=0.032), and reported smoking for weight control (15% vs. 0%; p=0.014). Results showed good feasibility for recruiting both men and women into a study using yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Results also indicate that interventions may need to be tailored to meet different needs (e.g., addressing co-morbid depression) between men and women.

  18. Examining smoking and cessation during pregnancy among an Appalachian sample: a preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Traci

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several transitions that a woman experiences prenatally may influence her desire or ability to discontinue smoking. This study explores the role of smoking for young, Appalachian, nulliparous pregnant women and their plans for smoking during their pregnancies. Results The reports of women and their male partners were taken from baseline interviews conducted during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cigarette smoking appeared to be more than an isolated addictive activity; rather, smoking was interwoven in women's social and personal realms, often changing as their perceptions of self changed. Women and their partners who continued to smoke appeared to be depressed, reject authority, and perceived little control over issues related to being pregnant. Conclusion These findings support the argument that standard substance use treatments and polices based on stages-of-change theories may not be effective for all individuals particularly those experiencing significant developmental changes in their lives. Greater success might be obtained from treatment programs designed to recognize the impact of these transitions as it relates to the substance use. The changing experiences of pregnant women in terms of their identity development, views of others, and their relationships have not been adequately addressed in existing cessation programs. Empirically-based interventions targeting these lifestyle characteristics may lead to increased cessation success among pregnant women.

  19. Supporting smoking cessation in older patients: a continuing challenge for community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco smoking continues to pose negative health consequences for smokers and their families, and is the single greatest cause of health inequalities in the UK. Older people are particularly vulnerable to the negative health impacts of smoking and therefore, supporting older smokers to quit remains an important public health goal. Community nurses are required to help patients to lead healthier lifestyles and have ideal opportunities to encourage smoking cessation in older people who are affected by smoking-related health conditions, or whose existing conditions may be exacerbated by continued smoking. This paper discusses how community nurses can support their older patients to quit smoking by fostering a patient-centred partnership through good communication and empathy. The newly developed 'Very Brief Advice on Smoking' (VBA) interventions can provide a useful tool for community nurses who experience time constraints to advise older people that psychosocial support with treatment is the most effective method of smoking cessation, while respecting the health decisions of patients. PMID:27594061

  20. The Effect of Program Design on Engagement With an Internet-Based Smoking Intervention: Randomized Factorial Trial

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Jennifer B.; Shortreed, Susan M.; Bogart, Andy; Derry, Holly; Riggs, Karin; St. John, Jackie; Nair, Vijay; An, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Background Participant engagement influences treatment effectiveness, but it is unknown which intervention design features increase treatment engagement for online smoking cessation programs. Objective We explored the effects of 4 design features (ie, factors) on early engagement with an Internet-based, motivational smoking cessation program. Methods Smokers (N=1865) were recruited from a large health care organization to participate in an online intervention study, regardless of their intere...

  1. Obesity and early cessation of breastfeeding in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is multi-factorial and several factors contribute to this association. Our aim was to investigate to what extent socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics, parity and prenatal conditions could explain...... the association between high BMI and early cessation of breastfeeding Methods: We used data from a randomized trial of 1597 Danish mothers of singleton infants. Self-reported Maternal postnatal weight and height were available from 1375 (86 %). High BMI was defined as body mass index ≥32 kg/m2 at ~ 17...... breastfeeding, and were more frequently characterised by socio-demographic-, psychosocial-, perinatal- and behavioural factors known to increase the risk of early breastfeeding cessation. In the adjusted analyses (n = 1226) the association between BMI and duration of exclusive breastfeeding depended on parity...

  2. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  3. Impact of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Post-Cessation Mood Profile by Pre-Cessation Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Taru H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the effects of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT on the Profile of Mood States (POMS, testing whether pre-cessation depressive symptoms modify NRT's effects on POMS. Out of 608 smokers attempting to quit with NRT, this secondary analysis included 242 participants abstinent for at least two weeks. We measured pre-cessation depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. At 1, 7, and 14 post-cessation days we examined 6 self-reported POMS, i.e. feeling 'anxious', 'sad', 'confused', 'angry', 'energetic' and 'fatigue'. The results of the ANCOVA models suggested no NRT effects on feeling anxious, energetic or fatigue. We found that pre-cessation depression modified NRT effects in some specific mood states, such as depression by NRT- interaction effects on feeling confused and feeling angry. On average, the depressed participants in the placebo groups had the highest symptom scores. However, those depressed in NRT conditions did not have significantly higher symptom scores compared to the non-depressed groups. In treating those negative moods NRT may be particularly important for persons with depressive symptoms before cessation.

  4. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  5. Ten Years Down the Road: Predictors of Driving Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Bart, Edward; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Cissell, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Recent prospective studies have found that cognition is a more salient predictor of driving cessation than physical performance or demographic factors among community-dwelling older adults. However, these studies have been limited to 5 years of follow-up. The current study used data from the Maryland Older Drivers Project to examine predictors of driving cessation in older adults over a 10-year period. Design and Methods: Participants (N = 1,248) completed baseline and 5-year assessm...

  6. Giving up driving: does social engagement buffer declines in mental health after driving cessation in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Jones, Vanya C

    2016-08-01

    Many older adults consider driving as essential to maintaining their quality of life and independence, and this may be particularly true for individuals residing in more rural areas where transportation options may be limited. Although it is normative for individuals to eventually stop driving as they age, very few plan ahead for their driving retirement (Curl et al., 2014). The process of driving cessation has been associated with a host of negative consequences for physical and mental well-being, including increased depressive symptoms, reduced network of friends, lower activity levels, and accelerated health decline (Mezuk & Rebok, 2008; Edwards et al., 2009; Curl et al., 2014). Previous studies have found that, at all ages, women are more likely to stop driving in later life than men, and often stop driving prematurely, and that various factors such as education and marital status influence the likelihood of cessation differently for women and men (Ross et al., 2009; Choi et al., 2012). Thus, factors associated with driving cessation and its consequences for older women are important to understand, particularly factors that might help buffer the negative effects of giving up driving and that might serve as early targets for preventive interventions. PMID:27374895

  7. A Prospective, Randomized Trial in The Emergency Department Of Suggestive Audio-Therapy Under Deep Sedation for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah, Sushma

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In a sample of patients undergoing procedural deep sedation in the emergency department (ED, we conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial of audio-therapy for smoking cessation. Methods: We asked subjects about their smoking, including desire to quit (0-10 numerical scale and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Subjects were randomized to either a control tape (music alone or a tape with repeated smoking-cessation messages over music. Tapes were started with first doses of sedation and stopped with patient arousal. Telephone follow-up occurred between two weeks and three months to assess the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Study endpoints were self-reported complete cessation and decrease of half or more in total cigarettes smoked per day. Results: One hundred eleven patients were enrolled in the study, 54 to intervention and 57 to control. Mean desire to quit was 7.15 ± 2.6 and mean cigarettes per day was 17.5 ± 12.1. We successfully contacted 69 (62% patients. Twenty-seven percent of intervention and 26% of control patients quit (mean difference = 1%; 95% CI: –22.0% to 18.8%. Thirty-seven percent of intervention and 51% of control patients decreased smoking by half or more (mean difference = 14.6%; 95% CI: –8.7% to 35.6%. Conclusion: Suggestive audio-therapy delivered during deep sedation in the ED did not significantly decrease self-reported smoking behavior.

  8. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-

  9. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  10. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    also attended the 1-year follow-up. We investigated if SR or SC had improved the self-reported pulmonary symptoms, using logistic regression analyses. Results: Almost 34% of the smokers had chronic cough at baseline and 24.5% had chronic phlegm. Thirty-seven persons with cough at baseline and 24......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...... compared with continuous smoking. Conclusion: SC significantly improved self-reported chronic cough and phlegm as expected. Substantial SR was achieved by few smokers but had a significantly positive effect on chronic cough Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  11. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  12. An evaluation of the range and availability of intensive smoking cessation services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Currie, LM

    2009-06-27

    BACKGROUND: A review of smoking cessation (SC) services in Ireland is a necessary step in improving service planning and provision. AIMS: To assess the range and availability of intensive SC services in Ireland in 2006. METHODS: A survey of SC service providers in Ireland was conducted. Descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.3% (63\\/73). All service providers surveyed are employing evidence-based interventions; the most common form of support is individual counselling with initial sessions averaging 40 min and weekly review sessions 20 min in duration. Reaching the recommended target of treating 5.0% of smokers does not seem feasible given the current distribution of resources and there appears to be regional differences in resource allocation. CONCLUSIONS: While intensive SC services are available in all four Health Service Executive Areas, it would appear that there is little uniformity or consistency countrywide in the scope and structure of these services.

  13. Project Exhale: preliminary evaluation of a tailored smoking cessation treatment for HIV-positive African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Conrad, Megan; Kuhns, Lisa; Vargas, Maria; King, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers. Eligible smokers were enrolled in a seven-session group-based treatment combined with nicotine patch. The mean age of participants was M=46 years. The majority were daily smokers (71%), smoked a mentholated brand (80%), and averaged 8.6 (standard deviation [SD]=8.1) cigarettes per day. Baseline nicotine dependency scores (M=5.8) indicated a moderate to high degree of physical dependence. Of the 31 participants enrolled, the majority completed treatment (≥3 sessions; 68%), 1-month follow-up (74%), and 3-month follow-up (87%) interviews. Program acceptability scores were strong. However, adherence to the patch was low, with 39% reporting daily patch use. The majority of participants (80%, n=24) made a quit attempt. Furthermore, over the course of the intervention, smoking urge, cigarettes smoked, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and depression scores all significantly decreased. Follow-up quit rates at 1 and 3 months ranged from 6% to 24%, with treatment completers having better outcomes. This first of its kind intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers was feasible, acceptable, and showed benefit for reducing smoking behaviors and depression scores. Smoking cessation outcomes were on par with other similar programs. A larger trial is needed to address limitations and to confirm benefits.

  14. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge;

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments...... might be too brief for the hospital to initiate these programmes. Therefore, it was relevant to evaluate a new clinical practice which combined the general practitioner's (GP) referral to surgery with a referral to a smoking and alcohol intervention in the surgical pathway....

  15. Quit in General Practice: a cluster randomised trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation

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    Zwar Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study will test the uptake and effectiveness of a flexible package of smoking cessation support provided primarily by the practice nurse (PN and tailored to meet the needs of a diversity of patients. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised trial, with practices allocated to one of three groups 1 Quit with Practice Nurse 2 Quitline referral 3 GP usual care. PNs from practices randomised to the intervention group will receive a training course in smoking cessation followed by access to mentoring. GPs from practices randomised to the Quitline referral group will receive information about the study and the process of written referral and GPs in the usual care group will receive information about the study. Eligible patients are those aged 18 and over presenting to their GP who are daily or weekly smokers and who are able to give informed consent. Patients on low incomes in all three groups will be able to access free nicotine patches. Primary outcomes are sustained abstinence and point prevalence abstinence at the three month and 12 month follow-up points; and incremental cost effectiveness ratios at 12 months. Process evaluation on the reach and acceptability of the intervention approached will be collected through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI with patients and semi-structured interviews with PNs and GPs. The primary analysis will be by intention to treat. Cessation outcomes will be compared between the three arms at three months and 12 month follow-up using multiple logistic regression. The incremental cost effectiveness ratios will be estimated for the 12 month quit rate for the intervention groups compared to usual care and to each other. Analysis of qualitative data on process outcomes will be based on thematic analysis. Discussion High quality evidence on effectiveness of practice nurse interventions is needed to inform health policy on development of practice nurse roles. If effective

  16. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  17. Study protocol of a Dutch smoking cessation e-health program

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    Bolman Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to test the differential effects of a web-based text and a web-based video-driven computer-tailored approach for lower socio-economic status (LSES and higher socio-economic status (HSES smokers which incorporate multiple computer-tailored feedback moments. The two programs differ only in the mode of delivery (video- versus text-based messages. The paper aims to describe the development and design of the two computer-tailored programs. Methods/design Respondents who smoked at the time of the study inclusion, who were motivated to quit within the following six months and who were aged 18 or older were included in the program. The study is a randomized control trial with a 2 (video/text * 2(LSES/HSES design. Respondents were assigned either to one of the intervention groups (text versus video tailored feedback or to the control group (non-tailored generic advice. In all three conditions participants were asked to fill in the baseline questionnaire based on the I-Change model. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographics, attitude towards smoking, knowledge, self-efficacy, social influence, depression, level of addiction, action planning, goal actions, intention to quit smoking, seven-day point prevalence and continued abstinence. Follow-up measurements were conducted at six and twelve months after baseline. Discussion The present paper describes the development of the two computer-tailored smoking cessation programs, their components and the design of the study. The study results reveal different working mechanisms of multiple tailored smoking cessation interventions and will help us to gain more insight into effective strategies to target different subgroups, especially smokers with a lower socio-economic status. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3102

  18. Psychological barriers to tobacco cessation in Indian buprenorphine-naloxone maintained patients: A pilot study

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    Piyali Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of smoking in opioid agonist treatment programmes remains high, leading to significant tobacco related health hazards and mortality. This is the first study from India addressing tobacco cessation and related barriers among recipients of buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment. Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate Indian buprenorphine-naloxone maintained patients′ willingness to quit tobacco use, to determine its possible association with demographic, agonist maintenance treatment, tobacco use related variables and personal health and risk perceptions related to health hazards associated with tobacco use. Settings and Design: The study was cross-sectional, observational. It was conducted in the out-patient department of a national level de-addiction centre in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five males on buprenorphine-naloxone treatment were assessed using Tobacco Use Characteristics, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND and FTND-ST, Readiness to Change questionnaire (RCQ, Smoker′s Perceived Health Risk Evaluation (SPHERE, Importance of Intervention scale and a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test, Spearman rank order correlation, paired-t test, ANOVA (STATA 9.2 statistical package. Results: Around 65.4% of the subjects were smokers, 9% were using smokeless tobacco only whereas 25.6% were using both. Mean duration of tobacco use was 20 ± 1.5 years. Only 20% had past quit attempts. Only 24% were in action phase of change. Personal health and risk perceptions were poor and only 61.62% considered intervention tobacco smoking cessation important. Conclusions: Higher severity of nicotine dependence, low perception of harm from tobacco warrant immediate attention and need for on-site treatment opportunity.

