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Sample records for cesium 129

  1. Application of crown ethers to selective extraction and quantitative analysis of technetium 99, iodine 129 and cesium 135 in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of crown ethers are first recalled. Then extraction of technetium 99 is studied in actual radioactive effluents. Quantitative analysis is carried out by liquid scintillation and interference of tritium is corrected. Iodine 129 is extracted from radioactive effluents and determined by gamma spectrometry. Finally cesium 135 is extracted and determined by thermo ionization mass spectroscopy

  2. Control of interferences in the analysis of low-concentration I 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traces of uranium, cesium and tellurium interfere in the determination of I 129 by neutron activation analysis. The paper describes the procedures used to control or eliminate the interferences in the different steps of the analysis

  3. Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Cesium-137

  4. Detection of iodine-129 in some environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent accumulation of the long-lived isotope of iodine, 129I, which is released in environment by the peaceful use of nuclear energy or nuclear test explosion is becoming important in the view point of the internal exposure by the low level radiation. The studies on the detection of determination of 129I in environmental samples so far published are still very few. The authors tried to detect 129I in some Japanese seaweeds and soil samples with the aid of the activation method by using the nuclear reaction of 129I(n, #betta#)130I. The samples analysed in this work are tangle (Laminaria japonica) for daily food grown in Hidaka, Hokkaido and uncultivated soil collected in Tokai, Ibaraki Pref. As the #betta#-ray peak indicator for 130I, cesium oxide and the aged radioisotope product of 131I are also subjected to the neutron irradiation. From cesium oxide, 130I is formed by the reaction of 133Cs(n, α)130I. An aged vial of the 131I product is expected to contain very minute amounts of 129I which is also produced both by the fission of uranium and neutron capture reaction of tellurium followed by #betta#--decay. The #betta#-ray spectra for the soil sample, cesium oxide and the aged 131I vial are shown in Fig. 1. No appreciable peak was found for the seaweeds sample. In the #betta#-ray spectra for irradiated cesium oxide and the aged 131I vial, several typical peaks for 130I were observed. By comparing with these peaks, several small peaks which appear at around 418, 536 and 739 keV in the soil sample can be attributed to those of 130I. The 129I content in the soil sample is roughly estimated to be 2 x 10-10 Bq/g. (author)

  5. Cesium chemistry in irradiated fuel; cesium uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical behaviour of fission products in nuclear fuel during and after irradiation has been studied extensively during the past decades. In spite of the large amount of chemical, crystallographic and thermodynamic data available, the knowledge on the very complicated UO2-fission product system is still far from complete. The paper discusses the multi variant character of uranium in cesium uranates, which has been assessed by a systematic X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) study of a series of cesium uranates

  6. Decorporation of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 (137Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, 137Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe β, γirradiations and contaminations. 137Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the 137Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  7. The 129-Iodine content of subtropical Pacific waters: impact of Fukushima and other anthropogenic 129I sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilderson, T. P.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-12-01

    Results obtained from a dedicated radiochemistry cruise approximately 100 days after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and subsequent disaster at the Dia'ichi Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant show that Fukushima derived radionuclides in the nearby ocean environment had penetrated, on average, to ≤250 m depth (1026.5 kg m-3 potential density surface). The excess inventory of Fukushima-derived 129I in the region (∼150 000 km2) sampled during the cruise is estimated to have been between 0.89 and 1.173 billion Bq (∼136 to ∼179 g) of 129I. Based on a tight tracer-tracer relation with 134Cs (or 137Cs) and estimates that most of the excess cesium is due to direct discharge, we infer that much of the excess 129I is from direct (non-atmospheric deposition) discharge. After taking into account oceanic transport, we estimate the direct discharge off Fukushima to have been ∼1 kg 129I. Although this small pulse is dwarfed by the ∼90 kg of weapons-testing derived 129I that was released into the environment in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it should be possible to use Fukushima derived 129I and other radionuclides (e.g., 134, 137Cs) to study transport and entrainment processes along the Kuroshio Current.

  8. The 129-iodine content of subtropical Pacific waters: impact of Fukushima and other anthropogenic 129-iodine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilderson, T. P.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-09-01

    Results obtained from a dedicated radiochemistry cruise approximately 100 days after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and subsequent disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant show that Fukushima derived radionuclides in the nearby ocean environment had penetrated, on average, to ≤250 m depth (1026.5 kg m3 potential density surface). The excess inventory of Fukushima-derived 129I in the region (∼150 000 km2) sampled during the cruise is estimated to have been between 0.89 and 1.173 billion Bq (∼136 to ∼179 grams) of 129I. Based on a tight tracer-tracer relation with 134Cs (or 137Cs) and estimates that most of the excess cesium is due to direct discharge, we infer that much of the excess 129I is from direct (non-atmospheric deposition) discharge. After taking into account oceanic transport, we estimate the direct discharge, i.e., that directly released into the ocean, off Fukushima to have been ∼1 kg 129I. Although this small pulse is dwarfed by the ~90 kg of weapons-testing-derived 129I that was released into the environment in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it should be possible to use Fukushima-derived 129I and other radionuclides (e.g., 134, 137Cs) to study transport and entrainment processes along and across the Kuroshio Current.

  9. Analysis of radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure of analysis of cesium-137 in environmental samples is described. The standard measurement of cesium-137 is made by using a standard solution and a low background G-M counter system. Precipitation and dust are collected on a stainless steel pan. The collected samples are treated by evaporation and extraction or ion exchange and adsorption method. The sample is then quantitatively analyzed. The measurement of cesium-137 is made according to the standard of measurement. Samples collected from inland water and sea water are also treated by evaporation or ion exchange method. The measurements of cesium-137 are also made. This manual describes how to collect soil samples. The collected soil is dried and treated to make samples for activity measurement. Activity measurement is made according to the standard of measurement, then the data are analyzed. Samples are also collected from sediment of sea bottom or river bottom, agricultural products, milk, marine organisms, and daily foods. This manual describes on the methods to collect samples and the treatment to make samples for measurement. (Kato, T.)

  10. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  11. Cesium-137 in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of cesium-137 in environment is reviewed. Problems on 137Cs migration in environment, on metabolism andbiological effects are considered. Data on nuclide accumulation in various plants, ways of their entering the man's organism are presented. It is marked that the rate of 137Cs metabolism in the man's organism depends considerably on age, sex, temperature of environment, conditions for activity, water and mineral metabolism and some other factors. It is shown that the annual effective equivalent dose per capita will increase to 2000 yr. up to 1 μSv, that constitutes 0.05% of the average value of irradiation by a natural source

  12. Investigation of I-129 radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In milk samples taken at Friedrichstal values from 0.3 to 0.5 pCi 129I/l were measured. In thyroid samples from rabbits about 10 pCi 129I/thyroid were found. In the present half year the collection of aliquot parts of low-activity effluent waters from WAK, from its destillates, from the settling basins and from the Rhine river and of combined monthly samples was started. First measurements of 129I emissions from WAK were performed. Since about 200 samples for 129I had to be taken in the WAK emissions, the ecological program has been delayed by 2 1/2 months. An ion sensitive electrode for 127I measurement in milk and in thyroid samples was used successfully. (orig.)

  13. Signature splitting in 129Ce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; WU Xiao-Guang; ZHU Li-Hua; LI Guang-Sheng; HE Chuang-Ye; LI Xue-Qin; PAN Bo; HAO Xin; LI Li-Hua; WANG Zhi-Min; LI Zhong-Yu; XU Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The high spin states of 129Ce have been populated via heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction 96Mo (37C1, 1p3n) 129Ce. The γ-γ coincidence and intensity balance used to measure the B(M1; I→I-1)/B(E2; I→I-2) (the probability ratio of the dipole and quadrupole transition) in v7/2[523] rotational band of 129Ce. And the energy splitting (Δe') has been got through the experimental Routhians. The lifetimes and quadrupole moments Qt have been extracted from the lineshape analyses using DSAM. The deformation of the v7/2[523] rotational band of 129Ce was extracted from the Qt and moment of inertia JRR.

  14. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing ∼4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to ∼2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain ∼23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a ∼70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank (containing additional

  15. Cesium in the nutrient cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most radioactive cesium in forests is deposited in soil, from which it passes into berries and mushrooms, and further to game. The cesium contents of Finnish berries and mushrooms vary depending on the intensity of Chernobyl fallout. Northern Haeme, Pirkanmaa and parts of central Finland received the most fallout. Weather conditions and the environmental factors, and other circumstances during the growth period, also affect the contents. However, consumption of wild berries, mushrooms and game need not be restricted because of radioactivity anywhere in Finland

  16. Cesium contamination of heather honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In heather honey from Lueneburger Heide, FRG, relatively high values of cesium activity were found (up to about 650 Bq/kg). Activity values for heather honey, Calluna vulgaris plants and soil were measured. It is assumed that the origin of this activity is the direct Chernobyl fallout. There may also be a high transfer of cesium from the soil to the Calluna vulgaris plant, but in order to determine the transfer factor, fresh plants are needed, which have grown later than in spring 1986. (author) 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven fully loaded 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 15000C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of 137Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded 137Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10-10 kg m-2s-1, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10-12 kg m-2s-1. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10-16m2s-1, 6.88 x 10-17m2s-1, and 1.35 x 10-17m2s-1, respectively

