WorldWideScience

Sample records for cesium 132

  1. Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Cesium-137

  2. Cesium chemistry in irradiated fuel; cesium uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical behaviour of fission products in nuclear fuel during and after irradiation has been studied extensively during the past decades. In spite of the large amount of chemical, crystallographic and thermodynamic data available, the knowledge on the very complicated UO2-fission product system is still far from complete. The paper discusses the multi variant character of uranium in cesium uranates, which has been assessed by a systematic X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) study of a series of cesium uranates

  3. Decorporation of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 (137Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, 137Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe β, γirradiations and contaminations. 137Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the 137Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  4. Analysis of radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure of analysis of cesium-137 in environmental samples is described. The standard measurement of cesium-137 is made by using a standard solution and a low background G-M counter system. Precipitation and dust are collected on a stainless steel pan. The collected samples are treated by evaporation and extraction or ion exchange and adsorption method. The sample is then quantitatively analyzed. The measurement of cesium-137 is made according to the standard of measurement. Samples collected from inland water and sea water are also treated by evaporation or ion exchange method. The measurements of cesium-137 are also made. This manual describes how to collect soil samples. The collected soil is dried and treated to make samples for activity measurement. Activity measurement is made according to the standard of measurement, then the data are analyzed. Samples are also collected from sediment of sea bottom or river bottom, agricultural products, milk, marine organisms, and daily foods. This manual describes on the methods to collect samples and the treatment to make samples for measurement. (Kato, T.)

  5. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  6. Cesium-137 in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of cesium-137 in environment is reviewed. Problems on 137Cs migration in environment, on metabolism andbiological effects are considered. Data on nuclide accumulation in various plants, ways of their entering the man's organism are presented. It is marked that the rate of 137Cs metabolism in the man's organism depends considerably on age, sex, temperature of environment, conditions for activity, water and mineral metabolism and some other factors. It is shown that the annual effective equivalent dose per capita will increase to 2000 yr. up to 1 μSv, that constitutes 0.05% of the average value of irradiation by a natural source

  7. Dynamic studies of positron-emitting putative tumor marker 132Cs in mice show differential tumor and regional uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron-emitting 132Cs (t1/2 = 6.47 days) was generated from stable 133CsCl via the 133Cs (p,pn) 132Cs reaction. BALB/c mice, bearing implanted MT296 mammary tumors, were given 4.6 mEq kg-1 of 132CsCl via a single intraperitoneal injection. Postinjection uptake of 132Cs into body regions was monitored in vivo with external detectors. Positron emission from the tumor region was continuously greater than that from the head, the numerical ratio of mean emission intensities being fourfold at 10 min postinjection. Tissues excised from these mice postmortem showed sequence of relative tissue cesium uptake rates to be kidney 1.8, small intestine 1.7, tumor 1.0, skin 0.75, liver 0.75, skeletal muscle 0.4, and brain 0.28. Comparative studies with multiple injections of stable cesium and rubidium showed this sequence to be ion-specific. These observations suggest that positron-emitting isotopes of cesium could provide useful markers for tumors of several tissues

  8. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing ∼4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to ∼2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain ∼23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a ∼70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank (containing additional

  9. Collective excitations in 132Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of normally deformed states (β2∼0.2) in 132Ce has been investigated using EUROGAM2. Eight ΔI=2 bands and three ΔI=1 bands have been identified up to spin 40. The results are interpreted with the aid of Woods-Saxon cranking calculations which suggest a variety of triaxial shapes stabilized by specific active quasiparticle orbitals. (authors)

  10. Cesium in the nutrient cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most radioactive cesium in forests is deposited in soil, from which it passes into berries and mushrooms, and further to game. The cesium contents of Finnish berries and mushrooms vary depending on the intensity of Chernobyl fallout. Northern Haeme, Pirkanmaa and parts of central Finland received the most fallout. Weather conditions and the environmental factors, and other circumstances during the growth period, also affect the contents. However, consumption of wild berries, mushrooms and game need not be restricted because of radioactivity anywhere in Finland

  11. Cesium contamination of heather honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In heather honey from Lueneburger Heide, FRG, relatively high values of cesium activity were found (up to about 650 Bq/kg). Activity values for heather honey, Calluna vulgaris plants and soil were measured. It is assumed that the origin of this activity is the direct Chernobyl fallout. There may also be a high transfer of cesium from the soil to the Calluna vulgaris plant, but in order to determine the transfer factor, fresh plants are needed, which have grown later than in spring 1986. (author) 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....132 Grapefruit juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Grapefruit juice is the unfermented...

  13. 32 CFR 935.132 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 935.132 Section 935.132 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.132 Speed limits. Each person operating a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall operate it at a speed— (a) That is reasonable, safe, and proper, considering time...

  14. 9 CFR 3.132 - Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees. 3.132 Section 3.132 Animals... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.132 Employees. A sufficient number of adequately trained employees shall be utilized to maintain the professionally acceptable level of husbandry practices set...

  15. 28 CFR 35.132 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 35.132 Section 35.132 Judicial... SERVICES General Requirements § 35.132 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in transportation covered by this part....

  16. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... Classification Type Size Halon 1211, 1301, and 1211-1301 mixtures kgs. (lbs.) Foam, liters (gallons)...

  17. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b)...

  18. 28 CFR 13.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 13.2 Section 13.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ATOMIC WEAPONS AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS REWARDS REGULATIONS § 13.2 Policy. This program is intended to reward the provision of original information regarding situations involving an illegal diversion, an...

  19. Cesium transport data for HTGR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium transport data on the release of cesium from HTGR fuel elements are reviewed and discussed. The data available through 1976 are treated. Equations, parameters, and associated variances describing the data are presented. The equations and parameters are in forms suitable for use in computer codes used to calculate the release of metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements into the primary circuit. The data cover the following processes: (1) diffusion of cesium in fuel kernels and pyrocarbon, (2) sorption of cesium on fuel rod matrix material and on graphite, and (3) migration of cesium in graphite. The data are being confirmed and extended through work in progress

  20. 26 CFR 1.132-0 - Outline of regulations under section 132.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., distressed, or returned goods. § 1.132-3 (c) Gross profit percentage. (1) In general. (2) Line of business....132-4 Line of business limitation. § 1.132-4 (a) In general. (1) Applicability. (2) Definition. (3... qualified air transportation organizations. § 1.132-4 (g) Relaxation of line of business requirement. §...

  1. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  2. Radiation doses resulting from incorporated radioactive cesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-dependent dose factors are given for inhaled or ingested cesium isotopes, which have been calculated on the basis of published data on the biokinetics of cesium in the human organism. Tabulated data are presented for Cs-129, Cs-130, Cs-131, Cs-132, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137(+Ba-137m), and Cs-138. Comparison of results obtained for adults with relevant data published by the ICRP (1978), the NCRP (1977), and Schwarz (1982) shows very good agreement. More significant deviations are however found when comparing the results with data given in the Federal German Radiation Protection Ordinance, both with regard to adults and to infants, particularly refering to the lung data and to those for the gastro-intestinal tract and the skeleton. These discrepancies are primarily due to improved models developed since the time the Radiation Protection Ordinance has been issued, (respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts), and to improvements achieved with the dosimetric concepts (calculation of dose for bone surfaces instead of the whole skeleton). The dose factors for newborn given by the publication in hand are significantly lower than those given in the Ordinance (for infants); this is a result of age-dependent retention functions having been considered for this publication. The reliability of the dose factor calculations for various ages, pregnant women and fetuses is discussed and quantified. (orig./HP)

  3. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  4. Activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in game and mushrooms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 was measured in mushrooms and game in 1986-1991. The samples were collected all over Poland and most of the measurements were carried out for export purposes. The results indicate that the activity ratio of cesium-137 to cesium-134 in some samples is not comparable to that with fallout after the Chernobyl accident. The analysis of some samples of mushrooms from 1985 showed that the activity of cesium-137 was higher compared to any other foodstuff. The level of contamination varied greatly throughout Poland

  5. 38 CFR 13.2 - Field examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Field examinations. 13.2... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.2 Field examinations. (a) Authority to conduct; generally. Field... facility Director are authorized, when assigned, to conduct investigations (field examinations) and...

  6. 41 CFR 105-71.132 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 105-71.132...-Award Requirements/Changes, Property, and Subawards § 105-71.132 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or...

  7. 10 CFR 13.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 13.2 Section 13.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Commission of five members or a quorum thereof sitting as a body, as provided by section 201 of the Energy..., including but not limited to any advantage, preference, privilege, license, permit, favorable...

  8. 5 CFR 1201.132 - Final decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final decisions. 1201.132 Section 1201.132 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND... decisions. (a) In any Special Counsel complaint seeking corrective action based on an allegation that...

  9. 46 CFR 67.132 - Special legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special legislation. 67.132 Section 67.132 Shipping... legislation. (a) Vessels not otherwise entitled to be operated in the coastwise trade or in the fisheries may obtain these privileges as a result of special legislation by the Congress of the United States. (b)...

  10. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  11. Production of Iodine-132 from Irradiated Test Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of iodine-132 from irradiated uranium is described. After irradiation and cooling, tellurium-132 is isolated from other fission products and the uranium recovered. Extraction of iodine-132 from tellurium-132 is performed either by an ion-exchange method or by adsorption on platinum. Purity tests for the product iodine-132 are described and examples of applications are reviewed. (author)

  12. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photoelectron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photoionization signal. For both ns and np states the field induced MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength. Finally, we note that the classical two-photon field-ionization threshold is lower for the case in which the laser polarization and the electric field are parallel than it is when they are perpendicular. 22 references, 11 figures

  13. 45 CFR 96.132 - Additional agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the provision of other appropriate services (including health, social, correctional and criminal... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.132 Additional agreements. (a) With respect...

  14. Surface tension of liquid dilute solutions of lead-cesium and bismuth-cesium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of the maximal pressure in a drop was used to measure the surface tension of 15 liquid dilute solutions of lead-cesium system in 0-0.214 at% concentration range and of 12 diluted solutions of bismuth-cesium system in 0-0.160 at.% cesium range from solidification temperature up to 500 dec C. It was found that cesium was characterized as surfactant in lead and bismuth melts. It was established that the temperature coefficient of surface tension changes sufficiently in maximally diluted solutions of alkali metals in bismuth and lead melts. Effect of sodium, potassium, rubidum and cesium on the value of surface tension of lead and bismuth was systematized. Growth of activity in sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium series was noted

  15. Application of Cesium isotopes in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world of science, the desire of the scientific community to discover new chemical elements is crucial for the development of new technologies in various fields of knowledge. And the main chemical element addressed by this article is Cesium, but specifically 133Cesium isotope and radioisotope 137Cesium, exemplifying their physical and chemical characteristics, and their applications. This article will also show how these isotopes have provided researchers a breakthrough in the field of radiological medicine and in time and frequency metrology. (author)

  16. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soil containing radioactive cesium was decontaminated using an extraction method involving aqueous potassium solutions. Results demonstrated that the potassium solution could extract radioactive cesium from soil artificially contaminated with 137Cs, although extraction rate decreased as time after contamination increased. However, visual examination of radioactivity distribution in soil samples significantly contaminated by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant showed that radioactive cesium also existed as insoluble particles. Therefore, reducing the volume of radioactive wastes generated from soil decontamination requires a physical decontamination method combined with chemical treatment. (author)

  17. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H+ → Na+) capacity, and distribution coefficient (KD) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na+, NaOH, and Cs+ concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied

  18. Sorption of cesium on Latvian clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is like potassium - good solubility and mobile in a ground, easily assimilate in organism expressly brawn woof. It is a problem if pollutant is a radioactive 137Cs. We made experiments to sorption a 2M CsF solution on some Latvian clays which mainly contain hydro micas (cesium content after good elute of clays are in table). We establish, that clay treated with 25 % sulfuric acid adsorb cesium two times more that waste clay. Hereto unstuck elute Cs from clays. (author)

  19. Method for monitoring radioactive cesium concentration in water using cesium adsorption disk and GM survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for monitoring radioactive cesium concentration in water using a cesium adsorption disk and a GM survey meter has been developed to ascertain whether the water quality meets standards on radiological contaminants in water. In this method, both dissolved and suspended forms of radioactive cesium are collected on the cesium adsorption disk by means of filtration of a water sample. Beta count rate of the disk is converted into radioactivity using a conservative calibration factor obtained here. The present method was applied to monitoring of decontaminated water of an outdoor school swimming pool in Date City after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (author)

  20. Trapping characteristics for gaseous cesium generated from different cesium compounds by fly ash filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the fly ash ceramic foam filter to trap gaseous cesium generated during the OREOX and sintering processes of DUPIC green pellets. The trapping experiments of gaseous cesium generated from different cesium compounds using fly ash filters were carried out in a two-zone furnace under air and hydrogen (Ar/4% H2) conditions. XRD and SEM analyses were used to analyze reaction products of different cesium compounds with fly ash filters. To manufacture ceramic foam filters, fly ash with a Si/Al mole ratio of 2.1 and polyvinyl alcohol as binder were used. Reaction products formed by the trapping reaction of different cesium compounds with fly ash filters were investigated. The major reaction products of gaseous cesium generated from cesium silicate and CsI by fly ash filters indicated that pollucite (CsAlSi2O6) phase was formed under air and hydrogen conditions when the carrier gas velocity was 2 cm/sec. The minimum reaction temperature of fly ash filter with gaseous cesium was determined as about 600 deg. C. Finally, off-gas treatment system of sintering process in a hot cell of lMEF was explained as an application example of fly ash filter for trapping gaseous cesium. (author)

  1. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  2. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  3. Sorption of Cesium on Latvia clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is like potassium - good solubility and mobile in a ground, easy assimilates in organism expressly brawn woof. It is a problem if pollutant is radioactive 137Cs. We made experiments to sorption a 2M CsF solution on some Latvian clays which mainly contain hydro micas. We establish that clay treated with 25% sulfuric acid absorb cesium two times more that waste clay. Hereto unstuck elute Cs from clays

  4. Removal of cesium from wastewater: A cesium-specific ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) have applied for a patent for an ion exchange resin that will remove cesium from water. Radioactive cesium-137 is a fission product of nuclear reactor operations. Cesium may enter the water of spent fuel holding basins through defects in fuel cladding. Control of cesium in these basins is desirable to keep personnel exposure to a minimum. Cesium is also present in the waste from reprocessing of defense nuclear reactor fuel. Research has been underway at SRL for over a decade to improve management of high-level reprocessing waste. The current technology separates the waste into soluble and insoluble components. Radioactive constituents are removed from the soluble component stream and combined with the insoluble components, which are then converted to a glass for long-term storage. Cesium is the most radioactive constituent of the soluble components stream. The SRL resin is a resorcinol-formaldehyde condensation polymer highly specific for cesium and is about 10 times more effective in removal of cesium than other ion exchange resins evaluated for use in processing defense nuclear waste. Tests have been run at SRL using both simulated and actual waste streams

  5. HANSF 1.3.2 User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. This manual reflects the HANSF version 1.3.2, a revised version of 1.3.1. HANSF 1.3.2 was written to correct minor errors and to allow modeling of condensate flow on the MCO inner surface. HANSF 1.3.2 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under Lahey TI or digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  6. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proper maintenance, and sanitation of such equipment. (c) Design. All personal protective equipment shall... boots. (4) The employer is not required to pay for: (i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.132 General requirements....

  7. 31 CFR 132.7 - Regulatory enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING § 132.7 Regulatory enforcement. The requirements under this part are subject to... designated payment systems and participants therein that are subject to the respective jurisdiction of such... payment systems and participants therein not otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of any...

  8. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus cornucopioides often

  9. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 deg. C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei∼50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ∼40 nm/min at 40 deg. C to 380 nm/min at 330 deg. C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13±0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides

  10. Research on decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by electrokinetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, electrokinetic process was applied for the decontamination of cesium contaminated soil. As a result, about 4.0 times cesium removal was achieved by applying a DC electric field of 80 V/m to comparing zero electric field in treatment for 30 days. Therefore, the electrokinetic process has a possibility to decontamination of cesium contaminated soil. (author)

  11. Cesium ion uptake by moss (Hypnum cupressiforme)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower land mosses uptake water and minerals from the atmosphere. They can collect metals polluting the air and radioactive fallout elements so they can be suitable for monitoring of these substances. Cesium ion uptake by Hypnum cupressiforme is studied by a radioactive tracer, 134Cs. The quantity of cesium ion in different celluar locations and the capacity of ion uptake is determined. The total capacity is found to be several times 10-3 mol g-1 and is therefore of the same order of magnitude as the cation exchange capacity of ion exchangers. The kinetics and reversibility of the process is studied as well. (orig.)

  12. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  13. Environmental transfer of radio-cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of Cs 134 and 137 were emitted from the destroyed reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and deposited on the soil surface of vast area including forests, fields, and residential areas. The present report explains mainly land transfer behaviors of cesium which deposited on the surface soils, absorbed into soil particles as time passed on and finally became difficult to move from the particles (aging effect). Depth-distribution of radio-cesium in rice paddy and grassland as well as the change over years is presented. Changes with the passage of time of Cs 137 concentrations in leaves of spinach, wormwood, and persimmon are also provided. (S. Ohno)

  14. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  15. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  16. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  17. Anomalous wetting of helium on cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report studies of the anomalous wetting of a cesium substrate by a liquid helium film by means of the technique of third sound. A hysteretic pre-wetting transition is observed as a function of the amount of helium in the experimental cell. 10 refs., 2 figs

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSG132 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSG1-B/VSG132Q.Seq.d/ Representati...ve seq. ID VSG132P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSG132 (VSG132Q) /CSM/VS/VSG1-B/VSG1...lated Amino Acid sequence ieepvqgelecgvceviaqqcsnyikankteseivglldqfcstlsifesacdtivassa pkiinlllqnqsatvvcteigfcgnsssgnnnhsssees...ssssqpssssessessysgsm tgassgsasgsgsgtsgnmkiyik*i**LNNLSCKKKKK--...iifptiiif*iirikll xfndwcfiwfsfrfrfryignmkiyik*i**l Frame C: ieepvqgelecgvceviaqqcsnyikankteseivglldqfcstlsifesacdtivassa

  19. 40 CFR 132.3 - Adoption of criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of criteria. 132.3 Section 132.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.3 Adoption of criteria. The Great Lakes States...

  20. 19 CFR 132.11a - Time of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of presentation. 132.11a Section 132.11a... TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.11a Time of presentation. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time of presentation of an entry/entry summary for...

  1. 46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck...

  2. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution...

  3. 50 CFR 14.132 - Food and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food and water. 14.132 Section 14.132 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.132 Food and water. A marine mammal shall not...

  4. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section 84.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction...

  5. 31 CFR 132.3 - Designated payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated payment systems. 132.3 Section 132.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING § 132.3 Designated payment systems. The following payment systems...

  6. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  7. New isomers and their decay in odd-odd neutron-deficient cesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By a systematic on-line cesium mass separation from A = 122 to A = 132 and subsequent gamma and electron decay spectroscopy at very low energy, new isomers have been precisely identified: sup(122m)Cs(Tsub(1/2) = 0.36 +- 0.02 seconds), sup(124m)Cs(Tsub(1/2) = 6.3 +- 0.2 seconds) and sup(130m)Cs(Tsub(1/2) = 3.46 +- 0.06 minutes). Detailed level schemes are given for both sup(124m)Cs and sup(130m)Cs. Comparison of excited levels known in the odd-odd nuclei of the same region shows that more experimental informations are needed to propose a clear and realistic picture of the nuclear states structure

  8. Cesium-137 and Iodine-131 in drinking water in Sweden after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident an extensive program of tests and measurements was started in Sweden. The purpose of the program was to track the fallout of radioactive nuclides over Sweden. The program included aerial surveys throughout the entire country, monitoring of air activity and measurements of radioactive nuclides in milk and other foodstuffs. The program also included measurements of different radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Samples were taken from public surface water plants and private wells from those parts of the country where the fallout had been most extensive. The test sites were chosen in collaboration with the local health authorities. Initially the drinking water program included 16 private wells and 12 public water plants. In 1987 it was cut down to 10 wells and 6 water plants. The main body of this report presents measurements of cesium-137 in water samples from these sites from the beginning of May 1986 to December 1989. Also included are measurements from the first weeks after the accident of iodine-131 an some other radioactive nuclides with relatively short half-lives such as rutenium-103, tellurium-132 and barium-140. Some of the surface water plants had concentrations of 10-15 Bq/l of cesium-137 in the beginning of May 1986. In 1989 some water plants still had concentrations of about 1 Bq/l. In the private wells the concentrations of cesium-137 have been low all the time, except for one sample where surface water had leaked into the well during the snow melting period. (authors)

  9. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The milk samples have been collected from 30 prefectures by prefectural public health laboratories and institutes (raw milk: 4 times per year for the report to WHO, and raw and city milk: 2 times per year), and analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 content at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. Collected samples were the raw milk and the city ones for the producing districts and the consuming ones, respectively. Three liters of fresh milk were carbonized in each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes, and then it was asked at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides was dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  10. Cesium stress and adaptation in pseudomonas fluorescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialization and acid rain have led to a marked increment on the bioavailability of numerous metals. These metallic pollutants pose a serious threat to the ecosystem due to their ability to interact negatively with living organisms. Thus, considerable effort has been directed towards the development of environmentally-friendly technologies tailored to the management of metal wastes. As microbes are known to adapt to most environmental stresses, they constitute organisms of choice in the study of molecular adaptation processes. The adaptive features may be subsequently engineered for biotechnological applications. Cesium, a monovalent metal with chemical similarities to potassium but no know essential biological function has become a cause of environmental concern owing to its accidental release from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. This study examines the impact of cesium on the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescensts, and discusses the possibilities of its use in management of this nuclear waste. 15 refs., 3 figs

  11. Thermochemical evaluation and preparation of cesium uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of cesium uranates, Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7, which are predicted by thermochemical estimation to be formed in irradiated oxide fuels, were prepared from U3O8 and Cs2CO3 for measurements of the thermal expansions and thermal conductivities. In advance of the preparation, thermochemical calculations for the formation and decomposition of these cesium uranates were performed by Gibbs free energy minimizer. The preparation temperatures for Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7 were determined from the results of the thermochemical calculations. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the single phases of Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7 were formed. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also performed on these samples, and the decomposition temperatures were evaluated. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of the thermochemical calculations. (author)

  12. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell)

  13. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad

  14. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  15. Sorption of cesium 137 by steel from sodium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of cesium-137 radionuclide by Kh18N10T steel from sodium melt at different temperatures (150-450 deg C) has been studied. Equilibrium coefficients of cesium distribution between sodium and steel are determined, which depend on the conditions of sorption realization, such as cesium concentration in sodium melt, the content of oxygen admixture in sodium and the state of sorbing surface

  16. Cesium-137 as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP) seeks to develop and encourage widespread commercial use of defense byproducts that are produced by DOE. Cesium-l37 is one such byproduct that is radioactive and decays with emission of gamma rays. The beneficial use of this radiation to disinfect sewage sludge or disinfest food commodities is actively being pursued by the program. The radiation produced by cesium-l37(Cs-l37) is identical in form to that produced by cobalt-60(Co-60), an isotope that is widely used in commercial applications such as medical product sterilization. The choice of isotope to use depends on several factors ranging from inherent properties of the isotopes to availability and cost. The BUP, although centrally concerned with the beneficial use of Cs-l37, by investigating and assessing the feasibility of various uses hopes to define appropriate circumstances where cesium or cobalt might best be used to accomplish specific objectives. This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when evaluating potential uses for isotopic sources

  17. Removal of cesium from red deer meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  18. Surface interactions of cesium and boric acid with stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the effects of cesium hydroxide and boric acid on oxidized stainless steel surfaces at high temperatures and near one atmosphere of pressure are investigated. This is the first experimental investigation of this chemical system. The experimental investigations were performed using a mass spectrometer and a mass electrobalance. Surfaces from the different experiments were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify the presence of deposited species, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis to identify the species deposited on the surface. A better understanding of the equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetics of the steam-accelerated volatilizations, and the release kinetics are gained by these experiments. The release rate is characterized by bulk vaporization/gas-phase mass transfer data. The analysis couples vaporization, deposition, and desorption of the compounds formed by cesium hydroxide and boric acid under conditions similar to what is expected during certain nuclear reactor accidents. This study shows that cesium deposits on an oxidized stainless steel surface at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 Kelvin. Cesium also deposits on stainless steel surfaces coated with boric oxide in the same temperature ranges. The mechanism for cesium deposition onto the oxide layer was found to involve the chemical reaction between cesium and chromate. Some revaporization in the cesium hydroxide-boric acid system was observed. It has been found that under the conditions given, boric acid will react with cesium hydroxide to form cesium metaborate. A model is proposed for this chemical reaction

  19. Distribution and retention of cesium in Swedish boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and distribution of cesium in forest environments are being studied at three locations in Sweden. The main part of the cesium found in the soil was recovered in horizons rich in organic matter. The cesium was retained in the soil organic matter in a more or less extractable form. As different soil types have a different distribution pattern of organic matter the distribution of cesium will depend on the forest soil type. The clay content in Swedish forest soils is in general low which will mitigate the retention of cesium in the soil mineral horizons. The cesium present in the tree was considered to be an effect of assimilation by the tissues in the canopy as well as by the roots. The redistribution of cesium within the trees was extensive which was considered to be an effect of a high mobility of cesium in the close system of a forest environment. The cesium will remain in the forest environment for a considerable time but can be removed by forest practice, by leaching out of the soil profile or by the radioactive decay. (au)

  20. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  1. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puukko, E. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The mass distribution coefficient K{sub d} is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R{sub d} is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R{sub d} values to K{sub d} values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs{sup +} and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was {sup 134}Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  2. 13/2 ways to count curves

    CERN Document Server

    Pandharipande, R

    2011-01-01

    In the past 20 years, compactifications of the families of curves in algebraic varieties X have been studied via stable maps, Hilbert schemes, stable pairs, unramified maps, and stable quotients. Each path leads to a different enumeration of curves. A common thread is the use of a 2-term deformation/obstruction theory to define a virtual fundamental class. The richest geometry occurs when X is a nonsingular projective variety of dimension 3. We survey here the 13/2 principal ways to count curves with special attention to the 3-fold case. The different theories are linked by a web of conjectural relationships which we highlight. Our goal is to provide a guide for graduate students looking for an elementary route into the subject.

  3. Collective excitations in {sup 132}Ce; Excitations collectives de {sup 132}Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.S.; Boston, A.J.; Zoss, D.T.; Nolan, P.J.; Sampson, J.A.; Semple, A.T. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Livepool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Farget, F.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); Nyako, B.M. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary); O`Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Wadsworth, W. [Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The structure of normally deformed states ({beta}{sub 2}{approx}0.2) in {sup 132}Ce has been investigated using EUROGAM2. Eight {Delta}I=2 bands and three {Delta}I=1 bands have been identified up to spin 40. The results are interpreted with the aid of Woods-Saxon cranking calculations which suggest a variety of triaxial shapes stabilized by specific active quasiparticle orbitals. (authors)

  4. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  5. Ion and electron thermoemission of cesium alumosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationships between and electron thermoemission of cesium aluminosilicate were studied. Measurements were made at 5.10-8-5.10-9 Tor and temperatures up to 1400 deg C. The effect of additions refractory metals Ti, Mo, Cu and Ir was studied. Ion thermoemission in the pulse regime was also studied. Conclusions are drawn that capacity depends upon additions. The temperature dependence of thermoionic emission current has two maxima and is characterized by instability in time. A conclusion is drawn that aluminosilicate thermionic cathodes can be reckoned as cathodes of a film type

  6. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

  7. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  8. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  9. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes

  10. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100' (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually

  11. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  12. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  13. 27 CFR 13.2 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 13, Labeling Proceedings. You may obtain a copy of this... Administrator. 13.2 Section 13.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. The regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in this part...

  14. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section 300.132 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL... harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  15. 9 CFR 590.132 - Access to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to plants. 590.132 Section 590... Service § 590.132 Access to plants. Access shall not be refused to any representative of the Secretary to any plant, place of business, or transport vehicle subject to inspection under the provisions of...

  16. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to...

  17. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar was investigated in a range of temperatures and cesium concentrations. {yields} The pseudo-second order kinetic model produced a good fit with the experimental kinetic data. {yields} Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm adsorption model. {yields} The interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar was dominated by chemical adsorption. - Abstract: The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L{sup -1} and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L{sup -1} while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol{sup -1} suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  18. Lifetime measurements and decay spectroscopy of 132I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-lying states of odd-odd 132I, the 3p-3h nucleus with respect to the doubly magic 132Sn, have been characterized from decay spectroscopy. The neutron rich Iodine and Tellurium isotopes have been produced as fission product of alpha-induced fission of 235U and radiochemically separated. The life-time of the first excited state of 132I have been precisely measured using LaBr3(Ce scintillators from the decay of 132Te. The IT decay of the high spin isomer (8- in 132I has been measured with a Low Energy Photon Spectrometer (LEPS of segmented planar Ge detector.

  19. Studies on release and deposition behaviour of cesium from contaminated sodium pools and cesium trap development for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out on the release and deposition behaviour of cesium from sodium pools in air-filled chamber in the temperature range of 673 to 873 K, using Cs-134 to simulate Cs-137. About 0.12 kg of sodium was loaded in a burn-pot together with 92.5 kBq of cesium. Experiments were carried out with 21% oxygen. Natural burning period of sodium and specific activity ratio between cesium and sodium showed a tendency to decrease and release fractions of both the species tended to increase with temperature. From the surface deposited aerosols it was observed that cesium has propensity to settle down closer to the point of release. A cesium trap has been developed for FBTR with RVC as getter material. Absorption kinetics and particle release behaviour studies pointed to its intended satisfactory performance in the plant. (author)

  20. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,mf=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,mf=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,mf=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The last chapter

  1. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed

  2. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  3. Cesium separation Using Electrically Switched Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing metal ions from wastewater. In ESIX, which combines ion exchange and electro-chemistry, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto an electrode. This paper presents the results of experiments on high surface area electrodes and the development of a flow system for cesium ion separation. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 113 BV/h, the maxi-mum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves supported once-through waste processing. A comparison of results for a stacked 5-electrode cell versus a single-electrode cell showed enhanced breakthrough performance. In the stacked configuration, break-through began at about 120 BV for a feed containing 0.2 ppm cesium at a flow rate of 13 BV/h. A case study for the KE Basin (a spent nuclear fuel storage basin) on the Hanford Site demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal waste generation, reduced disposal costs, and lower capital expenditures

  4. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of cesium-137 on Rhodosporidium fluviale strain UA2 isolated from cesium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify a more efficient biosorbent for 137Cs, we have investigated the biosorption behavior and mechanism of 137Cs on Rhodosporidium fluviale (R. fluviale) strain UA2, one of the dominant species of a fungal group isolated from a stable cesium solution. We observed that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 was a fast and pH-dependent process in the solution composed of R. fluviale strain UA2 (5 g/L) and cesium (1 mg/L). While a Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of 137Cs was a monolayer adsorption, the biosorption behavior implied that R. fluviale strain UA2 adsorbed cesium ions by electrostatic attraction. The TEM analysis revealed that cesium ions were absorbed into the cytoplasm of R. fluviale strain UA2 across the cell membrane, not merely fixed on the cell surface, which implied that a mechanism of metal uptake contributed largely to the cesium biosorption process. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS analyses showed that ion-exchange was another biosorption mechanism for the cell biosorption of 137Cs, in which the decreased potassium ions were replaced by cesium ions. All the above results implied that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 involved a two-step process. The first step is passive biosorption that cesium ions are adsorbed to cells surface by electrostatic attraction; after that, the second step is active biosorption that cesium ions penetrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Microorganisms isolated from a cesium solution are considered as a biosorbent to remove cesium ions. • The biosorption equilibrium is fitted well to a Langmuir model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. • First attempt to explore biosorption mechanisms using PIXE and EPBS. • Living and dead microorganisms have different biosorption mechanisms. • The biosorption of 137Cs involved a two-step process: passive and active

  5. Spatial variability and Cesium-137 inventories in native forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the nuclear fission discovery and development of nuclear weapons in 1940s, artificial radioisotopes were introduced in the environment. This contamination is due to worldwide fallout by superficial nuclear tests realized from early 1950s to late 1970s by USA, former URSS, UK, France and China. One of theses radioisotopes that have been very studied is cesium-137. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30.2 years and its biological behavior is similar to the potassium. The behavior in soil matrix, depth distribution, spatial variability and inventories values of cesium-137 has been determinate for several regions of the world. In Brazil, some research groups have worked on this subject, but there are few works published about theses properties of cesium-137. The aim of this paper was study the depth distribution, spatial variability, and inventory of cesium-137 in native forest. Two native forests (Mata 1 and Mata UEL) were sampling in region of Londrina, PR. The results shows that there is a spatial variability of 40% for Mata 1 and 42% for Mata UEL. The depth distribution of cesium-137 for two forests presented a exponential form, characteristic to undisturbed soil. Cesium-137 inventory determinate for Mata 1 was 358 Bq m-2 and for Mata UEL was 320 Bq m-2. (author)

  6. Study on the Separation of 132Te From Fission Products by Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOGuo-shu; ZHANGSheng-dong; CUIAn-zhi; GUOJing-ru; YANGLei; DINGYou-qian

    2003-01-01

    In order to measure precisely the decay data of 132I, radiochemical purity 132I is directly or indirectly separated and prepared from fission products of 235U. The source of 132I which is separated directly has some isotope nuclides such as 131I, 133I, 135I etc. that interfere measurement of 132I by HPGe γ detector. The method of 132I separated indirectly has two steps: 1) Its mother nuclide 132Te is separated from fission products; 2) 132I is separated from 132Te. By this method, the interference of other isotope nuclides of 132I is greatly decreased and even eliminated.