  19. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  20. High cessation rates of cigarette smoking in subjects with and without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Timens, W; Postma, DJ; ten Hacken, N

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: In general, smoking cessation programs have low success rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of a 1-year smoking cessation program. This program was part of a research project investigating the effects of smoking cessation. Participants: In this longitudinal study on the effec

  1. Development and usability testing of a web-based smoking cessation treatment for smokers with schizophrenia

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    Mary F. Brunette

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The prototype website was usable and satisfactory. With training and support, home use of this cessation website appears to be feasible and promising for cessation among smokers with schizophrenia. Further research is needed to evaluate web-based cessation treatment in people with psychotic disorders.

  2. Internet-based contingency management to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; Raiff, Bethany R; Grabinski, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated an Internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation. Participants in the contingent group (n = 39) earned vouchers contingent on video confirmation of breath carbon monoxide (CO) ≤ 4 parts per million (ppm). Earnings for participants in the noncontingent group (n = 38) were independent of CO levels. Goals and feedback about smoking status were provided on participants' homepages. The median percentages of negative samples during the intervention in the noncontingent and contingent groups were 25% and 66.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in absolute CO levels or abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared to baseline, however, participants in both groups reduced CO by an estimated 15.6 ppm during the intervention phases. The results suggest that the contingency for negative COs promoted higher rates of abstinence during treatment, and that other elements of the system, such as feedback, frequent monitoring, and goals, reduced smoking.

  3. Assessment of the Efficiency of Tobacco Cessation Counseling in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Shires, Deirdre A; Elston Lafata, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence advocate for using counseling targeted at tobacco users' motivation to quit during each office visit. We evaluate tobacco use screening and counseling interventions delivered during routine periodic health examinations by 44 adult primary care physicians practicing in 22 clinics of a large health system in southeast Michigan. 484 office visits were audio-recorded and transcribed. For this study, current tobacco users (N = 91) were identified using pre-visit surveys and audio-recordings. Transcripts were coded for the delivery of tobacco-related counseling interventions. The extent to which counseling interventions were used and/or targeted to the patients' readiness to quit was the main outcome measure. The majority of tobacco users (n = 77) had their tobacco use status assessed, and most received some sort of tobacco-related counseling (n = 74). However, only 15% received the recommended counseling targeted to their readiness to quit. On the other hand, 19% received less counseling than recommended given their readiness to quit, 7% received only nonindicated counseling, and 59% received nonindicated counseling in addition to indicated counseling. Results illustrate physicians' commitment to cessation counseling and also identify potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of tobacco-related counseling in primary care. PMID:26290271

  4. [Consensus report for the clinical care of smoking cessation in Spain. Comité Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarelles Guillem, Francisco; Dalmau González-Gallarza, Regina; Clemente Jiménez, Lourdes; Díaz-Maroto Muñoz, José Luis; Lozano Polo, Adelaida; Pinet Ogué, María Cristina

    2013-03-16

    Tobacco use presents an odd confluence of circumstances: it is a significant and high threat to health, and there is a lack of motivation among health workers to act accordingly. Yet we have effective interventions. It is really hard to identify any other determinant of health presenting this mixture of lethality, prevalence, and lack of care, despite having effective treatments readily available. On the other hand, smoking cessation interventions are considered as the gold standard of preventive interventions, far above other preventive measures commonly used. This has prompted the National Committee for Smoking Prevention to develop a consensus document for the Clinical Care of Smoking Cessation in Spain. The purpose of this technical and scientific document is to agree on a basic proposal of quality of care to tackle smokers to quit. This document would serve as a guideline in the clinical practice in our country. The aims of this agreement are to review the effectiveness of the existing therapies for smoking cessation, to synthesize their available evidence, and to set the basic minimum standards of care in the clinical practice of patients who smoke. The consensus sets the strategies, and the evidences that support them, in order to assist both the smokers who want to quit, and the smokers who do not, setting out the steps to intervene in the most adequate.

  5. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life : The role of time since cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter H M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Fur

  6. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care. ITADI Study

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    Roura Pilar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies about smoking cessation in diabetics in primary care, a level of healthcare that plays an essential role in these patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in diabetic patients in primary care. Methods/Design Cluster randomized trial, controlled and multicentric. Randomization unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 546 diabetic smokers older than 14 years of age whose disease is controlled by one of the primary care teams in the study. Outcome Measures: Continuous tobacco abstinence (a person who has not smoked for at least six months and with a CO level of less than 6 ppm measured by a cooximeter , evolution in the Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model of Change, number of cigarettes/day, length of the visit. Point of assessment: one- year post- inclusion in the study. Intervention: Brief motivational interview for diabetic smokers at the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage, intensive motivational interview with pharmacotherapy for diabetic smokers in the preparation-action stage and reinforcing intevention in the maintenance stage. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive analysis of all variables will be done, as well as a multilevel logistic regression and a Poisson regression. All analyses will be done with an intention to treatment basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Statistical packages

  7. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

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    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  8. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

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    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  9. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

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    Tsutomu Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP.

  10. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  11. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption......OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking......, baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtained when the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers...

  12. Smoking cessation: the role of the foot and ankle surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Bevilacqua, Nicholas J

    2010-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking causes many negative effects on the body, and it is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. These negative effects are a concern for the foot and ankle surgeon, as smoking can increase the risk of diabetes and peripheral artery disease and delay healing of surgical incisions and ulcerations of the lower extremities. Tobacco cigarette smoking can also increase the risk of avascular necrosis and delayed union and nonunions of fractures and osteotomies. Smoking cessation is an important component in the overall treatment of conditions affecting the foot and ankle. Smoking cessation can be a difficult goal to achieve, but proper education and support can help patients reach this goal. PMID:20400436

  13. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

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    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  14. Systems-Level Smoking Cessation Activities by Private Health Plans

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    Sharon Reif, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe US Public Health Service urges providers to screen patients for smoking and advise smokers to quit. Yet, these practices are not widely implemented in clinical practice. This study provides national estimates of systems-level strategies used by private health insurance plans to influence provider delivery of smoking cessation activities.MethodsData are from a nationally representative survey of health plans for benefit year 2003, across product types offered by insurers, including health maintenance organizations (HMOs, preferred provider organizations, and point-of-service products, regarding alcohol, tobacco, drug, and mental health services. Executive directors of 368 health plans responded to the administrative module (83% response rate. Medical directors of 347 of those health plans, representing 771 products, completed the clinical module in which health plan respondents were asked about screening for smoking, guideline distribution, and incentives for guideline adherence.ResultsOnly 9% of products require, and 12% verify, that primary care providers (PCPs screen for smoking. HMOs are more likely than other product types to require screening. Only 17% of products distribute smoking cessation guidelines to PCPs, and HMOs are more likely to do this. Feedback to PCPs was most frequently used to encourage guideline adherence; financial incentives were rarely used. Furthermore, health plans that did require screening often conducted other cessation activities.ConclusionFew private health plans have adopted techniques to encourage the use of smoking cessation activities by their providers. Increasing health plan involvement is necessary to reduce tobacco use and concomitant disease in the United States.

  15. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

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    Reece Robin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during

  16. Successful Smoking Cessation in COPD: Association with Comorbidities and Mortality

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    H. Kupiainen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD management, but difficult to achieve in clinical practice. The effect of comorbidities on smoking cessation and risk factors for mortality were studied in a cohort of 739 COPD patients recruited in two Finnish University Hospitals. The diagnosis of COPD was done for the first time on average 5.5 years prior to the enrollment. Data from the medical records and followup questionnaires (years 0, 1, 2, and 4 have been analyzed. The patients’ lung function varied greatly; mean FEV1 58% of predicted. A total of 60.2% of men and 55.6% of women had been able to quit smoking. Alcohol abuse (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.3 and psychiatric conditions (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7 were strongly related to low success rates of quitting. Among current smokers high nicotine dependency was again explained by alcohol abuse and psychiatric conditions. Non-quitters were younger than quitters, but their mortality rates remained significantly higher even when the model was adjusted for impairment of lung functions and comorbidities. In conclusion, co-existing addiction and psychiatric diseases significantly decreased the success rates in smoking cessation and increased mortality among the patients.

  17. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  18. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  19. The Effects and Measures of Auricular Acupressure and Interactive Multimedia for Smoking Cessation in College Students

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    Mei-Ling Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The earlier one starts to smoke, the more likely it is that one’s tobacco use will increase. Either auricular acupressure or multimedia education could improve physiological health status and reduce smoking for young smokers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 10-week auricular acupressure (AA and interactive multimedia (IM on smoking cessation in college smokers. A pre- and posttest control research design with two experiments (AA and IM and one control was used. Thirty-two participants were in each of three groups. A significant difference from pretest to posttest among three groups was exhibited on carbon monoxide (CO, cotinine, and nicotine dependence. Scheffe’s post hoc test found significances on CO in the AA between the IM and the control and cotinine and nicotine dependence between the AA and the control. After controlling the covariates, the main effect of the group was no difference in all outcomes. The interventions, especially AA, may contribute to a decrease of CO, cotinine, and nicotine dependence along with the time change. An analysis without controlling influences may overestimate interventional effects.

  20. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D.; Kenny, Anne M.; Oncken, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain, but the effects of smoking cessation on measures of body composition (BC) have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 16 months of cigarette abstinence on areas of BC measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods One hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women participated in a smoking cessation study using the nicotine patch. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from 119 subjects (age 56 ± 7 years, range 41–78 years) who had had DXA scans at baseline and 16 months later. Participants were classified either as quitters (self-reported cigarette abstinence confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide [co] ≤8 ppm at 3 and 16 months after quit date) or as continued smokers. BC was assessed using a General Electric Lunar DXA IQ machine. Four areas of BC (kg) were measured: whole body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, and functional skeletal muscle mass in arms and legs (ASM/ht2). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed changes in BC in quitters vs. continued smokers between baseline and 16 months of follow-up. Increases in BC measures were evaluated as a function of increased calorie intake or change in physical activity, using linear regression. Results Quitters significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001), fat mass (p < 0.001), muscle mass (p = 0.04), and functional muscle mass (p = 0.004) over time, when baseline BC measures and other confounding factors were controlled. Regression analysis indicated change in BC could not be accounted for by calorie intake or physical activity. Conclusions Smoking cessation may be associated with increased fat and muscle mass in postmenopausal women. The novel finding of an increase in functional muscle mass suggests that smoking cessation could increase functional capacity. Further studies need to replicate these findings and examine mechanisms of these effects. PMID

  1. Within a smoking-cessation program, what impact does genetic information on lung cancer need to have to demonstrate cost-effectiveness?

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    Gordon Louisa G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smoking-cessation programs and pharmaceutical aids demonstrate substantial health gains for a relatively low allocation of resources. Genetic information represents a type of individualized or personal feedback regarding the risk of developing lung cancer, and hence the potential benefits from stopping smoking, may motivate the person to remain smoke-free. The purpose of this study was to explore what the impact of a genetic test needs to have within a typical smoking-cessation program aimed at heavy smokers in order to be cost-effective. Methods Two strategies were modelled for a hypothetical cohort of heavy smokers aged 50 years; individuals either received or did not receive a genetic test within the course of a usual smoking-cessation intervention comprising nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and counselling. A Markov model was constructed using evidence from published randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses for estimates on 12-month quit rates and long-term relapse rates. Epidemiological data were used for estimates on lung cancer risk stratified by time since quitting and smoking patterns. Extensive sensitivity analyses were used to explore parameter uncertainty. Results The discounted incremental cost per QALY was AU$34,687 (95% CI $12,483, $87,734 over 35 years. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$20,000 per QALY gained, the genetic testing strategy needs to produce a 12-month quit rate of at least 12.4% or a relapse rate 12% lower than NRT and counselling alone for it to be equally cost-effective. The likelihood that adding a genetic test to the usual smoking-cessation intervention is cost-effective was 20.6% however cost-effectiveness ratios were favourable in certain situations (e.g., applied to men only, a 60 year old cohort. Conclusions The findings were sensitive to small changes in critical variables such as the 12-month quit rates and relapse rates. As such, the cost-effectiveness of the genetic testing

  2. Identifying Multilevel Barriers to Tobacco Intervention in Postdoctoral Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David A; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this mixed-methods study were to assess tobacco treatment behaviors among residents and faculty in dental specialty postdoctoral programs and to explore factors in training and practice related to tobacco treatment education. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of participants at three postdoctoral residency programs in New York City. Surveys assessed tobacco cessation training and behaviors. Focus groups explored barriers to implementing tobacco cessation treatment in educational settings. Data were collected between May and December 2013. Among the 160 faculty and residents identified as potentially eligible for the study, 60 were invited by program directors to participate, and 50 subsequently completed the survey and participated in a focus group (response rate of 31.3%). Survey results indicated high levels of asking patients about tobacco use and advising patients to quit. In contrast, specific tobacco cessation assistance and follow-up care occurred less frequently. There were statistically significant differences in tobacco cessation intervention across the specialties surveyed, but not between residents and faculty. Focus group comments were grouped into three broad areas: clinician factors, organizational support, and structural and contextual factors. Focus group results indicated that participants experienced significant organizational and structural barriers to learning about and providing tobacco treatment. Participants from each specialty indicated that multi-level barriers impeded their provision of evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in postdoctoral educational settings. They suggested that didactic education should be reinforced by organizational- and systems-level changes to facilitate comprehensive tobacco education and effective cessation treatment in future dental practice.