  18. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  19. Cesium transport data for HTGR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium transport data on the release of cesium from HTGR fuel elements are reviewed and discussed. The data available through 1976 are treated. Equations, parameters, and associated variances describing the data are presented. The equations and parameters are in forms suitable for use in computer codes used to calculate the release of metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements into the primary circuit. The data cover the following processes: (1) diffusion of cesium in fuel kernels and pyrocarbon, (2) sorption of cesium on fuel rod matrix material and on graphite, and (3) migration of cesium in graphite. The data are being confirmed and extended through work in progress

  20. Elastic and inelastic scattering of cesium, cesium iodide, and cesium chloride by argon and xenon in the crossed atomic and molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velocity and angular distributions of cesium atoms and two cesium halide molecules scattered by rare gas atoms have been measured for the following systems at the indicated initial relative collision energies, anti E: Cs + Ar, anti E = 0.94, 1.29, and 1.85 kcal/mole; Cs + Xe, E = 1.15, 1.91, and 3.10 kcal/mole; Csl + Ar, anti E = 1.06, 1.46, and 2.08 kcal/mole; CsI + Ar, anti E = 1.36, 1.63, and 1.94 kcal/mole; CsI + Xe, anti E = 1.52, 2.52, and 4.09 kcal/mole. At the collision energies indicated the atom-atom scattering can only be elastic. Thus the experiments with those systems can be used for apparatus calibration and a standard of comparison for the diatom-atom experiments. The velocity distributions in the diatom-atom systems are analyzed for the relative contributions of elastic and inelastic scattering

  1. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While 8.05 day /sup 131/I has been recognised as a potential radiological hazard from the earliest days of the nuclear industry, concern about 16 Ma /sup 129/I is of more recent origin. Being very long-lived, it is only feebly radioactive and hence of very low radiotoxicity. Nevertheless, as the nuclear industry expands, the quantities of /sup 129/I produced increase approximately in proportion to the amount of electricity generated, and attention must be paid to methods of controlling the nuclide so as to limit the doses to man. /sup 129/I is a fission product, and arises exclusively in the nuclear fuel, in quantities which can be calculated from the fission yields. It remains nearly completely in the fuel in the reactor and during spent fuel storage. If the fuel is reprocessed it finds its way into various reprocessing plant effluents, some of which are at present discharged to the environment. Precautions to prevent or minimise /sup 131/I discharges also provide some control of /sup 129/I, but whereas for /sup 131/I a sufficient time-delay before discharge removes any potential hazard, this expedient is not available for /sup 129/I. The purpose of this report is to examine methods of controlling the latter nuclide

  2. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  3. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  4. Sorption of iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate for the behavior of waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the sorption of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is to be considered. The chemistry and the sorption of these radionuclides in soils are described in this literature survey. Behavior of I-129, Cl-36 and Tc-99 in the environment is of great interest because of their long half-lives and relatively high mobilities. The importance of Cs-135 arises from its high content in spent nuclear fuel and long physical half-life, even though it is considered relatively immobile in soil. Factors affecting the migration and sorption of radionuclides in soils can be divided into elemental and soil specific parameters. The most important elemental factor is the speciation of the element, which is influenced by the soil redox potential, pH and complex forming ligands. Soil micro-organisms can either serve as sorbents for radionuclides or affect their speciation by altering the prevailing soil redox conditions. Soil organic matter content and mineral properties have a marked influence on the retention of radionuclides. The sorption of anionic radionuclides such as I-, Cl- and TcO4 - is pronounced in the presence of organic matter. Clay minerals are known to bound cesium effectively. The effect of speciation of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is considered in this study, as well as the effect of soil micro-organisms, organic matter and mineral properties. (orig.)

  5. Radiation doses resulting from incorporated radioactive cesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-dependent dose factors are given for inhaled or ingested cesium isotopes, which have been calculated on the basis of published data on the biokinetics of cesium in the human organism. Tabulated data are presented for Cs-129, Cs-130, Cs-131, Cs-132, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137(+Ba-137m), and Cs-138. Comparison of results obtained for adults with relevant data published by the ICRP (1978), the NCRP (1977), and Schwarz (1982) shows very good agreement. More significant deviations are however found when comparing the results with data given in the Federal German Radiation Protection Ordinance, both with regard to adults and to infants, particularly refering to the lung data and to those for the gastro-intestinal tract and the skeleton. These discrepancies are primarily due to improved models developed since the time the Radiation Protection Ordinance has been issued, (respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts), and to improvements achieved with the dosimetric concepts (calculation of dose for bone surfaces instead of the whole skeleton). The dose factors for newborn given by the publication in hand are significantly lower than those given in the Ordinance (for infants); this is a result of age-dependent retention functions having been considered for this publication. The reliability of the dose factor calculations for various ages, pregnant women and fetuses is discussed and quantified. (orig./HP)

  6. The collectivity in CSR 129Xe + 129Xe collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) – Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), which can gather few hundreds MeV/nucleon for heavy ion beam energy in the external-target experiments, could make a significant contribution in studying the property of dense matter. By using a Relativistic Transport Model(ART1.0), we study the collectivity of identified hadrons in 129Xe + 129Xe collisions in CSR energy regions. Our investigation indicates that the anisotropic flow reaches its extremum around 500 MeV/nucleon of beam energy. The system size and EOS dependence on anisotropic flow show that directed flow is very sensitive to the equation of state. (author)

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timar, Janos; Elekes, Zoltan; Singh, Balraj

    2014-09-15

    The experimental nuclear spectroscopic data for known nuclides of mass number 129 (Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm) have been evaluated and presented together with adopted properties for levels and γ rays. This evaluation represents a revision of the previous one 18 years ago by Y. Tendow (1996Te01). Extensive new data have become available for many nuclides in the intervening years, although, no data are available for excited states in {sup 129}Pm and {sup 129}Sm, and for {sup 129}Ag and {sup 129}Cd, only limited information is available for the g.s. and isomers. The decay schemes of {sup 129}Ag, {sup 129}Pm and {sup 129}Sm are unknown, and those for {sup 129}Cd, {sup 129}In, {sup 129}Ce, {sup 129}Pr and {sup 129}Nd are incomplete. Many γ rays and extended level schemes have been reported for the ground state and isomer decays of {sup 129}Ba to {sup 129}Cs, yet the adopted set of intensities in this evaluation originate from a brief paper in an annual laboratory report. There remain several unplaced gamma rays, coupled with ambiguity about division of intensities amongst the two activities of {sup 129}Ba with nearly the same half-lives. Isomerism is expected in {sup 129}Pr, but there is no confirmed identification. Low-lying level structure in {sup 129}Nd, including identification of a possible third long-lived isomer in this nuclide, remains uncertain. The spin-parity assignments of (5/2+) for the ground state and (7/2−) for an isomer at 107.6 keV in {sup 129}Ce are assigned based on strong support from systematics and band configurations, yet this result is in contradiction with the quadrupole interaction hyperfine structure measurement which favors 9/2− over 7/2− for the isomer, consequently 7/2+ for the ground state. Direct measurements of spins of ground state and isomer of {sup 129}Ce are needed to settle this issue. Confirmed spins and parities of the ground state and isomer of {sup 129}La are also lacking. Assignments

  8. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  9. Excited states of 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here investigation of the observed yrast and excited bands in 129Xe populated by the heavy-ion fusion reaction 124Sn(11B, p5n)129Xe has been presented. An isotopically enriched (99.9%) self-supporting 124Sn target of thickness 2.2 mg/cm2 was utilized. The experiment was performed at the Linac accelerator facility at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India. The experimental set-up, called the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA), consisted of 21 Compton suppressed clover HPGe detectors. Two of these detectors were placed at 23°, three at 40°, three at 65°, four at 90°, three at 140°, three at 115° and three at 157° with respect to the beam direction. The triple gamma coincidence data were collected in the event-by-event mode

  10. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  11. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25...

  12. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or...

  13. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  14. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 129.4 - Toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxic pollutants. 129.4 Section 129.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.4 Toxic pollutants. The following...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.129 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1260.129 Section 1260.129... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.129 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of the Treasury....

  17. Activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in game and mushrooms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 was measured in mushrooms and game in 1986-1991. The samples were collected all over Poland and most of the measurements were carried out for export purposes. The results indicate that the activity ratio of cesium-137 to cesium-134 in some samples is not comparable to that with fallout after the Chernobyl accident. The analysis of some samples of mushrooms from 1985 showed that the activity of cesium-137 was higher compared to any other foodstuff. The level of contamination varied greatly throughout Poland

  18. The effect of fuel power on the leaching of cesium and iodine from used CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of the concept of geological disposal of used fuel requires a source term for the instantaneous release of long-lived radionuclides from used fuel. Preferential release of the gap inventories of Cs-137 and I-129 from used fuel with a variety of linear power ratings (LPR) was studied. A one-to-one and ten-to-one correlation exists between measured gap inventories of stable xenon and the amount of Cs-137 and I-129 in the gap, for high-LPR and low-LPR fuels, respectively, as obtained from 5-day leaching experiments. These differences in release patterns for high- and low-LPR fuels can be explained by differences in the microstructure, and disappear when longer leaching times (i.e. 3 months) are used. These results imply that, on a geological time scale, the entire inventory of the long-lived isotopes of cesium and iodine must be considered as part of the instantaneous release source term. Attempts to quantify inventories of cesium and technetium at grain boundaries by comparing the short-term leaching behaviour of oxidized and non-oxidized fuel indicated that either very insoluble cesium-uranium compounds may exist at the grain boundaries, or that cesium and stable xenon grain boundary inventories are not similar. More research is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached as to whether the entire grain boundary inventories of Cs-137 (and Tc-99), as estimated from power histories, should be part of the instantaneous release source term

  19. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  20. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photoelectron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photoionization signal. For both ns and np states the field induced MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength. Finally, we note that the classical two-photon field-ionization threshold is lower for the case in which the laser polarization and the electric field are parallel than it is when they are perpendicular. 22 references, 11 figures

  1. Modelling the activity of 129I in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brent J.; Husain, Aamir

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical treatment has been developed to describe the activity levels of 129I as a function of time in the primary heat transport system during constant power operation and for a reactor shutdown situation. The model accounts for a release of fission-product iodine from defective fuel rods and tramp uranium contamination on in-core surfaces. The physical transport constants of the model are derived from a coolant activity analysis of the short-lived radioiodine species. An estimate of 3×10 -9 has been determined for the coolant activity ratio of 129I/ 131I in a CANDU Nuclear Generating Station (NGS), which is in reasonable agreement with that observed in the primary coolant and for plant test resin columns from pressurized and boiling water reactor plants. The model has been further applied to a CANDU NGS, by fitting it to the observed short-lived iodine and long-lived cesium data, to yield a coolant activity ratio of ˜2×10 -8 for 129I/ 137Cs. This ratio can be used to estimate the levels of 129I in reactor waste based on a measurement of the activity of 137Cs.