  7. Pollution of drug-technical materials by cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug-technical raw materials are medicinal plants (flowers, folium, grasses, mushrooms, roots, fruits, berry, kidney, cortex), used in pharmacy. To limit receipt cesium-137 in people body in 1993 in the Republic of Belarus were created 'Temporary permission levels of the cesium-137 radionuclides contents in drug-technical raw materials' were created (TPL-1993). The permission levels of cesium-137 are following: for drug-technical raw material (flowers, folium, grass, mushrooms, roots and other plants parts) - 1850 Bq/kg, for dried up fruits and berries - 2590 Bq/kg. (Author)

  8. Synthesis and peculiarities of the cesium zeolite crystal structure (cesite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to synthesize cesium zeolite by introduction of amorphous seed crystals which correspond by composition with cesium-containing zeolite into the aluminosilicate gel, since this method can produce zeolite with a crystal structure it would not adopt under the usual conditions. It is seen that during crystablization upon introduction of a seed crystal the cesium content in zeolite decreases. A more complete structural elucidation of zeolite obtained by the suggested method was carried out by x0ray and IR spectral analyses. The data of x-ray analysis showed that the structures of synthesized zeolite and binary octagonal pores are similar

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHK132 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nvfqfveyviqii*nqslv*s*vnsmkmivslnfikamssslttwipl*ilkmk vvr*fiksvhhvi*ssllkmlqdikisltklgik*iqlken*wnv*qkkkliwl*kqwvv lldigsfvkinihiil...skiiqlliyklhliilnvsile hrnfqrdwvhwiqvkskhlniv*nqsyl*fkvhqvlvnlilv*nysk*fidi*kriqqrm lqywfyviptmpwinfwiislqtlqrk*le...ive seq. ID SHK132P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SHK132 (SHK132Q) /CSM/SH/SHK1-B/SHK...*tlfeirvifssrstryw*ilywceiirsds*tfkrefske csnigfmlyqpclgsifgsyhykrykesn*srf...FD855Q.Seq.d/ 1130 0.0 own update 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignment

  10. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of 137cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm2/d. (author)

  11. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137cesium and 226radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  12. Structure of double hafnium and cesium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a compound whose formula according to the structural investigation is Cssub(2+x)Hf(SOsub(4))sub(2+x)(HSOsub(4))sub(2-x)x3Hsub(2)O (x approximately 0.7) (a=10.220, b=12.004, c=15.767 A, space group Pcmn) is determined by diffractometric data (2840 reflections, anisotropic refinement, R=0.087). It is build of complex unions [Hf(SO4)4H2O]4-, Cs+ cations and water molecules. Eight O atoms surrounding Hf atom (dodecahedron Hf-O 2.10-2.22 A) belong to four sulphate groups and water molecule. Three sulphate groups are bidentate-cyclic, and one group - monodentate relative to Hf. The structure has a cesium deficit in particular positions

  13. Double manganese(III) cesium triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double triphosphates have been identified in research on interactions in the P2O5-M2O3-Cs2O-H2O system, where M(III) = Al, Ga, Cr, Fe, at 570-770K, which have the M(III)Cs2 - P3O10 composition; here we report the identification of a new phase made under analogous conditions in a system containing Mn(III) together with some of its physicochemical properties. The product was analyzed for phosphorus by a colorimetric method, for manganese by titration with EDTA, and for cesium by atomic absorption. The x-ray phase analysis was performed with a DRON-3.0 diffractometer. The IR spectra were recorded. Thermogravimetry indicates that the product is MnCs2P3O10·H2O

  14. 31 CFR 132.5 - Policies and procedures required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING § 132.5 Policies and procedures required. (a) All non-exempt... to any party for such action if— (1) The transaction is a restricted transaction; (2) Such...

  15. THE EFFECT OF Ge-132 ON ULTRASTRUCTURE OF CULTURED MELANOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effect of Ge-132 on the growth of melanocytes. Mothods Melanocyes from epidermis were cultured and purified ;the second generation of the cell was used for study ;the cells were divided into two groups randomly,to group A, Ge-132 was added to the media at 0.04mg/L ;to group B ,common culturing method was used without Ge-132. After 5d, the cells were seperated by digestion for study by transmission electronic micro- scope. Results Compared to group B, the vacuioes of the cells were increased,mitochondria distended, endoplasmic reticulum dilated and the number of melanosome declined in the group A. Conclusion Ge-132 can inhibit the melanocyte's growth at a certain concentration and might be used for treating pigmented diseases.

  16. Low-work-function surfaces produced by cesium carbonate decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, T. R.; Sommer, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) was heated to the decomposition temperature of approximately 600 C. The nonvolatile decomposition products were condensed on a nickel substrate while the carbon dioxide was removed by pumping. The deposited material is characterized by an effective work function of between 1.05 and 1.15 eV at 450 K and by photoemission in the visible and near-infrared region of the spectrum. It is suggested that the deposited material consists of Cs2O, possibly Cs2O2, and adsorbed cesium. Silver, evaporated from a heated silver bead, produced the typical photoemissive and thermionic properties of a silver-oxygen-cesium (S-1) photocathode. The material may be of interest for thermionic energy converters and for the formation of silver-oxygen-cesium photocathodes.

  17. Sorption of cesium and strontium by arid region desert soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption and ion exchange in soil systems are the principal mechanisms that retard the migration of nuclear waste to the biosphere. Cesium and strontium are two elements with radioactive isotopes (Cs137 and Sr90) that are commonly disposed of as nuclear waste. The sorption and ion exchange properties of nonradioactive cesium and strontium were studied in this investigation. The soil used in this study was collected at an experimental infiltration site on Frenchman Flat, a closed drainage basin on the Nevada Test Site. This soil is mostly nonsaline-alkali sandy loam and loamy sand with a cation exchange capacity ranging from 13 to 30 me/100g. The clay fraction of the soil contains illite, montmorillonite, and clinoptilolite. Ion exchange studies have shown that this soil sorbs cesium preferentially relative to strontium, and that charge for charge, the exchange-phase cations released from exchange sites exceed the cesium and strontium sorbed by the soil. 38 references, 22 figures

  18. Cesium iodide crystals fused to vacuum tube faceplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, H. G.

    1964-01-01

    A cesium iodide crystal is fused to the lithium fluoride faceplate of a photon scintillator image tube. The conventional silver chloride solder is then used to attach the faceplate to the metal support.

  19. Sorption of cesium on Olkiluoto mica gneiss, granodiorite and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium was selected as a model to study the sorption in bedrock occurring by ion exchange mechanism. The aim of the study was to supplement the existing data on sorption occurring by ion exchange mechanism in bedrock of the candidate sites for spent fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. The sorption of cesium was studied on crushed mica gneiss, tonalite (granodiorite) and granite in artificial groundwaters. Fresh water was represented by Allard water, pH 8 and pH 7, and saline water by Ol-So water, pH 7 and pH 9. In addition, a Na-Ca-Cl brine water and its 1:10 dilution were used as simulants. Cesium concentrations were between 10-8 and 10-3 mol/l. The distribution coefficients of the sorption, Rd and Ra values were determined by batch method. Isotherms were partly non-linear with slopes 0.7 - 1.0 depending on rock and water. At the end of the sorption experiment, the water was analysed for cations exchanged for cesium. The sorption of cesium was also studied as a function of ionic strength. The ionic strength increased in the order Allard < 0l-Br 1:10 < 0l-So < 0l-Br. The sorption of cesium was lower at higher ionic strength and higher Cs concentration. The mineral composition of rocks was determined by thin section analysis, and the sorption distribution ratios on thin sections in the different waters were determined by batch technique. The minerals, that sorbed most cesium were determined by autoradiography. These were biotite, muscovite and chlorite. Cordierite in mica gneiss also sorbed cesium very effectively. (orig.)

  20. Sorption of cesium on Olkiluoto mica gneiss, granodiorite and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitti, T.; Hakanen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    Cesium was selected as a model to study the sorption in bedrock occurring by ion exchange mechanism. The aim of the study was to supplement the existing data on sorption occurring by ion exchange mechanism in bedrock of the candidate sites for spent fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. The sorption of cesium was studied on crushed mica gneiss, tonalite (granodiorite) and granite in artificial groundwaters. Fresh water was represented by Allard water, pH 8 and pH 7, and saline water by Ol-So water, pH 7 and pH 9. In addition, a Na-Ca-Cl brine water and its 1:10 dilution were used as simulants. Cesium concentrations were between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -3} mol/l. The distribution coefficients of the sorption, R{sub d} and R{sub a} values were determined by batch method. Isotherms were partly non-linear with slopes 0.7 - 1.0 depending on rock and water. At the end of the sorption experiment, the water was analysed for cations exchanged for cesium. The sorption of cesium was also studied as a function of ionic strength. The ionic strength increased in the order Allard < 0l-Br 1:10 < 0l-So < 0l-Br. The sorption of cesium was lower at higher ionic strength and higher Cs concentration. The mineral composition of rocks was determined by thin section analysis, and the sorption distribution ratios on thin sections in the different waters were determined by batch technique. The minerals, that sorbed most cesium were determined by autoradiography. These were biotite, muscovite and chlorite. Cordierite in mica gneiss also sorbed cesium very effectively. (orig.) 12 refs.

  1. Cesium pre-implantation of embedded biological sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion implantation system which allows the implantation of a large surface of a specimen has been used to obtain an homogeneous enrichment with cesium of embedded biological tissues sections. In such a specimen, containing already oxygen at a high concentration, the addition of cesium allows both positive and negative secondary ions to be studied with the highest sensitivity, using the same primary ion source.

  2. Kelvin Probe Studies of Cesium Telluride Photocathode for AWA Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Eric; Velazquez, Daniel; Yusof, Zikri; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff; Harkay, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (~50 nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin Probe technique. The study incl...

  3. Adsorption Behaviour of Liquid 4He on Cesium Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Iov, Valentin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the wetting properties of 4He on cesium substrates using optical and electrical methods. Due to the fact that the cesium substrates are deposited at low temperatures onto a thin silver underlayer, it is necessary firstly to study and understand the adsorption of helium on silver. The work presented here is structured as follows: some of the fundamental concepts on the theory of physisorbed films, such as van der Waals interaction, adsorption isotherms ...

  4. Study of strontium and cesium migration in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation has been to study the retardation and dilution of non-active strontium and cesium relative to a non-absorbing substance (iodide) in a well-defined fracture zone in the Finnsjoen field research area. The investigation was carried out in a previously tracer-tested fracture zone. The study has encompassed two separate test runs with prolonged injection of strontium and iodide and of cesium and iodide. The test have shown that: - Strontium is not retarded, but rather absorbed to about 40% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 36.3% of the injected mass of strontium has been absorbed and there is no deabsorption. -Cesium is retarded a factor of 2-3 and absorbed to about 30% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 39.4% of the injected mass of cesium has been absorbed. Cesium is deabsorbed after injection stop (400h) and after 1300 hours, only 22% of the injected mass of cesium is absorbed. (author)

  5. MiR-132抑制肿瘤转移%MiR-132 Inhibits Tumor Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管娣; 刘春颖; 陈晨; 殷勤伟

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that some miRNAs are related with tumor invasion and metastasis directly or indirectly. Our aim is to find a specific miRNA which plays an essential role in tumor metastasis. Although it has been shown that miR-132 was associated with blood vessel growth, neural development and differentiation, and inflammation, relationship between miR-132 and tumor metastasis was not studied in any research. In order to identify the effect of miR-132 on tumor metastasis, the migration ability in vitro was detected on breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cells transducted with miR-132 (miR-132 group) and or mock miRNA (control group) by transwell assay. The results demonstrated significantly lower migration ratio in miR-132 case compared to that in control case, indicating inhibition effects on cancer migration of miR-132. To clarify the inhibition mechanism by which miR-132 inhibits cancer metastasis, target genes of miR-132 were screened and identified. They are CHIP (STUB1), G3BP1 and G3BP2. The expression levels of these 3 genes in MCF7 cells (metastasis cell line) and MDA-MB-231 cells with or without transduction of miR-132 or mock miRNA were detected by PCR and Real-time PCR. Two key genes, G3BP1/G3BP2, were founded to be involved in the regulation of miR-132 to tumor metastasis, demonstrating that miR-132 could silence G3BP1/G3BP2, which resulted in the suppression of tumor metastasis. Our research suggests that miR-132 may be an important potential target used for inhibition of cancer metastasis and clinical therapy of cancer, and shed light on the suppression mechanisms of miR-132.%肿瘤转移是造成癌症难以根治的重要原因之一.近年来越来越多的研究发现,miRNA在肿瘤转移过程中发挥了直接或间接的作用.本研究的目标是找到一种特异性的肿瘤转移相关miRNA,能够作为抑制肿瘤转移的潜在靶标.miR-132是一类与炎症、血管生长、中枢神经系统相关的miRNA,至今还没有研究证明

  6. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. H. Eikelmann

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively.

  7. Dose mapping experiments of refurbished cesium irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cesium irradiator is a technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food commodities to achieve various purposes like control of sprouting in onion and potato, insect disinfestations of cereals and pulses, quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables and shelf life extension of perishable foods. The facility was installed in 1968 and recently refurbished with the new control console. The current source strength (137Cs) of the irradiator is 44.3 kCi. The real success of irradiation of food commodities lies in the adequate delivery of radiation dose to achieve the particular purpose of irradiation. Therefore, evaluation of dose distribution pattern in the product trays of the irradiation facility is of paramount importance. Two sets of dose mapping experiments of the product trays of the facility were carried out to find out the dose distribution profile and dose uniformity ratio. Reference standard dosimeter Fricke was used for the experiment. The standardized ionic concentrations of Fricke dosimeter are Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 6H2O ) - 1 mM, Sodium Chloride (NaCl) - 1 mM, Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) - 400 mM. The Optical Density (O.D) evaluation was carried out using Spectrophotometry with wave length of 304 nm. The dosimetry tray was partitioned into two planes namely bottom plane and top plane using card-board sheets. Polypropylene vials containing Fricke solution were prepared and fixed on the planes. Each plane was containing nine numbers of dosimeters. The product thickness was around 9 cm. The temperatures of irradiation and measurements were 30 deg C and 28 deg C respectively. The first set of experiment was intended to find out the dose distribution profile throughout the irradiation chamber. The dose rate at Dmin position was observed as 3.69 Gy/min with a poor Dose Uniformity Ratio (DUR) of 6.5. In order to improve the dose rate and DUR the second set of the experiment was carried out with modified product geometry

  8. Improvement of cesium retention in uranium dioxide by additional phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to improve the cesium retention in nuclear fuel. A bibliographic survey indicates that cesium is rapidly released from uranium dioxide in an accident condition. At temperatures higher than 1500 deg C or in oxidising conditions, our experiments show the difficulty of maintaining cesium inside simulated fuel. Two ternary systems are potentially interesting for the retention of cesium and to reduce the kinetics of release from the fuel: Cs2O-Al2O3-SiO2 et Cs2O-ZrO2-SO2. The compounds CsAISi2O6 and Cs2ZrSi6O15 were studied from 1200 deg C to 2000 deg C by thermogravimetric analysis. The volumetric diffusion coefficients of cesium in these structures, in solid state as well as in liquid one, were measured. A fuel was sintered with (Al2O3 + SiO2) or (ZrO2 + SiO2) and the intergranular phase was characterized. In the presence of (Al2O3 + SiO2), the sintering is realized at 1610 deg C in H2. It is a liquid phase sintering. On the other end, with (ZrO2 + SiO2), the sintering is a low temperature one in oxidising atmosphere. Finally, cesium containing simulated fuels were produced with these additives. According to the effective diffusion coefficients that were measured, the additives improved the retention of cesium. We have predicted the improvement that could be hoped for in a nuclear reactor, depending on the dispersion of the intergranular additives, the temperature and the degree of oxidation of the UO2+x. We wait for a factor of 2 for x=0 and more than 8 for x=0.05, up to 2000 deg C. (author). 148 refs., 122 figs., 34 tabs

  9. How to extract the $P_{33}(1232)$ resonance contributions from the amplitudes $M_{1+}^{3/2}, E_{1+}^{3/2},S_{1+}^{3/2}$ of pion electroproduction on nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Aznauryan, I G

    1998-01-01

    Within the dispersion relation approach, solutions of integral equations for the multipoles M_{1+}^{3/2},E_{1+}^{3/2},S_{1+}^{3/2} are found at 0 P_{33}(1232) transition are extracted from experiment at Q^2=0. They are in good agreement with quark model predictions.

  10. Cesium and strontium in Black Sea macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace level of metals and particularly radioactive ones should be monitored to evaluate the transfer along the trophic chain, assess the risk for biota and can be used for global changes assessment. Plants respond rapidly to all changes in the ecosystem conditions and are widely used as indicators and predictors for changes in hydrology and geology. In this work we represent our successful development and applications of a methodology for monitoring of stable and radioactive strontium and cesium in marine biota (Black Sea algae's). In case of radioactive release they are of high interest. We use ED-XRF, gamma spectrometers and LSC instrumentation and only 0.25 g sample. Obtained results are compared with those of other authors in same regions. The novelty is the connection between the radioactive isotopes and their stable elements in algae in time and space scale. All our samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. - Highlights: • An extraction chromatography method for radiochemical separation of Sr and Cs. • Assessment of Sr and Cs accumulation capacity of six Black Sea macroalgae species. • Connection between the isotopes and their stable elements content in algae. • Assessment of Sr and Cs content in ecosystems along the Bulgarian coast

  11. Cesium-137 levels detected in Georgia otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in the 1940's and continuing through the 50's and early 60's, nuclear devices were tested by aerial detonation in the United States and other countries around the world. Cesium-137 (137Cs) is one of the most important radionuclide by-products due to its abundance and slow decay (30-year half-life). The uptake of 137Cs in animal tissue is the result of its similarity to potassium. The somatic and genetic effects of 137Cs, along with its effect on reproductive cells, can pose great hazards to wildlife species. A reported buildup of 137Cs in white-tailed deer in the lower coastal plain of Georgia during the 1960's was followed by a gradual decline during the 1970's. Although numerous studies have involved terrestrial mammals of Georgia, few have involved aquatic mammals such as the river otter. With continued atmospheric testing by some foreign countries and the increased use of nuclear power as an energy source, there is a need for continued monitoring of radionuclides in wildlife to ascertain the quality of the environment. This study was initiated as part of an overall study of environmental pollutants in the river otter of Georgia and deals with analysis of the 137Cs accumulations in this species

  12. Uptake of cesium ions by human erythrocytes and perfused rat heart: a cesium-133 NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.G.; Murphy, E.; London, R.E.

    1988-05-17

    Cesium-133 NMR studies have been carried out on suspended human erythrocytes and on perfused rat hearts in media containing CsCl. The resulting spectra exhibit two sharp resonances, arising from intra-and extracellular Cs/sup +/, separated in chemical shift by 1.0-1.4 ppm. Thus, intra- and extracellular resonances are easily resolved without the addition of paramagnetic shift reagents required to resolve resonance of the other alkali metal ions. Spin-lattice relaxation times in all cases are monoexponential and significantly shorter (3-4 times) for the intracellular component. When corrections are made for the pulse repetition rate, the total intensity of the intracellular and extracellular Cs/sup +/ resonances in erythrocytes is conserve, implying total observability of the intracellular pool. The uptake of Cs/sup +/ by erythrocytes occurs at approximately one-third the reported rate for K/sup +/ and was reduced by a factor of 2 upon addition of ouabain to the sample. These results indicate that /sup 133/Cs NMR is a promising tool for studying the distribution and transport of cesium ions in biological systems and, in some cases such as uptake by cellular Na,K-ATPase, for analysis of K/sup +/ ion metabolism.

  13. Applications of Iodine-132 in Studies of Thyroxine Turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-132 has been applied in our laboratories to two different problems in thyroid physiology. Determination of radiation damage to the thyroid at relatively low doses of internal radiation: It has been found that the rate of production of protein-bound iodine (PBI) by the thyroid significantly increases 24 h after the thyroid has absorbed doses of internal radiation in the range 50-100 rad. These findings were made possible by using l131 as the source of internal radiation and I132 as an indicator of the rate of production of PBI. Next, I132 was used as a source of internal radiation as well as a tracer for PB I production, because it was possible to determine the effects oí radiation without interference of the radiological dose. These experiments, which have been carried out on rats, are presently being extended to human patients to determine the possible radiation damage of tracer doses of I131. During this investigation, special techniques were developed to cope with the specific requirements of using I132 in thyroid studies. A quantitative determination of the rate of thyroxine deiodination in humans: In the course of an extensive investigation of factors which affect the rate of deiodination of thyroxine in mice and rats it became of interest to determine this process in humans. The change in concentration of labelled thyroxine with time reflects the composite disappearance of thyroxine, including clearance via liver and re-absorption from intestines. In any procedure chosen, the inorganic iodide liberated from the labelled thyroxine has to be assayed. Consequently the fate of iodide in the system determines the method of investigation. In humans the relative rates of deiodination and iodide clearance are about 1: 70 and thus a steady-state concentration of iodide in serum is attained. The stationary concentration of labelled iodide, originating from the degraded labelled thyroxine, is dependent on two parameters — the rate of deiodination of thyroxine

  14. Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility. This study was conducted using batch method under different physicochemical conditions including contact time, ionic strength, pH, solid/liquid ratio and temperature. The results showed that sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good regression coefficients (R2 = 0.999). The activation energies were 11.26 and 15.21 kJ mol-1 which correspond to ion-exchange-type sorption mechanism. The adsorption was favored at low temperature and it was exothermic (ΔH0 -1) and spontaneous (ΔG0 -1 at 23 deg. C and -13.2 kJ mol-1 at 60 deg. C). The presence of competing cations such as K+ and Ca2+ ions in groundwater can significantly reduce the Cs adsorption onto soil. Desorption reaction was also investigated using three reagents with different ionic strengths (deionized water, groundwater and 0.1 M KCl solution). The results showed that Cs ions were preferentially distributed onto high affinity sorption sites.

  15. Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, A; Souahi, F; Hanini, S

    2010-12-15

    In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility. This study was conducted using batch method under different physicochemical conditions including contact time, ionic strength, pH, solid/liquid ratio and temperature. The results showed that sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good regression coefficients (R(2)=0.999). The activation energies were 11.26 and 15.21 kJ mol(-1) which correspond to ion-exchange-type sorption mechanism. The adsorption was favored at low temperature and it was exothermic (ΔH(0)<0, with average value of -1.97 kJ mol(-1)) and spontaneous (ΔG(0)<0, with average value of -11.97 kJ mol(-1) at 23°C and -13.2 kJ mol(-1) at 60°C). The presence of competing cations such as K(+) and Ca(2+) ions in groundwater can significantly reduce the Cs adsorption onto soil. Desorption reaction was also investigated using three reagents with different ionic strengths (deionized water, groundwater and 0.1M KCl solution). The results showed that Cs ions were preferentially distributed onto high affinity sorption sites. PMID:20869168

  16. Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzidi, A., E-mail: bouzidiaek@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Birine, 17200 Ain Oussera (Algeria); Souahi, F. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Hanini, S. [Universite Yahia Fares, 26000 Media (Algeria)

    2010-12-15

    In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility. This study was conducted using batch method under different physicochemical conditions including contact time, ionic strength, pH, solid/liquid ratio and temperature. The results showed that sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good regression coefficients (R{sup 2} = 0.999). The activation energies were 11.26 and 15.21 kJ mol{sup -1} which correspond to ion-exchange-type sorption mechanism. The adsorption was favored at low temperature and it was exothermic ({Delta}H{sup 0} < 0, with average value of -1.97 kJ mol{sup -1}) and spontaneous ({Delta}G{sup 0} < 0, with average value of -11.97 kJ mol{sup -1} at 23 deg. C and -13.2 kJ mol{sup -1} at 60 deg. C). The presence of competing cations such as K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions in groundwater can significantly reduce the Cs adsorption onto soil. Desorption reaction was also investigated using three reagents with different ionic strengths (deionized water, groundwater and 0.1 M KCl solution). The results showed that Cs ions were preferentially distributed onto high affinity sorption sites.

  17. Search for Signature Inversion in the πi13/2 vi13/2 Band in Odd-Odd 178Ir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Hu; H. Kusakari; M. Sugawara; T. Komatsubara; K. Furuno; T. Hayakawa; M. Oshima; Y. Toh; J. Katakura; Y. Hatsukawa; M. Matsuda; N. Shinohara; T. Ishii

    2001-01-01

    The search for the ri13/2 vi13/2 band in 178Ir has been conducted through the 152Sm(31 P, 5nγ) 178Ir reaction and the excitation functions, x-γ and γ-γ-t coincidence measurements. Five rotational bands have been newly identified. The low-spin signature inversion in the πi13/2 vi13/2 band has been confirmed by the observations of linking transitions and signature crossing at I = 25.5 h. The inversion phenomenon in rh11/2 vi13/2, rh9/2 vi13/2 and ri13/2 vi13/2 structures in 178Ir provides a unique testing ground for different theoretical interpretations.

  18. Production of Iodine-132 from Irradiated Uranium Tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instead of the metallic uranium or uranium oxides usually used, the authors selected UF4 as the material to be irradiated. The reasons for this choice are as follows: (a) it possesses good thermal and radiolytic stability; (b) it is easily soluble in a solution consisting of concentrated hydrochloric acid and boric acid; (c) the dissolution reaction is gentle and without gas release; (d) the uranium is dissolved as U4+ in a non-oxidizing medium, which permits of selective reduction of the telluric acid added as carrier. The above factors greatly facilitate the process of separating the Te132. The method of separating the Te132 is as follows: (a) dissolution of the UF4 in the medium mentioned above; (b) direct reduction of the telluric acid using SnCl2 followed by filtration; (c) re-dissolution of the Te using concentrated hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide; (d) re-precipitation of the Te in a hydrochloric medium using SnCl2 or SO2, followed by filtration; (e) final dissolution of the Te in concentrated nitric acid. The nitric solution of tellurium, containing no fission products that are not isotopic with Te132, is fixed on an alumina column and the I132 is removed periodically. The fixation of Te182 and the elution of I132 were studied and the chemical and radiochemical purity of the product obtained was verified. This method can be used with relatively large quantities of UF4, which compensates for the poor integral fluxes available in research reactors, such as JEN -1, and thus enables sufficient quantities of I132 - of the order of 0.5 c - to be obtained in establishments lacking high-flux reactors in almost continuous operation or unable to irradiate enriched uranium. (author)

  19. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  20. A fundamental study on cesium migration to sodium at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experiment study aims to understand the behavior of cesium in severe accident of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor, especially cesium migration rate to sodium. In past study, exact migration rate of cesium to sodium has not been reported because of difficulty of the cesium-sodium interfacial area evaluations of gas bubble. In this study, we developed a pool-type experimental apparatus which can simplify the shape of interfacial area, and measured cesium migration rate in a low temperature range of 200degC to 300degC. The cesium migration rates obtained under the condition that the cesium mixed argon gas flow is the same temperature with sodium vary in the range of 10-3 - 10-1 mol/m2min and increase with increasing the system temperature. The difference of cesium migration rates between non-oxidized sodium surface and oxidized sodium surface is also clearly observed. (author)

  1. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri, E-mail: joskit@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kutty, K.V. Govindan [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Goswami, M.C. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs{sub 2}O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (E{sub c}) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth.

  2. Cesium corrosion process in Fe–Cr steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cesium corrosion out-pile test was performed to Fe–Cr steel in a simulated fuel pin environment. In order to specify the corrosion products, the corroded area was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A cesium corrosion process in Fe–Cr steel was successfully developed proceeding from both experimental results and thermochemical consideration. The corroded area was mainly formed by Fe layer and Fe depleted oxidized layer. The Fe depleted oxidized layer was formed by Cr0.5Fe0.5 and Cr2O3. The presumed main corrosion reactions were 2Cr+2/3 O2→Cr2O3(ΔG650°C=-894.1kJ/mol) and Cr23C6+46Cs+46O2→23Cs2CrO4+6C(ΔG650°C=-25018.1kJ/mol). Factors of these reactions are chromium, carbon, oxygen and cesium. Therefore, cesium corrosion progression must be dependent on the chromium content, carbon content in the steel, the supply rate of oxygen and temperature which correlated with the diffusion rate of cesium and oxygen into the specimen

  3. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs2O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (Ec) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth

  4. The diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel multi-layer diffusion couple was used to isolate the diffusion of strontium, europium and cesium in SiC without introducing radiation damage to SiC and at concentrations below the solubility limit for the fission products in SiC. Diffusion occurred by both bulk and grain boundary pathways for all three fission products between 900∘ C and 1 ,300∘ C. Cesium was the fastest diffuser below 1 ,100∘ C and the slowest above this temperature. Strontium and europium diffusion tracked very closely as a function of temperature for both bulk and grain boundary diffusion. Migration energies ranged from 1.0 eV to 5.7 eV for bulk diffusion and between 2.2 eV and 4.7 eV for grain boundary diffusion. These constitute the first measurements of diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium in silicon carbide, and the magnitude of the cesium diffusion coefficient supports the premise that high quality TRISO fuel should have minimal cesium release.

  5. Fast timing measurement in neutron rich 131,132I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent experimental and theoretical investigations carried out in this direction also indicate the importance of the lifetime measurements in these nuclei. Such measurements in 131,132I nuclei was attempted using Mirror Symmetric Centroid Difference (MSCD) technique, giving rise to the limits on the level lifetimes. In the present work, the lifetime measurements have been carried out by using the Generalized Centroid Difference (GCD) technique for several states of 131,132I nuclei, produced from decay of the radio-chemically separated fission products

  6. IBM-2 calculation of band mixing in 132Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The band crossing in 132Ba has been investigated by using the interacting boson model. A broken neutron pair has been coupled to a collective boson core. The boson-fermion interaction hamiltonian contains terms which can transform a boson into a pair of quasiparticles and vice versa. The parameters were partly determined by fitting the collective states of 132,134Ba and the yrast states of 131Ba. The energy backbending has been satisfactorily reproduced. Good agreement of the electromagnetic moments has been reached. The structure of the wave functions has been discussed. (author)

  7. Dissociative excitation of cesium atom upon e-CsOH collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of dissociative excitation of cesium atom in collisions with mono-kinetic molecules of cesium hydroxide is studied. It is established that behaviour of dissociative excitations the cesium atom in spectral series corresponds of to the grade dependence of cross sections on the main quantum number of the upper level. The values of constants, characterizing the behaviour of cross sections in the eight spectral series of the cesium atom are determined

  8. Sorption of cesium and uranium to Feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within safety assessment studies, for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic formations, calculation for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere are often carried out with models taking sorption into account. In the past 8 years the insight grew that other physico-chemical processes, besides sorption, could affect migration behaviour. While the currently used transport models were being improved taking either linear or non-linear sorption into account, the coupling of geochemical and transport models came into scope. In spite of these developments models which are still based on the sorption theory are frequently applied in studying migration behaviour of radionuclides. This is caused by the necessity of making preliminary pronouncements, while coupled models are still in stage of development and thermodynamic data are very limited available. Therefore one has to obtain insight in the reliability of the models based on the sorption theory. within the sorption database there is a lack of knowledge about mineralogy, composition of the fluid and the experimental conditions underlying the data. Therefore the Expert Group on geochemical Modelling supported by the Finnish proposal in order to obtain insight in the possible deviation of the sorption coefficients that can be estimated from experiments performed with standard samples, fluid composition and experimental conditions. Nine laboratories from OECD membership countries took part in this intercalibration study. In the framework of the Dutch safety assessment studies the Dutch National Institute of Public health and Environmental protection (RIVM) has decided to participate in this exercise. In this report the results are presented of sorption experiments for cesium and natural Uranium to Feldspar. (H.W.). 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  9. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of 137Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of 137Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope 137Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports

  10. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  11. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  12. Frequent translocations of 11q13.2 and 19p13.2 in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wenners, Antonia; Hilpert, Felix; Fredrik, Regina; Micci, Francesca; Onkes, Wiebke; Caliebe, Amke; Maass, Nicolai; Weimer, Jörg; Arnold, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    Aberrations of chromosome arm 19p in ovarian cancer were first described decades ago and have been confirmed in recent publications, which have focused on chromosome 11 as a translocation partner. Recently, genetic analysis of the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 revealed a rearrangement described as der(19)t(11;19)(q13.2;p13.2), which lead to a fusion protein containing parts of HOOK2 and frame shifted ACTN3 that had unknown functionality. To evaluate the frequency of these breakpoints, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes flanking these genes for interphase analysis of ovarian cancer cells. We analyzed 49 primary cell cultures of ovarian cancers using FISH probes next to these breakpoints on chromosomes 11 and 19 defined in SKOV3. Co-localizations of the signals in interphase nuclei were considered to be positive fusions when the frequency was over the experimentally calculated cutoff of 24.3% (mean average value for normal ovary cells plus three times the standard deviation). Fusions between 11q13.2 and 19p13.2 were confirmed in 22 (45%) primary cell cultures of ovarian cancers. However, by PCR, the fusion originally described in SKOV3 was not detected in any of the primary cell cultures. Our results confirm other reports and show that these regions are very frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, they reveal a significant correlation (P = 0.023) of co-localized signals of 11q13.2 and 19p13.2 with low and intermediate grades in ovarian cancer. PMID:24615723

  13. Spins and magnetic moments of rubidium and cesium nuclides far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies at ISOLDE have concerned spins and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient rubidium and cesium isotopes. Here, the main results obtained, and, in the case of cesium, new moment measurements are briefly discussed also the results from measurements on neutron-rich nuclides of rubidium and cesium. (orig./AH)

  14. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  15. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: sludges and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation. (author)

  16. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

    1993-11-01

    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  17. Cesium 137 in oils and plants from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the project of radioactive and environmental contamination started in Guatemala. Studies about the radioactive contamination levels are made within the framework of this project. Cesium-137 has been an interest radionuclide, because it is a fission product released to the environment by the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants accidents. The sampling consisted in collection of soil and grass in 20 provinces of Guatemala, one point by province, and it was made in 1990. The cesium-137 concentration in the samples, was determined by gamma spectrometry, using an hyper pure germanium detector. The results show the presence of radioactive contamination in soil and grass due to cesium-137, at levels that might be considered as normal. The levels found are not harmful for human health, and its importance is the fact that can be used as reference levels for the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Guatemala

  18. Study of radiatively sustained cesium plasmas for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, A. J.; Dunning, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study aimed at developing a high temperature solar electric converter are reported. The converter concept is based on the use of an alkali plasma to serve as both an efficient high temperature collector of solar radiation as well as the working fluid for a high temperature working cycle. The working cycle is a simple magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rankine cycle employing a solid electrode Faraday MHD channel. Research milestones include the construction of a theoretical model for coupling sunlight in a cesium plasma and the experimental demonstration of cesium plasma heating with a solar simulator in excellent agreement with the theory. Analysis of a solar MHD working cycle in which excimer laser power rather than electric power is extracted is also presented. The analysis predicts a positive gain coefficient on the cesium-xenon excimer laser transition.

  19. On the compartmental modeling of cesium migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of the migration of radionuclides in soil following deposition after a nuclear accident is important for both external dose and plant uptake prediction. In this paper, the validity conditions of compartment models for cesium migration in soils are investigated. A compartment model is derived from a diffusion-convection model. The model considers free and bound cesium compartments and is applied to measured profiles of 137Cs of undisturbed soil in Northern Greece. It is concluded that the rate of cesium transfer must vary linearly with depth and that from measured equilibrium profiles, the ratios of model parameters can be determined but not the parameters themselves. This model is applied to measured profiles of 137Cs in soil due to wet deposition following the Chernobyl accident

  20. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limits for pesticide, herbicide and drug residues. Producers shall be promptly notified of any shipment... residue test, and quality control tests for sediment content, bacterial estimate and somatic cell count... Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for...