  3. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ubhi, H. K.; Kotz, D; Michie, S; van Schayck, O. C.; Sheard, D.; Selladurai, A.; West, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App S...

  4. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Onno C P van Schayck; Sheard, David; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App St...

  5. Physicians discuss the risks of smoking with their patients, but seldom offer practical cessation support

    OpenAIRE

    Keto, Jaana; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Linden, Kari; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to study the smoking cessation-related 1) attitudes & experiences and 2) consultation practices of Finnish physicians and to determine if there is a relationship between the two. Methods An online survey on smoking cessation was sent to 39 % of all Finnish physicians, with emphasis on physicians working in fields relevant to smoking cessation. A total of 1141 physicians (response rate 15 %) responded to the online survey, 53 % of whom were employed in primary health car...

  6. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  7. Evaluating an Adaptive and Interactive mHealth Smoking Cessation and Medication Adherence Program: A Randomized Pilot Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Bradley, Katharine; An, Lawrence C; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions hold great promise for helping smokers quit since these programs can have wide reach and facilitate access to comprehensive, interactive, and adaptive treatment content. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of these programs remain largely untested. Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of the My Mobile Advice Program (MyMAP) smoking cessation program and estimate its effects on smoking cessation and medication adherence to inform future research planning. Methods Sixty-six smokers ready to quit were recruited from a large regional health care system and randomized to one of two mHealth programs: (1) standard self-help including psychoeducational materials and guidance how to quit smoking or (2) an adaptive and interactive program consisting of the same standard mHealth self-help content as controls received plus a) real-time, adaptively tailored advice for managing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side-effects and b) asynchronous secure messaging with a cessation counselor. Participants in both arms were also prescribed a 12-week course of varenicline. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 2 weeks post-target quit date (TQD), 3 months post-TQD, and 5 months post-TQD. Indices of program feasibility and acceptability included acceptability ratings, utilization metrics including use of each MyMAP program component (self-help content, secure messaging, and adaptively tailored advice), and open-ended feedback from participants. Smoking abstinence and medication adherence were also assessed to estimate effects on these treatment outcomes. Results Utilization data indicated the MyMAP program was actively used, with higher mean program log-ins by experimental than control participants (10.6 vs 2.7, Phttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02136498 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jT3UMFLj) PMID:27489247

  8. HIV seropositivity and sexuality: cessation of sexual relations among men and women living with HIV in five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Adeline; Lefèvre, Marie; Henry, Emilie; Verdes, Ludmila; Acosta, Maria-Elena; Benmoussa, Amal; Mukumbi, Henri; Cissé, Mamadou; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sexuality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a key issue in the fight against HIV, as it influences both the dynamic of the epidemic and the quality of life of PLHIV. The present study examined the factors associated with cessation of sexual relations after HIV diagnosis among men and women in five countries: Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Romania and Ecuador. A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression and a separate gender analysis were performed. Among the 1413 participants, 471 (33%) declared that they stopped having sexual relations after their HIV diagnosis, including 318 women (42%) and 153 men (23%) (p < .001). Concerning women, variables associated with the cessation of sexual relations in the final multivariate model were mainly related with relational factors and the possibility of getting social support (e.g., needing help to disclose HIV serostatus, feeling lonely every day, not finding support in CBOs, not being in a couple). Men's sexual activity was more associated with their representations and their perception of the infection (e.g., thinking they will have their HIV infection for the rest of their life, perceiving the HIV infection as a mystery, perceiving the infection as serious). Furthermore, the following variables were associated with both men and women sexual behaviours: being older, having suffered from serious social consequences after serostatus disclosure and not being able to regularly discuss about HIV with their steady partner. Results suggested clear differences between men and women regarding cessation of sexual relations and highlighted the importance of implementing gender-based tailored interventions that promote safe and satisfying sexuality, as it is known to have a

  9. The influence of in-pregnancy smoking cessation programmes on partner quitting and women's social support mobilization: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN89131885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Olga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy could influence a woman's social behaviour and her partner's smoking behaviour, but this has not been examined in any published randomized trials. Method 918 women smoking at booking for antenatal care were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial of three interventions: standard care, self-help manual and enhanced stage-based counselling, or self-help manual, enhanced stage-based counselling and use of an interactive computer program. The outcomes were change in social support received by women between booking for maternity care and 30 weeks gestation and 10 days postpartum and reported cessation in the woman's partner at these times. Results Few pregnant women's partners stopped smoking (4.1% at 30 weeks of gestation and 5.8% at 10 days postpartum and the probability of quitting did not differ significantly by trial arm. Women's scores on the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors showed a slight decline from booking to 30 weeks gestation, and a slight increase to 10 days postpartum, but these changes did not differ significantly by trial arm. Conclusion The stage-based interventions tested in this trial aimed partly to influence women's mobilization of support and might have influenced partners' quitting, but there was no evidence that they did so. Given that women and their partners often stopped smoking together, future interventions to prevent smoking in pregnant women could encourage both partners to quit together.

  10. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtomaa Heikki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. Methods A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73 and dental hygienists (n = 22 in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%. We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Results Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion' to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'. The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4 and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion

  11. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Harold G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19 in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh] via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA (χ2(3 = 8.068, p fpA (χ2(3 = 8.477, p h (χ2(3 = 37.599, p gpA and d(PfpA lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA, 64% of baseline for d(PfpA, vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh. Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis.

  12. Pilot Mobile Smoking Cessation Program Reaches Underserved — Increases Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Barouh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot mobile smoking cessation programthat occurred between 2007 and 2009 across two suburban New Yorkcounties, serving 1,263 individuals. The program was designed andcarried out with three objectives: (a to assess and reduce a potential service disparity faced by adult smokers in heavily disadvantaged communities—including people marginalized by homelessness, economic distress, lack of transportation, alcoholism / drug addiction, mental illness, and/or HIV; (b to use evidence-based methods to promote smoking cessation and reduction among such adults in 14 specific lowincome Long Island, NY areas; (c to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the program’s mobile service modality. Results of this pilot program show that meaningful percentages of the target population had: (1 never encountered a smoking cessation message prior to engagement with thismobile program (38%; (2 a demonstrated desire to quit smoking despite the heightened stresses in their lives that other people don’t face, and (3 a demonstrated ability to quit or reduce smoking when given help in a form (including mobile service that works for them. This paper concludes that Stakeholders and Policymakers in this and/or similar jurisdications would benefit from uniting to fund and design an extended mobile service delivery and data-gathering project that serves a greater number of at-risk/ multi-disadvantaged people, while seeking to quantify the financialsavings to the community that results from helping disadvantaged people to: (1 quit smoking and (2 become linked to affordable doctors for regular check-ups. This pilot program demonstrated a positive social justice impact and suggests a possible parallel positive financial impact on the community worthy of exploration.

  13. A brief motivational intervention based on positive experience and temporary smoking abstinence: Feasibility in a psychiatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Keizer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Feasible interventions promoting tobacco cessation need to be implemented in psychiatric hospitals, where high proportions of patients are heavy smokers. This pilot study examined the feasibility of a new brief motivational intervention associating positive experiences with temporary smoking cessation. Methods: One-day interventions were proposed to 19 smokers hospitalized for severe mental disorders. The multicomponent intervention comprised a 25-hour tobacco cessation period, information about smoking, attending thermal baths and music therapy sessions, intensive group support and feedback sessions. Expired carbon monoxide was monitored and nicotine replacement was available. Patients were evaluated before, during and after the intervention. Results: Most participants were heavy smokers (68.4% and precontemplative about smoking cessation (52.6%. Rates of successful smoking abstinence were 78.9% after 10 hours and 47.4% at 25 hours; 15.8% stopped for 3 days or more. Median CO level decreased from 24 to 9 ppm. Patients reported high levels of general well-being and satisfaction during the abstinence day. Psychiatric condition did not deteriorate and frequency of withdrawal symptoms was low. 84% of patients used nicotine replacement. Significantly reduced cigarette consumption persisted for at least one week after the intervention. Conclusions: A brief motivational intervention based on the association between positive experience and temporary smoking abstinence is feasible in a psychiatric hospital. The reported positive experience calls for further development and validation of integrative interventions, which are currently lacking.

  14. Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2012-02-01

    The recent observation of a surge in human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) prompts the question of whether cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the phenomenon, and if so, why is re-emergence not universal throughout the historic geographic range of the virus? Research addressing the virus's mechanisms for immune evasion and induction, as well as that directed at elucidating the genes involved in pathogenesis in different viral lineages (West African vs Congo Basin), provide insights to help explain why emergence appears to be geographically limited. Novel vaccines offer one solution to curtail the spread of this disease.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion......, which has been in use for some years. The cost-effectiveness of varenicline depends on the cost of the therapy and the cost-savings achieved through reduced morbidity and mortality; several investigations, based on the situation in different countries, indicate that varenicline either finances itself...

  16. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Morean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8 attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1 intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race, smoking history, and trait impulsivity and/or (2 aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency. Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8% reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  17. Predictors of middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Schepis, Ty S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6-8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools. PMID:25147747

  18. Enhanced Quitline Intervention in Smoking Cessation for Patients With Non-Metastatic Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tobacco Use Disorder

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pranav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted to see the efficacy of Bupropion in smoking cessation. Smokers with current depression were excluded. The subjects (n = 30 were randomly assigned to receive Bupropion SR 300 mg/day or placebo for seven weeks. Target quit date was preferentially 8 th day of starting the treatment. Intensive counseling was provided by the physician at the baseline and brief counseling at every visit weekly during the treatment phase and at weeks 12 and 16. Self reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of less than 10 ppm. Results: The seven-day point prevalence abstinence rate at the end of week 2 and week 16 in the drug group was 46.67% and 53.33 % respectively and in the placebo group was 13.33% and 20% respectively with the ′P" value of 0.04 and 0.05 respectively. Rates of continuous abstinence at weeks 4, 7 and 16 were 46.67%, 40% and 33.33% in the drug group and 13.33%, 13.33% and 13.33% in the placebo group respectively. The rates were significantly higher in the drug group till week 4 starting from week 2 of the treatment phase. The mean weight gain in drug group was found to be significant less as compared to the placebo at week 16 (P = 0.025 The mean change of depression scores from the baseline was not significantly different between the two groups at any point of time. The withdrawal symptom score increase from the baseline was not significantly higher at any point of time in the drug group but in the placebo group the

  20. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    , in smokers, predictive of long-term lung cancer development. Whether smoking cessation impacts the suPAR level is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight smokers were randomized into three groups of 16: (i) continued to smoke 20 cigarettes per day, (ii) refrained from smoking and used transdermal...... nicotine patches and (iii) refrained from smoking and used placebo patches. Nonsmokers were included for comparison. suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: At baseline, the suPAR level was significantly higher in the 48 smokers (median 3·2 ng mL, IQR (2·5-3·9)) than...... in 46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly...

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: 1990 to 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.

  2. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  3. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  4. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  5. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in venti

  6. 26 CFR 25.2511-2 - Cessation of donor's dominion and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2511-2 Cessation of donor's dominion and control. (a) The gift tax is not imposed upon the receipt of the property... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cessation of donor's dominion and control....

  7. Adenosine receptors in COPD and asymptomatic smokers : effects of smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Mieke; ten Hacken, Nick; Postma, Dirkje; Barroso, Begona; Rutgers, Bea; Geerlings, Marie; Willemse, Brigitte; Timens, Wim; Hylkema, Machteld

    2009-01-01

    Our group has shown that 1-year smoking cessation persisted or increased airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We compared adenosine and adenosine receptor (AR) expression in COPD and asymptomatic smokers (AS) before and after 1-year smoking cessation. Sputum cytospins

  8. Social-cognitive predictors of intended and actual benzodiazepine cessation among chronic benzodiazepine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Wolde, Geeske B.; Dijkstra, Arie; Van Empelen, Pepijn; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Zitman, Frans G.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term benzodiazepine use is associated with a variety of negative health consequences. Cessation of long-term use is therefore an important health goal. In a prospective study among chronic benzodiazepinc users (N=356) social-cognitive factors of benzodiazepine cessation were examined with a nin

  9. Cessations and reversals of the large-scale circulation in turbulent thermal convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Heng-Dong; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental study of cessations and reversals of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in turbulent thermal convection in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio (Gamma) 1/2 . It is found that cessations and reversals of the LSC occur in Gamma = 1/2 geometry an order-of-magnitude more frequently than they do in Gamma=1 cells, and that after a cessation the LSC is most likely to restart in the opposite direction, i.e., reversals of the LSC are the most probable cessation events. This contrasts sharply to the finding in Gamma=1 geometry and implies that cessations in the two geometries are governed by different dynamics. It is found that the occurrence of reversals is a Poisson process and that a stronger rebound of the flow strength after a reversal or cessation leads to a longer period of stability of the LSC. Several properties of reversals and cessations in this system are found to be statistically similar to those of geomagnetic reversals. A direct measurement of the velocity field reveals that a cessation corresponds to a momentary decoherence of the LSC. PMID:17677357

  10. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  11. 21 CFR 1271.440 - Orders of retention, recall, destruction, and cessation of manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cessation of manufacturing. 1271.440 Section 1271.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., destruction, and cessation of manufacturing. (a) Upon an agency finding that there are reasonable grounds to... upon the establishment an order to cease manufacturing until compliance with the regulations of...

  12. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibers Marcus JH

    2007-11-01

    significant and relevant effect of confrontational counselling would provide an argument in favour of early detection of current smokers with airflow limitation. Successful treatment of tobacco dependence in respiratory patients requires repeated intensive interventions. The results of this study may also show that respiratory nurses are able to deliver this treatment and that intensive smoking cessation counselling is more feasible. Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Register (ISRCTN 64481813.