  2. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.;

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The...... elevated 129I and 134,137Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134Cs/137Cs and 129I/137Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic...... and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source....

  3. Surface tension of liquid dilute solutions of lead-cesium and bismuth-cesium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of the maximal pressure in a drop was used to measure the surface tension of 15 liquid dilute solutions of lead-cesium system in 0-0.214 at% concentration range and of 12 diluted solutions of bismuth-cesium system in 0-0.160 at.% cesium range from solidification temperature up to 500 dec C. It was found that cesium was characterized as surfactant in lead and bismuth melts. It was established that the temperature coefficient of surface tension changes sufficiently in maximally diluted solutions of alkali metals in bismuth and lead melts. Effect of sodium, potassium, rubidum and cesium on the value of surface tension of lead and bismuth was systematized. Growth of activity in sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium series was noted

  4. Application of Cesium isotopes in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world of science, the desire of the scientific community to discover new chemical elements is crucial for the development of new technologies in various fields of knowledge. And the main chemical element addressed by this article is Cesium, but specifically 133Cesium isotope and radioisotope 137Cesium, exemplifying their physical and chemical characteristics, and their applications. This article will also show how these isotopes have provided researchers a breakthrough in the field of radiological medicine and in time and frequency metrology. (author)

  5. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soil containing radioactive cesium was decontaminated using an extraction method involving aqueous potassium solutions. Results demonstrated that the potassium solution could extract radioactive cesium from soil artificially contaminated with 137Cs, although extraction rate decreased as time after contamination increased. However, visual examination of radioactivity distribution in soil samples significantly contaminated by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant showed that radioactive cesium also existed as insoluble particles. Therefore, reducing the volume of radioactive wastes generated from soil decontamination requires a physical decontamination method combined with chemical treatment. (author)

  6. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H+ → Na+) capacity, and distribution coefficient (KD) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na+, NaOH, and Cs+ concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied

  7. Sorption of cesium on Latvian clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is like potassium - good solubility and mobile in a ground, easily assimilate in organism expressly brawn woof. It is a problem if pollutant is a radioactive 137Cs. We made experiments to sorption a 2M CsF solution on some Latvian clays which mainly contain hydro micas (cesium content after good elute of clays are in table). We establish, that clay treated with 25 % sulfuric acid adsorb cesium two times more that waste clay. Hereto unstuck elute Cs from clays. (author)

  8. Accelerator transmutation of 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered

  9. Method for monitoring radioactive cesium concentration in water using cesium adsorption disk and GM survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for monitoring radioactive cesium concentration in water using a cesium adsorption disk and a GM survey meter has been developed to ascertain whether the water quality meets standards on radiological contaminants in water. In this method, both dissolved and suspended forms of radioactive cesium are collected on the cesium adsorption disk by means of filtration of a water sample. Beta count rate of the disk is converted into radioactivity using a conservative calibration factor obtained here. The present method was applied to monitoring of decontaminated water of an outdoor school swimming pool in Date City after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (author)

  10. Trapping characteristics for gaseous cesium generated from different cesium compounds by fly ash filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the fly ash ceramic foam filter to trap gaseous cesium generated during the OREOX and sintering processes of DUPIC green pellets. The trapping experiments of gaseous cesium generated from different cesium compounds using fly ash filters were carried out in a two-zone furnace under air and hydrogen (Ar/4% H2) conditions. XRD and SEM analyses were used to analyze reaction products of different cesium compounds with fly ash filters. To manufacture ceramic foam filters, fly ash with a Si/Al mole ratio of 2.1 and polyvinyl alcohol as binder were used. Reaction products formed by the trapping reaction of different cesium compounds with fly ash filters were investigated. The major reaction products of gaseous cesium generated from cesium silicate and CsI by fly ash filters indicated that pollucite (CsAlSi2O6) phase was formed under air and hydrogen conditions when the carrier gas velocity was 2 cm/sec. The minimum reaction temperature of fly ash filter with gaseous cesium was determined as about 600 deg. C. Finally, off-gas treatment system of sintering process in a hot cell of lMEF was explained as an application example of fly ash filter for trapping gaseous cesium. (author)

  11. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  12. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1

  13. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  14. Sorption of Cesium on Latvia clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is like potassium - good solubility and mobile in a ground, easy assimilates in organism expressly brawn woof. It is a problem if pollutant is radioactive 137Cs. We made experiments to sorption a 2M CsF solution on some Latvian clays which mainly contain hydro micas. We establish that clay treated with 25% sulfuric acid absorb cesium two times more that waste clay. Hereto unstuck elute Cs from clays

  15. 14 CFR 129.28 - Flightdeck security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flightdeck security. 129.28 Section 129.28... Flightdeck security. (a) After August 20, 2002, except for a newly manufactured airplane on a non-revenue...; or the operator must implement a security program approved by the Transportation...

  16. 14 CFR 65.129 - Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance standards. 65.129 Section 65.129 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... authorized by the Administrator or the manufacturer; (e) Pack, maintain, or alter a parachute in any...

  17. 31 CFR 129.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 129.2 Section 129.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY... States business enterprise, or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated United States...

  18. 129I in the Ob river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was: 1) to determine 129I concentrations in the Ob river, and 2) to determine 129I concentrations in surficial sediments in the river. Some results from the study are summarized in the present paper. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Removal of cesium from wastewater: A cesium-specific ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) have applied for a patent for an ion exchange resin that will remove cesium from water. Radioactive cesium-137 is a fission product of nuclear reactor operations. Cesium may enter the water of spent fuel holding basins through defects in fuel cladding. Control of cesium in these basins is desirable to keep personnel exposure to a minimum. Cesium is also present in the waste from reprocessing of defense nuclear reactor fuel. Research has been underway at SRL for over a decade to improve management of high-level reprocessing waste. The current technology separates the waste into soluble and insoluble components. Radioactive constituents are removed from the soluble component stream and combined with the insoluble components, which are then converted to a glass for long-term storage. Cesium is the most radioactive constituent of the soluble components stream. The SRL resin is a resorcinol-formaldehyde condensation polymer highly specific for cesium and is about 10 times more effective in removal of cesium than other ion exchange resins evaluated for use in processing defense nuclear waste. Tests have been run at SRL using both simulated and actual waste streams

  20. 129I measurements in lake water for an estimate of regional 129I depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of 129I depositions from 129I releases of reprocessing plants are so far based on measurements of soil and rain water samples. Because 129I concentrations in these samples show a highly temporal and spatial variability, the 129I deposition values deduced from single measurements cannot be seen as representative for a larger area. Here it is proposed to use lake water as an archive for former 129I depositions, to overcome these limitations. If the limnological parameters of any lake are known, the local 129I deposition flux can be deduced which is temporally averaged over the flushing time, and spatially averaged over the catchment area of the lake. Samples were collected from various European lakes and from Lake Baikal (Russia). The 129I concentration in these samples was measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry, and values between 0.3 and 8.1 x 108 at/l were obtained. Deduced 129I deposition fluxes averaged over the flushing times of the lakes range from 0.3 to 9.3 x 1012 at/m2 y. The 129I deposition fluence measured for Lake Baikal is attributed predominantly to releases from the former Soviet reprocessing facilities Chelyabinsk, Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk, while the 129I deposition fluxes deduced for all other lakes are attributed to releases from the European reprocessing activities at Sellafield, Marcoule and La Hague

  1. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus cornucopioides often

  2. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 deg. C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei∼50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ∼40 nm/min at 40 deg. C to 380 nm/min at 330 deg. C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13±0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides

  3. Management of iodine-129 from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological and radiological aspects of the management of 129I arising in fuel reprocessing plants (FRPs) are reviewed and discussed. The dissolver off-gases of FRPs can be made to contain about 99% of the 129I throughput, and efficient techniques are available for trapping iodine from this stream. This iodine could be discharged as a liquid effluent (e.g. to coastal waters) if local circumstances permit; otherwise it would have to be immobilized and disposed of as a solid. All management modes for 129I (except transmutation or extraterrestrial disposal, neither of which is a real option at present) will ultimately lead to its dispersal throughout the natural global iodine reservoirs, particularly in the long term the deep oceans and sediments. A revised global-circulation model for iodine is presented, together with new results for the radiological impact of 129I discharged as an airborne or liquid effluent, or trapped and disposed of as a solid to the deep ocean bed or to two kinds of deep geologic repository. The long-term radiological impacts of different management modes for 129I are very similar owing to the common factor of global circulation; but there are considerable differences in the shorter term. Atmospheric discharges of 129I from large FRPs would need to be abated, to control doses to the local critical group; none of the other management modes considered appears to be precluded on radiological grounds. (Auth.)