  1. 38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating... repetition is necessary to accomplish the veteran's vocational rehabilitation. A veteran repeating a...

  2. 7 CFR 1150.132 - Term of office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order National Dairy Promotion and Research Board § 1150.132 Term of office. (a) The members of...

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHB132 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHB132 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16477-1 - (Link to Original site) ... CE. 44 3.6 1 CZ889120 |CZ889120.1 ftaa003d001f03t0 Bread ... wheat methylation filtered library (LibID: 111) Tr ...

  4. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  5. 40 CFR 180.132 - Thiram; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiram; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.132 Thiram; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  6. Thallous and cesium halide materials for use in cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain thallous and cesium halides, either used alone or in combination with other ceramic materials, are provided in cryogenic applications such as heat exchange material for the regenerator section of a closed-cycle cryogenic refrigeration section, as stabilizing coatings for superconducting wires, and as dielectric insulating materials. The thallous and cesium halides possess unusually large specific heats at low temperatures, have large thermal conductivities, are nonmagnetic, and are nonconductors of electricity. They can be formed into a variety of shapes such as spheres, bars, rods, or the like and can be coated or extruded onto substrates or wires. (author)

  7. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-03-01

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs+) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs+ uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs+, chemical library screening was performed using Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs+ tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs+ concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs+. Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs+ tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs+ by inhibiting Cs+ entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for instance, providing a basis for phytostabilisation of radiocesium-contaminated farmland.

  8. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs(+)) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs(+) uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs(+), chemical library screening was performed using...... Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs(+) tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs(+) concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs......(+). Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs(+) tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs(+) by inhibiting Cs(+) entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for...

  9. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met

  10. A method for reducing the cesium-137 content in meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports a study of a method for reducing the amount of cesium-137 in meat from wild animals. The method is intended for use in the kitchen and is based on a combined leaching and mechanical process. (K.A.E.)

  11. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  12. Fission-product tellurium and cesium telluride chemistry revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of fission-product tellurium is discussed with a focus on conditions in an operating CANDU reactor and in an accident scenario, i.e., a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Cesium telluride, Cs2Te, is likely to be one of the most abundant tellurium species released to containment. Available thermodynamic data on gas phase Cs2Te is not complete; hence the volatility of cesium telluride was studied by Knudsen-cell mass spectrometry. Cesium telluride was found to vapourize incongruently, becoming more tellurium-rich in the condensed phase as vapourization progressed. Vapour-phase species that were observed were elemental cesium and tellurium, CsTe, Cs2Te, Cs2Te2 and Cs2Te3. Second-law enthalpies and entropies were obtained for many of these species, and a third-law value, ΔH298o, of 186 ± 2 kJ·mol-1 was obtained for Cs2Te. (author)

  13. Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M

    2011-01-01

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  15. Cesium ion desorption ionization with Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium ions (Cs+) are used for the production of the feed ions necessary to obtain Fourier transform mass spectra (FTMS). The molecule chosen for the initial study of this Cs+ desorption ionization (DI-FTMS) was vitamin B-12 because of its nonvolatile, thermally labile character. 21 references

  16. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, T.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah.

  17. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial cesium removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work done in support of the development of technology for the continuous removal and concentration of radioactive cesium in supernatant from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at the ORNL site. The primary objective was to test candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the MVSTs. An experimental system contained in a hot-cell facility was constructed to test the materials in columns or modules using the same batch of supernatant to allow comparison on an equal basis. Resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF) resin was evaluated at three flow rates with 50% breakthrough ranges of 35 to 50 column volumes (CV) and also through a series of five loading/elution/regeneration cycles. The results reported here include the cesium loading breakthrough curves, elution curves (when applicable), and operational problems and observations for each material. The comparative evaluations should provide critical data for the selection of the sorbent for the ORNL Cesium Removal Demonstration project. These results will be used to help determine the design parameters for demonstration-scale systems. Such parameters include rates of cesium removal, quantity of resin or sorbent to be used, and elution and regeneration requirements, if applicable

  18. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gutleb A.C.; Mraz, G.

    1991-01-01

    Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra). The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  19. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  20. Demonstration test for decontamination technology of cesium-contaminated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company (KEPCO E and C), architecture and engineering company of nuclear power plant, developed the 'decontamination technology of cesium-contaminated ash' in the basis of pre-owned 'decontamination technology of cesium-contaminated soil'. The new technology was demonstrated in Fukushima prefecture during 12 days from November 5, 2013, in order to verify the performance. Demonstration equipment (CEDECON-DA), with a capacity of treatment of 20 ℓ per batch, can be carried in a container in order to promote the ease of transportation and in-situ installation. Through the demonstration test it was verified the superior performance and the possibility of commercialization. This technique comprises of cesium separation and cesium coagulation processes. Briefly speaking, the principal of this process is as follows; cesium is separated from ash, detached to the coagulation and then deposited. The decontaminated ash can be disposed of into municipal landfills as conventional non-radioactive waste. The present technology is evaluated such that the disposal amount of radioactive waste will be significantly reduced. The ash with average concentration of 6,200 Bq/kg from a conventional incineration plant was used for the demonstration test. Each separate performance test has been carried out under acid, neutral and alkaline conditions, respectively. The test result for alkaline condition showed the highest decontamination ratio of 82-85% and the volume reduction ratio of 95%. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center (RANDEC) performed the radiation protection management, activity measurement and evaluation in the demonstration test results. (author)

  1. Some aspects of cesium deposition in Transilvania (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident of the Chernobyl atomic electric power station, a great quantity of radionuclides (∼100MCi) escaped from the reactor. It was estimated that 13% of the inventory activity of cesium representing 1.5-2 MCi left the reactor. The radioactive deposits were very nonuniform for the same distance and in the same direction from Chernobyl nuclear center having a close dependence upon direction and speed of wind and pluviometric conditions. The rains, especially the storms, spectacularly increased the radioactive fallout. Although, for the first two-three days, subsequent to accident, the meteorological conditions were favorable for Romania, after April 29/30, because of the changing in the wind direction on SW (initial it was N and NW) the countries were on this direction - Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, former Yugoslavia - began to be intensely contaminated with radioactive fallout. In Romania, the radioactive cloud passing coincided with abundant rains, especially on the direction mentioned above. On this direction, the cesium deposits are of 8-2 times larger than other Romanian regions. The torrential rain which fell on May 1st 1986, in the western side of Cluj Napoca town caused an intense contamination especially with short-life isotopes as Te, I, Ba, La, Mo. Medium and long-life isotopes as Ru, Zr, Cs, Sr were present in large quantities in this area.too. For the total contribution the value obtained was 1130 kBq/m2, much larger than the average in Romania. This work presents data about cesium content of pollen samples gathered daily between 1-30 May 1986; cesium deposits in five areas and some measurements in connection with cesium mitigation in soils

  2. Establishment of a novel monoclonal antibody SMab-1 specific for IDH1-R132S mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → IDH1 mutations are early and frequent genetic alterations in gliomas. → We newly established an anti-IDH1-R132S-specific mAb SMab-1. → SMab-1 reacted with the IDH1-R132S peptide, but not with other IDH1 mutants. → SMab-1 specifically stained the IDH1-R132S-expressing glioblastoma cells in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. → SMab-1 should be useful in diagnosis of mutation-bearing gliomas. -- Abstract: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations, which are early and frequent genetic alterations in gliomas, are specific to a single codon in the conserved and functionally important Arginine 132 (R132) in IDH1. We earlier established a monoclonal antibody (mAb), IMab-1, which is specific for R132H-containing IDH1 (IDH1-R132H), the most frequent IDH1 mutation in gliomas. To establish IDH1-R132S-specific mAb, we immunized mice with R132S-containing IDH1 (IDH1-R132S) peptide. After cell fusion using Sendai virus envelope, IDH1-R132S-specific mAbs were screened in ELISA. One mAb, SMab-1, reacted with the IDH1-R132S peptide, but not with other IDH1 mutants. Western-blot analysis showed that SMab-1 reacted only with the IDH1-R132S protein, not with IDH1-WT protein or IDH1 mutants, indicating that SMab-1 is IDH1-R132S-specific. Furthermore, SMab-1 specifically stained the IDH1-R132S-expressing glioblastoma cells in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, but did not react with IDH1-WT or IDH1-R132H-containing glioblastoma cells. We newly established an anti-IDH1-R132S-specific mAb SMab-1 for use in diagnosis of mutation-bearing gliomas.

  3. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal...

  4. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have provided new experimental information on neutron-rich nuclei around doubly magic 132Sn. We have performed shell-model calculations for the two- and three-proton N=82 isotones 134Te and 135I using a realistic effective interaction derived from the Bonn A nucleon-nucleon potential. The results are in remarkably good agreement with the experimental data evidencing the reliability of our realistic effective interaction. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei around {sup 132}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, F.; Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Porrino, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Mostra dOltremare, Pad. 20, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Kuo, T.T. [Department of Physics, SUNY, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have provided new experimental information on neutron-rich nuclei around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn. We have performed shell-model calculations for the two- and three-proton N=82 isotones {sup 134}Te and {sup 135}I using a realistic effective interaction derived from the Bonn A nucleon-nucleon potential. The results are in remarkably good agreement with the experimental data evidencing the reliability of our realistic effective interaction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies.

    OpenAIRE

    Boers, M.; Croonen, A M; Dijkmans, B A; Breedveld, F C; Eulderink, F.; Cats, A.; Weening, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in 132 necropsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Clinical findings before death included extra-articular manifestations of the disease (86% of patients), systemic vasculitis (6%), and uraemia (23%). Necropsy findings included nephrosclerosis (90%), systemic vasculitis (14%) with kidney involvement in 8%, amyloidosis (11%), membranous glomerulopathy (8%), and focal glomerular disease (8%). Association with clinical data suggests that both rheumatoid and no...

  7. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, M; Croonen, A M; Dijkmans, B A; Breedveld, F C; Eulderink, F; Cats, A; Weening, J J

    1987-09-01

    Renal abnormalities in 132 necropsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Clinical findings before death included extra-articular manifestations of the disease (86% of patients), systemic vasculitis (6%), and uraemia (23%). Necropsy findings included nephrosclerosis (90%), systemic vasculitis (14%) with kidney involvement in 8%, amyloidosis (11%), membranous glomerulopathy (8%), and focal glomerular disease (8%). Association with clinical data suggests that both rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid disease may play a part in the cause of these abnormalities. PMID:3675007

  8. Distribution and retention of cesium and strontium in Swedish boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and distribution of cesium, and to some extent strontium, in forest environments are being studied at three sites in Sweden. The main part of the cesium found in the soil was recovered in horizons rich in organic matter. The cesium was retained in the soil organic matter in a more or less extractable form. As different soil types have a different distribution pattern of organic matter, the distribution of cesium will depend on the forest soil type. The clay content in Swedish forest soils is, in general, low which will mitigate the retention of cesium in the soil mineral horizons. The cesium and strontium present in the trees was considered to be an effect of assimilation by the tissues in the canopy as well as by the roots. The redistribution of cesium within the trees was extensive which was considered to be the effect of a high mobility of cesium in the trees. The recovery of strontium-90 in pines, in relation to the deposition rate was higher compared to the relative recovery of cesium-137, 30 years after deposition. The cesium and strontium will remain in the forest environment for a considerable time but can be reduced by forest practice, by leaching out of the soil profile or by radioactive decay

  9. 5 CFR 185.132 - The hearing and burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The hearing and burden of proof. 185.132 Section 185.132 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.132 The hearing and burden of proof. (a) Where requested in accordance...

  10. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. 25.132 Section 25.132 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.132 Verification of earth station antenna...

  11. Downregulation of ZNF132 in prostate cancer is associated with aberrant promoter hypermethylation and poor prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Opstrup; Borre, Michael; Mørck Mortensen, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    .009). In multivariate models, however, ZNF132 did not add significant independent value to established prognostic factors. Finally, bisulfite sequencing revealed frequent promoter hypermethylation of ZNF132 in both PC cell lines and PC tissue samples, indicating that ZNF132 is epigenetically silenced in PC...

  12. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations. The process, described by a three-level model with the Λ scheme, shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms. The |Fg = 3> → |Fe = 4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg = 4, mF = 4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg = 4. To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state, we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg = 4> → |Fe = 3> transition, in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field. (atomic and molecular physics)

  13. Electrode activation in cesium-free negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of emission electrode activation leading to enhancement of negative ion emission in cesium-free discharges are discussed. In some ion sources with cesium-free discharges, the emission of negative ions has been increased significantly by emission electrode activation using strong heating of the negative biased electrode by discharge plasma. A simple explanation of this enhancement is that it is due to an accumulation on the emission surface of the plasma electrode of impurities with low ionization potential that decreases in surface work function and increases the secondary emission of negative ions similar to ''Cesiation.'' The negative biasing of emission surface is important for accumulation and trapping the impurities on the emission surface. To effectively control the activation process it is important to directly detect the evolution of the work function and the impurity concentration during electrode activation with enhancement of negative ion emission.

  14. Trapping and cooling cesium atoms in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of two experiments where cold cesium atoms are trapped in a speckle field. In the first experiment, a YAG laser creates the speckle pattern and induces a far-detuned dipole potential which is a nearly-conservative potential. Localization of atoms near the intensity maxima of the speckle field is observed. In a second experiment we use two counterpropagating laser beams tuned close to a resonance line of cesium and in the lin perpendicular to lin configuration, one of them being modulated by a holographic diffuser that creates the speckle field. Three-dimensional cooling is observed. Variations of the temperature and of the spatial diffusion coefficient with the size of a speckle grain are presented. (orig.)

  15. Cesium exchange reaction on natural and modified clinoptilolite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium cation exchange reaction with K, Na, Ca and Mg ions on natural and modified clinoptilolite has been studied. Batch cation-exchange experiments were performed by placing 0.5 g of clinoptilolite into 10 ml or 20 ml of 1 x 10-3M CsCl solution for differing times. Two type deposits of clinoptilolite zeolites from, Nizny Hrabovec (NH), Slovakia and Metaxades (MX), Greece were used for ion-exchange study. The distribution coefficient (Kd) and sorption capacity (Γ) were evaluated. For the determination of K, Na, Ca and Mg isotachophoresis method, the most common cations in exchange reaction was used. Cesium sorption was studied using 137Cs tracer and measured by γ-spectrometry. (author)

  16. Kelvin Probe Studies of Cesium Telluride Photocathode for AWA Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, Eric; Yusof, Zikri; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff; Harkay, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (~50 nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin Probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating.

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have determined the levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust samples. Dust samples were collected by the aspiration of 3000 m3 or more air at 1.0 -- 1.5 m above the ground surface in 10 prefectural public health laboratories and institutes. The samples collected during three months were combined, and were forwarded to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization. These samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnance at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ash to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The solution was dissolved into hydrochloric and filtered, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 with low background beta-ray spectrometer. (author)

  18. Cesium and lead uptake by CSH phases of hydrated cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Kd from radwaste elements in concrete systems show a wide range of values, a modelling of cesium and lead immobilization in Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH, xCaO.SiO2.H2O, with 0.7 (aged cements)SiOH) and precipitation equilibria. Values of Kd from cesium and lead in CSH matrix can thus be calculated with Ca/Si evolution and ionic strength effect. Predictive calculations have been carried out with success with different Ca/Si ratios, ionic strengths and liquid/solid ratios, and results are well superimposed with experimental isotherm data. If the CSH really allow accounting for the radwaste behavior in hydrated cement matrices, this model can be used in safety assessment calculations, with varying pH and [Ca2+] as cement degradation state parameters. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  19. New thermodynamic regularity for cesium over the whole liquid range

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatee, M H

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we derive an equation of state for liquid cesium based on a suggested potential function in accord to the characteristics large attraction and soft repulsion at the asymptotes of interaction potentials. By considering the interaction of nearest adjacent atoms in dense fluid, the equation of state predicts that the isotherm is linear function of, where is the compression factor, is the molar volume, and is the molar density. The linear parameters are identified as interaction coefficients related to attraction and repulsion, and are used to evaluate the molecular parameters with interesting implications. The isotherm is intended to resolve the particular thermodynamic properties of alkali metals, which have been known for their unusual change of the nature of intermolecular force as the characteristic metal-nonmetal transition range is approached. When applied to liquid cesium, the isotherms persist linear over the whole liquid range including the metal non-metals transition range and at the crit...

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in airborne dust have been determined by Japan Chemical Analysis Center under the contact with Science and Technology Agency. Dust samples were collected at 1.0 -- 1.5m above the ground surface with electrostatic precipitators or on filter papers by each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes in 9 prefectures, and these samples were forwarded to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after the carbonization. These samples were asked in an electric muffle furnance at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The solution was dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtered, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by science and Technology Agency. (author)

  1. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2013-01-15

    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  2. Behavioral characteristics associated with 19p13.2 microdeletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Alice; Barth, Bursharan; Moss, Joanna; Penhallow, Jessica; Sheth, Krupa; Wilde, Lucy; Wynn, Sarah; Oliver, Chris

    2015-10-01

    A small number of recent papers have described individuals with intellectual disabilities and microdeletions in chromosome band 19p13.2. However, little is known about the behavioral characteristics of individuals with microdeletions in this area. The current study examines behavioral characteristics of a series of 10 participants ranging in age from 2 to 20 years with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Parents/caregivers completed a series of established behavioral measures which have aided the elucidation of the behavioral phenotypes of a number of genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes. All but the youngest two participants (aged 2 and 3 years) were verbal, ambulant, and classified as "partly able" or "able" with regard to self-help skills. Six of eight participants for whom a screening measure for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could be deployed met criteria for an ASD. Six of the 10 participants had displayed self-injurious behavior in the month prior to assessment, eight had displayed destruction/disruption of property, and eight had shown physically aggressive behaviors. Repetitive behaviors were prevalent in the sample (with all participants displaying at least one repetitive behavior to a clinically relevant level), as were problems with sleep. Low mood was not prevalent in this group, and nor were overactivity or impulsivity. Full determination of a behavioral phenotype for this group would require a larger sample size, distinguishing between genetic subtypes. However, the current data suggest that ASD characteristics, repetitive, and challenging behaviors (such as aggression and self-injury) might be associated with 19p13.2 microdeletions, providing a basis for future investigation. PMID:26189583

  3. Migration behavior of cesium in compacted sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safety assessments of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, it is important to study the migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in compacted bentonite. In the present study, the apparent diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the diffusion were determined for cesium ions in compacted montmorillonite, a major clay mineral in bentonite. The activation energies obtained in the present study were 32.9 to 52.9 kJ mol-1, clearly higher than for the diffusion of cesium ions in free water, 16.2 kJ mol-1. The activation energies for Na-montmorillonite specimens with dry densities of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 x 103 kg m-3 were similar at approximately 34 kJ mol-1. When the dry density of the Na-montmorillonite specimens increases, the activation energy also increases, to reach 52.9 kJ mol-1 at 1.8 x 103 kg m-3. These findings suggest that the cesium in the compacted Na-montmorillonite diffuses with a different process from that in free water. Basal spacings were determined by the X-ray diffraction method for water-saturated, compacted Na-montmorillonite specimens. Three-water layer hydrate in the interlamellar space was observed for the Na-montmorillonite with dry densities of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 x 103 kg m-3, where the activation energies for the diffusion were nearly constant. Only the two-water layer hydrate was found in the Na-montmorillonite with dry densities of 1.6 and 1.8 x 103 kg m-3, in which the activation energy increases with the dry density. It is possible that the basal spacing could affect the migration behavior of cesium in compacted Na-montmorillonite. (author)

  4. Radioactive cesium. Dynamics and transport in forestal food-webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises results from a radioecological study during 1994-1995 concerning turnover, redistribution and loss of radioactive Cesium (134 and 137) in boreal forest ecosystems, as well as uptake and transfer in important food-chains over moose, vole and vegetation. The basis for this report are 9 publications published 1994-95. These reports are presented in summary form. 9 refs, 17 figs

  5. Optimized production of a cesium Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Tobias; Herbig, Jens; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Naegerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2004-01-01

    We report on the optimized production of a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms using an optical trapping approach. Based on an improved trap loading and evaporation scheme we obtain more than $10^5$ atoms in the condensed phase. To test the tunability of the interaction in the condensate we study the expansion of the condensate as a function of scattering length. We further excite strong oscillations of the trapped condensate by rapidly varying the interaction strength.

  6. Cesium dihydrophosphate monocrystal growth and certain of their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of cesium dihydrophosphate (centrisymmetrical, monoclinic, point symmetric group 2/m) are obtained by methods involving solvent evaporation and temperature reduction. At -122 deg C, a ferroelectric phase transition occurs, and at 230 and 265 deg C first-kind transitions, which are not accompanied by composition changes. CsH2PO4 solubility substantially increases with higher medium acidity, and remains approximately constant in alkali medium

  7. Behaviour of radioactive cesium in northern boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1997-2001 a large number of environmental samples have been collected from the Muddusjaervi area in Finnish Lappland. These samples include soil, water, sediment, vegetation and fish samples. Radioactive contamination in this subarctic environment has mainly resulted from the nuclear weapons test fallout in the 1950s and 1960s. Chernobyl accident did not considerably increase the contamination level in this area. The Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki, has been studying the behaviour of fallout radionuclides in the environment and in food chains in Lappland from the beginning of the 1960s. The study area lies in the middle of northern reindeer herding area where accumulation of radioactive cesium has been observed in food chains. In this paper we report on the behaviour of radioactive cesium in soil columns. The soil in this area is typically nutrient-poor podzolic soil. Altogether thirty soil columns were collected and they were divided into horizons (litter, organic and mineral layers). The activity concentrations of the horizons were determined by gamma spectrometry. In general, cesium has been concentrated mainly in the litter and organic layers and it has not been migrated considerably to mineral layers. To study the long term behaviour of cesium in soil the activity concentrations have been compared to those found in earlier decades and to the activity concentrations earlier determined for other radionuclides, especially for Pu. A further major objective was to study runoff of radionuclides from ground to lakes and brooks and therefore many of the soil samples were collected from various distances from lakes and brooks. (author)

  8. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  9. Corrections to our results for optical nanofiber traps in Cesium

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, D; Choi, K S; Kimble, H J

    2012-01-01

    Several errors in Refs. [1, 2] are corrected related to the optical trapping potentials for a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap for the D2 transition of atomic Cesium. Section I corrects our basic formalism in Ref. [1] for calculating dipole-force potentials. Section II corrects erroneous values for a partial lifetime and a transition wavelength in Ref. [1]. Sections III and IV present corrected figures for various trapping configurations considered in Refs. [1] and [2], respectively.

  10. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 104 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  11. Studies on the Separation of Cesium From Fission Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANLi-juan; ZHANGSheng-dong; GUOJing-ru; CUIAn-zhi; YANGLei; WUWang-suo

    2003-01-01

    135Cs is a long-life fission product. When measuring its thermal cross section, we must separate radiochemical purity cesium from fission products. Except for decontaminating radio- nuclides, others which can be activated must be avoided to come into solution. So ion exchanger is used. Inorganic ion exchangers have received increased attention because of their high resistance to radiation and their very efficient separation of alkali metal ions.

  12. Shell-model structure of exotic nuclei beyond 132Sn

    OpenAIRE

    Covello, A; Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of exotic nuclei around doubly magic 132Sn in terms of the shell model employing a realistic effective interaction derived from the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential. The short-range repulsion of the bare potential is renormalized by constructing a smooth low-momentum potential, V-low-k, that is used directly as input for the calculation of the effective interaction. In this paper we focus attention on the nuclei 134Sn and 135Sb which, with an N/Z ratio of 1.68 and 1.65, ...

  13. Shell model analysis of N = 82 isotones above 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclei with up to 6 protons added to 132Sn are described within a truncated shell model basis formed by the proton orbits 0g7/2, 1d5/2, 1d3/2, 2s1/2 and 0h11/2. Single-particle energies and two-body interaction matrix elements are determined from experimental excitation energies in 133Sb and 134Te. These parameters are then used for calculating levels in 135I, 136Xe, 137Cs and 138Ba. The calculated energies agree well with experimental values in these 4 nuclei. (author)

  14. Extraction of rubidium and cesium from micas following sulfate-extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of semicommercial tests of procedure of rubidium and cesium extraction from micas. Micas has been processed by the 40% solution of sulphuric acid at boiling temperature. Separate extraction of cesium and rubidium from the solution with arylalkylsubstituted phenol has been conducted after alum crystallization and decomposition by lime. Pure rubidium carbonate and technical cesium carbonate with their 80 and 95% extraction, respectively, are prepared

  15. Investigations of the method of sodium decontamination from cesium and tritium aiming its utilization or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective methods of removing cesium and tritium from sodium are submitted. It is shown, that the cleaning from cesium with consecutive use of portions of carbon materials will allow on the orders to reduce amount of sorbent, in which is concentrated cesium. For cleaning from tritium technological process with use of a cold trap and special dosage hydrogen in sodium is offered. The data on required time of cleaning and depth of cleaning at various capacity of hydrogen source are given. (author)

  16. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  17. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  18. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  19. Transition of cesium in food chains [after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of 25,000 samples of foodstuffs and feedstuffs in Czechoslovakia, contaminated by fall-out cesium after the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, performed from May 5, 1986 to March 31, 1988, revealed that both the values of cesium transfer-factors in food--animal tissues--milk transitions and the values of biological half-life of cesium are functions of internal and external conditions of contamination. Organism individuality as the main internal condition causes the variance of about +/- 50% of the mean value of the respective transfer-factor. Through the external conditions, mainly the environmental contamination level, type of ingested food and time of ingestion, the mean values of transfer-factors are influenced up to 500%, e.g. to the value of 0.5. But this value converges with growing up contamination of food and environment to the limit of 0.3. The first two to three biological half-lives after the last ingestion of contaminated food are up to ten-times shorter than those at stabilized state

  20. Cesium transfer to agricultural crops for three years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986 about 50 farms in the fallout region were selected for sampling at fixed sites of the soil surface layer and of the grassland and grain crops to come. The aim was to cover the different soil types and the farming practices of the region during studies on the transfer levels and on the change with time in transfer of cesium to the crops. It was found that the transfer level, as expected, was much higher for the grassland than for the grain crops. However, within both groups of considerable variation in the transfer level for the same year as measured by the transfer factors has occurred. For the former crops it can be concluded that the transfer factor during year 1 depends on the interception capacity of the plant cover and on the dilution by growth i.e on soil fertility and on fertilization level. In the following years the cesium TF-value for the grass cover was reduced by a factor from 2 to about 10. The reduction rate differed above all between the organic soils and the mineral soils and should largely depend on the type of the grass cover, on the different cesium fixing capacities of the two soil groups and on the potassium fertilization level. On ploughed land the transfer by root uptake to grain crops was about one magnitude lower than the transfer to the hey crops. (orig.)

  1. Example of cesium sorption database in natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the database of the National Institute for Materials Science (MatNavi), the adsorption data of cesium, strontium, and iodine have been published. Among these data, the authors picked up the data of cesium adsorption against natural ores, which were measured and compiled by the authors, graphically expressed them for clarifying the overall trends, and described each mineral’s adsorption characteristics and future challenges. The partition coefficients for the following minerals are compiled: bentonite, acid clay, montmorillonite, beidellite, vermiculite, illite, mordenite, zeolite, etc. Many of the recorded data in MatNavi are the data obtained in the systems without existence of a large amount of competing ions. On the other hand, in the accumulated water at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, competing ions due to seawater are contained. In the immersion liquid of incineration fly ash and the immersion liquid of plants/vegetation, too, competing ions are considered to be contained. Accumulation of adsorption data under different solution conditions are considered important. In addition, the concentrations of radioactive cesium in decontamination target are lower values by 5-7 orders, compared with the lower limit of 0.01 ppm in the existing data. In face of experiments, the influence of adsorption to containers and filters cannot be neglected. (A.O.)

  2. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Houssni El-Saied; Samya El-Sherbiny; Omnia Ali; Wafaa El-Saied; Said Rohyem

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+) on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the...

  3. Mobility of cesium through the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones under partially saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of cesium was studied in an unsaturated core of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, which is a potential host rock for retrievable disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In-diffusion laboratory experiments were performed on rock samples with water saturation degrees ranging from 81% to 100%. The analysis of both cesium concentration monitoring in the source reservoir and postmortem cesium rock concentration profile of the samples was carried out using a chemical-transport code where the sorption of cesium was described by a multi-site ion-exchange model. The results showed that cesium exhibited a clear trend related to the saturation degree of the sample. The more dehydrated the rock sample, the slower the decrease of cesium concentration, and the thinner the penetration depth of cesium was. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) for cesium decreased from 18.5 *10-11 m2 s-1 at full-saturation to 0.3 * 10-11 m2 s-1 for the more dehydrated sample. This decrease is almost 1 order of magnitude higher than that for tritiated water (HTO), although a similar behavior could have been expected, since cesium is known to diffuse in the same parts of the pore space as HTO in fully saturated claystones. (authors)

  4. Cesium transport in Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of a large radioactive cesium release to a Savannah River Plant (SRP) stream was examined using a stable cesium release to Four Mile Creek. Measurements following the release show that most of the cesium released was transported downstream; however, sorption and desorption decreased the maximum concentration and increased the travel time and duration, relative to a dye tracer, at sampling stations downstream. The study was made possible by the development of an analytical technique using ammonium molybdophosphate and neutron activation that permitted the measurement of stable cesium concentrations as low as 0.2 μg/L

  5. Radioactive cesium dynamics derived from hydrographic observations in the Abukuma River Estuary, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Shigeho; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Ono, Tsuneo; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Shimizu, Yugo; Watanabe, Tomowo

    2016-03-01

    Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the air and the ocean as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent major tsunami off the Pacific coast. There is much concern about radioactive contamination in both the watershed of the Abukuma River, which flows through Fukushima Prefecture, and its estuary, where it discharges into the sea in Miyagi Prefecture. We investigated radioactive cesium dynamics using mixing diagrams obtained from hydrographic observations of the Abukuma River Estuary. Particulate radioactive cesium dominates the cesium load in the river, whereas the dissolved form dominates in the sea. As the salinity increased from <0.1 to 0.1-2.3, the mixing diagram showed that dissolved radioactive cesium concentrations increased, because of desorption. Desorption from suspended particles explained 36% of dissolved radioactive cesium in estuarine water. However, the dissolved and particulate radioactive cesium concentrations in the sea decreased sharply because of dilution. It is thought that more than 80% of the discharged particulate radioactive cesium was deposited off the river mouth, where the radioactive cesium concentrations in sediment were relatively high (217-2440 Bq kg(-1)). Radioactive cesium that was discharged to the sea was transported southward by currents driven by the density distribution. PMID:26698826

  6. Laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from waste solutions of the PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from a fission product waste solution of the fuel reprocessing is described. The plant consists of two stages. In the first stage cesium is adsorbed on ammonium molybdatophosphate (AMP). Then the adsorbent is dissolved. From the solution cesium is adsorbed on a cationic ion exchanger in the second stage. Then AMP can be reproduced from this solution. For the elution of cesium in the second stage a NH4NO3 solution (3 m) is used. Flow sheet, construction and the control device of the plant are described and the results of tests with a model solution are given. (author)

  7. Structure of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses: An infrared and Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses (IPG) was investigated using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of the cesium doped samples revealed a structural modification of the parent glass owing to the incorporation of cesium. The structural changes could be correlated with the variation observed in the glass transition temperature of these glasses. Increased Cs-mediated cationic cross linking appears to be the reason for the initial rise in glass transition temperature up to 21 mol% Cs2O in IPG; while, breakdown of the phosphate network with increasing cesium content, brings down the glass transition temperature.

  8. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 1. Radioactive cesium content in dried milk (1987-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of radioactive cesium in dried and dried skimmed milk from selected dairies was double determined. The highest content was found in samples from milk from OSM Siedlce (98 Bq/kg) and skimmed milk from Radzyn Podlaski and Ostroleka, (the former 90, the latter 62 Bq/kg). The lowest level of radioactive cesium was observed in samples from dried milk from Sieradz, Slups, Wrzesnia, Olecko and Elblag (about or below 10 Bq/kg). Although those levels of contamination with radiocesium did not exceed values recommended by FAO they were determined as high for year 1987/88 as compared milk dates from previous 1985 year. (author). 13 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Radioactive cesium. Dynamics and transport in forestal food-webs; Radioaktivt cesium. Dynamik och transport i skogliga naeringsvaevar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palo, T.; Nelin, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Ecology; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T. [FOA NBC Defence, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    This report summarises results from a radioecological study during 1994-1995 concerning turnover, redistribution and loss of radioactive Cesium (134 and 137) in boreal forest ecosystems, as well as uptake and transfer in important food-chains over moose, vole and vegetation. The basis for this report are 9 publications published 1994-95. These reports are presented in summary form. 9 refs, 17 figs.

  10. Ultra Fast Timing Measurements at $^{78}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure level lifetimes in the exotic nuclei of $^{81}$Ga and $^{80}$Ga in the vicinity of $^{78}$Ni and of $^{135}$Sb and $^{134}$Sb above $^{132}$Sn by the time-delayed technique. These are relatively simple nuclear systems with a few particles and/or holes outside of the doubly-magic core thus can be treated rather precisely within the shell model. The anticipated new structure information on these nuclei, and in particular the lifetime results will put constraints on the model parameters and will serve to verify their predictions. The selected nuclei are some of the most exotic ones just above $^{78}$Ni or $^{132}$Sn, where the transition rates can be studied at present. Of the strongest interest is the nucleus of $^{81}$Ga, which has only 3 valence protons outside of $^{78}$Ni with the lowest proton orbits being $p_{3/2}$ and $f_{5/2}$. The Ml transition between these states, although allowed by the selection rules, should be $\\textit{l}$-forbidden thus very slow. This should give rise to a...