  13. Anxiety and Depression in Bidirectional Relations Between Pain and Smoking: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, Emily L; Maisto, Stephen A; Ditre, Joseph W

    2016-01-01

    Pain and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that impose considerable burdens on individuals and health care systems. A recently proposed reciprocal model suggests that these conditions interact in a bidirectional manner, resulting in greater pain and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Anxiety and depression are common among smokers in pain and have been identified as central mechanisms of interest. There is emerging evidence that smokers with anxiety/depression may experience more severe pain and functional impairment, greater pain-induced motivation to smoke, and increased sensitivity to pain during periods of smoking abstinence. Based on empirical findings, we hypothesize that these experiences may engender expectations that abstaining from smoking will exacerbate both pain and negative affect, thus eroding self-efficacy for smoking cessation and increasing perceived barriers to quitting. The goal of this narrative review is to examine the role of anxiety/depression in complex pain-smoking relations so as to advance evolving theoretical perspectives and inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:26467214

  14. The use of SPECT to evaluate growth cessation of the mandible in unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripatnanont, P; Vittayakittipong, P; Markmanee, U; Thongmak, S; Yipintsoi, T

    2005-06-01

    In unilateral condylar hyperplasia, for surgical intervention to be effective, the status of condylar bone growth has to be assessed correctly. Previously this assessment relied on serial clinical observations. This study aimed to evaluate the MDP-SPECT method of assessing condylar growth in unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Twenty-six MDP-SPECT of the mandible had been performed; 21 were diagnosed as condylar hyperplasia and five as non-mandibular disease. Three isotope parameters: isotope counts, pixel counts and counts per pixel were summed for each condyle per subject. The percentage difference in isotope uptake of the three parameters between the two condyles was calculated as the ratio of the combined counts of the two sides. These differences significantly correlated with each other (Pearson r=0.78-0.98) and with the clinical status of bone growth (Spearman rho=0.72-0.86). There was a significant difference for the count per pixel between the 'growing' condyle (transaxial, T: 15.05+/-7.14, coronal, C: 12.29+/-7.88), the 'no further growth' condyle (T: 5.22+/-4.08, C: 5.67+/-3.88) and the 'normal' condyle (T: 0.82+/-0.76, C: 1.34+/-0.66). This method was able to separate 'active growth' from 'growth cessation' of the condyle by a single MDP-SPECT of the mandible. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:16053843

  15. Development, dissemination, adherence, and effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Programs offered in a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Cessation Programs (SCP must comprise factors that increase the chances of successful treatment, such as choice of approach and modality based on scientific evidence; adaptation of the intervention to the characteristics of target patients; records of procedures and efficacy rates; and the use of both active and reactive strategies to recruit smokers. Given this, this study was designed with the aim of describing the implementation of a SCP in a public university that has adopted a 100% smoke-free campus policy, including the evaluation of publicity methods and their possible impact in adherence rates and program success. There were 128 smokers enrolled in nine program groups offered over two years: 97 (76% attended the first meeting and 69 (71% effectively completed the SCP. The groups that underwent follow-up assessment (n = 58 achieved abstinence rates of 27% and 32%, greater than expected for solely psychological treatment and similar to rates that combined cognitive-behavioral approach to pharmacology. The recruitment strategies that combined active strategies (personal contacts, personal invitations, individual interviews and reactive strategies (posters, corporate e-mail, newspapers were the most effective to attract and gain the adherence of smokers to the SCP, corroborating the literature. We conclude that 100% smoke-free environment campaigns are opportunities that favor the effectiveness of SCPs, which can be developed and implemented by any trained health professional.

  16. Bupropion and naltrexone for smoking cessation: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M E; Schmitz, J M; Allen, S; Grabowski, J; Pentel, P; Oliver, A; Hatsukami, D K

    2016-10-01

    Combination of non-nicotine pharmacotherapies has been underexamined for cigarette smoking cessation. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group double-dummy study evaluated two medications, bupropion (BUP) and naltrexone (NTX), in treatment-seeking cigarette smokers (N = 121) over a 7-week treatment intervention with 6-month follow-up. Smokers were randomized to either BUP (300 mg/day) + placebo (PBO) or BUP (300 mg/day) + NTX (50 mg/day). The primary outcome was biochemically verified (saliva cotinine, carbon monoxide) 7-day, point-prevalence abstinence. BUP + NTX was associated with significantly higher point-prevalence abstinence rates after 7-weeks of treatment (BUP + NTX, 54.1%; BUP + PBO, 33.3%), P = 0.0210, but not at 6-month follow-up (BUP + NTX, 27.9%; BUP + PBO, 15.0%), P = 0.09. Continuous abstinence rates did not differ, P = 0.0740 (BUP + NTX, 26.2%; BUP + PBO, 13.3%). Those receiving BUP + NTX reported reduced nicotine withdrawal, P = 0.0364. The BUP + NTX combination was associated with elevated rates of some side effects, but with no significant difference in retention between the groups. PMID:27213949

  17. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  18. Effect of training cessation on muscular performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, L; Berryman, N; Dupuy, O; Mekary, S; Arvisais, D; Bherer, L; Mujika, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of resistance training cessation on strength performance through a meta-analysis. Seven databases were searched from which 103 of 284 potential studies met inclusion criteria. Training status, sex, age, and the duration of training cessation were used as moderators. Standardized mean difference (SMD) in muscular performance was calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results indicated a detrimental effect of resistance training cessation on all components of muscular performance: [submaximal strength; SMD (95% CI) = -0.62 (-0.80 to -0.45), P  65 years old). The effect was also larger in inactive people for maximal force and maximal power when compared with recreational athletes. Resistance training cessation decreases all components of muscular strength. The magnitude of the effect differs according to training status, age or the duration of training cessation.

  19. Osteopathic medical student administered smoking cessation counseling is an effective tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Capozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the "Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide" also referred to as the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. Aim: To study the efficacy of the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Materials and Methods: Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3-10 min based on New York City Department of Health′s "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3-10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. Results: A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6% participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2% participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3% had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Conclusion: Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco

  20. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  1. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  2. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  3. Facebook recruitment of young adult smokers for a cessation trial: Methods, metrics, and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Ramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms, previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette, appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo. Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13–7/29/13, targeted by age (18–25, location (U.S., and language (English, and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2024 ($0.34/click. Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5895 unique clicks, 586 (10% were study eligible and 230 (39% consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n = 79 was largely Caucasian (77% and male (69%, averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD = 8.3 and 2.7 years smoking (SD = 0.7. Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  4. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  5. Parents who quit smoking and their adult children's smoking cessation: a 20-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricker, J.B.; Otten, R.; Liu, J.L.; Peterson, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Extending our earlier findings from a longitudinal cohort study, this study examines parents' early and late smoking cessation as predictors of their young adult children's smoking cessation. Design - Parents' early smoking cessation status was assessed when their children were aged 8 years;

  6. Nonclinical panic attack history and smoking cessation: an initial examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W; Kahler, Christopher W; Brown, Richard A

    2004-06-01

    The present study evaluated the association of nonclinical panic attacks among regular smokers with the duration of past quit attempts as well as the type and intensity of DSM-IV smoking withdrawal symptoms. As hypothesized, smokers with a history of panic attacks reported significantly shorter quit attempts compared to their nonpanic counterparts. Additionally, smokers with a history of panic relative to their nonpanic counterparts reported more intense affective reactions during their last quit attempt in regard to anxiety-related but not other types of smoking withdrawal symptomatology. These findings are discussed in regard to the role of negative affect vulnerability factors in smoking cessation with specific reference to panic attacks. PMID:15135567

  7. Climate for innovation, 12-step orientation, and tobacco cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between (1) three indicators of climate for innovation (clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) and adoption extensiveness of both behavioral treatments for tobacco cessation (TC) and system-level support for TC in substance use disorder treatment programs, (2) a program's 12-step treatment orientation and adoption extensiveness, and (3) whether 12-step treatment orientation moderates the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Data were obtained from a random sample of 1006 program administrators. Hierarchical regression results showed that both absence of program obstacles and policy-related incentives are positively related to adoption extensiveness. Twelve-step treatment orientation is neither related to adoption extensiveness nor a moderator of the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Although the adoption of both behavioral treatments for TC and system-level support for TC is not extensive, we conclude that a 12-step treatment orientation neither hampers nor promotes adoption extensiveness.

  8. A successful population-based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovan-Somborac Jaroslava

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Our country is in the third place in Europe concerning tobacco smoking. Although strict law regulations regarding indoor smoking have been brought, the law banning all tobacco advertising, and the behaviour of our population are inadequate. Our objective was to persuade smokers for the 'Quit and Win' campaign and to establish the number of smokers in health personnel employed in health facilities. Material and methods This population-based smoking cessation campaign was coordinated by Federal Institute of Public Health, through a network of Public Health Institutes within the country with the support of national and local media. Results and discussion Quit and Win campaign was organized for the third time. The campaign was realized with the financial support and sponsorship at community level throughout the country. The Federal Ministry provided a national health award. The national and local media accompanied the campaign. The campaign included 3.178 smokers and 2.575 supporters, that is 0.1% of the population over 18 years of age. This is in accordance with participants in some other countries, who had a better support. More than 60% of health care facility employees are smokers. Conclusions Our tradition, habits in the society and overall situation encourage smoking habits to spread in general population. Our campaign has proved that people should be motivated to quit smoking, but they need to be informed. Actions taken in general population and based on a positive smoking cessation program in which smokers are willing to stop smoking have given unexpectedly good results.

  9. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, C.; O Mara-Eves, A.; Oliver, S; Caird, J. R.; Perlen, S. M.; Eades, S. J.; Thomas, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking in pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, stillbirth, low birthweight and preterm birth and has serious long-term implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries, but is strongly associated with poverty and increasing in low- to middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and...

  10. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  11. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla;

    2011-01-01

    Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation and to st......Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation...... and to study joint exposure to both. Methods Birth cohort study of smoking cessation of 6232 Danish men born in 1953 with a follow-up at age 51 (response rate 66.2%). History of unemployment and cohabitation was measured annually using register data. Information on smoking cessation was obtained......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...

  12. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser Sheryl M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. Objective To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Discussion Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Conclusion Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  13. Guías de atención médica para dejar de fumar. Una propuesta para Latinoamérica Proposal of Latin-American guidelines for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl H Sansores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Aunque la prevalencia del tabaquismo es diferente en cada país de América, los daños a la salud se presentan en la misma proporción. Por ello, es indispensable contar con guías de tratamiento que idealmente sean de utilidad para todos los países. Material y métodos. Para hacer recomendaciones puntuales de utilidad a la región se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed de los últimos cinco años, con los títulos "Smoking cessation guidelines" y "Smoking cessation treatment meta-analysis" para conocer el contenido de las diferentes guías y de los títulos "Nicotine replacement therapy", "Nicotine chewing gum", "Nicotine patches" "Nicotine inhaler", "Bupropion therapy", "Varenicline therapy" e "Individual and grupal behavioural counselling for smoking cessation" para determinar la eficacia de cada intervención. Resultados y conclusión. Nuestra recomendación basada en la disponibilidad de medicamentos y de recursos humanos es que el consejo médico y la terapia conductual grupal deben ser acciones primarias acompañadas, o no, de medicamentos de primera línea.Objective. Although prevalence of tobacco smoking is different in the Latin American regions, the consequences on health are similar. Material and Methods. Therefore, guidelines on treatment are needed and ideally speaking must be useful in the different countries. In order to make quick recommendations useful in the region we made a search in PubMed from the last 5 years with the titles "Smoking cessation guidelines" and "Smoking cessation treatment meta-analysis" to know the content of different guidelines and with the titles of "Nicotine replacement therapy", "Nicotine chewing gum", "Nicotine patches", "Nicotine inhaler", "Bupropion therapy", "Varenicline therapy" and "Individual and grupal behavioural counselling for smoking cessation" to determine the efficacy of each intervention. Results and conclusion. Our recommendation based on the availability of pharmacotherapy and

  14. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Kelly; Carter, Kimberly; Curtin, Lisa; Martz, Denise M.; Gagnon, Sandy G.; Michael, Kurt D.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing has shown some success as an intervention for college student cigarette smokers. We tested the efficacy and process of a two session motivational-interviewing-based smoking intervention compared to an assessment/information session. College student participants assigned to the motivational interviewing condition did not…

  15. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S; Smith, Anne E; Liss, Thomas B; McFetridge, Amanda K; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending. PMID:20802850

  16. Effect of Early Intervention Applied to Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at Different Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, W.; M-H Chen; Y-C Pan; C-Y Chen; Y-L Cai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes health education, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and enhancing immunity (administration of influenza vaccine and polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG-PSN]). The effect of early intervention was investigated systematically in patients with COPD at different stages. Methods: We enrolled 422 patients with COPD at different stages without symptoms and then random...

  17. Multiple Health Behavior Changes in a Cancer Prevention Intervention for Construction Workers, 2001-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Amy E.; Devine, Carol M.; Beard, Binta; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hunt, Mary K.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few multiple behavior change interventions have addressed tobacco use in conjunction with fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among high-risk blue-collar workers. Tools for Health, a cancer prevention intervention for construction laborers, was effective in achieving behavior change for smoking cessation and fruit and vegetable consumption separately. This study examines whether addressing smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption was successful in achieving positive...

  18. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realistic estimates of effectiveness with greater relevance to clinical practice and for health resource allocation decisions. However, there is no clear method to scale each dimension during the trial design phase to ensure that the design matches the intended purpose of the study. Methods We designed a pragmatic, randomized, controlled study to maximize external validity by addressing several barriers to smoking cessation therapy in ambulatory care. We analyzed our design and methods using the recently published ‘Pragmatic–Explanatory Continuum Indicatory Summary (PRECIS’ tool, a qualitative method to assess trial design across 10 domains. We added a 20-point numerical rating scale and a modified Delphi process to improve consensus in rating these domains. Results After two rounds of review, there was consensus on all 10 domains of study design. No single domain was scored as either fully pragmatic or fully explanatory; but overall, the study scored high on pragmatism. Conclusions This addition to the PRECIS tool may assist other trial designers working with interdisciplinary co-investigators to rate their study design while building consensus.