  4. Soil bioassays and the 129I problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 is a very long-lived radionuclide associated with spent nuclear fuel. Because 129I has a 107-year half-life, is very mobile in the environment and is a biologically essential element, it is the most limiting radionuclide affecting disposal of spent fuel. Traditionally, the potential impacts of 129I have been estimated for human receptors, with the implicit assumption that all other organisms are less at risk. Risk is the operative word, the objective for protection of humans is to protect individuals, whereas the objective for other biota is usually to protect populations. Here, 129I poses an interesting problem: the half-life is so long it is barely radioactive. Thus, the chemical toxicity may be more limiting than the radiological impact. A series of soil bioassays were employed, including a life-cycle plant (Brassica rapa) bioassay, a modified earthworm survival bioassay, a microarthropod colonization/survival bioassay, and a series of more common soil and aquatic bioassays. Chemical toxicity was indicated at soil concentrations as low as 5 mg kg-1. At these levels, radiological impact on non-human biota would not be expected, and therefore the chemical toxicity effects are more critical. However, human food-chain model estimates show these levels, as pure 129I, would be unacceptable for human radiological exposure, so that for 129I, protection of the human environment should also be protective of non-human biota

  5. Research on decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by electrokinetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, electrokinetic process was applied for the decontamination of cesium contaminated soil. As a result, about 4.0 times cesium removal was achieved by applying a DC electric field of 80 V/m to comparing zero electric field in treatment for 30 days. Therefore, the electrokinetic process has a possibility to decontamination of cesium contaminated soil. (author)

  6. Cesium ion uptake by moss (Hypnum cupressiforme)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower land mosses uptake water and minerals from the atmosphere. They can collect metals polluting the air and radioactive fallout elements so they can be suitable for monitoring of these substances. Cesium ion uptake by Hypnum cupressiforme is studied by a radioactive tracer, 134Cs. The quantity of cesium ion in different celluar locations and the capacity of ion uptake is determined. The total capacity is found to be several times 10-3 mol g-1 and is therefore of the same order of magnitude as the cation exchange capacity of ion exchangers. The kinetics and reversibility of the process is studied as well. (orig.)

  7. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  8. Environmental transfer of radio-cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of Cs 134 and 137 were emitted from the destroyed reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and deposited on the soil surface of vast area including forests, fields, and residential areas. The present report explains mainly land transfer behaviors of cesium which deposited on the surface soils, absorbed into soil particles as time passed on and finally became difficult to move from the particles (aging effect). Depth-distribution of radio-cesium in rice paddy and grassland as well as the change over years is presented. Changes with the passage of time of Cs 137 concentrations in leaves of spinach, wormwood, and persimmon are also provided. (S. Ohno)

  9. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  10. Global environmental transfer of 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A compartmental model is used to estimate the transfer of 129I through various environmental segments. • Scenario of initial release to each of the compartments is considered. • Dose due to natural production of 129I is constant and continuous i.e. 2.07 × 10−11 mSv/y. • Maximum dose due to 129I for nuclear weapon tests carried for a period of 10 y is 2.42 × 10−7 mSv/y. • Dose due to infinite releases of 129I from NPP and FRP is highest but insignificant as compared to regulations. - Abstract: 129I is released to the environment via natural production due to cosmic interaction in the upper atmosphere; past nuclear weapon tests and routine releases from nuclear power plants (NPP) and fuel reprocessing plants (FRP). In this study, a compartmental model is used to estimate the transfer of 129I through various environmental segments like ocean atmosphere, land atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, ocean mixed layer, surface soil, deep ocean, ocean sediment, shallow subsurface soil and deep subsurface soil due to its release in any one or more compartments. Due to NPP and FRP releases into the land atmosphere for a period of 1000 y, the highest inventory of 129I is observed in the surface soil up to a period of 3000 y; afterwards the deep ocean shows the highest inventory. The lowest inventory is found in the ocean sediment up to a period of 200 y; followed by the ocean atmosphere up to a period of 1250 y; afterwards the land atmosphere shows the lowest inventory. The maximum annual effective dose to the world population due to releases of 129I from NPP and FRP for a period of 100 y is estimated as 4.14 × 10−6 mSv/y. If the release period is 1000 y, the annual effective dose increases to 1.05 × 10−5 mSv/y and for an infinite period of release, it is estimated as 1.5 × 10−4 mSv/y. The model results are verified by comparing the effective dose per TBq release of 129I at different time periods with those reported by different

  11. Iodine-129: limits to radiologic dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the impact of 129I on iodine metabolism and to further evaluate the extent of possible radiologic effects associated with exposure to 129I, 14 4-month-old beagle dogs of both sexes were administered varying amounts of the radionuclide. Single oral doses of 0, 0.45, 1.13, 2.5 and 5 mg 129I (corresponding to 0, 0.07, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 μCi, respectively) containing 14% 127I as a contaminant were given as NaI. In addition, 7 μCi 131I was administered to each pup as a tracer for external whole-body and thyroidal monitoring over the subsequent 2-week period. Each 131I dosage was equivalent to about 60 pg iodine. The dietary intake of stable iodine was approx 0.2 mg/day. It was found that the radiologic hazard associated with 129I appears inherently limited, resulting from its low specific activity and from biologic mechanisms which serve to control the amount of intra- and extrathyroidal iodine. Although the risk to human health from long-term, low-level exposure to 129I is yet to be defined, it may be expected to be restricted by these physical and physiologic constraints. (U.K.)

  12. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  13. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  14. Anomalous wetting of helium on cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report studies of the anomalous wetting of a cesium substrate by a liquid helium film by means of the technique of third sound. A hysteretic pre-wetting transition is observed as a function of the amount of helium in the experimental cell. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Behaviour of 129I in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 (radiological half-life: 16 million years) is one of the most important long-lived radionuclides released into the environment through nuclear applications. We have carried out several studies on the levels and behaviour of radioactive and stable iodine in the environment to obtain information related to the radiation assessment of nuclear facilities (e.g. nuclear fuel reprocessing plants). In this paper, we summarize our recent investigations on the following points: (1) chemical forms of iodine in the atmosphere, (2) deposition of gaseous iodine on plants, (3) iodine in soil, (4) transfer of iodine from soil to plants, (5) volatilization of iodine from the soil-plants system, (6) levels of 129I in the environment. As a topic, determination of 129I in Chernobyl soil for the estimation of 131I levels at the accident is also described. (author)

  16. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  17. 7 CFR 400.129 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rate on Delinquent Debts; USDA Debt Collection Regulations in 7 CFR part 3; and 4 CFR 102.13. (g) For... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Debt Management-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.129 Salary offset. (a) Debt collection by salary offset is feasible if: the cost to...

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The milk samples have been collected from 30 prefectures by prefectural public health laboratories and institutes (raw milk: 4 times per year for the report to WHO, and raw and city milk: 2 times per year), and analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 content at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. Collected samples were the raw milk and the city ones for the producing districts and the consuming ones, respectively. Three liters of fresh milk were carbonized in each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes, and then it was asked at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides was dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  19. Cesium stress and adaptation in pseudomonas fluorescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialization and acid rain have led to a marked increment on the bioavailability of numerous metals. These metallic pollutants pose a serious threat to the ecosystem due to their ability to interact negatively with living organisms. Thus, considerable effort has been directed towards the development of environmentally-friendly technologies tailored to the management of metal wastes. As microbes are known to adapt to most environmental stresses, they constitute organisms of choice in the study of molecular adaptation processes. The adaptive features may be subsequently engineered for biotechnological applications. Cesium, a monovalent metal with chemical similarities to potassium but no know essential biological function has become a cause of environmental concern owing to its accidental release from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. This study examines the impact of cesium on the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescensts, and discusses the possibilities of its use in management of this nuclear waste. 15 refs., 3 figs

  20. Thermochemical evaluation and preparation of cesium uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of cesium uranates, Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7, which are predicted by thermochemical estimation to be formed in irradiated oxide fuels, were prepared from U3O8 and Cs2CO3 for measurements of the thermal expansions and thermal conductivities. In advance of the preparation, thermochemical calculations for the formation and decomposition of these cesium uranates were performed by Gibbs free energy minimizer. The preparation temperatures for Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7 were determined from the results of the thermochemical calculations. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the single phases of Cs2UO4 and Cs2U2O7 were formed. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also performed on these samples, and the decomposition temperatures were evaluated. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of the thermochemical calculations. (author)

  1. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell)

  2. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad

  3. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  4. Sorption of cesium 137 by steel from sodium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of cesium-137 radionuclide by Kh18N10T steel from sodium melt at different temperatures (150-450 deg C) has been studied. Equilibrium coefficients of cesium distribution between sodium and steel are determined, which depend on the conditions of sorption realization, such as cesium concentration in sodium melt, the content of oxygen admixture in sodium and the state of sorbing surface