  11. Cesium and strontium exchange properties of marsh soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cesium and strontium exchange properties of some typical marsh soils of the estuary and lower river Weser region were described. Soil samples were taken according to the existing soil maps 1:25000 of Lower Saxony e.g. a “sea marsh soil”. a “brackish marsh soil”, and a “river marsh soil”. The exchange properties were determined by Cs/Ca and Sr/Ca exchange curves (Q/I relations) as generally used in soil potassium research. In addition to the Q/I relations the following investigations were carried out: - Cs and Sr desorption experiments (one time equilibration with Ca++ solutions) - Cs and Sr reexchange experiments (eight times equilibration with water, Ca++, Ba++, and K+ solutions) - the naturally-occuring Cs and Sr contents of the soils including amounts caused by imissions or fallout, respectively - clay mineral composition and swelling of layer silicates due to saturation with Ca++, Sr++, Cs+, and K+ ions. Q/I relations as well as desorption and reexchange experiments indicated strong cesium and low strontium fixation by the soils investigated. This was considered the reason for the stronger transfer of Sr from soil to plants as compared with Cs. Furthermore, the reexchange experiment revealed nearly complete reversibility of the Sr sorption reactions by equilibration with the divalent cations Ca++ and Ba++ and some Sr fixation after treatment with K+ solutions. However, cesium was much better reexchanged by K+ than by Ca++ and Ba++ ions. This led to the conclusion that Cs fixed in interlayer positions of clay minerals could be remobilized by potassium and ammonium fertilization. The naturally-occuring Cs contents of the soils were found to be below the detection limit of the analytical methods used. The contents of naturally-occuring exchangeable Sr, however, was in agreement with the amounts of “labile Sr” as derived from the Sr/Ca exchange curves. Concerning the cesium exchange properties a clear distinction between “sea and river marsh

  12. Elastic and inelastic scattering of cesium, cesium iodide, and cesium chloride by argon and xenon in the crossed atomic and molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velocity and angular distributions of cesium atoms and two cesium halide molecules scattered by rare gas atoms have been measured for the following systems at the indicated initial relative collision energies, anti E: Cs + Ar, anti E = 0.94, 1.29, and 1.85 kcal/mole; Cs + Xe, E = 1.15, 1.91, and 3.10 kcal/mole; Csl + Ar, anti E = 1.06, 1.46, and 2.08 kcal/mole; CsI + Ar, anti E = 1.36, 1.63, and 1.94 kcal/mole; CsI + Xe, anti E = 1.52, 2.52, and 4.09 kcal/mole. At the collision energies indicated the atom-atom scattering can only be elastic. Thus the experiments with those systems can be used for apparatus calibration and a standard of comparison for the diatom-atom experiments. The velocity distributions in the diatom-atom systems are analyzed for the relative contributions of elastic and inelastic scattering

  13. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J.; Furuno, K. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  14. MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Peng, Zhilan

    2013-03-01

    The balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is critical for normal development and for the maintenance of homeostasis in adult organisms. Disruption of this balance has been implicated in a large number of disease processes, ranging from autoimmunity and neurodegenerative disorders to cancer. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, responsible for mediating the majority of intracellular proteolysis, plays a crucial role in the regulation of many normal cellular processes, including the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Apoptosis in cancer cells is closely connected with the activity of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The peptide-aldehyde proteasome inhibitor MG132 (carbobenzoxyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine) induces the apoptosis of cells by a different intermediary pathway. Although the pathway of induction of apoptosis is different, it plays a crucial role in anti-tumor treatment. There are many cancer-related molecules in which the protein levels present in cells are regulated by a proteasomal pathway; for example, tumor inhibitors (P53, E2A, c-Myc, c-Jun, c-Fos), transcription factors (transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B, IκBα, HIFI, YYI, ICER), cell cycle proteins (cyclin A and B, P27, P21, IAP1/3), MG132 induces cell apoptosis through formation of reactive oxygen species or the upregulation and downregulation of these factors, which is ultimately dependent upon the activation of the caspase family of cysteine proteases. In this article we review the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in order to provide information required for research. PMID:22897979

  15. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m-2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m-2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  16. Vacuum squeezed light for atomic memories at the D2 cesium line

    CERN Document Server

    Burks, Sidney; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Laurat, Julien; Ortalo, Jérémie; Jia, Xiaojun; Villa, Fabrizio; Chuimmo, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    We report the experimental generation of squeezed light at 852 nm, locked on the Cesium D2 line. 50% of noise reduction down to 50 kHz has been obtained with a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator operating below threshold, using a periodically-polled KTP crystal. This light is directly utilizable with Cesium atomic ensembles for quantum networking applications

  17. Ionizing mechanisms in a cesium plasma irradiated with a ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Robinson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A cesium filled diode--laser plasmadynamic converter was built to investigate the feasibility of converting laser energy to electrical energy at large power levels. Experiments were performed with a pulsed ruby laser to determine the quantity of electrons and cesium ions generated per pulse of laser beam and to determine the output voltage. A current density as high as 200 amp/sq cm from a spot of approximately 1 sq mm area and an open circuit voltage as high as 1.5 volts were recorded. A qualitative theory was developed to explain these results. In the operation of the device, the laser beam evaporates some of the cesium and ionizes the cesium gas. A dense cesium plasma is formed to absorb further the laser energy. Results suggest that the simultaneous absorption of two ruby laser photons by the cesium atoms plays an important role in the initial ionization of cesium. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption appears to be the dominant mechanism in subsequent processes. Recombinations of electrons and cesium ions appear to compete favorably with the simultaneous absorption of two photons.

  18. Peculiarities of presence of cesium-137 in soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granulometric composition of soil and the distribution of cesium-137 by soil fractions at the Azgir test site was determined. The characterization of cesium-137 presence in the layer of the thickness of 1 cm of the surface soil was gave. (author)

  19. Velocity Distribution of Effective Atoms in a Small Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; WANG Fengzhi; YANG Donghai; WANG YiQiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the velocity distribution of effective atoms in a small optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been achieved from the Fourier transforms of the experimentally recorded Ramsey patterns. The result fits well with the theoretical calculation. The second order Doppler shift correction of the small cesium atomic clock is obtained from the velocity distribution of effective atoms.

  20. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 in honey bees and cheese samples collected in the U.S. after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 25, 1986, possible radioactive contamination of honey bees and cheese sampled in several areas of the United States were measured. Of bees collected in May and June of 1986 in both Oregon and New York, only those from Oregon showed detectable levels of cesium-134 (T1/2 = 2.05 years), a radionuclide which would have originated from the Chernobyl incident. Cheese produced in Oregon and New York before the accident showed only cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30.23 years) but cheese produced afterwards (May and September, 1986) in Oregon contained cesium-134. Cheese produced in Ohio and California at the time of the accident and thereafter contained only cesium-137. In general, the levels of radioactivity were higher in the West coast samples as compared to those taken in the East. The levels of radioactivity detected were considered to be toxicologically of no consequence. (author)

  1. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered

  2. Sorption of iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate for the behavior of waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the sorption of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is to be considered. The chemistry and the sorption of these radionuclides in soils are described in this literature survey. Behavior of I-129, Cl-36 and Tc-99 in the environment is of great interest because of their long half-lives and relatively high mobilities. The importance of Cs-135 arises from its high content in spent nuclear fuel and long physical half-life, even though it is considered relatively immobile in soil. Factors affecting the migration and sorption of radionuclides in soils can be divided into elemental and soil specific parameters. The most important elemental factor is the speciation of the element, which is influenced by the soil redox potential, pH and complex forming ligands. Soil micro-organisms can either serve as sorbents for radionuclides or affect their speciation by altering the prevailing soil redox conditions. Soil organic matter content and mineral properties have a marked influence on the retention of radionuclides. The sorption of anionic radionuclides such as I-, Cl- and TcO4 - is pronounced in the presence of organic matter. Clay minerals are known to bound cesium effectively. The effect of speciation of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is considered in this study, as well as the effect of soil micro-organisms, organic matter and mineral properties. (orig.)

  3. Cesium Eluate Evaporation Solubility and Physical Property Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baseline flowsheet for low activity waste (LAW) in the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) includes pretreatment of supernatant by removing cesium using ion exchange. When the ion exchange column is loaded, the cesium will be eluted with a 0.5M nitric acid (HNO3) solution to allow the column to be conditioned for re-use. The cesium eluate solution will then be concentrated in a vacuum evaporator to minimize storage volume and recycle HNO3. To prevent the formation of solids during storage of the evaporator bottoms, criteria have been set for limiting the concentration of the evaporator product to 80 percent of saturation at 25 degrees C. A fundamental element of predicting evaporator product solubility is to collect data that can be used to estimate key operating parameters. The data must be able to predict evaporator behavior for a range of eluate concentrations that are evaporated to the point of precipitation. Parameters that were selected for modeling include solubility, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Of central importance is identifying the effect of varying feed components on overall solubility. The point of solubility defines the upper limit for eluate evaporation operations and liquid storage. The solubility point also defines those chemical compounds that have the greatest effects on physical properties. Third, solubility behavior identifies intermediate points where physical property data should be measured for the database. Physical property data (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity) may be an integral part of tracking evaporator operations as they progress toward their end point. Once the data have been collected, statistical design software can develop mathematical equations that estimate solubility and other physical properties

  4. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m-2, 240 ± 65 Bq m-2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m-2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m-2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the Londrina

  5. Characterization of quantum efficiency and robustness of cesium-based photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J.

    High quantum efficiency, robust photocathodes produce picosecond-pulsed, high-current electron beams for photoinjection applications like free electron lasers. In photoinjectors, a pulsed drive laser incident on the photocathode causes photoemission of short, dense bunches of electrons, which are then accelerated into a relativistic, high quality beam. Future free electron lasers demand reliable photocathodes with long-lived quantum efficiency at suitable drive laser wavelengths to maintain high current density. But faced with contamination, heating, and ion back-bombardment, the highest efficiency photocathodes find their delicate cesium-based coatings inexorably lost. In answer, the work herein presents careful, focused studies on cesium-based photocathodes, particularly motivated by the cesium dispenser photocathode. This is a novel device comprised of an efficiently photoemissive, cesium-based coating deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under controlled heating cesium diffuses from the reservoir through the porous substrate and across the surface to replace cesium lost to harsh conditions---recently shown to significantly extend the lifetime of cesium-coated metal cathodes. This work first reports experiments on coated metals to validate and refine an advanced theory of photoemission already finding application in beam simulation codes. Second, it describes a new theory of photoemission from much higher quantum efficiency cesium-based semiconductors and verifies its predictions with independent experiment. Third, it investigates causes of cesium loss from both coated metal and semiconductor photocathodes and reports remarkable rejuvenation of full quantum efficiency for contaminated cesium-coated surfaces, affirming the dispenser prescription of cesium resupply. And fourth, it details continued advances in cesium dispenser design with much-improved operating characteristics: lower temperature

  6. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; GENG; Tao; YAN; Shubin; LI; Gang; ZHANG; Jing; WANG; Junmin; PENG; Kunchi; ZHANG; Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  7. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  8. Sensitive Detection of Cold Cesium Molecules by Radiative Feshbach Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Cheng; Kerman, Andrew J.; Vuletić, Vladan; Chu, Steven

    2002-01-01

    We observe the dynamic formation of $Cs_2$ molecules near Feshbach resonances in a cold sample of atomic cesium using an external probe beam. This method is 300 times more sensitive than previous atomic collision rate methods, and allows us to detect more than 20 weakly-coupled molecular states, with collisional formation cross sections as small as $\\sigma =3\\times 10^{-16}$cm$^2$. We propose a model to describe the atom-molecule coupling, and estimate that more than $2 \\times 10^5$ $Cs_2$ mo...

  9. Specific heat and thermodynamic properties of the cesium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cesium perchlorate specific heat has been measured in a vacuum adiabatic microcalorimeter in the 10-365 K range. On the basis of the data obtained the thermodynamic functions are calculated. Csub(p)sup(0) (298.15 K) = 110.4+-0.2 J/Kxmol; S0 (298.15 K)=175.9+-0.5 J/Kxmol; H0 (298.15 K) - H0(0)=22280+-50 J/mol; - [G0 (289.15 K) - H0(0)]/T = 101.2+-0.2 J/Kxmol

  10. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of the sorption of cesium by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of cesium from nitric acid medium by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate, KNiFC, was investigated using the batch technique. The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the distribution coefficient of cesium has been studied in the pH range 1-5.5. The effect of particle size, the temperature on the sorption equilibrium and rate of uptake of cesium were investigated. The temperature effect on both sorption equilibrium and rate of uptake was found to be limited. The kinetic study shows that the sorption is controlled by particle diffusion mechanism. The diffusivity of cesium ions into different particle sizes of KNiFC, the activation energy, and the entropy change of the sorption process were calculated. The effect of the presence of cobalt ions on the equilibrium and the rate of uptake of cesium is presented. (author)

  11. Rational Design of Cesium-Selective Ionophores and Chemosensors: Dihydrocalix[4]arene Crown-6 Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Engle, Nancy L.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Urvoas, Agathe; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-12-15

    Molecular mechanics calculations performed on calix[4]arene crown-6 ethers predict that the 1,3-dihydro derivatives will exhibit greater complementarity for potassium and cesium ions than the parent 1,3-dialkoxy calix crowns. The X-ray crystal structures of 1,3-alt bis-octyloxycalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, and the cesium nitrate complex of dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether were determined. The cesium complex structure corresponds closely to the structure predicted by molecular mechanics. The dihydrocalix[4]arene crown-6 ethers exhibit enhanced cesium selectivity in the extraction of alkali metal salts and provide a platform for a highly sensitive and selective cesium chemosensor.

  12. Investigation of the behavior during incineration of cesium adsorbed in vegetation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination of wood and grass contaminated by radioactive cesium released after a nuclear power plant accident is a significant problem. During this research, the behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration was investigated experimentally. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was adsorbed into sunflower and wood pellet samples, and was burned in a lab-scale fluidized bed combustor. Up to 70% of the cesium was transferred to fly ash, which is captured in the quartz filter of the exhaust line. The concentration of cesium in the fly ash is 10 times greater than in the bottom ash, as the amount of fly ash makes up approximately 20% of the entire ash content. Careful management is vital when handling and disposing of fly ash generated from the incineration of vegetation waste. (author)

  13. MG132 enhances the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Liu, Jing; Nie, Jihua; Sheng, Wenjiong; Cao, Han; Shen, Wenhao; Dong, Aijing; Zhou, Jundong; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for lung cancer, however, radioresistance remains a fundamental barrier to attaining the maximal efficacy. Cancer cells take advantage of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for increased proliferation and decreased apoptotic cell death. MG132 (carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal‑H), a specific and selective reversible inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, has shown anticancer effect in multiple types of cancers. Previously, we have reported that MG132 enhances the anti‑growth and anti-metastatic effects of irradiation in lung cancer cells. However, whether MG132 can enhance the radiosensitivity in lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo is still unknown. In this study, we found that MG132 increased apoptosis and dicentric chromosome ratio of A549 and H1299 cells treated by irradiation. Radiation-induced NF-κB expression and IκBα phosphorylation was attenuated in MG132 plus irradiation-treated cells. The in vivo model of H1299 xenografts of nude mice showed that the tumor size of MG132 plus irradiation treated xenografts was smaller than that of irradiation, MG132 or the control group. Moreover, MG132 plus irradiation group showed significant reduced Ki67 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MG132 enhances the radiosensitivity through multiple mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26238156

  14. Gyromagnetic ratios of excited states and nuclear structure near {sup 132}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchbery, Andrew E. [Department of Nuclear Physics, RSPE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-11-11

    Several g-factor measurements have been performed recently on nuclei near the neutron-rich, double-magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn. The focus here is on {sup 134}Te, the N = 82 isotone which has two protons added to {sup 132}Sn. The electromagnetic properties of {sup 134}Te are examined. Comparisons are made with other nuclei that have two protons outside a double-magic core. The extent to which {sup 132}Sn is an inert core is discussed based on these comparisons. The electromagnetic properties of the N = 82 isotones from {sup 132}Sn to {sup 146}Gd are also discussed.

  15. Photo-association of cold cesium atoms. Formation and characterisation of a cold cloud of diatomic cesium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a photo-association process, two colliding cold cesium atoms absorb one photon to form an ultracold molecule, electronically excited in a well defined ro-vibration level. Because of the small initial kinetic energy of the free atoms, the photo-association is resonant and permits high resolution spectroscopy of long-range states. We report spectra for states correlated to the excited limit 6S+6P. The 1u (6S+6P3/2) state is a pure long-range molecules. It hardly consists in a molecule, but rather in a pair of two atoms linked at 1, 5 nm by the multipolar electrostatic interaction. The intensity modulation of spectral lines for a given vibrational progression reflects the nodal structure of the radial s-wave function of two ground state atoms. The photo-association of the state 0g-(6S +6P3/2) of polarized atoms permits determining the scattering length of the triplet state of cesium (aT = -530 a0) and the Van der Waals parameter of the molecular ground state (C6 = 6510 u.a.). Photo-association of cold cesium atoms also leads to the formation of translationally cold molecules in singlet and triplet fundamental states after spontaneous emission of the excited molecules. Various schemes are characterized. The particular double-well shape of 0g-(6S+6P3/2) and 1u(6S+6P3/2) states creates a Condon point at intermediate distance. These states constitute ideal cases for very efficient formation of cold molecules. The cold molecular cloud is analyzed: temperatures as low as 20 micro-Kelvin are measured and the distribution of the ro-vibrational levels is studied. The efficiencies of the photo-association process and of the formation of cold molecules are measured, and compared with theoretical calculations. (author)

  16. A Convenient Method for the Synthesis of 1,3,2-Oxazaphospholidin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Convenient method for the synthesis of fused phosphorusheterocycle 1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines was carried out in one pot by the reaction of Tris(diethylamino)phosphine with multifunctional compounds 2-(N-(βor γ-hydroxyl) alkylene) amino-benzamides 1.When PCL3 was used, only chlorinated product was obtained.

  17. Transportable cesium irradiator (TPCI): Final safety analysis report: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Safety Analysis Report describes the Transportable Cesium Irradiator (TPCI) and assesses the hazards associated with its operation. The TPCI consists of a mobile, lead-shielded, irradiation unit with support equipment mounted within an enclosed trailer. The irradiation unit has two basic compartments; a source chamber sized to mate with the transportation cask which houses the source capsules, and an irradiation chamber formed as a large shielded cylinder (drum) with a window. The irradiation chamber is mounted on a large diameter support bearing. As this chamber is rotated its window moves from the product access door, where produce is inserted or extracted, to a position in line with a similar window in the source chamber. When the windows are aligned the produce is irradiated, while the back wall of the irradiation chamber shields the product access door. The TPCI is designed to be transported throughout the continental United States. The transportation cask containing the cesium source capsules is transported separately from the irradiation unit and is installed when the TPCI unit has been readied for operation at a particular site. The transportation cask is a separate unit and is documented in a separate FSAR

  18. Morphological and electrical properties of zirconium vanadate doped with cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa F. Elkady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cesium doped zirconium vanadate ZrV2O7 with different Cs dopant content (Cs/Zr varied from 0 to 0.5 in weight ratio were fabricated by hydrothermal technique at 120 °C for 60 min. The synthesized materials are thermally treated using microwave technique. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized materials and thermally treated samples were investigated using XRD and SEM respectively. It was evident that all synthesized specimens have cubic phase structural without any extra phase but after heat treatment Orthorhombic phase appear with doped samples. However, the morphological structure of the doped synthesized materials has transferred from nanoparticles into rods aspect with heat treatment for the different dopant ratio. Moreover, the electrical properties of both the synthesized and thermally treated materials are studied by AC impedance measurements. The results indicated that the ionic conductivity of Cs-doped ZrV2O7 materials decreased by increasing the dopant ratio while that thermally treated samples the ionic conductivity increase by increasing the dopant ratio. Finally, the concentration of cesium dopants is found to play crucial role in tuning the morphology and electrical properties of nanostructures.

  19. A study of strontium and cesium sorption on granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion and sorption of cesium and strontium in crushed granite particles is discussed. Sorption experiments have been performed with one granite from Finnsjoen outside Forsmark on the east coast of Sweden and one granite from the Stripa mine in central Sweden. Granite samples have been crushed and screened, and six different particle size fractions from 0.10-0.12 mm to 4-5 mm of each rock have been used in the experiments. The initial concentrations of inactive cesium and strontium were 10-15 ppm. The experimental data indicate that the amount of sorption is dependent not only on the mass of granite particles, but also to some extent on the size of the particles. An attempt has been made to distinguish between sorption on external surfaces and inner surfaces. The amount of external surface adsorption was found to vary from 15-40 % of the total adsorption capacity for the particle size fraction 0.10-0.12 mm to a few percent or less for the largest particles used. (Auth.)

  20. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light

  1. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Eric E., E-mail: ewisniew@anl.gov [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Velazquez, Daniel [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Yusof, Zikri, E-mail: zyusof@hawk.iit.edu [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sarkar, Tapash J. [Rice University, 6100 Main, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Harkay, Katherine [Accelerator Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-21

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light.

  2. Studies on cesium sorption in hydrous zirconium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of 137Cs (T1/2 = 30.1 y) and 90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 y) are produced as fission products in nuclear reactors. These long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides, regarded as a waste few decades ago, are being termed now as valuables owing to the upsurge in the utilization of these radioisotopes in the area of medicine, food irradiation, and sewage treatment technologies in recent years. For long-term waste management it is necessary to minimize the volume and toxicity of the waste. Selective recovery and utilization of these radionuclides from the waste is the concept of growing interest to many researchers. Inorganic sorbents are proven candidates for the separation and recovery of cesium and strontium from aqueous waste streams. They are chemically durable and stable against ionizing radiation. In addition, these materials can be converted into unleachable ceramic form for final disposal. Hydrous metal oxides belong to a particular class of inorganic ion exchangers extensively investigated for various applications in nuclear waste treatment. The present study deals with the preparation of hydrous zirconium and titanium oxide and the studies aimed at separation of cesium from aqueous wastes

  3. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Hai; Zeng Xian-Jin; Li Qing-Meng; Huang Qiang; Sun Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations.The process,described by a three-level model with the A scheme,shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms.The |Fg =3> → |Fe-4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg =4,mF =4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg =4.To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state,we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg =4> → |Fe =3>transition,in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field.

  4. Diffusion of strontium, technetium, iodine and cesium in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of strontium, technetium, iodine and cesium in granitic rock has been studied. Rock samples were taken from drilling cores in granitic and granodioritic rock, and small (2x2x2 cm) rock tablets from the drilling cores were exposed to a groundwater solution containing one of the studied elements at trace levels. The concentration of the element versus penetration depth in the rock tablet was measured radiometrically. The sorption on the mineral faces and the diffusion into the rock were studied by an autoradiographic technique. The cationic strontium and cesium have apparent diffusivities of 10-13 - 10-14 m2/s. The migration is confined to microfissures or filled fractures containing e.g., calcite, epidote or chlorite or in veins with high capacity minerals (e.g. biotite). The anionic iodine and technetium have apparent diffusivities of about 10-14 m2/s. These species migrate along mineral boundaries and in open fractures and to a minor extent in high capacity mineral veins. (orig.)

  5. Mobility of radioactive cesium in soil originated from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Application of extraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction experiments on soil radioactively contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were conducted by using a variety of extractants to acquire knowledge on the mobility of radioactive cesium in soil. The experimental results revealed that cesium is tightly bound with soil particles and that radioactive cesium newly deposited on soil due to the accident had apparently a higher mobility than stable cesium commonly existing in soil. The results suggested that radioactive cesium deposited on soil hardly migrates via aqueous processes, although chemical and mineralogical conditions of soil affect their mobility. (author)

  6. Thermoemission and adsorption properties of diborides of transition metals of IV-V groups in cesium vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission and adsorption properties of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium diborides were studied in vacuum and cesium vapours. Some regularities were established in changes of thermoemission properties in transition from one boride to another. Under pressures p0K interaction of these diborides with cesium plasma is of adsorption character. Evaluation of absorption properties for the diborides in cesium vapours showed for oprimal surface coating with cesium the adsorption energy for cesium ions is qsub(a)=(1.1/1.3) eV and work function is phi sub(min)=(1.25/1.45) eV

  7. Are the nuclei beyond 132Sn very exotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeva, R.; Naïdja, H.; Nowacki, F.; Odahara, A.; Moon, C.-B.; NP1112-RIBF87 collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The term exotic nucleus is used for nuclei that have different from normal behavior. However, it turns out that the term normal is valid only for nuclei close to stability and more particularly for regions close to double-shell closures. As long as one drives away in the neutron-rich nuclei, especially at intermediate mass number, interplay between normal single-particle and many collective particle-hole excitations compete. In some cases with the addition of neutrons, these may turn to evolve as a skin, acting against the core nucleus that may also influence its shell evolution. Knowledge of these nuclear ingredients is especially interesting beyond the doubly-magic 132Sn, however a little is known on how the excitations modes develop with the addition of both protons and neutrons. Especially for the Sb nuclei, where one gradually increases these valence particles, the orbital evolution and its impact on exoticness is very intriguing. Experimental studies were conducted on several such isotopes using isomer and, β-decay spectroscopy at RIBF within EURICA. In particular, new data on 140Sb and 136Sb are examined and investigated in the framework of shell model calculations.

  8. 49 CFR 393.132 - What are the rules for securing flattened or crushed vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... crushed vehicles? 393.132 Section 393.132 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... flattened or crushed vehicles? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of vehicles such as automobiles, light trucks, and vans that have been flattened or crushed. (b)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.132-8T - Nondiscrimination rules-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in § 1.132-4T). Employees in different lines of business will be aggregated, however, if the line of business limitation has been relaxed pursuant to either section 1.132-4T (b) or (c). Except as provided in... section 414 (b), (c), or (m) and is not restricted to amounts received with respect to any one line...

  10. 50 CFR 86.132 - What are the advantages to doing a plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the advantages to doing a plan? 86.132 Section 86.132 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... advantages to doing a plan? Plans provide the information necessary to fully understand the needs of...

  11. Fast concentration of dissolved forms of cesium radioisotopes from large seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method developed for cesium concentration from large freshwater samples was tested and adapted for analysis of cesium radionuclides in seawater. Concentration of dissolved forms of cesium in large seawater samples (about 100 L) was performed using composite absorbers AMP-PAN and KNiFC-PAN with ammonium molybdophosphate and potassium–nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) as active components, respectively, and polyacrylonitrile as a binding polymer. A specially designed chromatography column with bed volume (BV) 25 mL allowed fast flow rates of seawater (up to 1,200 BV h-1). The recovery yields were determined by ICP-MS analysis of stable cesium added to seawater sample. Both absorbers proved usability for cesium concentration from large seawater samples. KNiFC-PAN material was slightly more effective in cesium concentration from acidified seawater (recovery yield around 93 % for 700 BV h-1). This material showed similar efficiency in cesium concentration also from natural seawater. The activity concentrations of 137Cs determined in seawater from the central Pacific Ocean were 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 Bq m-3 for an offshore (January 2012) and a coastal (February 2012) locality, respectively, 134Cs activities were below detection limit (-3). (author)

  12. Development of cesium trapper and single-gas-bubble injector into sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the core disruptive accident in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor, in fuel pins the cesium fission product with a high hazard is transferred to the sodium coolant together with noble gas including fission product, and the cesium accumulates on the cover gas area because of its low migration rate to sodium. The high temperature and high pressure in the cover gas due to the decay heat of fission products including cesium cause the leakage of cesium to the outside of reactor vessel. However the exact migration rate of cesium to sodium has not been reported because of difficulty on the evaluation of the interfacial area of large gas bubble (Minges et al., 1986). In this study, we developed a cesium trapper composed of β”-alumina cylindrical container and a single-gas-bubble injector without wettability. We confirmed that a single argon gas bubble was steadily produced in our injector. Bhaga proposed the bubble shape region map, which correlates the bubble shape with Reynolds number, Eotvos number and Morton number of the bubble ejected into sodium pool. The bubble shapes were estimated to be always ellipsoidal. We could successfully confirmed that the liquid sodium can be separated from liquid sodium cesium mixture by using β”-alumina, whose separation rate was found to be calculated by the Faraday's law of electrolysis. (author)

  13. Cesium-plasma-conductivity enhancement in the advanced thermionic energy converter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikopoulos, C.N.

    Two methods of plasma conductivity enhancement in a cesium vapor thermionic energy converter have been studied. The first involved resonance photoabsorption of several cesium lines and the second utilized cesium plasma sustenance by application of microwave power. An extensive study of ionization processes in a cesium discharge in the presence of resonance ionization was made. Calculations were made of expected percentage excitation levels for several cesium resonance transitions for different values of neutral density and temperature as well as incident radiation power levels. The results of some of these computations were tabulated. Several ionization schemes were considered. A number of cesium transitions were investigated in the range of 799 to 870 nanometers for four different cesium reservoir temperatures, 467, 511, 550 and 591 K. The related absorption coefficients of the radiation lines in the plasma were deduced and tabulated. The resulting plasma conductivity increase was recorded and the associated ionization enhancement was deduced. A microwave cavity was built where the emitter and collector of a simple thermionic converter made up two of the cavity walls and resonant microwave power was externally applied. The I-V characteristics of the thermionic converter were studied under several microwave power levels in the range of 0 to 2 watts. Significant shifts to higher currents were observed as the microwave power levels were raised. In conclusion, both methods show promise as auxiliary ionization mechanisms for the thermionic energy converter, especially at low emitter temperatures.

  14. Cesium-plasma-conductivity enhancement in the advanced thermionic energy converter. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of plasma conductivity enhancement in a cesium vapor thermionic energy converter have been studied. The first involved resonance photoabsorption of several cesium lines and the second utilized cesium plasma sustenance by application of microwave power. An extensive study of ionization processes in a cesium discharge in the presence of resonance ionization was made. Calculations were made of expected percentage excitation levels for several cesium resonance transitions for different values of neutral density and temperature as well as incident radiation power levels. The results of some of these computations were tabulated. Several ionization schemes were considered. A number of cesium transitions were investigated in the range of 799 to 870 nanometers for four different cesium reservoir temperatures, 467, 511, 550 and 591 K. The related absorption coefficients of the radiation lines in the plasma were deduced and tabulated. The resulting plasma conductivity increase was recorded and the associated ionization enhancement was deduced. A microwave cavity was built where the emitter and collector of a simple thermionic converter made up two of the cavity walls and resonant microwave power was externally applied. The I-V characteristics of the thermionic converter were studied under several microwave power levels in the range of 0 to 2 watts. Significant shifts to higher currents were observed as the microwave power levels were raised. In conclusion, both methods show promise as auxiliary ionization mechanisms for the thermionic energy converter, especially at low emitter temperatures

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation. PMID:26683820

  16. Vitrification of spent organic ion exchange resins- 137Cesium volatility during oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic ion exchange (IX) resins are used to purify coolant water in nuclear power plants. The spent IX resins contain 137Cesium as major long-lived radioisotope. Their vitrification requires complete combustion of organic matter. 137Cesium volatility during their oxidation is most important factor for selection of oxidation procedure. Based on TGA studies, copper and vanadate catalysts were selected respectively for cationic and anionic IX resins to oxidise them at 500-700 degC. Experiments were conducted with 137Cesium and catalyst loaded cationic and anionic resins. About 56 to 60% 137Cesium was released from cationic resins in 3 hours. 137Cesium release from cationic resins could be brought down to 19 to 22% by addition of glass formers. The 137Cesium releases from anionic resins were nearly same for 2 hours heating. In absence of glass formers, the catalyst on anionic resins formed molten mass, which was difficult to remove. Experiment with one litre of 137Cesiuin loaded mixed cationic and anionic resins released 16.8% 137Cesium to off gases and formed a slag having specific gravity of 1.73 due to difficulty in oxidising last traces of carbon. The volume reduction factor achieved was 18.2 as against 68 expected for complete oxidation of IX resins. The higher volume reduction factor can be achieved by using improved oxidation procedure in scaling up studies. (author)

  17. possibilities of isotope separation of radioactive cesium by ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmutation of radioactive wastes is of high interest in order to reduce as much as possible the difficulties induced by their storage. In the case of radioactive cesium waste, cesium 137 which presents a short life time (30 years) is difficult to handle due to its high thermal load and and radiation level; cesium 135 is a long life time isotope with high mobility in storage glasses. As the processes of transmutation are different for cesium 135 and cesium 137 and as the neutron consumption is very high, it would be necessary to proceed to a preliminary isotope separation and it would not be worth to transmute the stable 133 isotope of cesium. Peculiar problems linked with cesium physico-chemical properties such as ionisation rat, vapour pressure, cooling of the components of the separation elements, especially the collector part, are discussed. It is shown that a high density plasma (1012 cm -3), with low ionic temperature (1 eV), good for isotope separation, can be achieved easily. It must be noticed that the cooling with water has to be avoided due to chemical reactions. After having defined the unitary separative element, different enrichment strategies and arrangements of the separative elements are proposed. An economic estimation with our code RICAN is given. (author)

  18. Neuronal activity rapidly induces transcription of the CREB-regulated microRNA-132, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nudelman, Aaron Samuel; DiRocco, Derek P; Lambert, Talley J;

    2010-01-01

    expression in mouse brain was monitored by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Pilocarpine-induced seizures led to a robust, rapid, and transient increase in the primary transcript of miR-132 (pri-miR-132) followed by a subsequent rise in mature microRNA (miR-132). Activation of neurons in the hippocampus......, olfactory bulb, and striatum by contextual fear conditioning, odor-exposure, and cocaine-injection, respectively, also increased pri-miR-132. Induction kinetics of pri-miR-132 were monitored and found to parallel those of immediate early genes, peaking at 45 min and returning to basal levels within 2 h of...

  19. A New Pumping-Probing Scheme for the Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景标; 朱程锦; 王凤芝; 杨东海

    2001-01-01

    A new pumping-probing scheme for the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been experimentally tested in our laboratory. The stability of the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard was measured by comparing its 10 MHz output with an HP5071A commercial cesium atomic clock. The result shows that the frequency stability for the 1 s and 30000s sample times are 1.2 × 10-11 and 3.7 × 10-13, respectively. It was proved that the new pumping scheme works well.

  20. A new ion exchanger for the removal of cesium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new exchange potassium copper nickel hexacyanoferrates(II) was prepared. It was characterized by chemical composition and surface area measurements. The removal of cesium from aqueous solution by ion exchange was studied as function of shaking time. pH and concentration of acids, salts and cesium. The data indicates high value of distribution coefficient over a wide range of pH, nitric and hydrochloric acids concentration and in the presence of higher concentration of Na and K ions. A potassium copper nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) column was also tested for elution of cesium using 8 M ammonium nitrate solution. (author)

  1. Application of Cesium isotopes in daily life; Aplicacoes dos isotopos do Cesio no cotidiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, B.O.; Quaresma, D.S.; Carvalho, R.J., E-mail: bjordan@on.br, E-mail: dansq@on.br, E-mail: carvalho@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (ON/LPTF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Tempo e Frequencia; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2014-07-01

    In the world of science, the desire of the scientific community to discover new chemical elements is crucial for the development of new technologies in various fields of knowledge. And the main chemical element addressed by this article is Cesium, but specifically {sup 133}Cesium isotope and radioisotope {sup 137}Cesium, exemplifying their physical and chemical characteristics, and their applications. This article will also show how these isotopes have provided researchers a breakthrough in the field of radiological medicine and in time and frequency metrology. (author)

  2. Cesium leaching from {gamma}-irradiated CsA and CsX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enrique [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: lima@xanum.uam.mx; Ibarra, Ilich A.; Lara, Victor [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bosch, Pedro [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, A. P. 70-360, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, Silvia [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    The present study discusses the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on Cs{sup +}-exchanged X and A zeolites. The incorporation of Cs{sup +} ions into A and X zeolites was performed using three different cesium salts (chloride, nitrate or acetate). Cs{sup +} ions immobilized into the vitrified zeolites by thermal treatment are located in different sites of the zeolite networks. It is found that {gamma}-irradiation favors cesium retention depending on the cesium precursor salt used in the cationic exchange step.