  19. Determinants of smoking cessation in COPD patients treated in the outpatient setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra S; Thomsen, Reimar W; Johnsen, Søren P;

    2016-01-01

    of outpatient treated exacerbations (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.93). CONCLUSION: These findings reinforce that the young and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients have more difficulties achieving timely smoking cessation. A novel finding is that patients with milder COPD are less likely to quit. The findings......BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of smoking cessation on progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well established. Nevertheless, many COPD patients continue to smoke. METHODS: In this nationwide hospital-based prospective follow-up study, we examined rates of smoking...... cessation and clinical and socio-demographic determinants of smoking cessation in 3,233 COPD patients who smoked upon outpatient contact during 2008-2012. Using multivariate Cox regression we calculated hazard ratios (HR) of quitting. RESULTS: Within one and five years from first outpatient contact...

  20. Pragmatic, observational study of bupropion treatment for smoking cessation in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkes, S; Evans, A; Henderson, M.; Gibson, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking remains the single largest cause of premature death in the United Kingdom. As part of the government's national service framework for coronary heart disease, smoking cessation forms a key part of the strategy.

  1. Kefir protective effects against nicotine cessation-induced anxiety and cognition impairments in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Noori

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that Kefir had a potential effect on the treatment of nicotine cessation-induced depression, anxiety and cognition impairment in the animal model. Kefir may be useful for adjunct therapy for nicotine abandonment treatment protocols.

  2. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelton Helen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers. Methods An evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet. Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test. Results At week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA. The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0

  3. Smoking cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: the impact of physician messages and waiting room media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, V C; Coates, T J; Spielberg, L A; Ewart, C K; Dorfman, S; Huster, W J

    1984-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a media program and a physician-delivered message in encouraging smoking cessation among young black women in public family planning clinics. Incorporated into the clinic visit, the 3- to 5-min physician message was intended to elicit a commitment from participants to take steps toward quitting, namely, to think about quitting, set a target date, enlist the help of family and friends, throw away matches and cigarettes, and to then quit "cold turkey." The media program consisted of specially designed posters in waiting rooms showing models of people in the process of quitting and a continuously run movie dealing with women and smoking. A total of 1,179 female smokers were recruited into the study when they came to three separate clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, to receive gynecological examinations and/or contraceptive services. Four separate interventions were tested: (I) a baseline questionnaire about smoking habits and related information; (II) baseline questionnaire plus media program; (III) baseline questionnaire plus physician message; and (IV) baseline questionnaire plus media program plus physician message. Conditions I and II were administered in Clinic A on alternating weeks, Condition III was administered in Clinic B, and Condition IV was administered in Clinic C. Follow-up was conducted at 3 and 12 months. Follow-up rates were 88.1% at 3 months, 79.9% at 12 months, and 84.1% for both 3 and 12 months. Among women receiving the physician message (Conditions III and IV), 9.9% reported not smoking at 12 months; the lowest selfreported cessation rate was 3.1% in Condition I. When verified through analyzing cotinine in saliva, quit rates were 0.09% in Condition I, 2.4% in Condition II, 3.7% in Condition III, and 2.1% in Condition IV. The fact that participants receiving the physician message quit smoking at a significantly greater rate than those who did not indicates the need for further study of the impact of physician

  4. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health

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    Doherty Tanya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively. Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7 and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2

  5. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  6. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Lawrence; Neufeld Troy; Marin Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear) acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting pa...

  7. Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. Objective This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app...

  8. Predicting Self-Initiated Marijuana Use Cessation among Youth at Continuation High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Melissa A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at 1-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at ...

  9. Predicting self-initiated marijuana use cessation among youth at continuation high schools

    OpenAIRE

    MelissaA.Little; DonnaSpruijt-Metz

    2013-01-01

    The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users ...

  10. Effect of Acupuncture on Smoking Cessation and Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking, and chronic neck and shoulder pain are major public health problems in the modern society, and both lack effective treatments. This thesis presents two trials focusing on acupuncture as a treatment for these two problems. Objectives Study A was undertaken to examine the effects of acupuncture on smoking reduction and cessation, and to examine whether some ‘real’ acupoints are more effective than ‘sham’ acupoints for smoking cessation. An additional aim was to examine w...

  11. Promoting hospital-based smoking cessation services at major Swiss hospitals: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Bolliger, Chris T; van Biljon, X.; Humair, Jean-Paul Luc André; El Fehri, V.; Cornuz, J.

    2008-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Whether a 1-year nationwide, government supported programme is effective in significantly increasing the number of smoking cessation clinics at major Swiss hospitals as well as providing basic training for the staff running them. METHODS: We conducted a baseline evaluation of hospital services for smoking cessation, hypertension, and obesity by web search and telephone contact followed by personal visits between October 2005 and January 2006 of 44 major public hospitals...

  12. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our prelimin...

  13. Issues Related to Implementing a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial for Cancer Patients1

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Elisa; Tatum, Kristina L.; Weber, Dorothy M.; Kuzla, Natalie; Pendley, Anna B.S.; Campbell, Kirsten; Ridge, John A; Langer, Corey; Miyamoto, Curtis; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Given high rates of smoking among cancer patients, smoking cessation treatment is crucial, yet limited data exist to guide integration of such trials into the oncologic context. To determine the feasibility of conducting smoking cessation clinical trials with cancer patients, screening and baseline data from a large randomized placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to compare enrollees to decliners, describe program enr...

  14. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  15. A Critical Review of Repurposing Apomorphine for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rosado, Joel A; Cousin, Margot A; Ebbert, Jon O; Klee, Eric W

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use disorder is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the United States, with one in five Americans currently smoking cigarettes. Only two non-nicotine medications are FDA approved for treating tobacco use disorder, and advances in drug discovery are profoundly outpaced by the morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco dependence. Drug repurposing may provide an approach for addressing this health hazard, offering hope to tobacco users attempting to quit who have failed existing therapies. The focus of this review is to evaluate the potential role of apomorphine (APO) in treating tobacco dependence. Previously described in the literature as a non-specific dopamine agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease and erectile dysfunction, APO's dopaminergic targeting activity may be effective in counteracting the modified response arising from tobacco use. Here, the literature describing APO's activity is reviewed and presented in the context of known nicotine-induced response in neurotransmitter systems. Based on these data, whether APO may be an effective smoking cessation agent by ameliorating a tobacco user's anhedonic state is critically appraised, along with withdrawal symptoms and the chemical reinforcement associated with drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:26690764

  16. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  17. Smoking and management methods. The practice of smoking cessation programme in University Hospital of Larissa.

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    Zarogiannis S.,

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the most important, preventable cause of premature death and this addiction can be regarded as a chronic, recurrent disease. The benefits of smoking cessation are unquestionable and all health care professionals should become more active in recommending it. Aim: To characterise the population seeking medical support for smoking cessation and to investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation programme performed, in the University Hospital of Larissa, for outpatients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of outpatients in follow-up between March 2004 and October 2007. Age, gender, level of education, smoking habits, compliance in pharmacological treatment, gain weight and abstinence and relapse rates were evaluated.Results: Were studied 376 smokers, 60% male with an average age of 46.9 years. Men, upper graduated smokers have higher cessation rates whereas, in heavy smokers with high degree of dependence was observed lower cessation rates. The continuous abstinence rate at 12 months was 38%, and among pharmacological treatment, varenicline resulted elevated rate of quit smoking. The rate of relapse was found in 39%.Conclusions: This study suggests that smoking cessation programmes may be highly effective in helping smoking withdrawal and should be a strongly recommended component of daily clinical practice.

  18. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämppi, Leena; Ritvanen, Jaakko; Mustonen, Harri; Soinila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE). Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years) diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p = 0.027), onset-to-burst-suppression (p = 0.005), and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p = 0.035) delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated. PMID:26347816

  19. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kämppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE. Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p=0.027, onset-to-burst-suppression (p=0.005, and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p=0.035 delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated.

  20. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  1. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  2. Measuring participant rurality in Web-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay H Garth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based health behavior change programs can reach large groups of disparate participants and thus they provide promise of becoming important public health tools. Data on participant rurality can complement other demographic measures to deepen our understanding of the success of these programs. Specifically, analysis of participant rurality can inform recruitment and social marketing efforts, and facilitate the targeting and tailoring of program content. Rurality analysis can also help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions across population groupings. Methods We describe how the RUCAs (Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes methodology can be used to examine results from two Randomized Controlled Trials of Web-based tobacco cessation programs: the ChewFree.com project for smokeless tobacco cessation and the Smokers' Health Improvement Program (SHIP project for smoking cessation. Results Using RUCAs methodology helped to highlight the extent to which both Web-based interventions reached a substantial percentage of rural participants. The ChewFree program was found to have more rural participation which is consistent with the greater prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in rural settings as well as ChewFree's multifaceted recruitment program that specifically targeted rural settings. Conclusion Researchers of Web-based health behavior change programs targeted to the US should routinely include RUCAs as a part of analyzing participant demographics. Researchers in other countries should examine rurality indices germane to their country.

  3. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65 were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33 and control (no intervention groups (n = 32. In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002 and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0% (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26 in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted.

  4. The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and Mobile Data Collection to Evaluate Smoking Cessation for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derick; Parvanta, Sarah; Dolina, Suzanne; Kelly, Bridget; Dever, Jill; Southwell, Brian G; Sanders, Amy; Augustson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study’s operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. Objective The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute’s SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age. We detail our methods for recruiting participants from the Internet, reducing fraud, conducting online data collection, and retaining panel study participants. Methods Participants were recruited through website advertisements and market research online panels. Screening questions established eligibility for the study (eg, 18 to 29 years of age, current smoker). Antifraud measures screened out participants who could not meet the study requirements. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to one of three study arms, which varied by type and timing of text message delivery. The study offered US $20 gift cards as incentives to complete each of four follow-up surveys. Automated email reminders were sent at designated intervals to increase response rates. Researchers also provided telephone reminders to those who had not completed the survey after multiple email reminders. We calculated participation rates across study arms and compared the final sample characteristics to the Current Population Survey to examine generalizability. Results Recruitment methods drove 153,936 unique visitors to the SFTXT Study landing page and 27,360 began the screener. Based on the screening questions, 15,462 out of 27,360 responders (56.51%) were

  5. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Takeshi; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP). The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness. Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75), left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37) and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33). Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01). Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP. PMID:22102787

  6. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  7. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. R

  8. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. R

  9. Variabilities in Rainfall Onset, Cessation and Length of Rainy Season for the Various Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard K. Amekudzi; Edmund I. Yamba; Kwasi Preko; Ernest O. Asare; Jeffrey Aryee; Michael Baidu; Samuel N. A. Codjoe

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the onset and cessation dates of the rainy season over Ghana using rain gauge data from the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet) over the period of 1970–2012. The onset and cessation dates were determined from cumulative curves using the number of rainy days and rainfall amount. In addition, the inter-annual variability of the onset and cessation dates for each climatic zone was assessed using wavelet analysis. A clear distinction between the rainfall characteristics and the...

  10. Effectiveness of a multi-component Smoking Cessation Support Programme (McSCSP) for patients with severe mental disorders: study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Diaz-Mesa, Eva; Galvan, Gonzalo; Sarramea, Fernando; Garcia-Blanco, Josefa; Elizagarate, Edorta; Bobes, Julio

    2013-12-24

    Only a few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation programmes in patients with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail the methodology used in the study as well as the Multi-component Smoking Cessation Support Programme in terms of pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions. An open-label 9-month follow-up study was conducted in Spain. A total of 82 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder were enrolled. Treatment consisted of a programme specifically developed by the research team for individuals with severe mental disorders. The programme consisted of two phases: (1) weekly individual motivational therapy for 4-12 weeks, and (2) a 12-week active treatment phase. During this phase, at each study visit patients received a one- or two-week supply of medication (transdermal nicotine patches, varenicline or bupropion) with instructions on how to take it, in addition to group psychotherapy for smoking cessation. Evaluations were performed: (1) at the time of enrollment in the study, (2) during the 12-week active treatment phase of the study (weekly for the first 4 weeks and then biweekly), and (3) after the end of this phase (two follow-up assessments at weeks 12 and 24). Evaluations included: (1) smoking history, (2) substance use, (3) psychopathology, (4) adverse events, and (5) laboratory tests. The importance of this study lies in addressing a topical issue often ignored by psychiatrists: the unacceptably high rates of tobacco use in patients with severe mental disorders.

  11. Effectiveness of a Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Support Programme (McSCSP for Patients with Severe Mental Disorders: Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paz Garcia-Portilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation programmes in patients with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail the methodology used in the study as well as the Multi-component Smoking Cessation Support Programme in terms of pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions. An open-label 9-month follow-up study was conducted in Spain. A total of 82 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder were enrolled. Treatment consisted of a programme specifically developed by the research team for individuals with severe mental disorders. The programme consisted of two phases: (1 weekly individual motivational therapy for 4–12 weeks, and (2 a 12-week active treatment phase. During this phase, at each study visit patients received a one- or two-week supply of medication (transdermal nicotine patches, varenicline or bupropion with instructions on how to take it, in addition to group psychotherapy for smoking cessation. Evaluations were performed: (1 at the time of enrolment in the study, (2 during the 12-week active treatment phase of the study (weekly for the first 4 weeks and then biweekly, and (3 after the end of this phase (two follow-up assessments at weeks 12 and 24. Evaluations included: (1 smoking history, (2 substance use, (3 psychopathology, (4 adverse events, and (5 laboratory tests. The importance of this study lies in addressing a topical issue often ignored by psychiatrists: the unacceptably high rates of tobacco use in patients with severe mental disorders.