  5. Cesium-137 as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP) seeks to develop and encourage widespread commercial use of defense byproducts that are produced by DOE. Cesium-l37 is one such byproduct that is radioactive and decays with emission of gamma rays. The beneficial use of this radiation to disinfect sewage sludge or disinfest food commodities is actively being pursued by the program. The radiation produced by cesium-l37(Cs-l37) is identical in form to that produced by cobalt-60(Co-60), an isotope that is widely used in commercial applications such as medical product sterilization. The choice of isotope to use depends on several factors ranging from inherent properties of the isotopes to availability and cost. The BUP, although centrally concerned with the beneficial use of Cs-l37, by investigating and assessing the feasibility of various uses hopes to define appropriate circumstances where cesium or cobalt might best be used to accomplish specific objectives. This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when evaluating potential uses for isotopic sources

  6. Removal of cesium from red deer meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  7. Surface interactions of cesium and boric acid with stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the effects of cesium hydroxide and boric acid on oxidized stainless steel surfaces at high temperatures and near one atmosphere of pressure are investigated. This is the first experimental investigation of this chemical system. The experimental investigations were performed using a mass spectrometer and a mass electrobalance. Surfaces from the different experiments were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify the presence of deposited species, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis to identify the species deposited on the surface. A better understanding of the equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetics of the steam-accelerated volatilizations, and the release kinetics are gained by these experiments. The release rate is characterized by bulk vaporization/gas-phase mass transfer data. The analysis couples vaporization, deposition, and desorption of the compounds formed by cesium hydroxide and boric acid under conditions similar to what is expected during certain nuclear reactor accidents. This study shows that cesium deposits on an oxidized stainless steel surface at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 Kelvin. Cesium also deposits on stainless steel surfaces coated with boric oxide in the same temperature ranges. The mechanism for cesium deposition onto the oxide layer was found to involve the chemical reaction between cesium and chromate. Some revaporization in the cesium hydroxide-boric acid system was observed. It has been found that under the conditions given, boric acid will react with cesium hydroxide to form cesium metaborate. A model is proposed for this chemical reaction

  8. Distribution and retention of cesium in Swedish boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and distribution of cesium in forest environments are being studied at three locations in Sweden. The main part of the cesium found in the soil was recovered in horizons rich in organic matter. The cesium was retained in the soil organic matter in a more or less extractable form. As different soil types have a different distribution pattern of organic matter the distribution of cesium will depend on the forest soil type. The clay content in Swedish forest soils is in general low which will mitigate the retention of cesium in the soil mineral horizons. The cesium present in the tree was considered to be an effect of assimilation by the tissues in the canopy as well as by the roots. The redistribution of cesium within the trees was extensive which was considered to be an effect of a high mobility of cesium in the close system of a forest environment. The cesium will remain in the forest environment for a considerable time but can be removed by forest practice, by leaching out of the soil profile or by the radioactive decay. (au)

  9. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  10. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puukko, E. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The mass distribution coefficient K{sub d} is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R{sub d} is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R{sub d} values to K{sub d} values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs{sup +} and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was {sup 134}Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  11. 46 CFR 129.560 - Engine-order telegraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine-order telegraphs. 129.560 Section 129.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.560 Engine-order telegraphs. No OSV need carry an...

  12. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction...

  13. 24 CFR 886.129 - Leasing to eligible families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing to eligible families. 886.129 Section 886.129 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Additional Assistance Program for Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.129 Leasing...

  14. 5 CFR 185.129 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of time. 185.129 Section 185.129 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.129 Computation of time. (a) In computing any period of time under this part or...

  15. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities....

  16. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  17. 7 CFR 1942.129 - Borrower supervision and servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Borrower supervision and servicing. 1942.129 Section 1942.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Facilities Projects § 1942.129 Borrower supervision and servicing. Loans under this subpart are subject...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  19. 7 CFR 989.129 - Voting at nomination meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting at nomination meetings. 989.129 Section 989.129... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.129 Voting at nomination meetings. Any person (defined in § 989.3 as an individual, partnership,...

  20. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with...

  1. 31 CFR 129.6 - Penalties specified by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties specified by law. 129.6 Section 129.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY REPORTING § 129.6 Penalties specified by law. Reporters are advised that the Act provides...

  2. 46 CFR 129.320 - Generators and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generators and motors. 129.320 Section 129.320 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.320 Generators and motors. (a) Each generator and motor, except a submersible-pump motor, must be— (1) In an accessible space, adequately ventilated...

  3. 29 CFR 570.129 - Relation to other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation to other laws. 570.129 Section 570.129 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.129 Relation to other laws... incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways under specified conditions. These...

  4. A model for predicting fission product activities in reactor coolant: application of model for estimating I-129 levels in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model was developed to estimate the activities of fission products in reactor coolant and hence to predict a value for the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. The latter can be applied along with measured Cs-137 activities to estimate I-129 levels in reactor waste. The model accounts for fission product release from both defective fuel rods and uranium contamination present on in-core reactor surfaces. For simplicity, only the key release mechanisms were modeled. A mass balance, considering the two fuel source terms and a loss term due to coolant cleanup was solved to estimate fission product activity in the primary heat transport system coolant. Steady state assumptions were made to solve for the activity of short-lived fission products. Solutions for long-lived fission products are time-dependent. Data for short-lived radioiodines I-131, I-132, I-133, I-134 and I-135 were analysed to estimate model parameters for I-129. The estimated parameter values were then used to determine I-129 coolant activities. Because of the chemical affinity between iodine and cesium, estimates of Cs-137 coolant concentrations were also based on parameter values similar to those for the radioiodines. This assumption was tested by comparing measured and predicted Cs-137 coolant concentrations. Application of the derived model to Douglas Point and Darlington Nuclear Generating Station plant data yielded estimates for I-129/I-131 and I-129/Cs-137, which are consistent with values reported for pressurised water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). The estimated magnitude for the I-129/Cs-137 ratio was10-8 - 10-7. (author)

  5. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  6. Ion and electron thermoemission of cesium alumosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationships between and electron thermoemission of cesium aluminosilicate were studied. Measurements were made at 5.10-8-5.10-9 Tor and temperatures up to 1400 deg C. The effect of additions refractory metals Ti, Mo, Cu and Ir was studied. Ion thermoemission in the pulse regime was also studied. Conclusions are drawn that capacity depends upon additions. The temperature dependence of thermoionic emission current has two maxima and is characterized by instability in time. A conclusion is drawn that aluminosilicate thermionic cathodes can be reckoned as cathodes of a film type

  7. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

  8. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  9. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  10. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes

  11. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100' (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually

  12. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar was investigated in a range of temperatures and cesium concentrations. {yields} The pseudo-second order kinetic model produced a good fit with the experimental kinetic data. {yields} Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm adsorption model. {yields} The interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar was dominated by chemical adsorption. - Abstract: The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L{sup -1} and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L{sup -1} while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol{sup -1} suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  13. Global cycling of tritium and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic linear compartmnt models are used widely to describe global cycling of environmental tritium and 129I. Important tests of these models by comparison of predictions with environmental data from anthropogenic sources are discussed. A tritium model, based on the global hydrologic cycle that reproduces time-series data from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing on concentrations in precipitation, ocean surface waters, and surface fresh waters in the northern hemisphere, concentrations of atmospheric tritium in the southern hemisphere, and the latitude-dependence of atmosperic tritium in both hemispheres is presented. The model includes: hemispheric stratosphere compartments; disaggregation of the troposphere and ocean surface waters into eight latitude zones; consideration of the different concentrations of water in air over land and the ocean in calculating the specific activity of atmospheric tritium; and use of a box-diffusion model for transport in the ocean. An important prediction of a global model for 129I, which we developed previously from data on cycling of naturally occurring stable iodine, is that the mean residence time in the first 1 m of surface soil is about 4000 y. However, a recent analysis of measured soil profiles of 129I near the Savannah River Plant, based on a linear compartment model for downward transport through soil, suggested that the mean residence time in the first 0.3 m is only about 40 y. A diffusion model is used to describe the measured soil profiles, and the resulting diffusion coefficient is shown to correspond to mean residence times in the first 0.3 m and 1 m of soil of about 80 and 900 y, respectively. The value for the first 1 m can be reconciled with the prediction of the global model

  14. Studies on release and deposition behaviour of cesium from contaminated sodium pools and cesium trap development for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out on the release and deposition behaviour of cesium from sodium pools in air-filled chamber in the temperature range of 673 to 873 K, using Cs-134 to simulate Cs-137. About 0.12 kg of sodium was loaded in a burn-pot together with 92.5 kBq of cesium. Experiments were carried out with 21% oxygen. Natural burning period of sodium and specific activity ratio between cesium and sodium showed a tendency to decrease and release fractions of both the species tended to increase with temperature. From the surface deposited aerosols it was observed that cesium has propensity to settle down closer to the point of release. A cesium trap has been developed for FBTR with RVC as getter material. Absorption kinetics and particle release behaviour studies pointed to its intended satisfactory performance in the plant. (author)

  15. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,mf=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,mf=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,mf=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The last chapter

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. Roof renovation of buildings 128 and 129

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The roof renovation of buildings 128 and 129 is scheduled to take place from 17 August to 15 October 2015.   During this period, access to the "raw material" workshop will be limited and controlled due to asbestos removal. Collecting your orders directly from the building will be difficult, or even impossible, and urgent requests will be difficult to carry out. We therefore ask you to create your requests via EDH, so that delivery may be carried out as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS Department