  3. Specific interaction of cesium with the surface of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of cesium at the calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) surface was investigated, both through sorption isotherm data and by solid-state NMR experiments. The sorption ability of CSH towards cesium is favored for low solid Ca/Si molar ratios, in agreement with the negative surface charge they develop then. A significant proportion of these sorbed cesium cations remains tightly bound to the surface sites forming, in dehydrated CSH, inner-sphere complexes, which can not be removed by alcohol washing. Chloride seems to present a lower affinity for CSH, even for high Ca/Si molar ratios, where the surface charge becomes positive. (orig.)

  4. First-principles study of cesium adsorption to weathered micaceous clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    A large amount of radioactive nuclides was produced into environment due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Residents near FDNPP were suffering from radioactive cesium and then evacuated, because which has long half-life and is retained by surface soil for long time. The Japanese government has been decontaminating the cesium by removing the surface soil in order to return them to their home. This decontamination method is very effective, but which produces huge amount of waste soil. This becomes another big problem in Fukushima, because it is not easy to find large storage sites. Then effective and economical methods to reduce the volume of the waste soil are needed. However, it has not been invented yet. One of the reasons is lack of knowledge about microscopic process of adsorption/desorption of cesium to/from soil. It is known that weathered micaceous clay minerals play crucial role on adsorption and retention of cesium. They are expected to have special sorption sites, called frayed edge sites (FESs), which adsorb cesium selectively and irreversibly. Properties of FES have been intensely investigated by experiments. But microscopic details of the adsorption process on FES are still unclear. Because direct observation of the process with current experimental techniques is quite difficult. We investigated the adsorption of cesium to FES in muscovite, which is a typical micaceous clay mineral, via first-principles calculations (density functional theory). We made a minimal model of FES and evaluate the energy difference before and after cesium adsorption to FES. This is the first numerical modeling of FES. It was shown that FES does adsorb cesium if the weathering of muscovite has been weathered. In addition, we revealed the mechanism of cesium adsorption to FES, which is competition between ion radius of cesium and the degree of weathering. I plan to discuss volume reduction of the waste soil based on our result. Reference M. Okumura

  5. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  6. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  7. Increasing the Space Charge Limit and Other Effects of Cesium Seeding in Hydrogen Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of cesium seeding in increasing the negative ion current in volume sources is described. By a reduction in the local plasma potential the current of extracted electrons is vastly reduced. As a result, cesium increases the fraction of the transverse space charge limit available to the ions by as much as a factor of three. In addition, cesium can increase the total space charge limit by injection of Cs+ into the presheath-a newly recognized phenomenon consistent with experimental measurements and determined from application of a Double-Vlasov model for negative ion extraction

  8. Investigation of adsorption and wetting of 3He on cesium and cesiated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the binding of 3He on cesium substrates, using optical pumping to spin-polarize the atoms. The behavior of 3He on the walls at low temperature can be analyzed through the evolution of the nuclear magnetization of the sample. Preliminary results are presented, including: (1) adsorption studies of gaseous 3He on cesiated glass; (2) magnetic relaxation time of polarized liquid 3He on cesium and cesiated glass; (3) evidence for wetting of liquid 3He on cesium. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Determinations of cesium-134, cesium-137 and potassium-40 as a measure of intrauterine exposure to rays and contamination of human milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain better insights into the degree of intrauterine exposure to rays after the Chernobyl reactor accident, placental measurements of the activity levels of cesium-134 and cesium-137 were carried out in 125 expectant mothers from the Munich area using four thallium-activated sodium iodine crystal detectors. The lower limit of detection determined for this technique was 1-2 bq/kg. Parallel tests were performed on human milk samples to establish their contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40. The ultrapure germanium detector used for this purpose measured levels down to a detection threshold of 1 bq/l. In a total of 13 placentae (10 %) and 56 milk samples (57%) the activity of cesium-137 was found to be so low as to preclude detection. The highest values measured were 18.6 bq/kg for the placentae and 10.6 bq/l for the milk samples. The activity concentrations of potassium-40 were frequently seen to exceed those of cesium-137, the highest value determined here being 73.6 bq/l. The author has come to the conclusion that the alleged increases in radiation levels remain within the range of variations generally expected to occur with natural radiation. Mothers are not discouraged from breast-feeding, even though their attention must be drawn to the fact that the rates of malignant diseases and genetic damage tend to rise on a global scale. (KST)

  10. Diffusion of water, cesium and neptunium in pores of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is investigating the feasibility to dispose of spent nuclear fuel within Finland. The present plan calls for the repository to be located in crystalline rock at a depth of several hundred meters. The safety assessment of the repository includes calculations of migration of waste nuclides. The flow of waste elements in groundwater will be retarded through sorption interaction with minerals and through diffusion into rock. Diffusion is the only mechanism retarding the migration of non-sorbing species and, it is expected to be the dominating retardation mechanism of many of the sorbing elements. In the investigation the simultaneous diffusion of tritiated water (HTO), cesium and neptunium in rocks of TVO investigation sites at Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara were studied. (11 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.)

  11. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  12. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Reitz, D; Mitsch, R; Schneeweiss, P; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  13. Coherence Properties of Nanofiber-Trapped Cesium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, D.; Sayrin, C.; Mitsch, R.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized ˜200nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time of T2*=0.6ms and an irreversible dephasing time of T2'=3.7ms. By modeling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, T2* and T2' are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  14. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility

  15. Norbadione A: synthetic approach and cesium complexation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was dedicated to the study of the synthesis and complexation studies of norbadione A: a pigment originating from a mushroom. A synthetic approach, based on a double Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, was developed. This strategy was applied with high yields to the synthesis of various norbadione A analogues, as well as to the synthesis of simple pulvinic acids. Access to functionalized precursors of the molecule was also studied and the final coupling remains to be done. Besides, a speciation study based on electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry was conducted with norbadione A and one of the analogues. This study allowed the assessment of the cesium complexation abilities of each molecule. Structural data was also obtained and complexation constants were calculated. Finally, norbadione A and various synthetic products have been tested via high-throughput screening methods and strong antioxidant properties were observed. Other biological results are also reported. (author)

  16. Comparative study of cesium adsorption on dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonites which are characterized by good rheological, mineralogical and chemical stability is considered used as sealing barriers in multibarrier Slovak system of deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. In Slovak Republic there are several significant deposits of bentonite, which are characterized by appropriate adsorption properties and meet the geotechnical requirements for this type of barriers. Study of adsorption properties of bentonites and other smectites is an essential step for developing the migration model long-lived corrosion and activation products, and fission products of uranium. Nuclear wastes contain the most important nuclear fission products, radioisotopes 134Cs and 137Cs. The present paper investigates and compares the cesium adsorption properties of Slovak and North America bentonites composed mainly of dioctahedral smectite montmorillonite (J, L, SAz-1 and STx-1) and trioctahedral smectites saponite (SapCa-2) and hectorite (SHCa-1). (author)

  17. Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents

  18. Quantitative analysis of cesium in synthetic lithium molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical technique for fission products in lithium molten salts of spent PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) fuels has been studied for the establishment of optimum chemical engineering process and the evaluation of process material balance in developing Direct Oxide Reduction Process with lithium metal. As part of the basic research, synthetic dissolver solutions of lithium chloride containing trace amounts of fission product elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y, Cs, Ru, Rh, Pd, Mo, Zr, Cd, Ba, Sr, Te and Se) was prepared and used in establishing the selective separation technique of cesium from lithium chloride matrix using cation exchange chromatography. Its recovery was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the reliability of this technique was evaluate

  19. Vector Cesium Magnetometer for the nEDM Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We use optical pumping combined with magnetic resonance in a Cesium vapor cell in order to measure the magnetic field. A Vector Cs Magnetometer uses multiple laser beams to follow the dynamics of the spin in 3D. The 3D signal is used to extract the Larmor frequency of the spins, and to extract the direction of the magnetic field through the path of the spins. The magnetometer was successfully tested in a proof of principle experiment. Its measured performance is ∼50 pT/Hz1/2 for the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, and ∼500 fT/Hz1/2 for the direction parallel to the magnetic field. (author)

  20. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  1. Elastic scattering of sodium and cesium atoms at ultracold temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji-Cai; Wang Ke-Dong; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The elastic scattering properties in a mixture of sodium and cesium atoms are investigated at cold and ultracold temperatures. Based on the accurate interatomic potential for the NaCs mixture,the interspecies s-wave scattering lengths,the effective ranges and the p-wave scattering lengths are calculated by the quantal method and the semiclassical method,respectively. The s-wave scattering lengths are 512.7ao for the singlet state and 33.4ao for the triplet state. In addition,the spin-change and elastic cross sections are also calculated,and the g-wave shape resonance is found in the total elastic cross sections.

  2. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial cesium removal technology: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium, strontium, and technetium radionuclides constitute a small fraction of the primarily sodium and potassium salts present in supernatants that are being stored in tanks at Hanford, Oak Ridge, Savannah River, and Idaho and must be remediated. Nuclide removal technologies supplied by the US Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology's Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Cross-Cutting Program have been previously proposed and tested in small batch and column tests using both simulated and actual supernatants. These technologies must now be tested and the most appropriate ones selected using a flow system of a scale suitable to obtain engineering data that can be applied to the design of pilot-scale equipment. This report describes the operation of the experimental test unit that is located in Building 4501 (ORNL) and the results using the sorbent materials that were tested

  3. Sorption of cesium on bentonite: The role of calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since bentonite is investigated for its use in Engineered Barriers Systems as backfill material, many studies of their surfaces properties have been performed in the past years to qualify and quantify adsorption on their surfaces, which can be one of the major processes limiting migration of radionuclides away from a disposal site. Nevertheless, most of these studies concerned simplified systems, such as Na-montmorillonite in mono-electrolyte solution. As ion-exchange processes are of importance in water-clays interactions, adsorption of natural major ions has also to be taken into account for natural systems. The aim of this work is (i) to quantify the sorption of the natural major cations on the montmorillonite surface, (ii) to compare the sorption of cesium, in two different systems, a simple one (Na-montmorillonite in NaNO3 0.05 Mol.L-1) and a complex one (natural bentonite in a synthetic natural water) and then (iii) to assess the influence of the natural major ions on this sorption, and to identify the role of the calcite phase present in bentonite. The methodology used consists in several batch experiments, first considering a very simple solution (NaNO3), then using mixtures of two different electrolytes, and lastly using a synthetic natural water. A surface complexation model, describing the surface of clays as a mixture of ion-exchange and complexation surface sites, is used to provide interpretations and quantifications of the sorption processes. Observed results indicate that affinity for the montmorillonite surface is greatest for Ca, then Mg and then K. The sorption of cesium is strongly affected by the presence in solution of Ca, witch can come from the partial dissolution of calcite. (author)

  4. Sorption of cesium on bentonite: The role of calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since bentonite is investigated for its use in Engineered Barriers Systems as backfill material, many studies of their surfaces properties have been performed in the past years to qualify and quantify adsorption on their surfaces, which can be one of the major processes limiting migration of radionuclides away from a disposal site. Nevertheless, most of these studies concerned simplified systems, such as Na-montmorillonite in mono-electrolyte solution. As ion-exchange processes are of importance in water-clays interactions, adsorption of natural major ions has also to be taken into account for natural systems. The aim of this work is (i) to quantify the sorption of the natural major cations on the montmorillonite surface; (ii) to compare the sorption of cesium, in two different systems, a simple one ( Na-montmorillonite in NaNO3 0.05 Mol.L-1) and a complex one (natural bentonite in a synthetic natural water) and then; (iii) to assess the influence of the natural major ions on this sorption, and to identify the role of the calcite phase present in bentonite. The methodology used consists in several batch experiments, first considering a very simple solution (NaNO3), then using mixtures of two different electrolytes, and lastly using a synthetic natural water. A surface complexation model, describing the surface of clays as a mixture of ion-exchange and complexation surface sites, is used to provide interpretations and quantifications of the sorption processes. Observed results indicate that affinity for the montmorillonite surface is greatest for Ca, then Mg and then K. The sorption of cesium is strongly affected by the presence in solution of Ca, witch can come from the partial dissolution of calcite. This study is one part of a work supported by ANDRA on the retention properties of bentonite materials. (author)

  5. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  6. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  7. Removal and adsorption of radioactive cesium from contaminated soil caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal and adsorption of radioactive cesium, 137Cs or 134Cs, from contaminated soil was investigated using various extractants: sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. In this experiment, a sand sample was used as contaminated soil. Although the radioactive cesium could not be removed from the soil by using sodium hydroxide, 64% of the removal efficiency was provided at room temperature when 10 M hydrochloric acid was used. Eighty percent of the radioactive cesium was removed by using 1 M sulfuric acid containing 0.1 M thiourea at 90℃. A more than 90% removal efficiency was obtained by increasing of the volume of sulfuric acid containing thiourea. The same result was obtained using custom-made radioactive cesium removal equipment. The adsorption of the radioactive cesium was also investigated. In an experiment of concerning adsorption, contaminated water containing radioactive cesium was prepared from a contaminated sand sample. More than 96% adsorption was obtained using zeolite (clinoptilolite). However, when commercial activated carbon was used, most the radioactive cesium was hardly removed. The influence of shaking time on the adsorption of radioactive cesium was investigated by a batch-system using zeolite. As a result, a shaking time of at least 5 min showed that the radioactive cesium was quantitatively adsorbed to zeolite. The adsorptive behavior of the radioactive cesium by a flow-system was also examined using zeolite. (author)

  8. Transgenic miR132 alters neuronal spine density and impairs novel object recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin F Hansen

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression plays a central role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysfunction of the underlying molecular events can lead to severe neuronal disorders. In addition to coding transcripts (mRNAs, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs appear to play a role in these processes. For instance, the CREB-regulated miRNA miR132 has been shown to affect neuronal structure in an activity-dependent manner, yet the details of its physiological effects and the behavioral consequences in vivo remain unclear. To examine these questions, we employed a transgenic mouse strain that expresses miR132 in forebrain neurons. Morphometric analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed that transgenic miR132 triggers a marked increase in dendritic spine density. Additionally, miR132 transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of MeCP2, a protein implicated in Rett Syndrome and other disorders of mental retardation. Consistent with these findings, miR132 transgenic mice displayed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Together, these data support a role for miR132 as a regulator of neuronal structure and function, and raise the possibility that dysregulation of miR132 could contribute to an array of cognitive disorders.

  9. Separation of radio cesium from acid-Purex solutions by sorption on granulated AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An organic polymer, poly vinylbutyral was used for the preparation of the composite exchanger containing ammonium molybdo phosphate (AMP) as the active component. The resultant granulated product (AMP-GR) has excellent column properties and stands high flow rates without generating fines. The method of preparation of the granulated sorbent, the batch and breakthrough capacities of the granules for cesium ions, their hydraulic properties and the results of column tests for cesium separation from acidic cesium solutions and simulated high level wastes (HLW) solutions is described. The process can be adapted to remove cesium from HLW solutions and could thus be incorporated in a waste management scheme. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. New separation techniques of cesium by redox type ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECS method, new cesium separation method, was developed in which a porous strong base anionic exchanger with copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) and inhibitor were used. Cesium could be separated from the high concentration nitric solution. By developing new impregnation method, large amount of CuFC was impregnated into the micropolar porous resin and silica gel pores. KFC adhered to outside of pores was recovered. Good complex with CuFC was prepared by use of copper chloride in ethyl alcohol solution. The adsorption ratio of cesium increased radically to 80% level in the very small range of hydrazine concentration 1.7 to 2.4x10-4M. The adsorption-desorption ratio of cesium did not decrease by repeating it seven times. The glassificated materials decreased large amount of γ-ray unless increase of volume could be produced by built RIECS method in the high level waste processing system. (S.Y.)

  11. Preparation, structure and application of a new ecomaterials cesium ion-sieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new ecomaterials cesium ion-sieve (Cs-IS), which has high selectivity to cesium and excellent acid resistance, is prepared with zirconyl molybdopyrophosphate as its matrix by specific chemical sieve-making means. Cs-IS has large exchange capacity ( 1.83mmol@g-1) and high distribution coefficient (4.09 x 104 mL@ L-1) in the medium of 3 mol@ L- 1 HNO3. In the static exchange with strongly acidic high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) (3 mol@ L-1 HNO3), Cs-IS exhibits high exchange rate for cesium (above 96.53 % ) and large separation factor (greater than 958.41). These indicate the possible use of Cs-IS in cesium-137 selective removal and recovery from highly saline acidic HLLW system.

  12. Cesium-137 in Lake Michigan sediments: areal distribution and correlation with other man-made materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grab samples of sediment were collected at 530 locations in Lake Michigan, primarily in the southeastern quarter of the lake. Each sample was analysed in the field and in the laboratory for fallout cesium-137. Twenty-five of the samples collected near the mouth of the St. Joseph River, were also analysed in the laboratory for 11 other man-made materials known to be discharged into the river. Two statistical methods were used to determine if cesium-137 can be used as an environmental tracer to predict the areal distributions of other man-made materials. The results show fallout cesium-137 to be a moderate to good tracer for locating areas of accumulation of plutonium-238, plutonium-239, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, dieldrin, DDT and PCB in sediment. Little or no correlation is found between fallout cesium-137 and strontium-90 or nickel. (author)

  13. Candlestick oven with a silica wick provides an intense collimated cesium atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailloux, A.; Alpettaz, T.; Lizon, E.

    2007-02-01

    This article shows that readily available glass and silica fibers and braids are suitable capillary structure for recirculating ovens, such as candlestick ovens, becoming then an alternative wick material to conventional metal based capillary structures. In order to study wettability and capillarity of metallic liquid cesium on borosilicate and silica microstructures, samples were selected, prepared, and tested experimentally. The contact angle of cesium on silica glass was roughly measured: θ =35°±10°. A commercially available silica braid was then introduced inside a candlestick oven to transfer the metallic liquid cesium from the cold reservoir to the hot emission point of the candlestick. A collimated cesium atomic beam of intensity of 2×1016at./ssr was obtained, stable and reproducible. Furthermore, this modified oven is easy to handle daily.

  14. Fission of Multiply Charged Cesium and Potassium Clusters in Helium Droplets - Approaching the Rayleigh Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Renzler, Michael; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with cesium or potassium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are $Cs_{9}^{2+}$ and $K_{11}^{2+}$; they are a factor two smaller than reported previously. The size of potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that their fissilities have been significantly overestimated. Triply charged cesium clusters as small as $Cs_{19}^{3+}$ are observed; they are a factor 2.6 smaller than previously reported. Mechanisms that may be responsible for enhanced formation of clusters with high fissilities are discussed.

  15. Assessment of food calcium radioprotection effectiveness against cesium-137, added alone and with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fish product with addition of food calcium had radioprotective properties, resulted in decreased cesium-137 content in organs and tissues of animals by 40-60% and lesser changes in differential blood count and biochemical indexes of blood serum

  16. Cold cesium molecules produced directly in a magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Shan; Ji Zhong-Hua; Yuan Jin-Peng; Zhao Yan-Ting; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of ultracold ground electric-state cesium molecules produced directly in a magnetooptical trap with a good signal-to-noise ratio.These molecules arise from the photoassociation of magneto-optical trap lasers and they are detected by resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization technology.The production rate of ultracold cesium molecules is up to 4× 104 s-1.We measure the characteristic time of the ground electric-state cesium molecules generated in the experiment and investigate the Cs2+ molecular ion intensity as a function of the trapping laser intensity and the ionization pulse laser energy.We conclude that the production of cold cesium molecules may be enhanced by using appropriate experimental parameters,which is useful for future experiments involving the production and trapping of ultracold ground electric-state molecules.

  17. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent. PMID:22464752

  18. Removal of cesium from low level waste solutions by copper hexacyanoferrate loaded resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbents for the separation of radio cesium from aqueous solutions were synthesized by incorporating copper hexacyanoferrate (II) in the matrix of anion exchange resins of Indian origin, viz. Indion-810 and Tulsion-A27MP. Their efficiency for the cesium removal was tested under both static and dynamic conditions. The resins were found to be highly selective for radio cesium from a variety of salt and acid solutions. In general, Tulsion-based resins showed more tolerance towards chemical load in the solutions than the other. Pilot column run with Indion-based loaded resin showed that it effectively removed all the cesium activity from few thousands of litres of mixed low level waste streams from reactors, fuel reprocessing plant and nuclear laboratories. (author). 24 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  20. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  1. Cs2 ‘diffuse bands’ emission from superheated cesium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Thomas, N.; Mathew, J.; Beuc, R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal emission from superheated cesium vapor was studied to very high temperatures from 700 °C to 1000 °C. This was performed in the vapor condition only and with no liquid cesium present in the all-sapphire cell. We observed a number of atomic and molecular spectral features simultaneously in emission and absorption, especially peculiar thermal emission of cesium dimer diffuse bands (2 3Πg → a 3∑u + transitions) around 710 nm coexisting with absorption bands around first resonance lines at 852 and 894 nm. We performed appropriate calculations of the diffuse band emission profiles and compared them with measured profiles. We also performed absorption measurements and compared observed diffuse band profiles with calculated ones. Possible applications of the observed phenomena will be discussed in terms of the solar energy conversion using dense cesium vapor.

  2. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste Division on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice

  3. Distribution of cesium 137 between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigation of distribution of cesium 137 ions between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products are received. Using NH42 and Sr2+ as ousted cations the portion of radionuclide adsorbed by specific (FES) and regular (RES) exchangeable sites have been determined. The distribution of cesium 137 ions and its exchangeable form between soils and liquid phases of water saturated soils have been established. The distribution coefficients have been evaluated. The behavior of cesium 137 in a system 'soil - solution' with different contribution of FES and RES sites into radionuclide adsorption were considered. Effect of solution acidity and cation concentration compete for exchangeable adsorption have been analyzed. Higher cesium 137 mobility during its transfer from solid phase into solution in soils, where content of specific adsorption sites is limited, was revealed

  4. [Value of radioactive cesium content in selected food products. I. Content of radioactive cesium in dried milk (1987-1988)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewska, K A; Smoczyński, S S; Werner, B

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium in dried and dried skimmed milk from selected dairies was double determined. The highest content was found in samples from milk from OSM Siedlce (98 Bq/kg) and skimmed milk from Radzyń Podlaski and Ostrołeka, (the former 90, the latter 62 Bq/kg). The lowest level of radioactive caesium was observed in samples from dried milk from Sieradz, Słupsk, Września, Olecko and Elblag (about or below 10 Bq/kg). Although those levels of contamination with radiocesium didn't exceed values recommended by FAO they were determined as high for year 1987/88 as compared milk data from previous 1985 year. PMID:8016538

  5. Fabrication and performance of fl y ash granule filter for trapping gaseous cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jang Jin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a disk-type fly ash filter has shown a good performance in trapping gaseous cesium, it has difficulty in charging filters into a filter container and discharging waste filters containing radioactive cesium from a container by remote action. To solve the difficulty of the disk-type fly ash filter, five types of granule filters, including a ball type, tube type, and sponge-structure type have been made. Among them, the best filter type was chosen through simple crucible tests. The five types of granule filters packed into containers were loaded into five alumina crucibles of 50 cc. Five grams of CsNO3 was used as a gaseous cesium source. They were then placed in a muffle furnace and heated to 900°C and maintained for 2 hours. After the experiment, the weights of the cesium trapped filters were measured. Among the five types of granule filters, the sponge-structure type granule filter was the best, which has the highest trapping capacity of cesium. Its capacity is 0.42 g-Cs/g-filter. The chosen sponge-structure type granule filters and disk-type filters have been tested using a two-zone tube furnace. Cs volatilization and Cs trapping zones were maintained at 900 and 1000°C, respectively. Sixteen grams of CsNO3 was used as a gaseous cesium source. The cesium trapping profile of the sponge-structure type granule filters was almost similar to that of the disk-type fly ash filters. For both cases, cesium was successfully trapped within the third filter.

  6. Calculations of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. Final report, April 23--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task involved the calculation of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. The author has written a computer code that calculates radii according to two models: Myers 1983 and FRDM 1992. Results of calculations in both these models for both cesium and francium isotopes are attached as figures. He is currently interpreting these results in collaboration with D. Vieira and J.R. Nix, and they expect to use the computer code for further studies of nuclear radii

  7. Thermoemission and adsorption properties of tungsten alloy with osmium in cesium atoms flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoemission and absorption properties of (110) and (100) planes of monocrystal of W+0.5%Os melt in a flux of cesium atoms are studied. Despite the fact that the electron work function from planes (100) and (110) was only 0.05 eV different it turned out during adsorption of Cs atoms that plane (110) adsorbes cesium atoms much better and reduces the work function to a greater extent

  8. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of the dosage of 137Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by γ spectrometry enable the determination of the 137Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors)

  9. Contribution of the pectin in the cesium elimination in organism. results of analysis on Belarus children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results make appear that the cesium 137 would be eliminated less quick than what the ICRP considered for its models. Pectin would accelerate the cesium elimination but less quick than what is announced by its promotors. Politically speaking, the pectin is ignored by the officials of medicine and radiation protection at the pretext that its efficiency is not proved but no study is made. (N.C.)

  10. Iodine and cesium behavior during the first PBF Severe Fuel Damage Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of iodine and cesium measurements made during the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test at the Power Burst Facility are presented. On-line gamma spectroscopy and grab samples of the test effluent were used to measure the isotopic release histories at four locations in the effluent sampling system. Total release fractions, release rates, analysis of filter debris, and sample line deposition characteristics are discussed. Iodine and cesium release rate constants measured during the experiment are compared with published NRC data

  11. Iodine and cesium behavior during the first PBF severe fuel damage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of iodine and cesium measurements made during the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test at the Power Burst Facility are presented. On-line gamma spectroscopy and grab samples of the test effluent were used to measure the isotopic release histories at four locations in the effluent sampling system. Total release fractions, release rates, analysis of filter debris, and sample line deposition characteristics are discussed. Iodine and cesium release rate constants measured during the experiment are compared with published NRC data

  12. Iodine and cesium behavior during the first PBF Severe Fuel Damage test: Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of iodine and cesium measurements made during the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test at the Power Burst Facility are presented. On-line gamma spectroscopy and grab samples of the test effluent were used to measure the isotopic release histories at four locations in the effluent sampling system. Total release fractions, release rates, analysis of filter debris, and sample line deposition characteristics are discussed. Iodine and cesium release rate constants measured during the experiment are compared with published NRC data

  13. MicroRNA 132 alters sleep and varies with time in brain

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Christopher J.; Clinton, James M.; Taishi, Ping; Bohnet, Stewart G.; Honn, Kimberly A.; Krueger, James M.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) levels in brain are altered by sleep deprivation; however, the direct effects of any miRNA on sleep have not heretofore been described. We report herein that intracerebroventricular application of a miRNA-132 mimetic (preMIR-132) decreased duration of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) while simultaneously increasing duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) during the light phase. Further, preMIR-132 decreased electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA) during...

  14. Enhanced electronic injection in organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating silver nanoclusters and cesium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Chung; Gao, Chia-Yuan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Po-Wen [Department of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The localized electric field around SNCs is enhanced. • When the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained. • The structure for efficient electron injection is critical to characteristics of the device. - Abstract: The influence of the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure (CSC-EIS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The silver nanoclusters (SNCs) are introduced between the electron-injection layers by means of thermal evaporation. When the CSC-EIS replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained because the electron-injection barrier between the cathode and the electron-transport layer is remarkably reduced from 1.2 to 0 eV. In addition, surface plasmon resonance effect will cause the enhanced localized electric field around the SNCs, resulting that electron-injection ability is further enhanced from the cathode to the emitting layer.

  15. Cesium absorption from acidic solutions using ammonium molybdophosphate on a polyacrylonitrile support (AMP-PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have included evaluation of cesium removal technologies as applied to ICPP acidic radioactive waste streams. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) immobilized on a polyacrylonitrile support (AMP-PAN) has been studied as an ion exchange agent for cesium removal from acidic waste solutions. Capacities, distribution coefficients, elutability, and kinetics of cesium-extraction have been evaluated. Exchange breakthrough curves using small columns have been determined from 1M HNO3 and simulated waste solutions. The theoretical capacity of AMP is 213 g Cs/kg AMP. The average experimental capacity in batch contacts with various acidic solutions was 150 g Cs/kg AMP. The measured cesium distribution coefficients from actual waste solutions were 3287 mL/g for dissolved zirconia calcines, and 2679 mL/g for sodium-bearing waste. The cesium in the dissolved alumina calcines was analyzed for; however, the concentration was below analytical detectable limits resulting in inconclusive results. The reaction kinetics are very rapid (2-10 minutes). Cesium absorption appears to be independent of acid concentration over the range tested (0.1 M to 5 M HNO3)

  16. Measurement of cesium emissions during the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to eliminate a startup test that would involve adding small amounts of radioactive cesium-137 to simulated high-level waste. In order to eliminate this test, a reliable method for measuring non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter is required. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICPMS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 μg, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. Typical particulate loadings ranged from 800 μg of cesium. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. The decontamination factors measured experimentally compared favorably with the process design basis values

  17. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. ► The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. ► Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  18. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Baiyang [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yu, Hongwen [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Abe, Yoshiteru [Kyoei Engineering Corporation, Niigata 959-1961 (Japan)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  19. Test evaluation of a cesium vapor source and regulator for thermionic space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of nearly 8000 hours of testing of a fully developed cesium vapor source on the integrated TOPAZ II Ya-21U thermionic space power system. The test period included 4000 hours of system thermal vacuum operation and evaluation by Russian specialists at the Central Design Bureau for Machine Building (CDBMB), St. Petersburg, Russia; nearly 4000 hours of thermal vacuum tests at the Thermionic Systems Evaluation Test (TSET) laboratory; and mechanical tests at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, NM. Testing of the non-nuclear Ya-21U system provided significant information for evaluation and characterization of the cesium vapor source that could not be obtained by development and qualification testing of only components. The Ya-21U system and cesium vapor source were subjected to excessive, unplanned stress levels during the system evaluation tests which resulted in leakage of oxygen into the cesium subsystem and cesium vapor from the TFEs. The information and experience gained during the thermionic system evaluation test are useful for improvement of future cesium vapor subsystem designs, test support equipment, and system test procedures. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of cesium from acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of cesium from acidic waste. The most promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods, along with some of the attributes for each method, are listed. The main criteria used in evaluating the separation methods were as follows: (1) good potential for cesium separation must be demonstrated (i.e., cesium decontamination factors on the order of 50 to 100). (2) Good selectivity for cesium over bulk components must be demonstrated. (3) The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process. (4) The process should be safe to operate. (5) The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating cesium from various acidic waste types). (6) Secondary waste generation must be minimized. (7) The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The most promising separation methods did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria, thus key areas requiring further development are suggested for each method. The report discusses in detail these and other areas requiring further development, as well as alternative solvent extraction, precipitation, ion exchange, and open-quote other close-quote technologies that, based on current information, show less promise for the separation of cesium from acidic wastes because of significant process limitations. When appropriate, the report recommends areas of future development

  1. Individual difference of concentration of radio cesium on olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms were contaminated with radio cesium released from TEPCO Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants and coastal fisheries are still restricted. Olive flounder is one of the most important fishery species in Japan and live in coastal area. About one hundred of olive flounder were caught in northern and southern part of Fukushima prefecture and the concentrations of radio cesium in muscle of them were measured individually. The averages of concentration (with standard deviations) of total radio cesium in the muscle of the fish were 87.0 (72.3) Bq/kg-wet and 101 (104) Bq/kg-wet in the northern and southern coasts, respectively. Seventy percent of the results were distributed between 50 and 150 Bq/kg-wet but some of them were much higher (and much lower) than the average. According to the individuals with under 200 Bq/kg-wet of radio cesium collected in northern part of Fukushima, the concentrations of radio cesium were correlated to the amounts of 15N in the muscles. It suggests that the concentration of radio cesium in olive flounder might be influenced by the species of prey organisms that individual flounder predated a certain period before catch. (author)

  2. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.132 - Who is required to use a U.S. flag air carrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. flag air carrier? 301-10.132 Section 301-10.132 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.132 Who is required to use a U.S. flag air carrier? Anyone whose air travel is financed by U.S. Government...

  4. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environment. Part. 4. Factors influencing depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the vertical migration behavior of radioactive cesium, which contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of radioactive cesium in different type of soils, e.g., bare ground, grass land, conifer forest floor were measured on October 2011, 2012, 2013, in Abiko, Chiba, Japan. Even three years after the deposition, most of radioactive cesium were deposited in the depths of within 5 cm at anywhere in this area. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil was significantly correlated with organic matter content in soils (r=0.82; p<0.0001), whereas the factors such as potassium ion and ammonium ion in soil, stable cesium content, and clay mineral content were not correlated clearly. This indicates that the vertical migration rate of radioactive cesium is very slow and it would be influenced by organic matter in soil, not just clay. (author)

  5. Identification of the first surrogate agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor GPR132

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mohamed A.; Christensen, Hanna Belcik; Isberg, Vignir;

    2015-01-01

    GPR132 is an orphan class A G protein-coupled receptor. It has been proposed to be activated by protons and to regulate apoptosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, but these results are still preliminary. In the current work, we designed and screened a focused compound library using a β-arrestin......GPR132 is an orphan class A G protein-coupled receptor. It has been proposed to be activated by protons and to regulate apoptosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, but these results are still preliminary. In the current work, we designed and screened a focused compound library using a β......-arrestin recruitment assay, and thereby identified the first disclosed surrogate GPR132 agonist 1 with a potency of 3.4 μM. This constitutes the first available pharmacological tool for the in vitro characterization of the orphan receptor GPR132. The testing of 32 analogs furthermore identified a number of compounds...

  6. Proton Particle-Neutron Hole States in $^{132}Sb$ with a Realistic Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Andreozzi, F; Covello, A; Gargano, A; Kuo, T T S; Porrino, A

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the particle-hole nucleus 132Sb provides a direct source of information on the effective neutron-proton interaction in the 132Sn region. We have performed a shell-model calculation for this nucleus using a realistic effective interaction derived from the Bonn A nucleon-nucleon potential. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data evidencing the reliability of our effective interaction matrix elements both with isospin T=1 and T=0.

  7. Proton Particle-Neutron Hole States in 132Sb with a Realistic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Andreozzi, F; Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; A. Gargano; Kuo, T. T. S.; Porrino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of the particle-hole nucleus 132Sb provides a direct source of information on the effective neutron-proton interaction in the 132Sn region. We have performed a shell-model calculation for this nucleus using a realistic effective interaction derived from the Bonn A nucleon-nucleon potential. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data evidencing the reliability of our effective interaction matrix elements both with isospin T=1 and T=0.