  12. Effectiveness of a Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Support Programme (McSCSP) for Patients with Severe Mental Disorders: Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Diaz-Mesa, Eva; Galvan, Gonzalo; Sarramea, Fernando; Garcia-Blanco, Josefa; Elizagarate, Edorta; Bobes, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation programmes in patients with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail the methodology used in the study as well as the Multi-component Smoking Cessation Support Programme in terms of pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions. An open-label 9-month follow-up study was conducted in Spain. A total of 82 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder were enrolled. Treatment consisted of a programme specifically developed by the research team for individuals with severe mental disorders. The programme consisted of two phases: (1) weekly individual motivational therapy for 4–12 weeks, and (2) a 12-week active treatment phase. During this phase, at each study visit patients received a one- or two-week supply of medication (transdermal nicotine patches, varenicline or bupropion) with instructions on how to take it, in addition to group psychotherapy for smoking cessation. Evaluations were performed: (1) at the time of enrolment in the study, (2) during the 12-week active treatment phase of the study (weekly for the first 4 weeks and then biweekly), and (3) after the end of this phase (two follow-up assessments at weeks 12 and 24). Evaluations included: (1) smoking history, (2) substance use, (3) psychopathology, (4) adverse events, and (5) laboratory tests. The importance of this study lies in addressing a topical issue often ignored by psychiatrists: the unacceptably high rates of tobacco use in patients with severe mental disorders. PMID:24368428

  13. Picture Me Smokefree: A Qualitative Study Using Social Media and Digital Photography to Engage Young Adults in Tobacco Reduction and Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults have high rates of tobacco use compared to other subpopulations, yet there are relatively few tobacco interventions specifically targeted to this group. Picture Me Smokefree is an online tobacco reduction and cessation intervention for young adults that uses digital photography and social networking. Objective The main goal of the project was to determine the feasibility of engaging young adults in participating in user-driven, online forums intended to provide peer support and motivate critical reflection about tobacco use and cessation among this high-use, hard-to-reach population. A related aim was to explore the influence of gender-related factors on participation, in order to determine the need for online interventions to be tailored to the specific gender preferences reflecting young men and women’s participation styles. Methods A total of 60 young adults ages 19-24 years who self-identified as current cigarette smokers or who had quit within the last year were recruited from across British Columbia, Canada, and participated in an online photo group on Facebook over a period of 12 consecutive weeks. A variety of data collection methods were used including tracking online activity, a brief online follow-up survey, and qualitative interviews with study participants. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics on recruitment, retention, and participation and qualitative (eg, narrative analysis, synthesis of feedback) feedback about participant engagement. Results Findings from this study suggest good potential for Facebook as an accessible, low-cost platform for engaging young adults to reflect on the reasons for their tobacco use, the benefits of quitting or reducing, and the best strategies for tobacco reduction. Young adults’ frequent use of mobile phones and other mobile devices to access social networking permitted ease of access and facilitated real-time peer-to-peer support across a diverse group of participants. However, our

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles Zandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  15. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indian (AI and Alaska Native (AN communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods: This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results: Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion: Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.

  16. Tobacco use prevention and cessation in dental and dental hygiene undergraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Christoph A; Christen, Arden; McGowan, Joan; McCartan, Bernard; Minenna, Luigi; Ohrn, Kerstin; Walter, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    Oral health care professionals are aware of their responsibility to advise patients to stop using tobacco. However, they do not feel sufficiently prepared to help their patients to quit, and consequently are not confident in providing these preventive measures. This fact reflects the lack of emphasis on tobacco cessation in both dental and dental hygiene undergraduate education. It may therefore be assumed that improvement of dental and dental hygiene education in tobacco use cessation counselling may result in increased self-confidence and frequency of its provision. The importance of making space in the curriculum for tobacco use prevention and cessation has to be emphasised. Dental schools and dental hygiene programmes have to be reminded of the key role the dental profession has in tobacco control. Next to the public health aspect of tobacco control, such involvement may be both an ethical and a legal responsibility. The implementation of effective tobacco use prevention and cessation in a dental educational setting requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the school's entire teaching personnel and external experts. In general, a knowledge base attained through lecture, Problem-Based Learning (PBL), or E-Learning, and clinical skills attained through clinical instructions and practices is required. It is suggested that curriculum content should include (1) the biological effects of tobacco use, (2) the history of tobacco culture and psychosocial aspects of tobacco use, (3) prevention and treatment of tobacco use and dependence, and (4) development of clinical skills for tobacco use prevention and cessation. PMID:16683397

  17. Effect of weak rotation on large-scale circulation cessations in turbulent convection

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Michael; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effect of weak rotation on the large-scale circulation (LSC) of turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection, using the theory for cessations in a low-dimensional stochastic model of the flow previously studied. We determine the cessation frequency of the LSC as a function of rotation, and calculate the statistics of the amplitude and azimuthal velocity fluctuations of the LSC as a function of the rotation rate for different Rayleigh numbers. Furthermore, we show that the tails of the reorientation probability distribution function remain unchanged for rotating systems, while the distribution of the LSC amplitude and correspondingly the cessation frequency are strongly affected by rotation. Our results are in close agreement with experimental observations.

  18. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Schroeder, Torben V; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking...... cessation program, on continuous self-reported abstinence rates after six months, on participants over the age of 60 years in a real life setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from the national Danish smoking cessation database. RESULTS: The database registered 7369 participants over...... recommendation for smoking cessation (OR 1.12), being compliant with program (OR 1.35) and being abstinent at end of course (OR 13.3). CONCLUSIONS: Participants over the age of 60 years had significantly higher continuous abstinence rates after six months than the participants less than 60 years. It is never too...

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nortriptyline in smoking cessation: a multistudy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M E; Reus, V I; Gorecki, J; Hall, S M; Humfleet, G L; Muñoz, R F; Delucchi, K

    2008-03-01

    Multiple, controlled clinical trials support the efficacy of nortriptyline as a smoking cessation agent. Although therapeutic plasma nortriptyline concentrations (PNCs) are known for the treatment of depression, little is known about PNCs in smoking cessation treatment. PNCs from three randomized, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials (N=244) were analyzed both separately and pooled. PNCs normalized for dose and weight were associated with cigarettes per day and race, but not with sex or age. Greater smoking was associated with decreased normalized PNCs. In addition, both Asian and black populations had significantly higher normalized PNCs than the white populations. Weak and inconsistent associations between PNCs and self-reported side effects were observed. PNCs were linearly related to end of treatment and long-term biochemically verified smoking abstinence. Maximum therapeutic effects were observed over a range of plasma concentrations somewhat lower than those found effective for the treatment of depression. PMID:17687275

  20. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  1. Prospective Psychosocial Predictors of Onset and Cessation of Eating Pathology amongst College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Timko, Alix; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The course of college women's eating pathology is variable. Little is known about psychosocial factors prospectively predicting maintenance/cessation or the new onset of clinically significant disordered eating symptoms. This study aimed to address these research gaps. College women (N = 2202) completed an assessment of eating pathology and potential risk/maintenance factors at two time points, 9 months apart. Logistic regression models indicated that elevated body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, self-objectification, negative affectivity and lower self-esteem at baseline predicted 'onset' of clinically significant disordered eating symptomatology at follow-up. Greater self-esteem and lower initial levels on the remaining risk factors predicted subsequent 'cessation' of clinically significant disordered eating symptoms. Self-objectification had greater explanatory value with regard to 'cessation' and 'onset' relative to the remaining traditionally accepted factors that demonstrated half as much predictive power or less. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:26842985

  2. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke; Hansen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity. PMID:27391160

  3. Survival to reproductive cessation drives variation in post-reproductive lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proske, Beate; Burger, Oskar; Levitis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    How many post-reproductive individuals are found in a population depends on how many individuals survive to reproductive cessation and how long they live thereafter. Post-reproductive Representation (PrR), a measure of post-reproductive lifespan intended for interspecific comparisons, allows a cl......-reproductive. Research on the evolution of post-reproductive lifespan should take into account the primary importance of survival to reproductive cessation, rather than focusing on the length of life thereafter....... the majority of variation in PrR among a group of small cohorts of rotifers, and among several historical Swedish cohorts. We emphasize that women are distinct from other primates in the proportion reaching reproductive cessation, but not in the proportion of adult life-expectancy that is post...

  4. Smoking among pregnant women in Cantabria (Spain: trend and determinants of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariscal Marcial

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cantabria (Spain has one of the highest prevalence of smoking among women of the European Union. The objectives are to assess the trend of smoking during pregnancy in a five-year period and the determinants of smoking cessation during pregnancy in Cantabria. Methods A 1/6 random sample of all women delivering at the reference hospital of the region for the period 1998–2002 was drawn, 1559 women. Information was obtained from personal interview, clinical chart, and prenatal care records. In the analysis relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Multivariable analysis was carried out using stepwise logistic regression. Results Smoking prior to pregnancy decreased from 53.6% in 1998 to 39.4% in 2002. A decrease in smoking cessation among women smoking at the beginning of pregnancy was observed, from 37.3% in 1998 to 20.6% in 2002. The mean number of cigarettes/day (cig/d before pregnancy remained constant, around 16 cig/d, whereas a slight trend to increase over time was seen, from 7.7 to 8.9 cig/d. In univariate analysis two variables favoured significantly smoking cessation, although they were not included in the stepwise logistic regression analysis, a higher education level and to be married. The logistic regression model included five significant predictors (also significant in univariate analysis: intensity of smoking, number of previous pregnancies, partner's smoking status, calendar year of study period (these four variables favoured smoking continuation, and adequate prenatal care (which increased smoking cessation. Conclusion The frequency of smoking among pregnant women is very high in Cantabria. As smoking cessation rate has decreased over time, a change in prenatal care programme on smoking counseling is needed. Several determinants of smoking cessation, such as smoking before pregnancy and partner's smoking, should be also addressed by community programmes.

  5. Project EX: A Program of Empirical Research on Adolescent Tobacco Use Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman Steve

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the Project EX research program. The historical background for Project EX is presented, including a brief summary of reasons youth fail to quit tobacco use, the disappointing status of previous cessation research, and the teen cessation trial that provided the template for the current project (Project TNT. Next, program development studies for Project EX are described. Through use of focus groups, a theme study (concept evaluation of written activity descriptions, a component study, and pilot studies, an eight-session program was developed. This program involves novel activities (e.g., "talk show enactments," games, and alternative medicine-type activities such as yoga and meditation in combination with motivation enhancement and cognitive-behavioral strategies to motivate and instruct in cessation initiation and maintenance efforts. The outcomes of the first experimental trial of Project EX, a school-based clinic program, are described, followed by a posthoc analysis of its effects mediation. A second EX study, a multiple baseline single group pilot study design in Wuhan, China, is described next. Description of a second experimental trial follows, which tested EX with nicotine gum versus a natural herb. A third experimental trial that tests a classroom prevention/cessation version of EX is then introduced. Finally, the implications of this work are discussed. The intent-to-treat quit rate for Project EX is approximately 15% across studies, double that of a standard care comparison. Effects last up to a six-month post-program at regular and alternative high schools. Through a systematic protocol of empirical program development and field trials, an effective and replicable model teen tobacco use cessation program is established. Future cessation work might expand on this work.

  6. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Arpana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks. White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]. Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding

  7. Dental vs. Medical Students' Comfort with Smoking Cessation Counseling: Implications for Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Staci Robinson; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if dental and medical students have similar feelings of professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence with counseling patients about smoking cessation during their clinical years. All third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical (N=580) and dental students (N=144) at Western University of Health Sciences were invited to participate in a survey in April-July 2014, either electronically or in person, regarding their perceived professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence in counseling smokers about quitting and major constraints against counseling smokers about quitting. Respondents' demographic characteristics, smoking history, and history of living with a smoker were also assessed. Response rates were 21% (124/580) for medical and 82% (118/144) for dental students. Most of the responding medical (99.2%) and dental (94.9%) students reported feeling it was their professional responsibility to counsel patients about smoking cessation. Medical student respondents were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling patients about smoking cessation than dental student respondents (p0.10). There were no differences by age, but students who were former smokers were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling about smoking cessation than were nonsmokers (p=0.001). While almost all of the responding students reported feeling responsible for counseling patients about smoking cessation, the medical students and former smokers were more comfortable and confident performing this counseling. These results suggest the need for additional training in counseling techniques for dental students and nonsmokers. Future studies should assess the impact of medical and dental students' smoking cessation counseling.

  8. Stage movement following a 5A's intervention in tobacco dependent individuals with serious mental illness (SMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, Carlo C; Delahanty, Janine C; Kofeldt, Miranda G; Dixon, Lisa; Goldberg, Richard; Lucksted, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    Smoking among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) creates significant health problems. This study explored stage of change transitions over time among smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) and how dose of a brief intervention and other psychosocial variables were related to stage transitions. Participants were a subsample of 110 patients who participated in a larger controlled trial (Dixon, et al., 2009) examining whether psychiatrists in mental health clinics implementing the "5A's" (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) significantly reduced smoking among persons with SMI. Participants were classified into one of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change for Smoking Cessation as well as classified into groups based upon the pattern of stage status transitions over time (i.e., Regressors, Stable, Inconsistent, Progressors with and without a successful quit). Modest quit rates for this brief intervention were found at one-year (6.4%) and the dose of the intervention was meaningfully related to positive stage transitions. Cessation outcomes from the controlled trial (Dixon, et al., 2009) indicated a small effect on smoking cessation, which is confirmed in this stage transition secondary analysis with a subset of these smokers. However, these results suggest that a brief intervention delivered by psychiatrists in a mental health treatment setting does seem to make an impact on these smokers.