  18. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed

  19. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  20. Cesium separation Using Electrically Switched Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing metal ions from wastewater. In ESIX, which combines ion exchange and electro-chemistry, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto an electrode. This paper presents the results of experiments on high surface area electrodes and the development of a flow system for cesium ion separation. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 113 BV/h, the maxi-mum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves supported once-through waste processing. A comparison of results for a stacked 5-electrode cell versus a single-electrode cell showed enhanced breakthrough performance. In the stacked configuration, break-through began at about 120 BV for a feed containing 0.2 ppm cesium at a flow rate of 13 BV/h. A case study for the KE Basin (a spent nuclear fuel storage basin) on the Hanford Site demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal waste generation, reduced disposal costs, and lower capital expenditures

  1. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of cesium-137 on Rhodosporidium fluviale strain UA2 isolated from cesium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify a more efficient biosorbent for 137Cs, we have investigated the biosorption behavior and mechanism of 137Cs on Rhodosporidium fluviale (R. fluviale) strain UA2, one of the dominant species of a fungal group isolated from a stable cesium solution. We observed that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 was a fast and pH-dependent process in the solution composed of R. fluviale strain UA2 (5 g/L) and cesium (1 mg/L). While a Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of 137Cs was a monolayer adsorption, the biosorption behavior implied that R. fluviale strain UA2 adsorbed cesium ions by electrostatic attraction. The TEM analysis revealed that cesium ions were absorbed into the cytoplasm of R. fluviale strain UA2 across the cell membrane, not merely fixed on the cell surface, which implied that a mechanism of metal uptake contributed largely to the cesium biosorption process. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS analyses showed that ion-exchange was another biosorption mechanism for the cell biosorption of 137Cs, in which the decreased potassium ions were replaced by cesium ions. All the above results implied that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 involved a two-step process. The first step is passive biosorption that cesium ions are adsorbed to cells surface by electrostatic attraction; after that, the second step is active biosorption that cesium ions penetrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Microorganisms isolated from a cesium solution are considered as a biosorbent to remove cesium ions. • The biosorption equilibrium is fitted well to a Langmuir model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. • First attempt to explore biosorption mechanisms using PIXE and EPBS. • Living and dead microorganisms have different biosorption mechanisms. • The biosorption of 137Cs involved a two-step process: passive and active

  2. Spatial variability and Cesium-137 inventories in native forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the nuclear fission discovery and development of nuclear weapons in 1940s, artificial radioisotopes were introduced in the environment. This contamination is due to worldwide fallout by superficial nuclear tests realized from early 1950s to late 1970s by USA, former URSS, UK, France and China. One of theses radioisotopes that have been very studied is cesium-137. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30.2 years and its biological behavior is similar to the potassium. The behavior in soil matrix, depth distribution, spatial variability and inventories values of cesium-137 has been determinate for several regions of the world. In Brazil, some research groups have worked on this subject, but there are few works published about theses properties of cesium-137. The aim of this paper was study the depth distribution, spatial variability, and inventory of cesium-137 in native forest. Two native forests (Mata 1 and Mata UEL) were sampling in region of Londrina, PR. The results shows that there is a spatial variability of 40% for Mata 1 and 42% for Mata UEL. The depth distribution of cesium-137 for two forests presented a exponential form, characteristic to undisturbed soil. Cesium-137 inventory determinate for Mata 1 was 358 Bq m-2 and for Mata UEL was 320 Bq m-2. (author)

  3. A MODEL FOR PREDICTING FISSION PRODUCT ACTIVITIES IN REACTOR COOLANT: APPLICATION OF MODEL FOR ESTIMATING I-129 LEVELS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Husain, A.

    2003-02-27

    A general model was developed to estimate the activities of fission products in reactor coolant and hence to predict a value for the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor; the latter can be applied along with measured Cs-137 activities to estimate I-129 levels in reactor waste. The model accounts for fission product release from both defective fuel rods and uranium contamination present on in-core reactor surfaces. For simplicity, only the key release mechanisms were modeled. A mass balance, considering the two fuel source terms and a loss term due to coolant cleanup was solved to estimate fission product activity in the primary heat transport system coolant. Steady state assumptions were made to solve for the activity of shortlived fission products. Solutions for long-lived fission products are time-dependent. Data for short-lived radioiodines I-131, I-132, I-133, I-134 and I-135 were analyzed to estimate model parameters for I-129. The estimated parameter values were then used to determine I-1 29 coolant activities. Because of the chemical affinity between iodine and cesium, estimates of Cs-137 coolant concentrations were also based on parameter values similar to those for the radioiodines; this assumption was tested by comparing measured and predicted Cs-137 coolant concentrations. Application of the derived model to Douglas Point and Darlington Nuclear Generating Station plant data yielded estimates for I-129/I-131 and I-129/Cs-137 which are consistent with values reported for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). The estimated magnitude for the I-129/Cs-137 ratio was 10-8 - 10-7.

  4. A MODEL FOR PREDICTING FISSION PRODUCT ACTIVITIES IN REACTOR COOLANT: APPLICATION OF MODEL FOR ESTIMATING I-129 LEVELS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model was developed to estimate the activities of fission products in reactor coolant and hence to predict a value for the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor; the latter can be applied along with measured Cs-137 activities to estimate I-129 levels in reactor waste. The model accounts for fission product release from both defective fuel rods and uranium contamination present on in-core reactor surfaces. For simplicity, only the key release mechanisms were modeled. A mass balance, considering the two fuel source terms and a loss term due to coolant cleanup was solved to estimate fission product activity in the primary heat transport system coolant. Steady state assumptions were made to solve for the activity of shortlived fission products. Solutions for long-lived fission products are time-dependent. Data for short-lived radioiodines I-131, I-132, I-133, I-134 and I-135 were analyzed to estimate model parameters for I-129. The estimated parameter values were then used to determine I-1 29 coolant activities. Because of the chemical affinity between iodine and cesium, estimates of Cs-137 coolant concentrations were also based on parameter values similar to those for the radioiodines; this assumption was tested by comparing measured and predicted Cs-137 coolant concentrations. Application of the derived model to Douglas Point and Darlington Nuclear Generating Station plant data yielded estimates for I-129/I-131 and I-129/Cs-137 which are consistent with values reported for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). The estimated magnitude for the I-129/Cs-137 ratio was 10-8 - 10-7

  5. NMR of laser-polarized 129Xe in blood foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Peled, S.; Nascimben, L.; Oteiza, E.; Walsworth, R. L.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129Xe dissolved in a foam preparation of fresh human blood was investigated. The NMR signal of 129Xe dissolved in blood was enhanced by creating a foam in which the dissolved 129Xe exchanged with a large reservoir of gaseous laser-polarized 129Xe. The dissolved 129Xe T1 in this system was found to be significantly shorter in oxygenated blood than in deoxygenated blood. The T1 of 129Xe dissolved in oxygenated blood foam was found to be approximately 21 (+/-5) s, and in deoxygenated blood foam to be greater than 40 s. To understand the oxygenation trend, T1 measurements were also made on plasma and hemoglobin foam preparations. The measurement technique using a foam gas-liquid exchange interface may also be useful for studying foam coarsening and other liquid physical properties.

  6. Speciation and migration of 129I in soil profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian;

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for speciation analysis of ultra low level 129I in soil using sequential extraction combined with coprecipitation for separation of carrier free iodine and AMS measurement of 129I. Two loess profiles collected from northwest China were analyzed for species of 129I and...... suggest that migration of iodine downwards in the soil profile is a slow process; the oxides and residue are the less mobile fractions of iodine. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....... 127I. Similar partitioning of 129I and 127I was observed in the loess profiles, the distribution of iodine isotopes followed an order of organic > leachable > reducible > residue. The 129I concentrations and 129I/127I ratios decreased exponentially with the depth, and 2 orders of magnitude lower in...

  7. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129I/127I was estimated to be ∼ 10-12 in the ocean and 10-11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10-10. However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129I make the accumulation of 129I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129I/127I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the Chernobyl

  8. Pollution of drug-technical materials by cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug-technical raw materials are medicinal plants (flowers, folium, grasses, mushrooms, roots, fruits, berry, kidney, cortex), used in pharmacy. To limit receipt cesium-137 in people body in 1993 in the Republic of Belarus were created 'Temporary permission levels of the cesium-137 radionuclides contents in drug-technical raw materials' were created (TPL-1993). The permission levels of cesium-137 are following: for drug-technical raw material (flowers, folium, grass, mushrooms, roots and other plants parts) - 1850 Bq/kg, for dried up fruits and berries - 2590 Bq/kg. (Author)

  9. Synthesis and peculiarities of the cesium zeolite crystal structure (cesite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to synthesize cesium zeolite by introduction of amorphous seed crystals which correspond by composition with cesium-containing zeolite into the aluminosilicate gel, since this method can produce zeolite with a crystal structure it would not adopt under the usual conditions. It is seen that during crystablization upon introduction of a seed crystal the cesium content in zeolite decreases. A more complete structural elucidation of zeolite obtained by the suggested method was carried out by x0ray and IR spectral analyses. The data of x-ray analysis showed that the structures of synthesized zeolite and binary octagonal pores are similar

  10. Contribution of nuclear medicine procedures to global 129I inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I content of batches of Na131I vials used for nuclear medical procedures was estimated by neutron activation analysis. The average value of the 129I/131I activity ratio (corresponding to zero decay time of the latter) was (4.98+-2.8)x10-9. It is concluded that the contribution of 129I from medical applications of 131I in India is insignificant. (author)

  11. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of 137cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm2/d. (author)