  8. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  9. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  10. Effect of electrolytes concentration on recovery of cesium from AMP-PAN by Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium from the simulated acidic waste solution was separated using Ammonium Molybdophosphate (AMP) - Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ion exchange resin in column operations. Electrodialysis - Ion exchange (EDIX) has been tried for the recovery of cesium from the AMP-PAN which was saturated with cesium. The electrodialysis setup consists of three compartments; cesium loaded AMP-PAN is placed in the middle compartment and is separated from the anode and cathode compartments by cation exchange membranes. Ammonium sulphate was used as anolyte and HNO3 as catholyte. 0.1N HNO3 was circulated in the middle compartment containing AMP-PAN to keep the resin in acidic form. On application of potential, the ammonium ions from the anode compartment migrate towards cathode through the middle compartment where they exchange with cesium ions on the resin and the exchanged cesium ions migrate towards cathode to get concentrated. Some part of cesium is recovered in the middle compartment due to convection. Cesium recovery from the AMP-PAN in the electrodialysis setup was studied at different anolyte and catholyte concentrations. All the experiments were carried out at constant current density of 40 mA/cm2 for 15h. It was found that more than 50% of cesium recovery was observed for all the experiments studied and recovery percentage increased with increasing the anolyte concentration. It was observed that the electrolytes concentration affects the voltage drop across the cell

  11. Gamma-ray spectroscopic determination of iodine-131 and cesium-137 in foods: Two collaborative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AOAC method for iodine-131, cesium-137, and barium-140 in milk by gamma-ray spectroscopy (48.025-48.029) was extended to include other foods for the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137. Two collaborative studies were performed to validate this extension. In the first study, a food sample containing 119 pCi 131I/kg and 53 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 45 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 25 responses, the mean of the reported values was 123.8 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 27 responses, the mean was 53.4 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Repeatability (within-laboratory) standard deviations (Sr) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 4.6 and 3.7 pCi/kg, respectively. Reproducibility (among-laboratories) standard deviations (SR) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 12.1 and 6.0 pCi/kg, respectively. In the second study, a food sample containing 25 pCi 131I/kg and 27 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 54 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 21 responses, the mean of the reported values was 25.0 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 19 responses, the mean was 28.9 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Sr Values were 4.0 and 1.6 pCi/kg for iodine-131 and cesium-137, respectively, and SR values were 5.0 and 2.8 pCi/kg, respectively. The method extension was adopted official first action

  12. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven fully loaded 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 15000C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of 137Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded 137Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10-10 kg m-2s-1, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10-12 kg m-2s-1. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10-16m2s-1, 6.88 x 10-17m2s-1, and 1.35 x 10-17m2s-1, respectively

  13. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (CsTPB) precipitates also increases. Serkiz also demonstrated that the precipitation of potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice. In the crystallographic structure of these three tetraphenylborate salts (Cs,K,NaTPB), the tetraphenylborate ion dominates the size of the crystals. Also, note that the three crystals have nearly identical structures with the exception of two additional peaks in the cesium pattern. Given these similarities, TPB precipitation in the presence of Na+, Cs+ and K+ likely produces an impure isomorphic crystalline mixture of CsTPB, KTPB and NaTPB. The authors speculate that the primary crystalline structure resembles that of KTPB with NaTPB and CsTPB mixed throughout the crystal structure. The precipitation of NaTPB makes some of the anticipated excess tetraphenylborate relatively unavailable for precipitation of cesium. Thus, the amount of excess tetraphenylborate required to completely precipitate all of the potassium and cesium may increase significantly

  14. Improvement of cesium retention in uranium dioxide by additional phases; Amelioration de la retention du cesium dans le dioxyde d`uranium au moyen de phases exogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamaury Dubois, S.

    1995-09-19

    The objective of this study is to improve the cesium retention in nuclear fuel. A bibliographic survey indicates that cesium is rapidly released from uranium dioxide in an accident condition. At temperatures higher than 1500 deg C or in oxidising conditions, our experiments show the difficulty of maintaining cesium inside simulated fuel. Two ternary systems are potentially interesting for the retention of cesium and to reduce the kinetics of release from the fuel: Cs{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} et Cs{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}. The compounds CsAISi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} were studied from 1200 deg C to 2000 deg C by thermogravimetric analysis. The volumetric diffusion coefficients of cesium in these structures, in solid state as well as in liquid one, were measured. A fuel was sintered with (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2}) or (ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}) and the intergranular phase was characterized. In the presence of (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2}), the sintering is realized at 1610 deg C in H{sub 2}. It is a liquid phase sintering. On the other end, with (ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}), the sintering is a low temperature one in oxidising atmosphere. Finally, cesium containing simulated fuels were produced with these additives. According to the effective diffusion coefficients that were measured, the additives improved the retention of cesium. We have predicted the improvement that could be hoped for in a nuclear reactor, depending on the dispersion of the intergranular additives, the temperature and the degree of oxidation of the UO{sub 2+x}. We wait for a factor of 2 for x=0 and more than 8 for x=0.05, up to 2000 deg C. (author). 148 refs., 122 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na+. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A ampersand M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications

  16. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na{sup +}. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A&M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications.

  17. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  18. Biogeochemistry of Cesium in a Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. D.; Hess, J. R.; Hamilton, M. A.; Cook, L. L.; Siegel, L. S.; Yancey, N. A.

    2002-12-01

    The nature of radiocesium sources is such that they often have resulted in the contamination of shallow (SL-1 reactor show changes in concentrations and transfer factors with the stage of plant growth. The samples included both rhizosphere and bulk soils as well as roots and shoots from the crested wheatgrass. The ranges of total cesium in rhizosphere and bulk soils are similar, are fairly narrow (1.7 to 5.2 mg kg-1), and do not appear to vary seasonally. In contrast, 137Cs activities in rhizosphere and bulk soils are significantly different, vary over orders of magnitude (10-180 pCi g-1), and show seasonal differences. Shoot and root 137Cs activities decrease between April and May. Total Cs shoot-to-root ratios are greater than the corresponding ratios for radiocesium. Total Cs root-to-rhizosphere soil ratios are lower than the corresponding ratios for 137Cs. These results are being used to enhance our understanding of phytoremediation scenarios and issues associated with long-term stewardship of 137Cs-contaminated lands.

  19. Cesium sorption and desorption behavior of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium sorption and desorption of clay minerals (montmorillonite, beidellite, nontronite, weathered biotite, rectorite and illite) were investigated by consecutive sorption-desorption (CSD) experiments. In batch sorption experiment, two solutions with different Cs concentration 10-3 and 10-7 mol/L) were used. In batch desorption experiments, Cs sorbed samples in sorption experiments were treated 5 times with 1 mol/L ammonium acetate solution. In the case of CSD experiments using 10-3 mol/L Cs solution, the exchangeable cations (Na, Ca, and K) in the clay samples affected to the sorption ratio of Cs, and this effect depended on the type of clay mineral. The desorption ratios of untreated, Na-exchanged and Ca-exchanged weathered biotite ranged from 23 to 33%, while that of other samples was over 80%. In the case of CSD experiments using 10-7 mol/L Cs solution, the sorption ratio of montmorillonite was smaller than that of the other clay samples. In desorption experiments, more than 10-9 mol sorbed Cs remained in 1.0 g of the sample after 5 extraction times. These results indicate that all examined clay samples are able to strongly adsorb Cs with a capacity of more than 10-9 mol/g. (author)

  20. ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

  1. Broadband Vibrational Cooling of Cold Cesium Molecules: Theory and Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Sofikitis; A. Fioretti; S. Weber; M. Viteau; A. Chotia; R. Horchani; M. Allegrini; B. Chatel; D. Comparat; P. Pillet

    2009-01-01

    The use of a broadband, frequency shaped femtosecond laser on translationally cold cesium molecules has recently demonstrated to be a very efficient method of cooling also the vibrational degree of freedom. A sample of cold molecules, initially distributed over several vibrational levels, has thus been transfered into a single selected vibrational level of the singlet X1∑g ground electronic state. Our method is based on repeated optical pumping by laser light with a spectrum broad enough to excite all populated vibrational levels but limited in its frequency bandwidth with a spatial light modulator. In such a way we are able to eliminate transitions from the selected level, in which molecules accumulate. In this paper we briefly report the main experimental results and then address, in a detailed way by computer simulations, the perspectives for a "complete" cooling of the molecules, including also the rotational degree of freedom. Since the pumping process strongly depends on the rclative shape of the ground and excited potential curves, ro-vibrational cooling through different excited states is theoretically compared.

  2. Evaluation of a cesium adsorbent grafted with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takuya; Seko, Noriaki; Amada, Haruyo; Kasai, Noboru; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A fibrous cesium (Cs) adsorbent was developed using radiation-induced graft polymerization with a cross-linked structure containing a highly stable adsorption ligand. The ligand, ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP), was successfully introduced onto the fibrous polyethylene trunk material. The resulting Cs adsorbent contained 36% nonwoven fabric polyethylene (NFPE), 1% AMP, 2% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and 61% glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorbent's Cs adsorption capacity was evaluated using batch and column tests. It was determined that the adsorbent could be used in a wide pH range. The amount of desorbed molybdenum, which can be used as an estimate for AMP stability on the Cs adsorbent, was minimized at the standard drinking water pH range of 5.8-8.6. Based from the inspection on the adherence of these results to the requirements set forth by the Food Sanitation Act by a third party organization, it can be concluded that the developed Cs adsorbent can be safely utilized for drinking water.

  3. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department's mission as stated in that document. ''The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.''

  4. Proton tunneling in low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1 (monoclinic phase of CsHSi2O5), anomalous infrared absorption bands observed at 93, 155, 1210, and 1220 cm−1 are assigned to the vibrational mode of protons, which contribute to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal oxygen atoms of silicate chain (O–O distance = 2.45 Å). The integrated absorbance (oscillator strength) for those modes is drastically enhanced at low temperatures. The analysis of integrated absorbance employing two different anharmonic double-minimum potentials makes clear that proton tunneling through the potential barrier yields an energy splitting of the ground state. The absorption bands at 93 and 155 cm−1, which correspond to the different vibrational modes of protons, are attributed to the optical transition between the splitting levels (excitation from the ground state (n = 0) to the first excited state (n = 1)). Moreover, the absorption bands at 1210 and 1220 cm−1 are identified as the optical transition from the ground state (n = 0) to the third excited state (n = 3). Weak Coulomb interactions in between the adjacent protons generate two types of vibrational modes: symmetric mode (93 and 1210 cm−1) and asymmetric mode (155 and 1220 cm−1). The broad absorption at 100–600 cm−1 reveals an emergence of collective mode due to the vibration of silicate chain coupled not only with the local oscillation of Cs+ but also with the proton oscillation relevant to the second excited state (n = 2)

  5. Cesium 137 redistribution by horizontal migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiation monitoring the local nonuniformities of contamination density were noticed which can not be explained by meteorologic conditions at the moment of fallout. The mathematical model of redistribution of cesium 137 radionuclides of Chernobyl origin for the post accidental period on account of migration with horizontal outflow in the upper layer of soils was developed. It has been shown that for nonuniform landscapes (borders of fields, forests, roads etc.) redistribution of radionuclides with increasing of their concentration at the places, where the objects with different migration characteristics are connected, will take place. In Belarus the typical size of such 'spots' will increase with the time up to 1 m/year. It is possible the increasing of contamination density of territories on account of the process of shifting of radioactive 'spots', caused by horizontal flow. The speed of replacement of such 'spots' along the direction of underground water is about 1 m/year; increasing of their typical size is going on with the speed up to 0.3 m/year. 4 refs., 1 fig

  6. Desorption of cesium from granite under various aqueous conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-H. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wei, Y.-Y. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Teng, S.-P., E-mail: spteng@ess.nthu.edu.t [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    In this work the desorption of cesium ions from crushed granite in synthetic groundwater (GW) and seawater (SW) was investigated. Results were compared with those obtained in deionized water (DW) and in two kinds of extraction solutions, namely: MgCl{sub 2} and NaOAc (sodium acetate). In general, the desorption rate of Cs from crushed granite increased proportionally with initial Cs loadings. Also, amounts of desorbed Cs ions followed the tendency in the order SW>GW>NaOAc{approx}MgCl{sub 2}>DW solutions. This indicated that the utilization of extraction reagents for ion exchange will underestimate the Cs desorption behavior. Fitting these experimental data by Langmuir model showed that these extraction reagents have reduced Cs uptake by more than 90%, while only less than 1% of adsorbed Cs ions are still observed in GW and SW solutions in comparison to those in DW. Further SEM/EDS mapping studies clearly demonstrate that these remaining adsorbed Cs ions are at the fracture areas of biotite.

  7. The crystal structures of potassium and cesium trivanadates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Block, S.

    1966-01-01

    Potassium and cesium trivanadates are monoclinic and isomorphous, space group P21/m, with the following dimensions (Z = 2): KV3O8, a = 7.640 A, b = 8.380 A, c = 4.979 A, ??= 96?? 57???; CsV3O8, a = 8.176 A, b = 8.519 A, c = 4.988 A, ?? = 95?? 32???. The crystal structure of KV3O8 has been determined from hk0, 0kl, and h0l Weissenberg data with an R factor of 0.15. The structure of CsV3O8 has been refined with 1273 hkl Weissenberg data to an R factor of 0.089. The structures consist of corrugated sheets based on a linkage of distorted VO6, octahedra. Two of the vanadium atoms lie in double, square-pyramid groups V2O8, which are linked through opposite basal corners into chains along the b axis. The chains are joined laterally along the c axis into sheets by the third vanadium atom in VO groups, also forming part of a square-pyramid coordination. Various aspects of these structures are compared with other known oxovanadate structures.

  8. Increased miR-132-3p expression is associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinders, M; Üçeyler, N; Pritchard, R A; Sommer, C; Sorkin, L S

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in the neuro-immune balance play a major role in the pathophysiology of chronic neuropathic pain. MicroRNAs (miRNA) can regulate both immune and neuronal processes and may function as master switches in chronic pain development and maintenance. We set out to analyze the role of miR-132-3p, first in patients with peripheral neuropathies and second in an animal model of neuropathic pain. We initially determined miR-132-3p expression by measuring its levels in white blood cells (WBC) of 30 patients and 30 healthy controls and next in sural nerve biopsies of 81 patients with painful or painless inflammatory or non-inflammatory neuropathies based on clinical diagnosis. We found a 2.6 fold increase in miR-132-3p expression in WBC of neuropathy patients compared to healthy controls (panimal model of neuropathic pain, the spared nerve injury model (SNI). For this purpose miR-132-3p expression levels were measured in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord of rats. Subsequently, miR-132-3p expression was pharmacologically modulated with miRNA antagonists or mimetics, and evoked pain and pain aversion were assessed. Spinal miR-132-3p levels were highest 10days after SNI, a time when persistent allodynia was established (pbehavior in the place escape avoidance paradigm (pbehavior in naïve rats (p<0.001). Taken together these results indicate a pro-nociceptive effect of miR-132-3p in chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:27349406

  9. Interactions between cesium and dispersed kaolinite powders at high temperatures for the treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential use of sorbents to manage emissions of trace radiological metals during mixed waste incineration was investigated using a down-fired 82-k W-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor. Non-radioactive aqueous cesium acetate was sprayed down the center of a natural gas flame supported on a variable swirl burner. Kaolinite powder was injected at a post-flame location in the combustor. Cesium sorption was determined by differences in the particle size distributions (PSDs) as measured by micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) samples and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Without kaolinite injection, the cesium readily vaporizes within the combustor to form difficult to collect ultrafine particles with a mean diameter of approximately 0.09μm. With kaolinite injection rates representing 8:1 molar stoichiometry (A12O3-2SiO2:Cs), up to 85% of the cesium reported to collectable supermicron particle sizes representative of the kaolinite (mean diameter - 1.4μm). However, this capture was dependent on the kaolinite injection temperature with a maximum seen between 1400 and 1500 K. The data suggest that kaolinite powders are effective at capturing vapor phase cesium. However, mechanisms and rates still remain to be quantified

  10. Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particles (MAG*SEPSM) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEPSM particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEPSM particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEPSM particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective

  11. Efficiency of fly ash belite cement and zeolite matrices for immobilizing cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, S; Guerrero, A; Lorenzo, M P

    2006-10-11

    The efficiency of innovative matrices for immobilizing cesium is presented in this work. The matrix formulation included the use of fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) and gismondine-type Na-P1 zeolite, both of which are synthesized from fly ash of coal combustion. The efficiency for immobilizing cesium is evaluated from the leaching test ANSI/ANS 16.1-1986 at the temperature of 40 degrees C, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient of cesium is obtained. Matrices with 100% of FABC-2-W are used as a reference. The integrity of matrices is evaluated by porosity and pore-size distribution from mercury intrusion porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Both matrices can be classified as good solidify systems for cesium, specially the FABC-2-W/zeolite matrix in which the replacement of 50% of belite cement by the gismondine-type Na-P1 zeolite caused a decrease of two orders of magnitude of cesium mean Effective Diffusion Coefficient (D(e)) (2.8e-09 cm(2)/s versus 2.2e-07 cm(2)/s, for FABC-2-W/zeolite and FABC-2-W matrices, respectively). PMID:16759800

  12. Improvement of cesium leaching resistance of solidified borate wastes with copper-ferrocyanide-vermiculite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of cesium from deionized water, sea water, and lime water with copper ferrocyanide (CFC) and porous media including silica gel, bentonite, vermiculite, and zeolite were investigated; CFC and vermiculite were incorporated to prepare a compound adsorbent which was used to improve the Cs-leaching resistance of solidified borate wastes. It was shown that the Cs-removal efficiency by CFC is largely affected by pHs of the solutions, good cesium removal occurs in pHs ranged from 3 to 12 and the best from 7 to 10; the effect of Cs concentration is significantly only from lime water for Cs > 10-6 M at high pH and is insignificant from other solutions. Vermiculite and zeolite were shown to have better removal efficiency than silica gel and bentonite, and vermiculite was chosen to incorporate with CFC to make compound adsorbents because of its good compatibility with CFC. Compound adsorbents with different CFC contents were used as additives in the solidification of borate radwaste for improving the cesium leaching resistance of waste forms. Experimental results showed that the measured, cesium leaching index following ANSI/ANS 16.1, was increased from 7.96 to 9.76 by adding 0.25% of a compound adsorbent containing 20% CFC and 80% vermiculite, which indicated that the CFC-vermiculite compound adsorbent is very useful for improving cesium leaching resistance of the solidified borate radwastes

  13. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssni El-Saied

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+ on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the kaolin. Paper handsheets were prepared containing various percentages of the modified kaolin. The mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets were studied. The prepared paper handsheets were irradiated by gamma irradiation using different doses. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the effect of kaolin modification by cesium and gamma irradiation on paper handsheets properties. The results indicated that modified kaolin enhanced the mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS were also used. They provided rapid, sensitive and nondestructive techniques in differentiating between different questioned documents. This study presents a new concept in manufacturing security papers and anticounterfeiting applications.

  14. Misinterpretation on the risk of radioactive cesium contained in the disaster wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka Prefectural Government accepted the disaster wastes contained radioactive cesium after investigation them during one year. I explained the process and discussed about the risk management by people and the self-government body. The environmental pollution by radioactive cesium and Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials, the progress of treatment of debris, the concentration of radioactive cesium in debris, the acceptance conditions of debris contained small amount of radioactive cesium, evaluation of effects of radioactive materials in debris on the environment, and citizen's opinion of Osaka prefecture are described. The important investigation area of radioactive contamination on the basis of Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials, total amount of waste from Fukushima nuclear accident and debris in Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima prefecture, the concentration of radioactive cesium in debris in Rikuzentakata and Miyako city as of September, 2011, and cumulative number of citizen's opinion to Osaka are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  15. Local mat-forming cyanobacteria effectively facilitate decontamination of radioactive cesium in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective and widespread method to decontaminate radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster was peeling topsoil. But the method had problems, such as large amounts of discarded soil and large-scale work. In nature, cyanobacteria formed biomats on the ground surface and facilitated peeling topsoil when the biomats dried. The cyanobacteria-facilitating peeling decontamination method utilized these cyanobacterial properties. Cyanobacteria are located all over Japan and 'local' cyanobacteria could be used for decontamination without introducing new species. Utilizing cyanobacteria could decrease the amount of discarded soil to about 30% and downsize the execution-scale to individual locations. Cyanobacterial biomats were easily cultivated, especially in rice fields, by maintaining wet conditions and exposure to 100 - 83% solar radiation. Shading by a thin net was helpful in maintaining an environment suitable for cyanobacteria. Nowadays, to prevent uptake of radioactive cesium into rice, K+ is usually added to fertilizer in rice fields. The K+ fertilization in rice fields might also enhance cyanobacterial capture of radioactive cesium, because high concentrations of K+ enhanced cyanobacterial uptake of Cs+. Cyanobacteria could also mitigate the risk of radioactive cesium moving away from a decontaminating rice field. Therefore, the cyanobacteria-facilitating peeling decontamination method was proposed as an easy and safe 'D.I.Y.' method for both farmers and the environment. Besides, plowing rice fields with water before peeling improved the efficiency of this method, because plowing increased the radioactive cesium concentration in the topsoil. (author)

  16. Cesium-137 in soil texture fractions and its impact on Cesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies at two sites contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout showed 137Cesium (Cs) soil-to-plant transfer factors in wheat, rye and potato. Transfer values ranged from 0.0017 (potato tuber) to 0.07 (wheat straw). Generally transfer coefficients in cereal grains and potato tubers were significantly below the values of the shoots. A comparison of the two sites led to the conclusion that for all plants investigated 137Cs transfer factors were higher in Lower Austria (Calcic Chernozem) than in Upper Austria (Eutric Cambisol). The specific activities of the texture fractions of the two soil types increased from sand to silt and clay. In the Calcic Chernozem the ratio of the 137Cs activity in the silt fraction to the total activity in the soil was considerably higher than in the Eutric Cambisol. At the same time extractability of 137Cs from the silt fraction of the latter soil was clearly lower. Both results mainly were attributed to the differences between the soils according to the organic matter content of the silt fractions, the Calcic Chernozem being seven times higher. Therefore, the differences in the 137Cs-soil-to-plant transfer can be attributed partly to these soil characteristics. (authors)

  17. TMEM132D, a new candidate for anxiety phenotypes: evidence from human and mouse studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, A; Czibere, L; Roeske, D; Lucae, S; Unschuld, P G; Ripke, S; Specht, M; Kohli, M A; Kloiber, S; Ising, M; Heck, A; Pfister, H; Zimmermann, P; Lieb, R; Pütz, B; Uhr, M; Weber, P; Deussing, J M; Gonik, M; Bunck, M; Kebler, M S; Frank, E; Hohoff, C; Domschke, K; Krakowitzky, P; Maier, W; Bandelow, B; Jacob, C; Deckert, J; Schreiber, S; Strohmaier, J; Nöthen, M; Cichon, S; Rietschel, M; Bettecken, T; Keck, M E; Landgraf, R; Müller-Myhsok, B; Holsboer, F; Binder, E B

    2011-06-01

    The lifetime prevalence of panic disorder (PD) is up to 4% worldwide and there is substantial evidence that genetic factors contribute to the development of PD. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TMEM132D, identified in a whole-genome association study (GWAS), were found to be associated with PD in three independent samples, with a two-SNP haplotype associated in each of three samples in the same direction, and with a P-value of 1.2e-7 in the combined sample (909 cases and 915 controls). Independent SNPs in this gene were also associated with the severity of anxiety symptoms in patients affected by PD or panic attacks as well as in patients suffering from unipolar depression. Risk genotypes for PD were associated with higher TMEM132D mRNA expression levels in the frontal cortex. In parallel, using a mouse model of extremes in trait anxiety, we could further show that anxiety-related behavior was positively correlated with Tmem132d mRNA expression in the anterior cingulate cortex, central to the processing of anxiety/fear-related stimuli, and that in this animal model a Tmem132d SNP is associated with anxiety-related behavior in an F2 panel. TMEM132D may thus be an important new candidate gene for PD as well as more generally for anxiety-related behavior. PMID:20368705

  18. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms; Sympathetisches Kuehlen in einer Rubidium-Caesium-Mischung: Erzeugung ultrakalter Caesiumatome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,m{sub f}=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,m{sub f}=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,m{sub f}=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The

  19. Cesium-137 concentration of soils in Pest County, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    diffusion coefficient and migration velocity) than predicted in a previous study for brown forest soils in the same area of Hungary. - Highlights: ► We have constructed the first detailed cesium map for Pest County of Hungary. ► Demonstrative indication of well known cesium fixation on illite and kaolinite. ► 78% of the total detected 137Cs concentration was found in the top 3 cm of a vertical soil profile. ► Vertical distribution suggests slower migration speed than expected previously for this type of soil. ► Our fitted parameters are at the lower end of the range for migration parameters for loamy soils.

  20. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  1. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  2. Development of an adsorbent for both cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the development of the adsorbent in the title at the process of developing the agent to adsorb each element. For cooling the reactors injured by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident by the earthquake and tsunami on the day before (Mar. 11, 2011), fresh/ sea water is supplied in the reactor and flows out contaminated with radioactive elements in the turbine building and then in the treatment plant to remove oil and cesium for re-circulation to the reactor. Water from the plant still contains radioisotopes derived from fission, like 90Sr/90Y at 1.2 x 108 Bq/L and 137Cs/137mBa at 6.1 x 103 Bq/L, and from activation of reactor materials. Before the plant, the water contains 137Cs at the level as high as 4.1 x 107 Bq/L. Authors have examined various agents to adsorb 90Sr and 137Cs with a measure of partition coefficient Kd (L of the artificial sea water/kg) and have come to find out the adsorbent in the title: it is derived from the Cs-adsorbing crystalized silico-titanate (CST). The adsorbent is obtainable by surface treatment of CST with NaOH and has high Kds of >1 x 103 and >1 x 104 L/kg for Sr and Cs, respectively, while other ordinary adsorbents' Kds are: artificial zeolite 1-10 x 102/1-10 x 101 for Sr/Cs, respectively; natural one 0.1-10 x 101/1-10 x 102; ferrocyanide 0.1-10 x 101/1-10 x 104, and CST 1 x 101/>1 x 104. When 1 m3 of the present adsorbent is used, >99% of Cs and Sr can be removable in >3,000 m3 of contaminated water, suggesting its usefulness for dealing with water after the Accident. (T.T.)

  3. Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger

  4. Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, P.; Clearfield, A.; Diaz, R.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    A zirconia-pillared and an alumina-pillared montmorillonite clay were found to exhibit high K{sub d}S for trace levels of cesium (2.5 ppb) in the presence of high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} ions with distribution coefficients (K{sub d}S) for {sup 137}Cs exceeding 1 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g over a wide range of competing ion concentrations. An excess of K{sup +} ions, however, caused a dramatic reduction in the Cs K{sub d}S for both of the materials. These results were in contrast to the parent montmorillonite which exhibited far lower K{sub d}S for {sup 137}Cs, particularly in the presence of high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}. Batch tests in simulated groundwaters showed that both pillared clays efficiently removed {sup 137}Cs from solution, with the best K{sub d}S being approximately 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g in a potassium-free groundwater. The materials performed less well in a groundwater with a high potassium concentration, but still gave K{sub d}S similar to commercially available zeolites. The rate of {sup 137}Cs uptake was found to be rapid with both the alumina- and zirconia-pillared clays extracting >90% of the {sup 137}Cs from a 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution within 5 minutes.

  5. Cesium Chloride Compatibility Testing Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G.H.; Divine, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of a prior examination, it was found that one of the aged test capsules exhibited discoloration and pitting on the outer surface of the inner capsule. The damage was attributed to problems encountered in the electropolishing operation, which is used to decontaminate the inner capsule after it is loaded with the CsCl and welded shut. A study was carried out in FY 1984 to: determine if the pitting was associated with the electropolishing operation; identify acceptable solution(s) to the problem; and establish the effect, if any, on the long-term integrity of the capsule. Another special study performed in FY 1984 was that of examining two capsules from the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) storage pool. The objective was to establish the extent of the capsule corrosion while in storage. The study of cause and long-term consequences of the pitting on the WESF cesium chloride capsules has found: The pitting is caused by a nonuniform current distribution at the rack/capsule contact, which forms localized hot spots. The high temperature causes the acid to become more concentrated through boiling of the acid. The concentrated boiling phosphoric acid causes a high rate of corrosion which forms the crevice. The lack of intergranular attack at the base of the crevices and the favorable results of the mechanical testing leads to the conclusion that there will be no long-term failure mechanism accentuated by the pitting, beyond that of having a small hole in the capsule wall with a consequential thinner wall. An attempt to penetrate the capsule wall by electropolishing failed after 30 min with the loss of electrical contact. Consequently, the maximum wall penetration is 40 mils, out of a total thickness of 136 mil. No justification was found to require examination and repack of the existing capsules. A modification of the rack design is recommended for future work, however, to eliminate the pitting.

  6. The effectiveness of radioactive cesium removal countermeasure due to the Prussian blue nonwoven-textile fabrics proposed by International Research Institute for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of radioactive-cesium removal countermeasure by using Prussian blue is described: The verified technique for practical use to countermeasure of cesium-contaminated water by using nonwoven textile fabrics; the evaluation of effectiveness of cesium adsorbent, Prussian blue, by using model ecosystem of aquatic animals and plants. (M.H.)

  7. Physical Property Modeling of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Solutions, Part I - Derivation of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Pierce, R. A.; Edwards, T. B.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-09-15

    Major analytes projected to be present in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant cesium ion-exchange eluate solutions were identified from the available analytical data collected during radioactive bench-scale runs, and a test matrix of cesium eluate solutions was designed within the bounding concentrations of those analytes. A computer model simulating the semi-batch evaporation of cesium eluate solutions was run in conjunction with a multi-electrolyte aqueous system database to calculate the physical properties of each test matrix solution concentrated to the target endpoints of 80% and 100% saturation. The calculated physical properties were analyzed statistically and fitted into mathematical expressions for the bulk solubility, density, viscosity, heat capacity and volume reduction factor as a function of temperature and concentration of each major analyte in the eluate feed. The R{sup 2} of the resulting physical property models ranged from 0.89 to 0.99.