  9. An effective intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; McClelland, R Scott; Ravel, Jacques; Ahmed, Aabid; Cleland, Charles M; Gajer, Pawel; Mwamzaka, Musa; Marshed, Fatma; Shafi, Juma; Masese, Linnet; Fajans, Mark; Anderson, Molly E; Jaoko, Walter; Kurth, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVP) are common among African women and are associated with HIV acquisition. A behavioral intervention to reduce IVP is a potential new HIV risk-reduction strategy. Fifty-eight HIV-1-uninfected Kenyan women reporting IVP and 42 women who denied IVP were followed for 3 months. Women using IVP attended a skill-building, theory-based group intervention occurring weekly for 3 weeks to encourage IVP cessation. Vaginal swabs at each visit were used to detect yeast, to detect bacterial vaginosis, and to characterize the vaginal microbiota. Intravaginal insertion of soapy water (59%) and lemon juice (45%) was most common among 58 IVP women. The group-counseling intervention led to a decrease in IVP from 95% (54/58) at baseline to 0% (0/39) at month 3 (p=0.001). After 3 months of cessation, there was a reduction in yeast on vaginal wet preparation (22% to 7%, p=0.011). Women in the IVP group were more likely to have a Lactobacillus iners-dominated vaginal microbiota at baseline compared to controls [odds ratio (OR), 6.4, p=0.006] without significant change in the microbiota after IVP cessation. The group counseling intervention was effective in reducing IVP for 3 months. Reducing IVP may be important in itself, as well as to support effective use of vaginal microbicides, to prevent HIV acquisition.

  10. 尼古丁依赖与烟瘾治疗%Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭林湘; 唐全胜; 郝伟

    2009-01-01

    have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel α4β2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established.

  11. Recommendations for initiation and cessation of enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegstraaten, Marieke; Arngrímsson, Reynir; Barbey, Frederic;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting in progressive nervous system, kidney and heart disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may halt or attenuate disease progression. Since administration is burdensome and expensive, appropriate use is mandatory. We aimed...... for renal transplantation, in combination with advanced heart failure (NYHA class IV), cessation of ERT should be considered. ERT in patients who are non-compliant or fail to attend regularly at visits should be stopped. CONCLUSION: The recommendations can be used as a benchmark for initiation and cessation...

  12. Using Rapid Prototyping to Design a Smoking Cessation Website with End-Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne; Rowsell, Derek; Phillips, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an iterative approach to design involving cycles of prototype building, review by end-users and refinement, and can be a valuable tool in user-centered website design. Informed by various user-centered approaches, we used rapid prototyping as a tool to collaborate with users in building a peer-support focused smoking-cessation website for gay men living with HIV. Rapid prototyping was effective in eliciting feedback on the needs of this group of potential end-users from a smoking cessation website. PMID:27332420

  13. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To treat tobacco addiction,a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation.This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters.In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months,the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%,and 31.7% of them stopped smoking.This work identified a new method and material,tea filter and theanine,which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  14. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takeshi Takami1,Yoshihiko Saito21Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic Jingumae, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, JapanPurpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP. The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness.Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75, left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37 and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01. Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups.Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, smoking cessation, varenicline

  15. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Lipids and Lipoproteins: Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Adam D.; Piper, Megan E.; Johnson, Heather M.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on lipoproteins have not been studied in a large contemporary group of smokers. This study was designed to determine the effects of smoking cessation on lipoproteins. Methods One-year, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Fasting nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy lipoprotein profiles were obtained before and 1-year after the target smoking cessation date. The effects of smoking cessation and predictors of changes in lipoproteins after one year were identified by multivariable regression. Results The 1,504 current smokers were mean (standard deviation) 45.4 (11.3) years old and smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day at baseline. Of the 923 adult smokers who returned at 1 year, 334 (36.2%) had quit smoking. Despite gaining more weight (4.6 kg [5.7] vs. 0.7 kg [5.1], p<0.001], abstainers had increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (2.4 [8.3] vs. 0.1 [8.8] mg/dL, p<0.001], total HDL (1.0 [4.6] vs. −0.3 mcmol/L [5.0], p<0.001) and large HDL (0.6 [2.2] vs. 0.1 [2.1] mcmol/L, p=0.003) particles, compared with continuing smokers. Significant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and particles were not observed. After adjustment, abstinence from smoking (p<0.001) was independently associated with increases in HDL-C and total HDL particles. These effects were stronger in women. Conclusions Despite weight gain, smoking cessation improved HDL-C, total HDL and large HDL particles, especially in women. Smoking cessation did not affect LDL or LDL size. Increases in HDL may mediate part of the reduced cardiovascular disease risk observed after smoking cessation. PMID:21167347

  16. Success and failure attributions in smoking cessation among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, K E

    1990-04-01

    1. Smoking behavior is intermingled with a very complicated array of social and psychological processes which suggests the presence of sociocultural factors that directly influence smoking behavior. 2. Social and cultural factors which distinguish former smokers from smokers indicate that behavioral factors may be related to the ability to successfully stop smoking. 3. Evidence suggests that attributional patterns differ according to gender, with women being more external and employing more luck attributions than men. 4. When attribution and self-efficacy expectations were combined with demographic variables, increased understanding of the cessation process increased and predictive power of success in smoking cessation improved.

  17. The effect of Varenicline on smoking cessation in a group of young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian G; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use causes long-term morbidity and mortality. In patients with asthma, the frequency of smokers is high; however, asthmatic smokers experience more pronounced symptoms, accelerated loss of lung function and treatment resistance. Varenicline is an effective drug in smoking...... cessation, when investigated in COPD patients and general populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Varenicline on tobacco cessation in young asthmatics. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial, 52 asthmatic current smokers (age 19-40) ≥ 10 cigarettes...

  18. Intramammary infections and milk leakage following gradual or abrupt cessation of milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milking cessation method (abrupt or gradual) and daily milk yield before dry-off on milk leakage following dry-off and intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. Data from 1,086 quarters of 285 cows from 5 Ohio dairy herds were analyzed. All cows that were due to be dried off within a week were assigned to the same study group to facilitate management. Abrupt-cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule through dry-off, and gradual-cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Aseptic technique was used to collect quarter foremilk samples at the time of enrollment (7 to 14 d before expected dry-off), the final milking before dry-off (D-O), and within 7 d of calving. Cows in the gradual-cessation group were observed for milk leakage during the period of once-daily milking. In the only herd that did not use internal teat sealants at dry-off, milk leakage after dry-off was recorded in both abrupt and gradual groups. Gradual cessation decreased milk production by 33.4% during the final week of lactation, causing milk yield at D-O to be lower for these cows compared with abrupt-cessation cows (13.2 vs. 19.8kg/d, respectively). Logistic regression models were used to model the probability of a quarter being infected at calving with any pathogen, accounting for clustering of quarters within cows and cows within herds. The final model investigating the probability of IMI at calving was stratified by parity of cows at the time of dry-off (primiparous and multiparous). Among quarters of cows that ended their first lactation, abrupt cessation of milking before dry-off and milk leakage after dry-off were associated with an increased risk of IMI at calving. Among quarters of multiparous cows, on the other hand, gradual cessation of milking before dry-off, presence of IMI at D-O, and thrice-daily milking during lactation increased the odds of IMI at calving. These results indicate that

  19. [The practice guideline 'Smoking cessation' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the practice guideline from the Dutch College of General Practitioners on smoking cessation. General practitioners (GP) should strive after smoking cessation when patients consult and ask for support to stop smoking. Moreover, the practitioner should also show such initiative wh

  20. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  1. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  2. 77 FR 70955 - FDA Actions Related to Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to Congress on Innovative Products and Treatments for... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and..., including nicotine-containing gums, patches, and lozenges, are already marketed for smoking cessation....

  3. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor... Procedures § 51.23 Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation—generic determination... revised or renewed license) of that reactor at its spent fuel storage basin or at either onsite or...

  4. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  5. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  6. Factors associated with tobacco smoking and cessation among HIV-infected individuals under care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S Torres

    Full Text Available Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected individuals were interviewed: 46.2% have never smoked, 29.9% were current smokers and 23.9% were former smokers. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use when compared to the other two groups. A higher proportion of heterosexual individuals were former smokers or never smokers while among men who have sex with men (MSM a higher proportion were current smokers. Former smokers had been more frequently diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and depression, while for current smokers lung diseases were more frequent. Former smokers and current smokers were more likely to have had any hospital admission (42.0% and 41.2%, respectively than participants who never smoked (33.5% (p31 cigarettes/day. MSM (compared to heterosexuals and cocaine users (versus non-users had lower odds of being former smokers. Considering our results, smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to younger individuals, MSM and substance users.

  7. Results of the PAS Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Multiple Tailored Smoking Cessation Program Combined With Tailored Counseling by Practice Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, E S; Candel, M J J M; Hoving, C; de Vries, H

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of Web-based multiple computer tailoring and counseling by a practice nurse (MTC) compared with computer tailoring without counseling (MT) and usual care (UC) on smoking cessation rates, via a randomized controlled trial with 414 Dutch adult smokers, recruited by 91 practice nurses from May 2009 to June 2010. Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted with 24-hour point prevalence, 7-day point prevalence, and prolonged abstinence after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables and experimental condition as the independent variable. After 6 and 12 months, 38% and 56% of respondents were followed up, respectively. At both follow-ups, no main effects of the interventions could be identified when comparing them with care as usual and with each other-neither in analyses using available data nor in analyses using a negative scenario in which respondents lost to follow-up were considered to still be smoking. A Web-based multiple computer-tailored smoking cessation program combined with a single face-to-face counseling session by a practice nurse may not be more effective than this computer-tailored program alone or than usual smoking cessation care in the general practice setting. Yet before concluding that the addition of counseling to Web-based computer tailoring cannot be successful, more research needs to be conducted to identify the optimal number of counseling sessions to be combined with the Web-based program and to how to best attune the two modalities. PMID:26934538

  8. Examining physicians’ preparedness for tobacco cessation services in India: Findings from primary care public health facilities in two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA total of 275 million tobacco users live throughout India and are in need of tobacco cessation services. However, the preparation of physicians to deliver this service at primary care health facilities remains unknown.AimsThe study aimed to examine the primary care physicians’ preparedness to deliver tobacco cessation services in two Indian states.MethodResearchers surveyed physicians working in primary care public health facilities, primarily in rural areas using a semistructured interview schedule. Physicians’ preparedness was defined in the study as those possessing knowledge of tobacco cessation methods and exhibiting a positive attitude towards the benefits of tobacco cessation counselling as well as being willing to be part of tobacco prevention or cessation program.ResultsOverall only 17% of physicians demonstrated adequate preparation to provide tobacco cessation services at primary care health facilities in both the States. The findings revealed minimal tobacco cessation training during formal medical education (21.3% and on-the-job training (18.9%. Factors, like sex and age of service provider, type of health facility, location of health facility and number of patients attended by the service provider, failed to show significance during bivariate and regression analysis. Preparedness was significantly predicted by state health system.ConclusionThe study highlights a lack of preparedness of primary care physicians to deliver tobacco cessation services. Both the curriculum in medical school and on-the-job training require an addition of a learning component on tobacco cessation. The addition of this component will enable existing primary care facilities to deliver tobacco cessation services.

  9. Patient and professional user experiences of simple telehealth for hypertension, medication reminders and smoking cessation: a service evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Cox, Tracey; O'Connell, Phil; Chambers, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish patient and professional user satisfaction with the Advice & Interactive Messaging (AIM) for Health programme delivered using a mobile phone-based, simple telehealth intervention, ‘Florence’. Design A service evaluation using data extracted from Florence and from a professional user electronic survey. Setting 425 primary care practices across 31 Clinical Commissioning Groups in England. Participants 3381 patients registered on 1 of 10 AIM protocols between March 2013 and January 2014 and 77 professional users. Intervention The AIM programme offered 10 clinical protocols, in three broad groups: (1) hypertension diagnosis/monitoring, (2) medication reminders and (3) smoking cessation. Florence sent patients prompts to submit clinical information, educational messages and user satisfaction questions. Patient responses were reviewed by their primary healthcare providers. Primary outcome measures Patients and professional user experiences of using AIM, and within this, Florence. Results Patient activity using Florence was generally good at month 1 for the hypertension protocols (71–80%), but reduced over 2–3 months (31–60%). For the other protocols, patient activity was 0–39% at 3 months. Minimum target days of texting were met for half the hypertension protocols. 1707/2304 (74%) patients sent evaluative texts responded at least once. Among responders, agreement with the adapted friends and family statement generally exceeded preproject aspirations. Professional responders were generally positive or equivocal about the programme. Conclusions Satisfaction with AIM appeared optimal when patients were carefully selected for the protocol; professional users were familiar with the system, the programme addressed a problem with the previous service delivery that was identified by users and users took an active approach to achieve clinical goals. However, there was a significant decrease in patients’ use of Florence over time. Future

  10. Opinions of Romanian Dental Students Toward Tobacco Use Interventions in the Dental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smoking habits as well as attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling among Romanian dental students in order to build an evidence base for further undergraduate curriculum development. A 38-item self-administered questionnaire was delivered to first to sixth dental students enrolled at the University "Lucian Blaga" Sibiu. The questionnaire covered sociodemographics, smoking habits, knowledge concerning health effects, attitudes, and confidence toward smoking cessation counseling. Smoking was reported by 37 % of participants and was more prevalent among clinical (48.98 %) than preclinical (29.58 %) and basic science students (35.93 %). Students' knowledge that tobacco affects general and oral/dental health and knowledge of dental students regarding the smoking and alcohol behavior taken during medical history varied according to academic year and smoking status, but not according to gender. Only 51.1 % of all students agreed or strongly agreed that they were adequately trained to provide tobacco cessation education. 58.6 %, respectively 52.9 %, strongly agreed that is part of their role as a dentist to assist their patients to stop smoking and to prevent patients from starting to use tobacco products, while only 35.8 % believed that smoking cessation counseling provided by a dentist can be effective in helping patients stop smoking. The main determinants of student's attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were academic year, clinical experience in the dental settings, and knowledge of smoking adverse effects. Dental school should offer adequate training in tobacco dependence and available continuing education in tobacco intervention in aim to encourage oral health care practitioners to have up-to-date information in aim to play their role effectively in the overall smoking cessation and prevention activities.