  12. A review on 129I analysis in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of literature focused on 129I determination in air is provided. 129I analysis in the environment represents a vital tool for tracing transport mechanisms, distribution pathways, safety assessment and its application as environmental tracer. To achieve that, specific chemical extraction methods and high sensitivity analytical techniques have been developed. This paper is intended to give an overview about the sample collection, extraction and distribution of 129I in the air. Sensitivity of available measurement techniques for the determination of 129I is compared. The article also provides the summary of current worldwide distribution of 129I in air and respective radiation exposure of man. -- Highlights: • This paper gives an overview about the occurrence, sample collection and extraction of 129I from the air. • Gaseous emissions and liquid discharges from reprocessing plants mainly contribute to 129I in the atmosphere. • Alkaline leaching and combustion are preferred methods for iodine extraction. • AMS presents the most important breakthrough in analytical technologies for 129I measurement. • High concentration of 129I in the closest proximity of reprocessing plants is of radiological relevance

  13. Analysis list: nhr-129 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nhr-129 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-12...9.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-129.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-129.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/nhr-129.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  14. Estimation of 129I inventory in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial distribution of oceanic 129I inventory presented here is based on collection of data from published literatures coupled with model calculation using ArcGIS software tools. A total of 363 thiessen polygons were created for the oceans in order to cover the tremendous variability in distribution of 129I data range. The results indicate that total 129I oceanic inventory is approximately 7310 kg, which is mainly stored in the region of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans. The concentrations of 129I in the oceans are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the pre-anthropogenic level reflecting effects of post 1945 anthropogenic activities. (author)

  15. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137cesium and 226radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  16. Structure of double hafnium and cesium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a compound whose formula according to the structural investigation is Cssub(2+x)Hf(SOsub(4))sub(2+x)(HSOsub(4))sub(2-x)x3Hsub(2)O (x approximately 0.7) (a=10.220, b=12.004, c=15.767 A, space group Pcmn) is determined by diffractometric data (2840 reflections, anisotropic refinement, R=0.087). It is build of complex unions [Hf(SO4)4H2O]4-, Cs+ cations and water molecules. Eight O atoms surrounding Hf atom (dodecahedron Hf-O 2.10-2.22 A) belong to four sulphate groups and water molecule. Three sulphate groups are bidentate-cyclic, and one group - monodentate relative to Hf. The structure has a cesium deficit in particular positions

  17. Double manganese(III) cesium triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double triphosphates have been identified in research on interactions in the P2O5-M2O3-Cs2O-H2O system, where M(III) = Al, Ga, Cr, Fe, at 570-770K, which have the M(III)Cs2 - P3O10 composition; here we report the identification of a new phase made under analogous conditions in a system containing Mn(III) together with some of its physicochemical properties. The product was analyzed for phosphorus by a colorimetric method, for manganese by titration with EDTA, and for cesium by atomic absorption. The x-ray phase analysis was performed with a DRON-3.0 diffractometer. The IR spectra were recorded. Thermogravimetry indicates that the product is MnCs2P3O10·H2O

  18. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Among various radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Iodine-131 displayed high radioactivity just after the accident. Moreover if taken into human body, Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and may cause the thyroid cancer. The recognition about the risk of Iodine-131 dose originated from the experience of the Chernobyl accident based on the epidemiological study [1]. It is thus important to investigate the detailed deposition distribution of I-131 to evaluate the radiation dose due to I-131 and watch the influence on the human health. However I-131 decays so rapidly (half life = 8.02 d) that it cannot be detected several months after the accident. At the recognition of the risk of I-131 on the Chernobyl occasion, it had gone several years after the accident. The reconstruction of I-131 distribution from Cs-137 distribution was not successful because the behavior of iodine and cesium was different because they have different chemical properties. Long lived radioactive isotope I-129 (half life = 1.57E+7 yr,), which is also a fission product as well as I-131, is ideal proxy for I-131 because they are chemically identical. Several studies had tried to quantify I-129 in 1990's but the analytical technique, especially AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), had not been developed well and available AMS facility was limited. Moreover because of the lack of enough data on I-131 just after the accident, the isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 of the Chernobyl derived iodine could not been estimated precisely [2]. Calculated estimation of the isotopic ratio showed scattered results. On the other hand, at the FDNPP accident detailed I-131 distribution is going to be successfully reconstructed by the systematical I-129 measurements by our group. We measured soil samples selected from a series of soil collection taken from every 2 km (or 5km, in the distant area) meshed region around FDNPP conducted by the Japanese Ministry of

  19. Low-work-function surfaces produced by cesium carbonate decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, T. R.; Sommer, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) was heated to the decomposition temperature of approximately 600 C. The nonvolatile decomposition products were condensed on a nickel substrate while the carbon dioxide was removed by pumping. The deposited material is characterized by an effective work function of between 1.05 and 1.15 eV at 450 K and by photoemission in the visible and near-infrared region of the spectrum. It is suggested that the deposited material consists of Cs2O, possibly Cs2O2, and adsorbed cesium. Silver, evaporated from a heated silver bead, produced the typical photoemissive and thermionic properties of a silver-oxygen-cesium (S-1) photocathode. The material may be of interest for thermionic energy converters and for the formation of silver-oxygen-cesium photocathodes.

  20. Sorption of cesium and strontium by arid region desert soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption and ion exchange in soil systems are the principal mechanisms that retard the migration of nuclear waste to the biosphere. Cesium and strontium are two elements with radioactive isotopes (Cs137 and Sr90) that are commonly disposed of as nuclear waste. The sorption and ion exchange properties of nonradioactive cesium and strontium were studied in this investigation. The soil used in this study was collected at an experimental infiltration site on Frenchman Flat, a closed drainage basin on the Nevada Test Site. This soil is mostly nonsaline-alkali sandy loam and loamy sand with a cation exchange capacity ranging from 13 to 30 me/100g. The clay fraction of the soil contains illite, montmorillonite, and clinoptilolite. Ion exchange studies have shown that this soil sorbs cesium preferentially relative to strontium, and that charge for charge, the exchange-phase cations released from exchange sites exceed the cesium and strontium sorbed by the soil. 38 references, 22 figures

  1. Cesium iodide crystals fused to vacuum tube faceplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, H. G.

    1964-01-01

    A cesium iodide crystal is fused to the lithium fluoride faceplate of a photon scintillator image tube. The conventional silver chloride solder is then used to attach the faceplate to the metal support.

  2. {sup 129}I dispersion and sources in Northwest Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herod, Matthew N., E-mail: mattherod@gmail.com [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Clark, Ian D. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Kieser, W.E. [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Agosta, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Zhao Xiaolei [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Radioiodine, {sup 129}I is a biophilic and mobile radionuclide, and a major contaminant of concern for long term radioactive waste disposal. Nuclear fuel reprocessing has released large amounts of anthropogenic {sup 129}I in a number of locations globally; this has led to an increase in the concentration of {sup 129}I and the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the environment. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its movement and concentration in the environment is essential. While {sup 129}I dispersion has been examined in the vicinity of nuclear activities, little is known about its accumulation in remote regions. Accordingly, we have undertaken reconnaissance sampling in the Arctic as a location that may be affected by {sup 129}I fallout. Samples from large watersheds were collected in northern Canada on a trajectory starting in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (60 Degree-Sign 43 Prime 00 Double-Prime N) and moving north to Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territory (67 Degree-Sign 26 Prime 26 Double-Prime N). Results show concentrations of {sup 129}I up to 27 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms/L are present in Northwest Canada and {sup 129}I/I ratios up to 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Annual {sup 129}I fallout ranges from 2.78 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 7.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} atoms/m{sup 2}/yr, calculated by normalizing the measured values to watershed area and discharge. These quantities substantially exceed literature values for waters containing only geogenic or cosmogenic production and are similar for all watersheds regardless of watershed area or discharge. Anthropogenic releases of {sup 129}I into the atmosphere or oceans are the major potential sources of {sup 129}I in the Arctic.

  3. Sorption of cesium on Olkiluoto mica gneiss, granodiorite and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium was selected as a model to study the sorption in bedrock occurring by ion exchange mechanism. The aim of the study was to supplement the existing data on sorption occurring by ion exchange mechanism in bedrock of the candidate sites for spent fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. The sorption of cesium was studied on crushed mica gneiss, tonalite (granodiorite) and granite in artificial groundwaters. Fresh water was represented by Allard water, pH 8 and pH 7, and saline water by Ol-So water, pH 7 and pH 9. In addition, a Na-Ca-Cl brine water and its 1:10 dilution were used as simulants. Cesium concentrations were between 10-8 and 10-3 mol/l. The distribution coefficients of the sorption, Rd and Ra values were determined by batch method. Isotherms were partly non-linear with slopes 0.7 - 1.0 depending on rock and water. At the end of the sorption experiment, the water was analysed for cations exchanged for cesium. The sorption of cesium was also studied as a function of ionic strength. The ionic strength increased in the order Allard < 0l-Br 1:10 < 0l-So < 0l-Br. The sorption of cesium was lower at higher ionic strength and higher Cs concentration. The mineral composition of rocks was determined by thin section analysis, and the sorption distribution ratios on thin sections in the different waters were determined by batch technique. The minerals, that sorbed most cesium were determined by autoradiography. These were biotite, muscovite and chlorite. Cordierite in mica gneiss also sorbed cesium very effectively. (orig.)