  8. Characterization of pollucite as a material for long-term storage of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollucite (Cs2O.Al2O3.4SiO2) may be an acceptable material for the long-term storage of purified 137CsCl. Pollucite is made at near theoretical yields when CsCl (or any cesium salt) reacts at approx. = 9700K with a montmorillonite-containing clay. Pollucite dissolves in deionized water at rates -7 kg/(m2 d) based on cesium. Microstructural analyses showed that cesium reacts with montmorillonite clay to form ill-defined pollucite crystals containing low concentrations of the impurities found in the clay. Although further work needs to be done, pollucite is considered to be an excellent materials for the long-term storage of 137Cs

  9. Characterization of pollucite as a material for the long term storage of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of nuclear waste requires materials which are thermodynamically stable. Pollucite (Cs2O . Al2O3 . 4SiO2) may be an acceptable material for the long-term storage of the purified 137CsCl. Pollucite is made at near theoretical yields when CsCl (or any cesium salt) reacts at about 9700K with a montmorillonite-containing clay. Pollucite dissolves in deionized water at rates which are less than 2 x 10-9 kg/(m2 . s) based on cesium. Microstructural analyses show that cesium reacts with the montmorillonite clay to form ill-defined pollucite crystals which contain low concentrations of the impurities found in the clay. Although further work needs to be done, pollucite is considered to be an excellent material for the long-term storage of 137Cs

  10. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  11. Immobilisation and solidification of cesium on 11 A calcium silicate hydroxy hydrate column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium silicate hydrate closely resembling silicate mineral 11 A tobermorite has been synthesised by hydrothermal treatment of lime and silica at 175 degC. The synthetic mineral exhibits selectivity for Cs+ in the presence of strong solutions of alkali and alkaline earth cations, viz, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, etc. The Al-substituted form of this mineral effectively separates cesium ion when used as an exchanger in column of size 35x5 mm (hxr). It is possible to remove 98.65±0.5%Cs+ from a mixed solution of cesium and sodium (0.0001N Cs+ + 0.5N Na+). Column separation of cesium from simulated intermediate level waste solution shows that from the first run ∼ 76% Cs+ can be immobilised on a small column, 18x10mm (hxr), having 2.0 g of exchanger. (author)

  12. Phosphate ceramic solidification and stabilization of cesium-containing crystalline silicotitanate resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP)-bonded cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resins. Typical waste loading of CST resins in the final waste forms was 50 wt.%. Physical and chemical characterization of the MKP materials has shown them to be physically, chemically, and mineralogically stable. Long-term durability studies (using the AN 16.1 standard test) showed a leachability index of ∼18 for cesium in the phosphate matrix when exposed to deionized water under ambient and elevated temperatures. Leaching of cesium was somewhat higher than in glass waste forms as per PCT and MCC-1 tests. MKP-based final waste forms showed no significant weight changes after exposure to aqueous media for ∼90 days, indicating the highly insoluble nature of the phosphate matrix. In addition, durability of the CST-MKP waste forms was further established by freeze-thaw cycling tests

  13. A study of radioactive cesium in relation to soil properties in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regions of Greece with a high degree of contamination were selected for sampling the main soil types in various depths and determining their physicochemical characteristics and radiocesium content. Data from 62 sites used and results indicate an existing contamination of the surface 0-20 cm layer of soils ranging from approximately 3 to over 160 Bq/kg soil. In certain cases a contamination of the 20-50 cm layer is determined which is kept rather low on the average. In correlating various soil characteristics to cesium-137 content it is indicated that smaller amounts of 137Cs are determined in the second soil layer with increasing pH values from 3.5 to 6.0 in the surface layer. No correlation of organic matter content to the translocation of cesium has been established while the clay percentage and the cation exchange capacity seem to affect the amount of cesium-137 in the examined soils. (author)

  14. Equilibrium data for cesium ion exchange of Hanford CC and NCAW tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford alkaline waste storage-tank contents will be processed to remove the soluble salts. A major fraction of these solutions will require cesium recovery to produce a low-level waste (LLW). The technology for decontamination of high-level alkaline waste and sludge wash waters is being developed. At the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied several ion exchange materials for the recovery of cesium from Hanford waste tanks. The WHC program was divided into tow main tasks, (1) to obtain equilibrium data for cesium ion exchange, and (2) to evaluate ion exchange column performance. The subject of this letter report is the measurement of batch distribution coefficients for several ion exchange media for a range of operating conditions for two types of waste; complexant concentrate (CC) and neutralized current acid waste (NCAW)

  15. Studies of cesium and strontium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) were measured for cesium and strontium in 16 samples of Canadian unconsolidated geological materials. The samples were collected to cover a wide range of grain size, clay-mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and carbonate mineral content. Distribution coefficients ranged between 102 and 2.0 x 104 ml/g for cesium and between 2.5 and 102 ml/g for strontium, indicating that most unconsolidated geological materials have a substantial ability to retard the migration of cesium, while strontium could generally be expected to be somewhat more mobile. The measured K values were not significantly correlated with the measured soil properties, but appeared to be significantly affected by the background concentration of stable isotopes of the respective radionuclides

  16. Reduction of cesium levels in the diet through management of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several processes influence the radionuclide concentration of food products during processing: dilution, losses, concentration. Boiling of leaf vegetables yields a decontamination effect of up to 80% in the case of radioiodine. Peeling of potato tubers results in a reduction of the cesium concentration of 30%. The cesium and strontium concentration of flour is a factor of two lower as compared to the corresponding cereal grain due to the milling process. Significant discrimination occurs during the milk processing. The skimmed milk is significantly richer in cesium, iodine and especially in strontium than the cream. It follows that butter is depleted in its radionuclide contents as compared to other milk produce. Strontium is concentrated in the casein. Pressurized cooking in combination with salting or a treatment with acetic acid results in an Cs-activity loss of beef, veal and lamb meat of 50 to 90%. (Author) 3 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs

  17. Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

  18. Determination of the cesium distribution coefficient in Goiania and Abadia de Goias cities soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficent for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author)

  19. Specific features of cesium chemistry and physics affecting reactor accident source term predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of assessing remaining uncertainties in predicting the source term of severe reactor accidents, a special investigation is devoted in this report to the case of cesium. The cesium isotopes, especially Cs137 and Cs134, are among those nuclides which could have a major impact on the environment in the event of a release. The processes for release from fuel and retention in the reactor coolant system and the containment are presented. Releases to the atmosphere are also discussed. The intention is to identify and discuss those specific features of cesium chemistry and physics that strongly affect source term predictions. The report has been prepared on contract from the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate as a contribution to the cooperative work within international experts groups of OECD/NEA

  20. Metabolism of 137cesium, 137barium in the rat. Therapeutics of the contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors carry out research into the distribution kinetics, the metabolism and the excretion of 137Cs - 137Ba in the rat. They show that these phenomena are independent of the method of applying a single dose. The distribution tends to adopt in all cases a typical shape which remains the same depending on the body burden. Biological analysis of the state of the cesium in the biological media shows that it is transported in the free and ionised form. Considering the problem of the method of penetration of the cesium ion in the intracellular medium, and in particular by the in vivo and in vitro kinetic study of the plasma - red cell system, the authors make the assumption that an active transport of cesium occurs by the cell membrane. They thus arrive at an overall picture of the cesium distribution in the organism which is essentially characterized by a dynamic distribution equilibrium between two compartments: 99 per cent of the cesium accumulates in the intracellular pool, 1 per cent in the extracellular liquids. This latter compartment is open to the emunctories. Because, of the active transport by the cell membranes, the intracellular pool is filled rapidly but discharge is slow. This phenomenon is the limiting factor in the decrease of the body burden. From this representation, the authors deduce the reasons for the relative failure of the various therapeutic methods examined up till now by themselves or by other authors. The stimulation of the natural emunctories in the case of diuretics for example, can only improve the purification of the extracellular compartment. Now this latter contains only 1 per cent of the body burden and recharging is slow. Furthermore the methods designed to counteract or inhibit the active transport of cesium by the cell membrane are still at the present time incompatible with the survival of the cell. (authors)

  1. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Extended Equilibrium Modeling of Cesium and Potassium Distribution Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    An extension of the model developed in FY01 for predicting equilibrium distribution ratios in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process is presented here. Motivation for extending the model arose from the need to predict extraction performance of the recently optimized solvent composition and the desire to include additional waste components. This model involves the extraction of cesium and potassium from different cesium, potassium, and sodium media over a large range of concentrations. Those different media include a large variety of anions such as nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate. The model was defined based on several hundreds of experimental data points and predicted satisfactorily the cesium extraction from five different SRS waste simulants. This process model encompassed almost exclusively 1:1:1 metal:anion:ligand species. Fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate species were found to be very little extractable, and their main impact is reflected through their activity effects. This model gave a very good cesium and potassium extraction prediction from sodium salts, which is what is needed when trying to predict the behavior from actual waste. However, the extraction from potassium or cesium salts, and the extraction of sodium could be improved, and some additional effort was devoted to improve the thermodynamic rigor of the model. Toward this end, more detailed anion-specific models were developed based on the cesium, potassium, and sodium distribution ratios obtained with simple systems containing single anions, but it has not yet proven possible to combine those models to obtain better predictions than provided by the process model.

  3. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  4. Realistic nuclear shell theory and the doubly-magic 132Sn region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introduction discussing the motivation and interest in results obtained with isotope separators, the fundamental problem in realistic nuclear shell theory is posed in the context of renormalization theory. Then some of the important developments that have occurred over the last fifteen years in the derivation of the effective Hamiltonian and application of realistic nuclear shell theory are briefly reviewed. Doubly magic regions of the periodic table and the unique advantages of the 132Sn region are described. Then results are shown for the ground-state properties of 132Sn as calculated from the density-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with the Skyrme Hamiltonian. A single theoretical Hamiltonian for all nuclei from doubly magic 132Sn to doubly magic 208Pb is presented; single-particle energies are graphed. Finally, predictions of shell-model level-density distributions obtained with spectral distribution methods are discussed; calculated level densities are shown for 136Xe. 10 figures

  5. IDH1R132H in Neural Stem Cells: Differentiation Impaired by Increased Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Rosiak

    Full Text Available The high frequency of mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1 gene in diffuse gliomas indicates its importance in the process of gliomagenesis. These mutations result in loss of the normal function and acquisition of the neomorphic activity converting α-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate. This potential oncometabolite may induce the epigenetic changes, resulting in the deregulated expression of numerous genes, including those related to the differentiation process or cell survivability.Neural stem cells were derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells following embryoid body formation. Neural stem cells transduced with mutant IDH1R132H, empty vector, non-transduced and overexpressing IDH1WT controls were differentiated into astrocytes and neurons in culture. The neuronal and astrocytic differentiation was determined by morphology and expression of lineage specific markers (MAP2, Synapsin I and GFAP as determined by real-time PCR and immunocytochemical staining. Apoptosis was evaluated by real-time observation of Caspase-3 activation and measurement of PARP cleavage by Western Blot.Compared with control groups, cells expressing IDH1R132H retained an undifferentiated state and lacked morphological changes following stimulated differentiation. The significant inhibitory effect of IDH1R132H on neuronal and astrocytic differentiation was confirmed by immunocytochemical staining for markers of neural stem cells. Additionally, real-time PCR indicated suppressed expression of lineage markers. High percentage of apoptotic cells was detected within IDH1R132H-positive neural stem cells population and their derivatives, if compared to normal neural stem cells and their derivatives. The analysis of PARP and Caspase-3 activity confirmed apoptosis sensitivity in mutant protein-expressing neural cells.Our study demonstrates that expression of IDH1R132H increases apoptosis susceptibility of neural stem cells and their derivatives. Robust

  6. IDH1R132H in Neural Stem Cells: Differentiation Impaired by Increased Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Kamila; Smolarz, Maciej; Stec, Wojciech J.; Peciak, Joanna; Grzela, Dawid; Winiecka-Klimek, Marta; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Krynska, Barbara; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Rieske, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background The high frequency of mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene in diffuse gliomas indicates its importance in the process of gliomagenesis. These mutations result in loss of the normal function and acquisition of the neomorphic activity converting α-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate. This potential oncometabolite may induce the epigenetic changes, resulting in the deregulated expression of numerous genes, including those related to the differentiation process or cell survivability. Methods Neural stem cells were derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells following embryoid body formation. Neural stem cells transduced with mutant IDH1R132H, empty vector, non-transduced and overexpressing IDH1WT controls were differentiated into astrocytes and neurons in culture. The neuronal and astrocytic differentiation was determined by morphology and expression of lineage specific markers (MAP2, Synapsin I and GFAP) as determined by real-time PCR and immunocytochemical staining. Apoptosis was evaluated by real-time observation of Caspase-3 activation and measurement of PARP cleavage by Western Blot. Results Compared with control groups, cells expressing IDH1R132H retained an undifferentiated state and lacked morphological changes following stimulated differentiation. The significant inhibitory effect of IDH1R132H on neuronal and astrocytic differentiation was confirmed by immunocytochemical staining for markers of neural stem cells. Additionally, real-time PCR indicated suppressed expression of lineage markers. High percentage of apoptotic cells was detected within IDH1R132H-positive neural stem cells population and their derivatives, if compared to normal neural stem cells and their derivatives. The analysis of PARP and Caspase-3 activity confirmed apoptosis sensitivity in mutant protein-expressing neural cells. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that expression of IDH1R132H increases apoptosis susceptibility of neural stem cells and their

  7. Results of removing radioactive cesium from the shallow rice fields by planting sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoping that revival of agriculture in the disaster area by Fukushima nuclear plant accident, the author and others cultivated shallow fields by planting sunflower and measured the cesium concentration absorbed in root, steam and the surrounding soil and also absorptive situation at fixed intervals as the plant grows. They could obtain the results that the sunflower has its maximum ability for cesium absorption and adsorption just before going into bloom. They conclude that the Cs 137-contaminated shallow fields (<15 cm) may be decontaminated with the efficiency of 30%/year assuming the root contamination is 8,000 Bq/kg and twice harvesting per year. (S. Ohno)

  8. Measurement of Ionization Threshold of Ultracold Cesium Rydberg Atoms in Static Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Lin-Jie; ZHAO Jian-Ming; LI Chang-Yong; LI An-Ling; JIA Suo-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the field ionization spectra of ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms in dc electric field. The ionization thresholds of different electric fields are measured and shift of the ionization threshold relative to field-free ionization threshold is accurately described by (6.06±0.14) F1/2, which is in good agreement with the classical saddle-point model for field ionization. We obtain the field-free ionization threshold of cesium (6P,3/2) as 19674.89士2.99cm-1 by fitting experimental data.

  9. Psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented work had as objective the accomplishment of a comparative study of cesium-137 radioactive element effects in the psychological and motor development of children which were going submitted the intra-uterus irradiation during the chronological age of three years. The comparison of the results of study is done through a group-control composed for five children without any involvement with the cesium-137 accident - occurred in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil - of same social, economic and cultural level and with the same age of the reached

  10. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  11. Removal of cesium from aqueous solutions and radioactive waste stimulants by coprecipitated flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitated flotation (CPF) investigations show that cesium can be efficiently separated from aqueous solutions by coprecipitation with zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) and subsequent flotation of the precipitate. Collectors of different types were tested but pyridinium chloride showed the best performance before undertaking the flotation investigations coprecipitation of Cs with ZnHCF was studied to determine the optimal coprecipitation conditions. The developed CPF process was applied successfully for 137Cs removal from process wastewater and low level liquid radioactive waste stimulants . The obtained results compare favorably with data published for cesium removal by coprecipitation or adsorption processes. Besides, CPF seems to be more advantageous

  12. On specific features of thermoemission of cesium-implanted molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of keeping in an electric field of the anode on the emission current of cesium ion doped molybdenum single crystal has been observed. An X-ray diffractometer has been used to show the formation of a new phase in the near-surface region of crystals after doping that is not identified with none of the known molybdenum compounds. The observed specific features of the thermoemission are attributed to a change of the work function of the crystal surface as a result of cesium ions migration in the lattice of the formed ternary chemical compound

  13. Behaviour of cesium in contaminated soils with and without agricultural practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of cesium into affected agricultural soils, five years after the Chernobyl accident, is examined in this study. Samples of soil were taken from an undisturbed non-cultivated rural area in the north of Greece, where an important contamination has been detected. The migration of 137Cs into these soils was measured by γ spectrometry. Slight movement of 137Cs was observed during the five year period following the accident. The agricultural practices, used in this area from 1986 up to now, have diluted the contamination into the 0-40 cm horizon and thus only low concentration of cesium in the cultivated soils was detected. (orig.)

  14. Photoemission and optical constant measurements of a Cesium Iodide thin film photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of cesium iodide as a reflective photocathode is presented. The absolute quantum efficiency of a 500 nm thick film of cesium iodide has been measured in the wavelength range 150 nm–200 nm. The optical absorbance has been analyzed in the wavelength range 190 nm–900 nm and the optical band gap energy has been calculated. The dispersion properties were determined from the refractive index using an envelope plot of the transmittance data. The morphological and elemental film composition have been investigated by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy techniques

  15. A direct frequency comb for two-photon transition spectroscopy in a cesium vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi-Chi; Wu Ji-Zhou; Li Yu-Qing; Jin Li; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Zhao Yan-Ting; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    A phase-stabilized femtosecond frequency comb is used to measure high-resolution spectra of two-photon transition 62S1/2-62P1/2,3/2-82S1/2 in a cesium vapor.The broadband laser output from a femtosecond frequency comb is split into counter-propagating parts,shaped in an original way,and focused into a room-temperature cesium vapor.We obtain high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy by scanning the repetition rate of femtosecond frequency comb,and through absolute frequency measurements.

  16. Sensitivity of cesium chemistry to the O/U radio in UO2+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of O/U ratio on chemical reactivity was investigated in a cesium-iodide/uranium/tungsten system at temperatures up to 2200 K. It was found that slight changes in the oxidation of the urania had a large effect on reactivity. Crushed fresh fuel samples showed little reaction with CsI; however, slightly hyperstoichiometric fuel showed considerable reaction. The tungsten participated in the reaction by removing excess oxygen from the urania, eventually leading to a cesium tungstate species that was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. (author)

  17. Summary of cesium-137 sludge irradiation activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research initiated in 1975 has demonstrated that cesium-137 is an effective isotope for reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets criteria for protection of the public health. Complementary research has demonstrated the value of the irradiated sludge in both agronomic and animal science applications. A 7,250 kg/day cesium-137 sludge irradiator is operating at Sandia National Laboratories. A full-scale facility will be constructed and operated by the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico to disinfect the City's sludge prior to reuse. (author)

  18. Separation of cesium from rad waste solutions with hexacyanoferrate(II) resins of copper and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of radiocesium from low and intermediate level waste solutions by ion exchange with potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate(II) and potassium copper-cobalt hexacyanoferrate(II) loaded resins was studied. The distribution coefficient(Kd) of cesium as a function of sodium ion concentration was determined. High batch capacity of these resins with regards to cesium make them ideal sorbents that can be used in once through mode in the treatment of rad waste solutions. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. A preliminary deposit model for lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; McCauley, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. We emphasize practical aspects of pegmatite geology that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites, or for assessing regions for pegmatite-related mineral resource potential. These deposits are an important link in the world’s supply chain of rare and strategic elements, accounting for about one-third of world lithium production, most of the tantalum, and all of the cesium.

  20. Synthesis of novel calixcrown derivatives with selective complexation towards cesium ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Juan Du; Li Hua Yuan; Dong Zhang; Gui Ping Dan; Yuan You Yang; Wen Feng

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel calix [4]arenecrown-6 derivatives with an alkenyl loop of various sizes 5-8 were synthesized via intramolecular ring closing olefin metathesis and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-HRMS. Their complexation property towards cesium ion was studied by 'H NMR technique. Two-phase extraction of alkali metal ions using UV-vis spectroscopy revealed remarkably different extractabilities. These results indicate that the complexation capacities towards cesium ions can be tuned and controlled through cooperative regulation of the strain of the loop and conformational change of calixcrown skelton.

  1. Recent progress in optically-pumped cesium beam clock at Peking University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Zhou, S.; Wan, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    A compact, long-life, and low-drift cesium beam clock is investigated at Peking University, where the atoms are magnetic-state selected and optically detected. Stability close to that of the best commercial cesium clocks has been achieved from 10 to 105 s. As previously shown, the short-term stability is determined by atomic shot noise or laser frequency noise. The stabilizations of microwave power and C-field improve the long-term stability, with the help of a digital servo system based on field-programmable gate array.

  2. Strontium 90 and cesium 137 content in man's teeth and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1972, samples from teeth and hair were collected from the following age groups: 1-10 years of age, 10-20 years of age, over 20 years of age. The data show highest concentration of strontium 90 in children's teeth, followed by the second group (10-20 years of age) and the lowest concentration in the age group over 20 years. No reliable age related differences in the hair concentrations of strontium 90 and cesium 137 are found. The data for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content in teeth and hair are in good agreement with the literature data for other European countries. (author)

  3. Separation of cesium from simulated active waste using zinc hexacyanoferrate supported composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate (KZnHCF) was prepared and supported on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binding polymer. This composite was characterized and used to study the elimination of cesium from acidic radioactive waste containing Sr(II), Eu(II), Am(II), Zr(IV), Hf(IV) and Nb(V) using batch and column techniques. The sorption capacity of this composite for cesium was found to be 1.14 meq/g for column technique. The effect of presence of NH4SCN, NaNo3 and other complexing agents in the aqueous solutions was studied

  4. Relation between pairing gaps and transition probabilities in 132,136Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear masses were measured very precisely in the region around 132Sn recently. One of the new insights obtained from the measurements is the sudden decrease in the neutron pairing gap as the neutron number N increases across 82. There was an indication of that decrease based on the experimental data of the anomalous first 2+ states of 132,136Te and the numerical results of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). We show a simple analytical explanation of the relation between the anomaly and the neutron pairing gap referring to the most recent experimental gaps and equations of the QRPA.

  5. Proton particle-neutron hole states in 132Sb with a realistic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the particle-hole nucleus 132Sb provides a direct source of information on the effective neutron-proton interaction in the 132Sn region. We have performed a shell-model calculation for this nucleus using a realistic effective interaction derived from the Bonn A nucleon-nucleon potential. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data evidencing the reliability of our effective interaction matrix elements both with isospin T=1 and T=0. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Proton particle-neutron hole states in {sup 132}Sb with a realistic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, F.; Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Porrino, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kuo, T.T. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The structure of the particle-hole nucleus {sup 132}Sb provides a direct source of information on the effective neutron-proton interaction in the {sup 132}Sn region. We have performed a shell-model calculation for this nucleus using a realistic effective interaction derived from the Bonn A nucleon-nucleon potential. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data evidencing the reliability of our effective interaction matrix elements both with isospin T=1 and T=0. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Flame photometric determination of cesium ion after its preconcentration with nanoparticles imprinted with the cesium-dibenzo-24-crown-8 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the synthesis of cesium ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles that were prepared by a precipitation polymerization strategy using dibenzo-24-crown-8 ether as a selective crown ether, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker, and AIBN as the radical initiator. The prepared sorbents have a diameter of 50-90 nm and display highly selective binding capability for Cs(I) ion, with rapid adsorption and desorption. The maximum adsorption capacity is 50 mg g-1, and the preconcentration factor is around 100 at pH 9.0. Cesium ion was then determined by flame photometry with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.7 ng mL-1 and with a standard deviation of 0.9 %. (author)

  8. Stable cesium uptake and accumulation capacities of five plant species as influenced by bacterial inoculation and cesium distribution in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Watanabe, Izumi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    The effects of inoculation with Bacillus and Azospirillum strains on growth and cesium accumulation of five plant species, Komatsuna, Amaranth, sorghum, common millet and buckwheat, grown on cesium-spiked soil were assessed for potential use in cesium remediation. Pot experiments were performed using "artificially" Cs-contaminated soil. Three treatments were applied based on Cs location in the soil. For a soil height of 15 cm in the pots, Cs was added as follows: in the top five cm to imitate no ploughing condition; in the bottom five cm simulating inverted ploughing; and uniformly distributed Cs reproducing normal plowing. Generally, inoculation of Cs-exposed plants significantly enhanced growth and tolerance to this element. Transfer factor (ratio of Cs concentration in the plant tissues to that in surrounding soil) was strongly influenced by Cs distribution, with higher values in the top-Cs treatment. Within this treatment, inoculation of Komatsuna with Bacillus and Azospirillum strains resulted in the greatest transfer factors of 6.55 and 6.68, respectively. Cesium content in the shoots was high in the Azospirillum-inoculated Komatsuna, Amaranth, and buckwheat, i.e., 1,830, 1,220, and 1,030 µg per pot, respectively (five plants were grown in each pot). Therefore, inoculation of Komatsuna and Amaranth with the strains tested here could be effective in enhancing Cs accumulation. The decrease of Cs transfer under uniform- and bottom-Cs treatments would suggest that countermeasures aiming at decreasing the transfer of Cs could rely on ploughing practices. PMID:25002227

  9. X-ray imaging performance of structured cesium iodide scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Ristic, Goran; Rowlands, J A

    2004-09-01

    Columnar structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators doped with Thallium (Tl) have been used extensively for indirect x-ray imaging detectors. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for systematic investigation of the inherent imaging performance of CsI as a function of thickness and design type. The results will facilitate the optimization of CsI layer design for different x-ray imaging applications, and allow validation of physical models developed for the light channeling process in columnar CsI layers. CsI samples of different types and thicknesses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were optimized either for light output (HL) or image resolution (HR), and the thickness ranged between 150 and 600 microns. During experimental measurements, the CsI samples were placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS optical sensor with a pixel pitch of 48 microns. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector with different CsI configurations were measured experimentally. The aperture function of the CMOS sensor was determined separately in order to estimate the MTF of CsI alone. We also measured the pulse height distribution of the light output from both the HL and HR CsI at different x-ray energies, from which the x-ray quantum efficiency, Swank factor and x-ray conversion gain were determined. Our results showed that the MTF at 5 cycles/mm for the HR type was 50% higher than for the HL. However, the HR layer produces approximately 36% less light output. The Swank factor below K-edge was 0.91 and 0.93 for the HR and HL types, respectively, thus their DQE(0) were essentially identical. The presampling MTF decreased as a function of thickness L. The universal MTF, i.e., MTF plotted as a function of the product of spatial frequency f and CsI thickness L, increased as a function of L. This indicates that the light channeling process in CsI improved the MTF of

  10. 26 CFR 1.132-7 - Employer-operated eating facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer-operated eating facilities. 1.132-7... Employer-operated eating facilities. (a) In general—(1) Condition for exclusion—(i) General rule. The value of meals provided to employees at an employer-operated eating facility for employees is...

  11. 5 CFR 550.132 - Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Notwithstanding premium pay for holiday work, the number of hours of holiday work are included in determining for... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.132 Relation to overtime, night, and Sunday pay. (a) Premium pay for holiday work is in addition to overtime pay or night...

  12. 5,5-Dimethyl-2-methylseleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Cholewinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H13O3PSe, was obtained in the reaction of 5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-seleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane potassium salt with methyl iodide. The selenomethyl group is in the axial position in relation to the six-membered dioxaphosphorinane ring.

  13. THREE-VALENCE-PARTICE NUCLEI IN THE 132Sn and 208 Pb REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among the nuclei of the nuclear charter, the nuclei around closed shells play a key role in understanding the effective interaction properties between nucleons far from the valley of stability; particulary, the nuclei of a few valence nucleons around doubly magic 208 28Pb126 and 132 50Sn82 nuclei. The interest of both regions 208Pb and 132Sn lies in the fact that there is a great similarity between their nuclear spectroscopic properties. The single energy gaps in both cases are comparable and the orbitals above and below these gaps are similarly ordered. Each single state in the region of 132Sn has its counterpart in that of 208Pb. An interesting predictive consequence, the interactions of the Sn region, difficult region to reach experimentally, can be estimated from their corresponding ones constructed to describe the nuclei of the Pb region. Because of the importance of the similarity existing between the spectroscopy of these two regions, we are interested in nuclei with three valence nucleons in the lead and Tin regions on the basis of experimental data (spin, parity and energy states). In this context, the theoretical study is conducted within the shell model using the MSDI interaction for the energy spectra calculations of the studied nuclei. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and show evidence that a close resemblance between the spectroscopy of these two regions persists when moving away from the immediate neighbours of doubly magic 132Sn and 208Pb.

  14. El movimiento estudiantil #YoSoy132 a un año de distancia

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ma. Fernández; Gustavo Vázquez; Pedro Canales; Okany Castillo; Rafael Flores; Allan Garfias; Maribel Martínez; Cesar Mirafuentes; Michell Soria; Francisco Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    A través de una encuesta aplicada a hombres y mujeres de la ciudad de México, los autores de este artículo dan a conocer el actual sentir ciudadano acerca del movimiento estudiantil #YoSoy132, la primavera mexicana que sacudió la elección presidencial de 2012.

  15. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YIL132C, YLR376C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YIL132C CSM2 Protein involved in a Rad51p-, Rad54p-dependent pathway for homologous recombinatio ... type; deletion increases sensitivity to anticancer drugs ... oxaliplatin and cisplatin but not mitomycin C Rows ... type; deletion increases sensitivity to anticancer drugs ... oxaliplatin and cisplatin but not mitomycin C Rows ...

  16. Coulomb excitation of doubly magic $^{132}$Sn with MINIBALL at HIE-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the vibrational first 2$^{+}$ and 3$^{-}$ states of the doubly magic nucleus $^{132}$ Sn via Coulomb excitation using the HIE-ISOLDE facility coupled with the highly efficient MINIBALL array. The intense $^{132}$Sn beam at ISOLDE, the high beam energy of HIE-ISOLDE, the high energy resolution and good efficiency of the MINIBALL provide a unique combination and favourable advantages to master this demanding measurement. Reliable B(E2;0$^{+}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$) values for neutron deficient $^{106,108,110}$Sn were obtained with the MINIBALL at REX-ISOLDE. These measurements can be extended up to and beyond the shell closure at the neutron-rich side with $^{132}$Sn. The results on excited collective states in $^{132}$Sn will provide crucial information on 2p-2h cross shell configurations which are expected to be dominated by a strong proton contribution. Predictions are made within various large scale shell model calculations and new mean field calculations within the framework of different a...

  17. Identification of the first surrogate agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor GPR132

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mohamed A.; Christensen, Hanna Belcik; Isberg, Vignir; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Bender, Andreas; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Gloriam, David E.

    2015-01-01

    GPR132 is an orphan class A G protein-coupled receptor. It has been proposed to be activated by protons and to regulate apoptosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, but these results are still preliminary. In the current work, we designed and screened a focused compound library using a β...

  18. miR-132 targeting E2F5 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hang; Hou, Lei; Xiong, Yu-Mei; Huang, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Pan, Yong-Ying; Song, Xing-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence showed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) are involved in development and progression of several types of cancers, however, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. In this study we investigated the biological roles and molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer. Here, we found that that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical ovarian cancer tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Mechanism investigation revealed that miR-132 inhibited the expression of transcription factor E2F5 by specifically targeting its mRNA 3’UTR. Moreover, the expression level of E2F5 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-132 expression in clinical ovarian cancer tissues. Additionally, silencing E2F5 was able to inhibit the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 overexpression on the ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of E2F5 reversed the inhibition effect mediated by miR-132 overexpression. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells by targeting E2F5. PMID:27186275

  19. MiR-132 prohibits proliferation, invasion, migration, and metastasis in breast cancer by targeting HN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan-Guo, E-mail: zhang_zhanguo@hotmail.com; Chen, Wei-Xun, E-mail: chenweixunclark@163.com; Wu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: wuyanhui84@126.com; Liang, Hui-Fang, E-mail: lianghuifang1997@126.com; Zhang, Bi-Xiang, E-mail: bixiangzhang@163.com

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • MiR-132 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • MiR-132 directly regulates HN1 by binding its 3′ UTR. • MiR-132 shows regulatory role in proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis. • HN1 is involved in miR-132-mediated cell behavior. • Aberrant HN1 is associated with worse overall survival of breast cancer patients. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. This study aims to investigate the role and the underlying mechanism of miR-132 in breast cancer. Here, we report that miR-132 is significantly down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Additional study identifies HN1 as a novel direct target of miR-132. MiR-132 down-regulates HN1 expression by binding to the 3′ UTR of HN1 transcript, thereby, suppressing multiple oncogenic traits such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of HN1 restores miR-132-suppressed malignancy. Importantly, higher HN1 expression is significantly associated with worse overall survival of breast cancer patients. Taken together, our data demonstrate a critical role of miR-132 in prohibiting cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in breast cancer through direct suppression of HN1, supporting the potential utility of miR-132 as a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer.

  20. A monoclonal antibody IMab-1 specifically recognizes IDH1{sup R132H}, the most common glioma-derived mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukinari, E-mail: yukinari-k@bea.hi-ho.ne.jp [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC-3156, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); The Oncology Research Center, Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Epidemiology, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Jin, Genglin; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; McLendon, Roger E.; Yan, Hai; Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC-3156, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    IDH1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1) mutations have been identified as early and frequent genetic alterations in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas as well as secondary glioblastomas. In contrast, primary glioblastomas very rarely contain IDH1 mutations, although primary and secondary glioblastomas are histologically indistinguishable. The IDH1 mutations are remarkably specific to a single codon in the conserved and functionally important Arg132 in IDH1. In gliomas, the most frequent IDH1 mutations (>90%) were G395A (R132H). In this study, we immunized mice with R132H-containing IDH1 (IDH1{sup R132H}) peptide. After cell fusion using Sendai virus envelope, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which specifically reacted with IDH1{sup R132H}, were screened in ELISA. One of the mAbs, IMab-1 reacted with the IDH1{sup R132H} peptide, but not with wild type IDH1 (IDH1{sup wt}) peptide in ELISA. In Western-blot analysis, IMab-1 reacted with only the IDH1{sup R132H} protein, not IDH1{sup wt} protein or the other IDH1 mutants, indicating that IMab-1 is IDH1{sup R132H}-specific. Furthermore, IMab-1 specifically stained the IDH1{sup R132H}-expressing cells in astrocytomas in immunohistochemistry, whereas it did not react with IDH1{sup R132H}-negative primary glioblastoma sections. In conclusion, we established an anti-IDH1{sup R132H}-specific monoclonal antibody IMab-1, which should be significantly useful for diagnosis and biological evaluation of mutation-bearing gliomas.

  1. MiR-132 prohibits proliferation, invasion, migration, and metastasis in breast cancer by targeting HN1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MiR-132 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • MiR-132 directly regulates HN1 by binding its 3′ UTR. • MiR-132 shows regulatory role in proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis. • HN1 is involved in miR-132-mediated cell behavior. • Aberrant HN1 is associated with worse overall survival of breast cancer patients. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. This study aims to investigate the role and the underlying mechanism of miR-132 in breast cancer. Here, we report that miR-132 is significantly down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Additional study identifies HN1 as a novel direct target of miR-132. MiR-132 down-regulates HN1 expression by binding to the 3′ UTR of HN1 transcript, thereby, suppressing multiple oncogenic traits such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of HN1 restores miR-132-suppressed malignancy. Importantly, higher HN1 expression is significantly associated with worse overall survival of breast cancer patients. Taken together, our data demonstrate a critical role of miR-132 in prohibiting cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in breast cancer through direct suppression of HN1, supporting the potential utility of miR-132 as a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer

  2. MiR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells via targeting the EMT regulator ZEB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacong You

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Emerging evidence reveals that deregulation of miRNAs contributes to the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in examined NSCLC cell lines and clinical NSCLC tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells in vitro, suggesting that miR-132 may be a novel tumor suppressor. Further studies indicated that the EMT-related transcription factor ZEB2 was one direct target genes of miR-132, evidenced by the direct binding of miR-132 with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of ZEB2. Further, miR-132 could decrease the expression of ZEB2 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Notably, the EMT marker E-cadherin or vimentin, a downstream of ZEB2, was also down-regulated or up-regulated upon miR-132 treatment. Additionally, over-expressing or silencing ZEB2 was able to elevate or inhibit the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 on the lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, knockdown of ZEB2 reversed the enhanced migration and invasion mediated by anti-miR-132. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells through targeting ZEB2 involving the EMT process. Thus, our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of NSCLC progression. Therapeutically, miR-132 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of human lung cancer.

  3. Complexation of the cesium cation with lithium ionophore VIII: extraction and DFT study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Novák, Vít; Vaňura, P.; Bouř, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 3 (2013), s. 2065-2068. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cesium cation * lithium ionophore VIII * complexation * extraction and stability constants * water-nitrobenzene system * DFT calculations * structures Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2013

  4. Cesium Sorption from Concentrated Acidic Tank Wastes Using Ammonium Molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile Composite Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry Allen; Mann, Nicholas Robert; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.,

    2002-10-01

    Ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) composite sorbents have been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) concentrated acidic tank waste. Batch contacts were performed to qualitatively evaluate the effects of increased nitric acid, sodium and potassium. An equilibrium isotherm was generated with simulated concentrated tank waste solutions and fit to the Langmuir equation. Additional batch contact experiments were performed to determine if mercury, plutonium and americium would sorb onto AMP-PAN. Dynamic sorption was evaluated in column tests employing 1.5 cm3 columns operating at 5, 10 and 20 bed volumes of flow per hour. Results indicate, as expected, that dynamic cesium sorption capacity is reduced as the flowrate is increased. Calculated dynamic capacities for cesium were 22.5, 19.8 and 19.6 mg Cs/g sorbent, for 5, 10 and 20 bed volume per hour flows, respectively. The thermal stability of loaded AMP-PAN was evaluated by performing thermogrovimetric analysis (TGA) on samples of AMP, PAN (polymer), and AMP-PAN. Results indicate that AMP-PAN is stable to 400 °C, with less than a 10% loss of weight, which is at least partially due to loss of water of hydration. The evaluation of AMP-PAN indicates that it will effectively remove cesium from concentrated acidic tank waste solutions.