  11. Opinions of Romanian Dental Students Toward Tobacco Use Interventions in the Dental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smoking habits as well as attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling among Romanian dental students in order to build an evidence base for further undergraduate curriculum development. A 38-item self-administered questionnaire was delivered to first to sixth dental students enrolled at the University "Lucian Blaga" Sibiu. The questionnaire covered sociodemographics, smoking habits, knowledge concerning health effects, attitudes, and confidence toward smoking cessation counseling. Smoking was reported by 37 % of participants and was more prevalent among clinical (48.98 %) than preclinical (29.58 %) and basic science students (35.93 %). Students' knowledge that tobacco affects general and oral/dental health and knowledge of dental students regarding the smoking and alcohol behavior taken during medical history varied according to academic year and smoking status, but not according to gender. Only 51.1 % of all students agreed or strongly agreed that they were adequately trained to provide tobacco cessation education. 58.6 %, respectively 52.9 %, strongly agreed that is part of their role as a dentist to assist their patients to stop smoking and to prevent patients from starting to use tobacco products, while only 35.8 % believed that smoking cessation counseling provided by a dentist can be effective in helping patients stop smoking. The main determinants of student's attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were academic year, clinical experience in the dental settings, and knowledge of smoking adverse effects. Dental school should offer adequate training in tobacco dependence and available continuing education in tobacco intervention in aim to encourage oral health care practitioners to have up-to-date information in aim to play their role effectively in the overall smoking cessation and prevention activities. PMID:26007635

  12. Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

    2000-01-01

    The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research.

  13. Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking intervention pilot program with Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Charoenca, Naowarut; Sidhu, Anupreet; Lapvongwatana, Punyarat; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Sussman, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent smoking is a major public health problem around the world, including Thailand. The current study provides a three-month follow-up evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use cessation program among Thai adolescents. The intervention was tested involving a quasi-experimental trial with 185 smokers, with two program and two control condition schools (within each condition, one school in Bangkok Province and one school in Nakhon Pathom Province). At 3-month follow-up, the intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rate was 23% in the program group and 11% in the standard care control group (p<0.02). The intervention also lowered the level of last 30-day smoking at follow-up among persons who did not quit in the program condition, while no change in level of smoking was reported in the control condition. These results are promising for teen tobacco use cessation programming in Thailand. PMID:27235988

  14. Introducing smoking cessation to Indonesian males treated for tuberculosis: The challenges of low-moderate level smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mark; Padmawati, Siwi; Ng, Nawi

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of information about the smoking habits of people currently and formerly treated for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this paper we describe research carried out in Indonesia between 2007 and 2011 designed to investigate both the impact of TB-specific quit smoking messages in the TB clinic and at home, and shifts in patterns of smoking among those formerly treated for TB who continue to smoke. The results of a modest two-arm smoking cessation trial involving 87 patients undergoing Directly Observed Therapy Short course treatment (DOTS) for TB are presented. In one arm patients received a TB-specific quit smoking message delivered by doctors and a TB and smoking educational booklet and quit smoking guide. In the second, family support arm, patients also received on-going cessation messages delivered by family members trained to be DOTS supporters. The study followed patients twice during their six months of DOTS treatment and twice six months post treatment. Both arms of the study reduced rates of smoking during and following TB treatment significantly with 73% of patients in the doctor arm and 71% in the family support arm remaining quit at the end of the treatment (month 6). When complete abstinence at six months after treatment was taken as a primary outcome measure, no statistical difference was found in the effectiveness of the two arms of the intervention. Notably, 67% of higher-level smokers at baseline and 33% of low-moderate level smokers at baseline quit entirely. Many of those who resumed smoking did so at low-moderate levels (smoking at a low-moderate level (smoking at a higher level. A purposeful sample of 15 patients who shifted from heavy smoking (20-40 cigarettes per day) to low-moderate levels of smoking post treatment were followed for an additional 12 months. We report on their ability to sustain lower levels of smoking and self-perceived smoking status given their dramatic reduction in cigarette

  15. Introducing smoking cessation to Indonesian males treated for tuberculosis: The challenges of low-moderate level smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mark; Padmawati, Siwi; Ng, Nawi

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of information about the smoking habits of people currently and formerly treated for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this paper we describe research carried out in Indonesia between 2007 and 2011 designed to investigate both the impact of TB-specific quit smoking messages in the TB clinic and at home, and shifts in patterns of smoking among those formerly treated for TB who continue to smoke. The results of a modest two-arm smoking cessation trial involving 87 patients undergoing Directly Observed Therapy Short course treatment (DOTS) for TB are presented. In one arm patients received a TB-specific quit smoking message delivered by doctors and a TB and smoking educational booklet and quit smoking guide. In the second, family support arm, patients also received on-going cessation messages delivered by family members trained to be DOTS supporters. The study followed patients twice during their six months of DOTS treatment and twice six months post treatment. Both arms of the study reduced rates of smoking during and following TB treatment significantly with 73% of patients in the doctor arm and 71% in the family support arm remaining quit at the end of the treatment (month 6). When complete abstinence at six months after treatment was taken as a primary outcome measure, no statistical difference was found in the effectiveness of the two arms of the intervention. Notably, 67% of higher-level smokers at baseline and 33% of low-moderate level smokers at baseline quit entirely. Many of those who resumed smoking did so at low-moderate levels (treatment maintained their abstinence six months after treatment, 13% resumed smoking at a low-moderate level (smoking at a higher level. A purposeful sample of 15 patients who shifted from heavy smoking (20-40 cigarettes per day) to low-moderate levels of smoking post treatment were followed for an additional 12 months. We report on their ability to sustain lower levels of smoking

  16. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, AJM; Tijhuis, M; Surtees, PG; Ormel, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and women

  17. Early cessation of triptorelin in in vitro fertilization : a double-blind, randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, AHM; Roelofs, HJM; Schmoutziguer, APE; Roozenburg, BJ; van't Hof-van den Brink, EP; Schoonderwoerd, SA

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of two early cessation protocols of triptorelin treatment in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with the conventional long protocol in in vitro ferfilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Design: A double-blind, randomized, multicenter study. Setting: Three Du

  18. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective. PMID:21337250

  19. Predictors of betel quid chewing behavior and cessation patterns in Taiwan aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shun-Jen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid, chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Cessation factors in betel quid chewers are unknown. The present study explores prevalence and the quit rate of betel quid chewing in Taiwan aborigines. Our goal was to delineate potential predictors of chewing cessation. Methods A stratified random community-based survey was designed for the entire aborigines communities in Taiwan. A total of 7144 participants were included between June 2003 and May 2004 in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, age, obesity, education years, marital status, ethnicity, and habits of betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking was collected by trained interviewers. Results The prevalence of betel quid chewers was 46.1%. Betel quid chewing was closely associated with obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.40–1.85. Betel quid chewers were most likely to use alcohol and cigarettes together. Quit rate of betel quid chewers was 7.6%. Betel quid chewers who did not drink alcohol were more likely to quit (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.43–2.50. Alcohol use is a significant factor related to cessation of betel quid chewing, but smoking is not. Conclusion Taiwan aborigines have a high prevalence of betel quid chewers and a low quit rate. Alcohol use is strongly association with betel quid chewing. Efforts to reduce habitual alcohol consumption might be of benefit in cessation of betel quid chewing.

  20. Relation between duration of smoking cessation and bronchial inflammation in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, TS; Postma, DS; Gosman, M.M.E.; Snoeck-Stroband, JB; ten Hacken, NHT; Hiemstra, PS; Timens, W; Sterk, PJ; Mauad, T

    2006-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with airway inflammation. Although smoking cessation improves symptoms and the decline in lung function in COPD, it is unknown whether bronchial inflammation in patients with established COPD varies with the duration of smoking c

  1. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...

  2. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  3. Evaluation of a structured smoking cessation program for primary care medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaehne, A.; Ruether, T.; Deest, H.; Gehrig, H.; de Zeeuw, J.; Alberti, A.; Mulzer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that 9 of 10 general practitioners in Germany believe that smoking cessation is an important topic structured programs are only rarely offered to patients. Beside a lack of time and missing reimbursement, physician's limited treatment skills are frequent reasons for this

  4. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operations codified at 10 CFR 51.23(a) (73 FR 59547... Security of Commercial Storage, March 2005; (73 FR 46204; August 8, 2008); In the Matter of Private Fuel... Commission 10 CFR Part 51 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel...

  5. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  6. Predicting self-initiated marijuana use cessation among youth at continuation high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Little

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate. Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at baseline, quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30 days at one-year follow-up (43% of baseline users. To account for the level of influence we employed a theory-based analytic strategy, hierarchical regression. In the final multivariate model, lower level of baseline marijuana use and less of a likelihood to endorse pro-drug-use myths remained predictors of marijuana use cessation one year later. Implications of these findings include the need to develop cessation programs that reduce psychological dependence on marijuana use, and correct cognitive misperceptions about drug use in order to help adolescents make decisions that lead to health-promoting behaviors.

  7. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To identify frames of interaction that allow smoking cessation advice in general practice consultations. Design . Qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with GPs and their patients. Each of the GPs’ consultations were observed during a three-day period. Interviews pr...

  8. On the pathogenesis of bedsores. Skin blood flow cessation by external pressure on the back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    -antipyrine mixed with histamine. The external pressure was measured by a small airfilled plastic cushion connected to a mercury manometer. In 11 normal subjects, eight patients with hypertension and seven patients with tetra- or paraplegia the "flow cessation external pressure" (FCEP) was strongly correlated...

  9. Why Two Smoking Cessation Agents Work Better than One: Role of Craving Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Piper, Megan E.; Theobald, Wendy E.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This research examined why smokers receiving combination medication for smoking cessation are more likely to quit smoking than are those who receive either single agent (monotherapy) or placebo. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 current smokers (58.2% women, 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) participating in a…

  10. The Forced Cessation of Logging and the Management of Impacts on Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffog, Ingrid D.; Western, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A social impact study in Queensland (Australia) was conducted to determine how structural adjustment packages mitigate the negative outcomes that can result from worker redundancy. The cessation of logging resulted in job layoffs that the government addressed with a Worker's Special Adjustment Package. (SLD)

  11. Comparative Evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association Smoking Cessation Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Harry A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of the American Cancer Society's "FreshStart," the American Lung Association's "Freedom from Smoking," and a laboratory smoking cessation clinic. A one-year followup favored the more intensive laboratory and "Freedom from Smoking" clinics over the "FreshStart" method. (FMW)

  12. Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y.; Wang, W. X.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ethier, S.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    In this letter, we report the first observation of the fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The observation was made in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas with toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T and plasma current of 300 kA. It is observed that electron-scale turbulence spectral power (measured with a high-k collective microwave scattering system) decreases significantly following fast cessation of RF heating that occurs in less than 200 μs. The large drop in the turbulence spectral power has a short time delay of about 1–2 ms relative to the RF cessation and happens on a time scale of 0.5–1 ms, much smaller than the energy confinement time of about 10 ms. Power balance analysis shows a factor of about 2 decrease in electron thermal diffusivity after the sudden drop of turbulence spectral power. Measured small changes in equilibrium profiles across the RF cessation are unlikely able to explain this sudden reduction in the measured turbulence and decrease in electron thermal transport, supported by local linear stability analysis and both local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The observations imply that nonlocal flux-driven mechanism may be important for the observed turbulence and electron thermal transport.

  13. Determinants of smoking status: cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and women

  14. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, psmoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (psmoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  15. Predictors of smoking reduction and cessation in a cohort of danish moderate and heavy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Prescott, E; Osler, M;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...

  16. Implementation Fidelity of Packaged Teen Smoking Cessation Treatments Delivered in Community-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle; Curry, Susan; Sporer, Amy; Emery, Sherry; Mermelstein, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious "packaged" teen smoking cessation treatment programs, those developed by national organizations, are widely disseminated to local communities to help teens quit smoking. The implementation fidelity of these programs in community settings has not been documented. The efficacy of these programs could be lessened if they are not…

  17. Teen Perceptions of Facilitator Characteristics in a School-Based Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Traci; Horn, Kimberly; Zhang, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Background: Facilitators are often responsible for the implementation of public health programs, yet little is known about how they influence outcomes. Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) is a youth smoking-cessation program implemented by trained facilitators. The purpose of this study was to investigate teens' perceptions of facilitator characteristics and…

  18. Rebound of affective symptoms following acute cessation of deep brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Pieter; Blankers, Matthijs; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is regarded as an effective way to treat refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the effects of DBS cessation following a longer period of stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relapse and rebound effects of psychiatric sympto

  19. Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Carvalho Suarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  20. Effectiveness of a mobile smoking cessation service in reaching elderly smokers and predictors of quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Iris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different smoking cessation programmes have been developed in the last decade but utilization by the elderly is low. We evaluated a pilot mobile smoking cessation service for the Chinese elderly in Hong Kong and identified predictors of quitting. Methods The Mobile Smoking Cessation Programme (MSCP targeted elderly smokers (aged 60 or above and provided service in a place that was convenient to the elderly. Trained counsellors provided individual counselling and 4 week's free supply of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. Follow up was arranged at 1 month by face-to-face and at 3 and 6 months by telephone plus urinary cotinine validation. A structured record sheet was used for data collection. The service was evaluated in terms of process, outcome and cost. Results 102 governmental and non-governmental social service units and private residential homes for the elderly participated in the MSCP. We held 90 health talks with 3266 elderly (1140 smokers and 2126 non-smokers attended. Of the 1140 smokers, 365 (32% received intensive smoking cessation service. By intention-to-treat, the validated 7 day point prevalence quit rate was 20.3% (95% confidence interval: 16.2%–24.8%. Smoking less than 11 cigarettes per day and being adherent to NRT for 4 weeks or more were significant predictors of quitting. The average cost per contact was US$54 (smokers only; per smoker with counselling: US$168; per self-reported quitter: US$594; and per cotinine validated quitter: US$827. Conclusion This mobile smoking cessation programme was acceptable to elderly Chinese smokers, with quit rate comparable to other comprehensive programmes in the West. A mobile clinic is a promising model to reach the elderly and probably other hard to reach smokers.