  5. Equilibrium in water-peroxide solutions of cesium tellurate studied by 125Te NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-peroxide solutions of cesium tellurate are studied by the method of 125Te NMR spectroscopy. It is shown that there are different anionic forms of Te(VI) in equilibrium in the system studied, including compounds with coordinated peroxy- and hydroperoxy-groups

  6. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, T

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  7. Nanophotonic hybridization of narrow atomic cesium resonances and photonic stop gaps of opaline nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harding, P.J.; Pinkse, P.W.H.; Mosk, A.P.; Vos, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    We study a hybrid system consisting of a narrow-band atomic optical resonance and the long-range periodic order of an opaline photonic nanostructure. To this end, we have infiltrated atomic cesium vapor in a thin silica opal photonic crystal. With increasing temperature, the frequencies of the opal'

  8. Investigation of thermoemission properties and elemental composition of cesium-implanted single crystal niobium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependences of work function and elemental composition of the surface of two samples of niobium single crystal doped by cesium ions are studied. The effects of decrease and increase of the emission current under the action of anodic potential are observed. Possible causes of the effects observed are discussed

  9. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor fcs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, fcs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of fcs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V)

  10. Cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by granulometric fractions of soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measurements of radionuclide specific content in surface soil layer of contaminated territories it is important to determine in what agglomerations of soil particles there is the highest radionuclide concentration. For this purpose granulometric composition of soil at Azgir test site was studied and cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by soil fractions was researched. (author)

  11. Leachability of cobalt and cesium from natural and chemically treated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of leachability of radioisotopes of cesium and cobalt from preloaded zeolites in distilled water, base solution and acid solution has been studied. For the experiment, we used natural and chemically treated zeolites. The zeolites before leaching were calcined at different temperatures. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Industrial scale removal of cesium with hexacyanoferrate exchanger -- Process realization and test run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Loviisa Nuclear Power Station (NPS) all liquid waste, i.e., spent resins and evaporator concentrates, have been stored in a large tank storage facility. Dominating radionuclides in the evaporator concentrates have been 134Cs and 137Cs. By removing cesium from the waste, purified liquid can be released within licensed release limits, and cobalt as a second dominating nuclide is left in a small waste volume on the bottom of the tank. Since 1985, the use of inorganic hexacyanoferrate-based materials for purification of cesium has been studied. A full-scale system for cesium removal, called the IVO-CsTreat System, was constructed in 1990 to 1991. A method to produce the ion exchanger in granular form in industrial scale was developed, and the facility to produce it was constructed. The ion exchange material was produced in 1991, and the full-scale purification facility was commissioned at the Loviisa NPS in October 1991. In the test run, 253 m3 of concentrate was purified between october 31, 1991 and June 11, 1992 with three ion exchange columns, each with a volume of 8 liters. A volume reduction factor of over 10,000 was achieved as the ratio of liquid and ion exchanger volume. The decontamination factor for cesium was ∼ 2,000

  13. Dual cesium and rubidium atomic fountain with a 10-16 level accuracy and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic fountains are the most accomplished development of the atomic clocks based on the cesium atom whose hyperfine resonance defines the SI second since 1967. Today these systems are among those which realize the second with the best accuracy. We present the last developments of the cold cesium and rubidium atom dual fountain experiment at LNE-SYRTE. This unique dual setup would allow to obtain an outstanding resolution in fundamental physics tests based on atomic transition frequency comparisons. In order to enable operation with both atomic species simultaneously, we designed, tested and implemented on the fountain new collimators which combine the laser lights corresponding to each atom. By comparing our rubidium fountain to another cesium fountain over a decade, we performed a test of the stability of the fine structure constant at the level of 5 * 10-16 per year. We carried on the work on the clock accuracy and we focused on the phase gradients effects in the interrogation cavity and on the microwave leakage. The fountain accuracy has been evaluated to 4 * 10-16 for the cesium clock and to 5 * 10-16 for the refurbished rubidium clock. As a powerful instrument of metrology, our fountain was implicated in many clock comparisons and contributed many times to calibrate the International Atomic Time. Furthermore, we used the fountain to perform a new test of Lorentz local invariance. (author)

  14. Separation of cesium-137 from uranium fission products via a NeoflonR column supporting tetraphenylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is a member of the Group I alkali metals, very reactive earth metals that react vigorously with both air and water. The chemistry of cesium is much like the chemistry of neighboring elements on the periodic table, potassium and rubidium. This close relation creates many problems in plant-life exposed to cesium because it is so easily confused for potassium, an essential nutrient to plants. Radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs are also chemically akin to potassium and stable cesium. Uptake of these radioactive isotopes from groundwater by plant-life destroys the plant-life and can potentially expose humans to the radioactive affects of 134Cs and 137Cs. Much experimental work has been focused on the separation of 137Cs from uranium fission products. In previous experimental work performed a column consisting of Kel-F supporting tetraphenylboron (TPB) was utilized to separate 137Cs from uranium fission products. It is of interest at this time to attempt the separation of 134Cs from 0.01M EDTA using the same method and Neoflon in the place of Kel-F as the inert support. The results of this experiment give a separation efficiency of 88% and show a linear relationship between the column bed length and the separation efficiency obtained. (author)

  15. Sorption behavior of cesium from aqueous solution on magnetic hexacyanoferrate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hengxuan; Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wei, Jiying; Li, Fuzhi

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel pathway of synthesizing magnetic hexacyanoferrate material was developed. • The synthesized material can offer a high capacity for sorption of cesium. • The material can offer a fast removal of cesium in kinetic performance. • The fine M-PTH particle can be easily separated from wastewater for recirculation. - Abstract: The rapid development of the nuclear power plant in China leads to increasing attention to the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). One of possibilities is the application of inorganic adsorbent like potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate (PTH), which can exhibit the effective adsorption of cesium. In this paper, the PTH material was optimized by means of being loaded on magnetite substrate. The synthesized material (magnetic PTH, M-PTH), with a particle size of less than 100 nm, can offer a high capacity and favorable kinetic performance, however, without difficulties of separation from the LLRW due to its magnetic characterizations. The batch experiments demonstrate that cesium sorption isotherm of M-PTH coincide well with Langmuir model. The calculated capacity amounts to 0.517 mmol/g, approximately 1.5 times the capacity of zeolite materials. The sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order sorption model. In the initial phase the rate-controlling step is intraparticle diffusion. With the Cs accumulation on the particle surface, external diffusion performs an important role together with intraparticle diffusion.

  16. Immobilization of aqueous radioactive cesium wastes by conversion to aluminosilicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive cesium (primarily 137Cs) is a major toxic constituent of liquid wastes from nuclear fuel processing plants. Because of the long half-life, highly penetrating radiation, and mobility of 137Cs, it is necessary to convert wastes containing this radioisotope into a solid form which will prevent movement to the biosphere during long-term storage. A method for converting cesium wastes to solid, highly insoluble, thermally stable aluminosilicate minerals is described. Aluminum silicate clays (bentonite, kaolin, or pyrophyllite) or hydrous aluminosilicate gels are reacted with basic waste solutions to form pollucite, cesium zeolite (Cs-D), Cs-F, cancrinite, or nepheline. Cesium is trapped in the aluminosilicate crystal lattice of the mineral and is permanently immobilized. The identity of the mineral product is dependent on the waste composition and the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the clay or gel. The stoichiometry and kinetics of mineral formation reactions are described. The products are evaluated with respect to leachability, thermal stability, and crystal morphology. (U.S.)

  17. Leaching of cesium and uranium from spent PWR fuel in the gel-state clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of cesium and uranium released from crushed spent PWR fuel in the gel-state clays with a few ml of supernatant at hot cell temperature under Ar-atmosphere have been measured. The fractions of cesium dissolved from the fuel for 873 days were 0.29 and 0.25% in Boom clay/Boom-clay water and Ca-bentonite/synthetic granitic groundwater, respectively. These cesium fractions were very close to the gap inventory of cesium, which was determined to be around 0.30% in the previous experiment. The fraction of uranium released up to 193 days in the Boom clay media was 0.011% and this fraction has been retained until 873 days. Such this phenomenon was also obtained in the Ca-bentonite media even though the released fraction was higher than that in Boom clay. The increase of less than 0.001% in the dissolved uranium fraction between 193 and 873 days suggests that the long-term leach rate of uranium from spent fuel would be much less than 24 μg·m-2·day-1. (author)

  18. Lasing and suppressed cavity-pulling effect of Cesium active optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhichao; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the collective emission behavior and suppressed cavity-pulling effect of four-level active optical clock with Cesium atoms. Thermal Cesium atoms in a glass cell velocity selective pumped with a 455.5 nm laser operating at 6S$_{1/2}$ to 7P$_{3/2}$ transition are used as lasing medium. Population inverted Cesium atoms between 7S$_{1/2}$ and 6P$_{3/2}$ levels are optical weakly coupled by a pair cavity mirrors working at deep bad-cavity regime with a finesse of 4.3, and the ratio between cavity bandwidth and gain bandwidth is approximately 45. With increased 455.5 nm pumping laser intensity, the output power of cesium active optical clock at 1469.9 nm from 7S$_{1/2}$ level to 6P$_{3/2}$ level shows a threshold and reach a power of 13 $\\mu$W. Active optical clock would dramatically improve the optical clock stability since the lasing frequency does not follow the cavity length variation exactly, but in a form of suppressed cavity pulling effect. In this letter the cavity pulling effe...

  19. Cobalt-60 and cesium-137 for the sterilization of food. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief article discusses the reasons justifying in the eyes of the authors the irradiation of food with ionizing readiation, the irradiation technique applied using cobalt-60 and cesium-137 as a radiation source, and the possible secondary effects of the method. (VHE)

  20. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  1. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite trademark CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration

  2. Atomic cesium 6h states observed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Kubelík, Petr; Jelínek, Petr; Chernov, V. E.; Knyazev, M. Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2011), s. 225006. ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : cesium * FTIR spectroscopy * infrared emission spectra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.875, year: 2011

  3. Cesium 137 and natural radioactive isotopes in the sediments of lake Zarzar in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises both natural and industrial radioactive isotopes in the sediments of lake Zarzar. The study utilises the measurements obtained for uranium and thorium concentration in the sediments and the ratio of their isotopes. The decrease in Lead 210 activity with the depth of sediments, and the analysis of cesium concentrations measured to determine the level of the radioactive contamination caused by Thiocarbonyl accident and to accurately calculate sedimentation rate. The study revealed that both uranium and thorium concentrations in lake Zarzar sediments were very near to the normal international values. It also showed that average 234U/238U ratio were 1 indicating later uranium accumulation in reduced water. Cesium measurements revealed the presence of high levels of 137 Cs in sediment which was attributed to the Thiocarbamoyl accident. The rate of sedimentation calculated from cesium and 210Pb measurements were approximately similar (0.81 cm/year for cesium and 0.65 cm/year for lead). This helped in verifying the accuracy of the methods used in obtaining these measurements in this study. (author)

  4. Z' indication from new APV data in Cesium and searches at linear colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.; Gatto, R.; Riemann, S.

    2000-01-01

    New data on parity violation in atomic cesium can be explained by a new neutral vector boson almost unmixed with Z, with a mass in the TeV range and sizeable couplings to the fermions. The properties of such additional Z' can be investigated at future linear colliders.

  5. Immobilisation of radio cesium loaded ammonium molybdo phosphate in glass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long half life and easy availability from high level wastes make 137Cesium most economical radiation source. High level liquid waste processing for 137 Cesium removal has become easier due to development of Cesium specific granulated ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) composite. In such applications, resulting spent composite AMP itself represents high active solid waste and immobilization of these materials in cement may not be acceptable. Studies on immobilization of 137Cs loaded AMP were taken up in order to achieve twin goals of increasing safety and minimizing processing costs of the final matrix. Studies indicated that phosphate modified sodium borosilicate SPNM glasses prepared under usual oxidizing conditions are not suitable for immobilization of 137Cs loaded on AMP .Phosphate glasses containing Na2O, P2O5, B2O3, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 as major constituents are capable of incorporating 6 to 8 % AMP. The Normalized Leach rates of these glasses for sodium, cesium, boron and silica are 10-4 to 10-6 gm/cm2/day which are comparable to or better than those reported for NBS glasses incorporating HLW. Homogeneity of the final matrix was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. Further studies on characterization of these glasses would establish their acceptability. (author)

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. 1982 to Dec. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. to Dec. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from 22 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are sown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983) were determined. Fishes were collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fishes (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Cadmium, lead, mercury and 137cesium in fruticose lichens of northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, lead and mercury concentration averaged 0.171, 4.09 and 0.09 μg·g-1 (dry wt.) in terrestrial lichens over a 640000-km2 study area of northern Quebec; average cesium level reached 378 Bq·kg-1 (dry wt.). Cadmium and lead were the most closely related pollutants in lichens, while there was little relationship between 137Cs and the 3 trace metals. Distribution of elements over the territory was not uniform and the altitude influenced 3 of them. The cesium concentration increased along with this variable, while lead levels were higher in the middle altitude class (200-400 m) than in the 2 other classes. There was a significant interaction between altitude and biome for mercury concentration, this element being almost twice more abundant in tundra below 400m than in forest tundra and boreal forest. Mercury level was related to percent ground cover by Alectoria ochroleuca, Cornicularia divergens and Cetraria nivalis, 3 lichen species typical of a wind-exposed habitat. Lead concentration was related only to Cornicularia divergens ground cover. In general concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was higher in the northwest quarter of the study area than elsewhere, while cesium contamination was highest in the southeast quarter. It seems preferable that caribou should be harvested at low elevation when they are taken in winter in order to minimize the risk associated with cesium consumption by humans. (author). 37 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. High-temperature cesium capture using activated kaolinite in the presence of chlorine and volatile heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Kim, Jeoung Guk; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong Sung [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated the use of porous activated kaolin particles in the size range of 300- 400 {mu}m as high-temperature sorbents for cesium capture in the presence of chlorine and/or in the presence of cadmium and lead. Packed bed sorption tests by passing CsCl-carrying flue gas through the packed bed of activated porous kaolin particles were first performed at the temperature range of 973-1173 K and a CsCl partial pressure range of 7.4-11.1 Pa. The observed structural change of the sorbent mineral at the stage of sorption revealed the characteristics of an irreversible chemical reaction as a major cesium capturing mechanism. In the fully saturated kaolin sorbent, Cs{sub 2}O{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}SiO{sub 2} is present as a sorption reaction product, together with much smaller amount of water-soluble cesium species. The increase in sorbent bed temperature resulted in an increase in the rate of sorption, but it had no effect on maximum cesium uptake. In the presence of other condensable gas-phase metal chlorides such as cadmium and lead, cesium was preferentially adsorbed onto tested activated kaolinite, but a half of cesium appeared to be physically-sorbed cesium species, CsCl.

  11. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  12. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1

  13. Cesium-137 in biota from the Bothnian sea after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl fallout in April 1986 hit the Swedish Bothnian Sea coast to a relatively large extent. Extended sampling programs to follow uptake and mobilization of Cs-137 at different trophic levels in the aquatic environment started immediately after the accident. Water, sediment, algae, fish and food organisms for fish have regularly been sampled during 1986 and 1988. The highest cesium concentration (3400 Bq/m3) in water from the Bothnian sea was detected in May-July 1986. Since September 1986 the cesium concentration has been decreasing and was about 500 Bq/m3 in March-June 1987. During the same period, green algae (Cladophora), from early top values at 17000 Bq/kg d.w., have rapidly decreased to about 200 Bq/kg d.w. Of the investigated food organisms, fish-spawn rapidly got high values (3000 Bq/kg d.w.) of cesium. There is also reason to believe that this was the case for plankton. The cesium concentration on the other food organisms was lower, about (500-1200 Bq/kg d.w.). The decrease was fast and already during August 1986 they had relatively low concentrations (less than 500 Bq/kg d.w.). The cesium metabolism was rapid in species that feed on plankton and filtered material from the pelagial, such as mussles and herring. The maximum concentration was reached (1000-1500 Bq/kg d.w.) in September 1986. Fish species with algae in the nutrient chain (e.g. roach) reached concentrations of about 1000 Bq/kg d.w. and the decrease is slower. The accessible cesium for prey fish became relatively good depending on the high concentrations in fish-spawn. The maximum value for the cesium concentration in perch and pike was 2000-3000 Bq/kg d.w. and the decrease is slow. From the results from late 1988 the concentration factor (CF) has been calculated for several fish species in brackish water

  14. Anaerobic oxidation of Hg(0) and methylmercury formation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matthew J.; Ha, Juyoung; Reinfelder, John R.; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2013-07-01

    The transformation of inorganic mercury (Hg) to methylmercury (MeHg) plays a key role in determining the amount of Hg that is bioaccumulated in aquatic food chains. An accurate knowledge of Hg methylation mechanisms is required to predict the conditions that promote MeHg production in aquatic environments. In this study, we conducted experiments to examine the oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] by the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Anoxic cultures of D. desulfuricans ND132 were exposed to Hg(0) in the dark, and samples were collected and analyzed for the loss of Hg(0), formation of non-purgeable Hg, and formation of MeHg over time. We found that D. desulfuricans ND132 rapidly transformed dissolved gaseous mercury into non-purgeable Hg, with bacterial cultures producing approximately 40 μg/L of non-purgeable Hg within 30 min, and as much as 800 μg/L of non-purgeable Hg after 36 h. Derivatization of the non-purgeable Hg in the cell suspensions to diethylmercury and analysis of Hg(0)-reacted D. desulfuricans ND132 cells using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that cell-associated Hg was dominantly in the oxidized Hg(II) form. Spectral comparisons and linear combination fitting of the XANES spectra indicated that the oxidized Hg(II) was covalently bonded to cellular thiol functional groups. MeHg analyses revealed that D. desulfuricans ND132 produced up to 118 μg/L of methylmercury after 36 h of incubation. We found that a significant fraction of the methylated Hg was exported out of the cell and released into the culture medium. The results of this work demonstrate a previously unrecognized pathway in the mercury cycle, whereby anaerobic bacteria produce MeHg when provided with dissolved Hg(0) as their sole Hg source.

  15. Sorption and desorption of cesium on rapakivi granite and its minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch sorption experiments of cesium were performed for rapakivi granite and its main minerals, and also for some fracture minerals. The main minerals quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende were magnetically separated from crushed rapakivi granite. The fracture minerals were chlorite, dolomite and kaolinite. Sorption was studied in fresh and saline reference waters containing cesium in the range of 10-8 to 10-3 mol/l. The distribution ratios for rapakivi granite generally decreased with an increasing Cs concentration and an increasing ionic strength. For fresh rapakivi granite, the sorption behaviour was rather complex in both fresh and saline reference waters, being complex for the other alteration stages only in saline water. Sorption increased unexpectedly when the initial cesium concentration was raised to 10-5 - 10-4 mol/l. The sorption on rapakivi granite was non-linear, especially in saline water. Sorption was reversible for rapakivi granite. The sorption on the minerals proved to be very non-linear, especially on biotite. Sorption was also reversible for biotite and kaolinite. For the other minerals, sorption was irreversible to some degree. As to the sorption of cesium investigated by studying thin sections of rapakivi granite and their autoradiograms, the most dominating mineral was biotite. The water analyses made during the sorption experiment revealed the exchange of potassium and cesium. The corresponding changes were difficult to detect in saline water. Calculation of the Rd values for the rock, based on the Rd values of minerals and the portions of minerals in the rock, yielded smaller distribution ratios than the values determined for the rock. (orig.)

  16. Tungstate-based glass-ceramics for the immobilization of radio cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabarek, Elizabeth; McLeod, Terry I.; Hanna, John V.; Griffith, Christopher S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Institute of Materials Engineering, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Luca, Vittorio [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Institute of Materials Engineering, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: vlu@ansto.gov.au

    2009-02-15

    The preparation of tungstate-containing glass-ceramic composites (GCC) for the potential immobilization of radio cesium has been considered. The GCC materials were prepared by blending two oxide precursor compositions in various proportions. These included a preformed Cs-containing hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) phase (Cs{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.2}W{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}, P6{sub 3}/mcm) and a blend of silica and other oxides. The use of the HTB phase was motivated on the assumption that a HTB-based adsorbent could be used to remove cesium directly from aqueous high level liquid waste feeds. In the absence of the HTB, glass-ceramics were relatively easily prepared from the Cs-containing glass-forming oxide blend. On melting the mixture a relative complex GCC phase assemblage formed. The principal components of this phase assemblage were determined using X-ray powder diffraction, {sup 133}Cs MAS-NMR, and cross-sectional SEM and included glass, various zeolites, scheelite (CaWO{sub 4}) and a range of other oxide phases and Cs-containing aluminosilicate. Importantly, under no circumstance was cesium partitioned into the glass phase irrespective of whether or not the composition included the preformed Cs-containing HTB compound. For compositions containing the HTB, cesium was partitioned into one of four major phases including zeolite; Cs-silica-tungstate bronze, pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), and an aluminosilicate with an Al/Si ratio close to one. The leach resistance of all materials was evaluated and related to the cesium distribution within the GCC phase assemblages. In general, the GCCs prepared from the HTB had superior durability compared with materials not containing tungsten. Indeed the compositions in many cases had leach resistances comparable to the best ceramics or glass materials.

  17. Tungstate-based glass-ceramics for the immobilization of radio cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of tungstate-containing glass-ceramic composites (GCC) for the potential immobilization of radio cesium has been considered. The GCC materials were prepared by blending two oxide precursor compositions in various proportions. These included a preformed Cs-containing hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) phase (Cs0.3Ti0.2W0.8O3, P63/mcm) and a blend of silica and other oxides. The use of the HTB phase was motivated on the assumption that a HTB-based adsorbent could be used to remove cesium directly from aqueous high level liquid waste feeds. In the absence of the HTB, glass-ceramics were relatively easily prepared from the Cs-containing glass-forming oxide blend. On melting the mixture a relative complex GCC phase assemblage formed. The principal components of this phase assemblage were determined using X-ray powder diffraction, 133Cs MAS-NMR, and cross-sectional SEM and included glass, various zeolites, scheelite (CaWO4) and a range of other oxide phases and Cs-containing aluminosilicate. Importantly, under no circumstance was cesium partitioned into the glass phase irrespective of whether or not the composition included the preformed Cs-containing HTB compound. For compositions containing the HTB, cesium was partitioned into one of four major phases including zeolite; Cs-silica-tungstate bronze, pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), and an aluminosilicate with an Al/Si ratio close to one. The leach resistance of all materials was evaluated and related to the cesium distribution within the GCC phase assemblages. In general, the GCCs prepared from the HTB had superior durability compared with materials not containing tungsten. Indeed the compositions in many cases had leach resistances comparable to the best ceramics or glass materials

  18. Significant enhancement of negative secondary ion yields by cluster ion bombardment combined with cesium flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Patrick; Angerer, Tina B; Sämfors, Sanna; Blenkinsopp, Paul; Fletcher, John S; Wirtz, Tom

    2015-10-01

    In secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the beneficial effect of cesium implantation or flooding on the enhancement of negative secondary ion yields has been investigated in detail for various semiconductor and metal samples. All results have been obtained for monatomic ion bombardment. Recent progress in SIMS is based to a large extent on the development and use of cluster primary ions. In this work we show that the enhancement of negative secondary ions induced by the combination of ion bombardment with simultaneous cesium flooding is valid not only for monatomic ion bombardment but also for cluster primary ions. Experiments carried out using C60+ and Ar4000+ bombardment on silicon show that yields of negative secondary silicon ions can be optimized in the same way as by Ga+ and Cs+ bombardment. Both for monatomic and cluster ion bombardment, the optimization does not depend on the primary ion species. Hence, it can be assumed that the silicon results are also valid for other cluster primary ions and that results obtained for monatomic ion bombardment on other semiconductor and metal samples are also valid for cluster ion bombardment. In SIMS, cluster primary ions are also largely used for the analysis of organic matter. For polycarbonate, our results show that Ar4000+ bombardment combined with cesium flooding enhances secondary ion signals by a factor of 6. This can be attributed to the removal of charging effects and/or reduced fragmentation, but no major influence on ionization processes can be observed. The use of cesium flooding for the imaging of cells was also investigated and a significant enhancement of secondary ion yields was observed. Hence, cesium flooding has also a vast potential for SIMS analyses with cluster ion bombardment. PMID:26378890

  19. Synthesis of Iron-ferrocyanide functionalized magnetic nanocluster for the removal of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, magnetite nanocluster was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and coated with iron ferrocyanide for the adsorption of cesium in an aqueous solution through simple addition of iron ferrocyanide in acid condition. We describe the morphology, structure, and physical property of these nanoparticles. In addition, their ability to eliminate cesium from water was also evaluated. In this study, we fabricated Iron ferrocyanide immobilized magnetite nanocluster (IFC-MNC) using hydrothermal methods. The CIFC-MNC exhibited easy separation ability from water by an external magnet, and showed a high removal efficiency of cesium in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the IFC-MNC demonstrated good potential for the treatment of water contaminated with radioactive cesium. gnetic nanoadsorbents composed of a magnetic particles core and functional shell, which adsorb the contaminants, has attracted significant attention in environmental remediation owing to their high surface area and unique superparamagnetism. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011 released a huge quantity of radioactive contaminants into the environment. Among these, cesium Cs-137 is the most problematic contaminant due to its long half-life (30.2 years), and high-energy gamma ray (γ-ray) emissions. Among various adsorbents to treat Cs-137 contaminated water, metal ferrocyanides were widely applied to remove the Cs-137 in water. For better separation of metal ferrocyanide from water, recently, our group reported the fabrication of copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Cu-FC-EDA-MNPs) using alkoxysilanes, having ethylenediamine (EDA) group, modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (EDA-MNPs) for the fast and easy magnetic separation of metal ferrocyanide. However, the fabrication method was multistep procedure. Thus, a more simplified fabrication procedure is still desired

  20. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI ''driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE

  1. An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Harold, E-mail: rogers22@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed an isotope dilution-precipitation treatment process for Cs-137 contaminated water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste seeded with non-radioactive Cs-133 prior to precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Final Cs-137 concentrations below DOE discharge limit of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/mL can be achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthetic wastewater, and industrial low level radioactive proof of principle studies completed. - Abstract: A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-{mu}m filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers.

  2. Distribution of radioactive cesium in soil and approach to volume reduction with soil classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, the decontamination of radioactive cesium spread from the Nuclear Power Station to all over the Fukushima prefecture has still been continued constantly. Moreover, the huge amount of radioactive waste typified by removed contaminated soil have been increasing on a daily basis. It is expected that the contaminated soil encumbers the acceptable amount of the interim storage facility. Therefore, various kinds of volume reduction methods are tackled. The classification method is one of feasible prospects, and is required to optimize. This study focused on the distribution of radioactive cesium in the contaminated soil for improving the volume reduction method by the soil classification. Clay minerals are reported to specifically adsorb cesium. The wet classification test proved that the fine particles classified from the actual contaminated soil in Fukushima clearly accumulated radioactive cesium, and contained clay mineral. The amount of radioactive cesium exceeding tolerance level still remained in the large particles over the size of 0.5 mm. As a result of the observation of particles the size of 0.5 mm 4.75 hand-picked by the difference in optical characters such as color and shape, particle groups showed differences of radiation quantity and composition of minerals. Especially, organic matters and soil aggregation showed high radiation quantity. Furthermore, the group of tabular particles including clay minerals, such as mica and vermiculite, showed demonstrably highest radiation quantity among particle groups. For the future, it is suggested that the classification method for the volume reduction should be improved with a focus on the clay minerals mineralogically, not mechanically. (author)

  3. Multiple Ion Exchange Column Runs for Cesium and Technetium Removal from AW-101 Waste Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Protection Project -Waste Treatment Plant (RPP--WTP) will be performing cesium removal from Hanford tank waste supernatants using SuperLig 644 resin. These elutable resins will be used multiple times to process large volumes of radioactive waste samples and will be subjected to chemical and radiation degradation during use at the waste treatment plant (WTP). The RPP--WTP process design assumes that resin batches can be used a minimum of 10 cycles before the resin must be replaced due to degradation. The effects of radiation and chemical degradation on SuperLig 644 and 639 resins were separately studied in the past under static conditions, i.e., in contact with air, water, and simulated waste solutions. To determine the chemical degradation effects under dynamic or column conditions, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and IBC Advanced Technologies conducted multiple load/elute/regenerate cycles with simulated Hanford waste samples. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted to demonstrate the performance of SuperLig 644 and 639 resins to treat repetitively radioactive waste solutions. Six cycles of loading, elution, and regeneration were performed to remove cesium from a Hanford waste sample. Five load/elute/regenerate cycles were carried out to remove technetium from cesium-depleted effluent solutions. The multiple load/elute/regenerate cycles demonstrated that cesium and technetium can be effectively removed from a sample using SuperLig 644 and 639 resins. The percent cesium removal was greater than 99.99 per cent for each of the six cycles

  4. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  5. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 regulates the expression of VEGF in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefan Cui; Kaisheng Yin; Mao Huang; Linfu Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of MG-132 on the expression of VEGF in bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS2B. Methods: Semi-quantitive RT-PCR for VEGF mRNA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for VEGF protein were performed. Results: MG-132 increased the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein BEAS-2B cells in time-and concentration-dependent manners. After 24-h stimulation, 25 μmol/L MG-132 increased the maximal levels of VEGF protein in cell-conditioned medium. When the cells were stimulated with cycloheximide(CHX) before treatment with MG-132, the MG-132-induced production of VEGF protein was inhibited compared to the unstimulated cells. Supernatant of condition-medium treatment with MG-132 enhanced the growth of HUVEC.Conclusion: MG-132 induces VEGF gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells line, BEAS-2B, and the MG-132-induced expression of VEGF may modulate lung tissue injury due to airway inflammation.

  6. 34 CFR 300.132 - Provision of services for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities-basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... school children with disabilities-basic requirement. 300.132 Section 300.132 Education Regulations of the... services for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities—basic requirement. (a) General. To... school district served by the LEA, provision is made for the participation of those children in...

  7. 40 CFR 436.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.132 Section 436.132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  8. 20 CFR 404.132 - How we determine fully insured status for a period of disability or disability insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... period of disability or disability insurance benefits. 404.132 Section 404.132 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and... of disability or disability insurance benefits. In determining if you are fully insured for...

  9. Substantiation of permissible level cesium-137 in drug-technical raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of Chernobyl accident about 23% of republic woods or 1,7 millions hectares of woods were polluted with radionuclides. The pollution of the environment with cesium-137 (density more than 37 Bq/m2) about 23 % from all area of the Republic of Belarus. The drug-technical raw materials (DTRM) which made from wild plants, growing in such territories where were not used special measures decreased of transition cesium-137 from ground to DTRM. Also DTRM are cultivated with specialized farms in such agricultural holding where used these special measures. The Belarus 'Temporary permissible levels the contents of caesium radionuclides in drug-technical raw materials' were created in 1993 (TPL-93). According to this document, permissible levels of cesium-137 in DTRM are following: flowers, folium, grass, mushrooms, roots and other plants parts - 1850 Bq/kg, for dried up fruits and berries - 2590 Bq/kg. Because of consummation the Radiation Safety Standards-2000 in Republic of Belarus and changes of quota of annual entrance of the radionuclides it is in necessary to reconsideration of TPL-93. We have analysed 19 260 tests of DTRM (154 sorts) for 1999- 2002 year. As a result, 97,9 % of all tests (18 860 tests) has activity of cesium-137 less than 370 Bq/kg. All kinds of DTRM has average activity of cesium-137 do not exceed 200 Bq/kg. The contents of caesium-137 in DTRM changed in a wide range from 0 to 29 615 Bq/kg. The activity of cesium-137 in tests DTRM which cultivated on agricultural holding did not exceed 100 Bq/kg. As a result of researches, the contents of cesium-137 in DTRM which is above permissible levels (established TPL-93), were registered only in 39 tests (0,20 % from all investigated tests). According to Radiation Safety Standards-2000 the dose limit for the population is 1 mSv/year. This dose limit does not include natural and medical radiation doses, and also doses received from radiation accident. For a substantiation of permissible

  10. 137Cesium and soil carbon in a small agricultural watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific, political, and social interests have developed recently in the concept of using agricultural soils to sequester carbon. Studies supporting this concept indicate that soil erosion and subsequent redeposition of eroded soils in the same field may establish an ecosystem disequilibrium that promotes the buildup of carbon on agricultural landscapes. The problem is to determine the patterns of soil erosion and redeposition on the landscape and to relate these to soil carbon patterns. Radioactive 137cesium (137Cs) can be used to estimate soil erosion patterns and, more importantly, redeposition patterns at the field level. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between 137Cs, soil erosion, and soil carbon patterns on a small agricultural watershed. Profiles of soils from an upland area and soils in an adjacent riparian system were collected in 5 cm increments and the concentrations of 137Cs and carbon were determined. 137Cs and carbon were uniformly mixed in the upper 15-20 cm of upland soils. 137Cs (Bq g-1) and carbon (%) in the upland soils were significantly correlated (r2=0.66). Carbon content of the 0-20 cm layer was higher (1.4±0.3%) in areas of soil deposition than carbon content (1.1±0.3%) in areas of soil erosion as determined by the 137Cs technique. These data suggest that measurements of 137Cs in the soils can be useful for understanding carbon distribution patterns in surface soil. Carbon content of the upland soils ranged from 0.5 to 1.9% with an average of 1.2±0.4% in the 0-20 cm layer while carbon below this upper tilled layer (20-30 cm) ranged from 0.2 to 1.5% with an average of 0.5±0.3%. Total carbon was 2.66 and 3.20 kg m-2 in the upper 20 cm and upper 30 cm of the upland soils, respectively. Carbon content of the 0-20 cm layer in the riparian system ranged from 1.1 to 67.0% with an average 11.7±17.1%. Carbon content below 20 cm ranged from 1.8 to 79.3% with an average of 18.3±17.5%. Soil carbon in the upper 20 cm

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program) (from Jun. 1982 to Aug. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program from Jun. to Aug. 1982) were determined. Raw milk was collected in six producing districts. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program) (from Oct. 1982 to Feb. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program from Oct. 1982 to Feb. 1983) were determined. Raw milk was collected in six producing districts. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program) (from Nov. 1981 to Jun. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program from Nov. 1981 to Jun. 1982) were determined. Raw milk was collected in 11 producing districts. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Effects of acute and chronic experimental contamination on direct cesium 137 uptake by the eel, Anguilla anguilla L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study covers the effects of different types of contamination on direct cesium 137 uptake by the eel. In the first experiment (acute contamination), simulating a waste discharge, the fish were kept in water with a rapidly decreasing cesium 137 activity. In a second experiment (chronic contamination), the water activity increased constantly, simulating increasing waste frequency and activity levels. Irrespective of the type of contamination, radiocesium retention by eels is low (<1% of initial activity); comparable specific activity levels, concentration factors (FC <= 2 after 36 days) and cesium 137 body distribution, were obtained. Therefore, direct cesium 137 uptake by the eel is very low and the water contamination mode alone cannot explain the major concentration factor variations observed in situ

  15. Application of a composite sorbent based om natural and synthetic zeolites for cesium ion elimination from water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study has been carried out to determine the effect of variations in the content of natural and synthetic zeolites, being the components of the composite sorbent, on the cesium sorption from the water solution

  16. Spin-dependent asymmetry functions in the elastic and inelastic electron-cesium scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the measurements of the relative differential cross section, the exchange asymmetry, the spin-orbit asymmetry, and the interference asymmetry for the electron scattering on cesium atoms from 4 to 18 eV is described. (HSI)

  17. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  18. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Di Vitta, Patricia B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  19. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar(regsign) L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar(regsign) L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC)

  20. Frequency doubling with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at the fundamental wave of cesium D2 transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Song; Zhigang Li; Pengfei Zhang; Gang Li; Yuchi Zhang; Junmin Wang; Tiancai Zhang

    2007-01-01

    @@ We report the continuous wave (CW) second harmonic generation (SHG) with a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) pumped by a diode laser at 852.356 nm, which is exactly resonant on the cesium D2 transition.