  4. Sorption of cesium on Olkiluoto mica gneiss, granodiorite and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitti, T.; Hakanen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    Cesium was selected as a model to study the sorption in bedrock occurring by ion exchange mechanism. The aim of the study was to supplement the existing data on sorption occurring by ion exchange mechanism in bedrock of the candidate sites for spent fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. The sorption of cesium was studied on crushed mica gneiss, tonalite (granodiorite) and granite in artificial groundwaters. Fresh water was represented by Allard water, pH 8 and pH 7, and saline water by Ol-So water, pH 7 and pH 9. In addition, a Na-Ca-Cl brine water and its 1:10 dilution were used as simulants. Cesium concentrations were between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -3} mol/l. The distribution coefficients of the sorption, R{sub d} and R{sub a} values were determined by batch method. Isotherms were partly non-linear with slopes 0.7 - 1.0 depending on rock and water. At the end of the sorption experiment, the water was analysed for cations exchanged for cesium. The sorption of cesium was also studied as a function of ionic strength. The ionic strength increased in the order Allard < 0l-Br 1:10 < 0l-So < 0l-Br. The sorption of cesium was lower at higher ionic strength and higher Cs concentration. The mineral composition of rocks was determined by thin section analysis, and the sorption distribution ratios on thin sections in the different waters were determined by batch technique. The minerals, that sorbed most cesium were determined by autoradiography. These were biotite, muscovite and chlorite. Cordierite in mica gneiss also sorbed cesium very effectively. (orig.) 12 refs.

  5. Cesium pre-implantation of embedded biological sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion implantation system which allows the implantation of a large surface of a specimen has been used to obtain an homogeneous enrichment with cesium of embedded biological tissues sections. In such a specimen, containing already oxygen at a high concentration, the addition of cesium allows both positive and negative secondary ions to be studied with the highest sensitivity, using the same primary ion source.

  6. Kelvin Probe Studies of Cesium Telluride Photocathode for AWA Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Eric; Velazquez, Daniel; Yusof, Zikri; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff; Harkay, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (~50 nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin Probe technique. The study incl...

  7. Adsorption Behaviour of Liquid 4He on Cesium Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Iov, Valentin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the wetting properties of 4He on cesium substrates using optical and electrical methods. Due to the fact that the cesium substrates are deposited at low temperatures onto a thin silver underlayer, it is necessary firstly to study and understand the adsorption of helium on silver. The work presented here is structured as follows: some of the fundamental concepts on the theory of physisorbed films, such as van der Waals interaction, adsorption isotherms ...

  8. Study of strontium and cesium migration in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation has been to study the retardation and dilution of non-active strontium and cesium relative to a non-absorbing substance (iodide) in a well-defined fracture zone in the Finnsjoen field research area. The investigation was carried out in a previously tracer-tested fracture zone. The study has encompassed two separate test runs with prolonged injection of strontium and iodide and of cesium and iodide. The test have shown that: - Strontium is not retarded, but rather absorbed to about 40% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 36.3% of the injected mass of strontium has been absorbed and there is no deabsorption. -Cesium is retarded a factor of 2-3 and absorbed to about 30% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 39.4% of the injected mass of cesium has been absorbed. Cesium is deabsorbed after injection stop (400h) and after 1300 hours, only 22% of the injected mass of cesium is absorbed. (author)

  9. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. H. Eikelmann

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively.

  10. Dicty_cDB: CFG129 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CF (Link to library) CFG129 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12859-1 CFG129F (Link to Original ... kg*kycickw*qyyy* kckesngsryll*tsmsnhcckvctkw*lyckw*csr *ftylgyitkgtylksnlqsiew cnp*ycmdir*stfscsw*w*reiwcs ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SFF129 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFF129 (Link to dictyBase) - G20048 DDB0218464 Contig-U03537-1 SFF129P (Lin ... iqln qlntilnyhyniqilmf*ipflivv*fyyl**fqyf*lyflirnk*pkis *xlrn Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences produc ...

  12. 14 CFR 129.113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 129... Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a) Except... limitations for fuel tank systems. (d) The proposed fuel tank system maintenance program revisions must...

  13. Speciation of 129I in sea, lake and rain waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of the very long-lived fission product 129I and stable iodine (127I) in the Baltic Sea and lake and rain waters from Finland, were measured as well as their occurrence as iodide (I−) and iodate (IO3−). The highest concentrations of both 127I and 129I occurred in sea water, on average 11.1 ± 4.3 μg/l and 3.9 ± 4.1 × 10−9 at/l. In rain and lake waters the concentration of 129I was more or less identical and almost one order of magnitude lower than in sea water. Based on these observations, and data from the literature, it is assumed that the source of 129I in lakes is precipitation and the major source in the Baltic Sea is the inflow of sea water from the North Sea through the Danish Straits. The concentration of 129I in the Baltic Sea has increased by a factor of six during ten years from 1999. In all studied water types the main chemical form of both iodine isotopes was iodide; in sea and lake waters by 92–96% and in rain water by 75–88%. Compared to 127I the fraction of iodide was slightly higher in case of 129I in all waters. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of 129I in Finnish lakes are equal with the concentrations in rain water. ► The source of 129I in lakes is the precipitation. ► Concentrations of 129I in the Baltic Sea are at least ten times higher than in lakes. ► In all water types iodide is the major chemical species of iodine. ►129I occurs slightly more in iodide form than stable iodine (127I).

  14. Dose mapping experiments of refurbished cesium irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cesium irradiator is a technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food commodities to achieve various purposes like control of sprouting in onion and potato, insect disinfestations of cereals and pulses, quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables and shelf life extension of perishable foods. The facility was installed in 1968 and recently refurbished with the new control console. The current source strength (137Cs) of the irradiator is 44.3 kCi. The real success of irradiation of food commodities lies in the adequate delivery of radiation dose to achieve the particular purpose of irradiation. Therefore, evaluation of dose distribution pattern in the product trays of the irradiation facility is of paramount importance. Two sets of dose mapping experiments of the product trays of the facility were carried out to find out the dose distribution profile and dose uniformity ratio. Reference standard dosimeter Fricke was used for the experiment. The standardized ionic concentrations of Fricke dosimeter are Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 6H2O ) - 1 mM, Sodium Chloride (NaCl) - 1 mM, Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) - 400 mM. The Optical Density (O.D) evaluation was carried out using Spectrophotometry with wave length of 304 nm. The dosimetry tray was partitioned into two planes namely bottom plane and top plane using card-board sheets. Polypropylene vials containing Fricke solution were prepared and fixed on the planes. Each plane was containing nine numbers of dosimeters. The product thickness was around 9 cm. The temperatures of irradiation and measurements were 30 deg C and 28 deg C respectively. The first set of experiment was intended to find out the dose distribution profile throughout the irradiation chamber. The dose rate at Dmin position was observed as 3.69 Gy/min with a poor Dose Uniformity Ratio (DUR) of 6.5. In order to improve the dose rate and DUR the second set of the experiment was carried out with modified product geometry

  15. Improvement of cesium retention in uranium dioxide by additional phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to improve the cesium retention in nuclear fuel. A bibliographic survey indicates that cesium is rapidly released from uranium dioxide in an accident condition. At temperatures higher than 1500 deg C or in oxidising conditions, our experiments show the difficulty of maintaining cesium inside simulated fuel. Two ternary systems are potentially interesting for the retention of cesium and to reduce the kinetics of release from the fuel: Cs2O-Al2O3-SiO2 et Cs2O-ZrO2-SO2. The compounds CsAISi2O6 and Cs2ZrSi6O15 were studied from 1200 deg C to 2000 deg C by thermogravimetric analysis. The volumetric diffusion coefficients of cesium in these structures, in solid state as well as in liquid one, were measured. A fuel was sintered with (Al2O3 + SiO2) or (ZrO2 + SiO2) and the intergranular phase was characterized. In the presence of (Al2O3 + SiO2), the sintering is realized at 1610 deg C in H2. It is a liquid phase sintering. On the other end, with (ZrO2 + SiO2), the sintering is a low temperature one in oxidising atmosphere. Finally, cesium containing simulated fuels were produced with these additives. According to the effective diffusion coefficients that were measured, the additives improved the retention of cesium. We have predicted the improvement that could be hoped for in a nuclear reactor, depending on the dispersion of the intergranular additives, the temperature and the degree of oxidation of the UO2+x. We wait for a factor of 2 for x=0 and more than 8 for x=0.05, up to 2000 deg C. (author). 148 refs., 122 figs., 34 tabs

  16. Cesium and strontium in Black Sea macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace level of metals and particularly radioactive ones should be monitored to evaluate the transfer along the trophic chain, assess the risk for biota and can be used for global changes assessment. Plants respond rapidly to all changes in the ecosystem conditions and are widely used as indicators and predictors for changes in hydrology and geology. In this work we represent our successful development and applications of a methodology for monitoring of stable and radioactive strontium and cesium in marine biota (Black Sea algae's). In case of radioactive release they are of high interest. We use ED-XRF, gamma spectrometers and LSC instrumentation and only 0.25 g sample. Obtained results are compared with those of other authors in same regions. The novelty is the connection between the radioactive isotopes and their stable elements in algae in time and space scale. All our samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. - Highlights: • An extraction chromatography method for radiochemical separation of Sr and Cs. • Assessment of Sr and Cs accumulation capacity of six Black Sea macroalgae species. • Connection between the isotopes and their stable elements content in algae. • Assessment of Sr and Cs content in ecosystems along the Bulgarian coast

  17. Cesium-137 levels detected in Georgia otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in the 1940's and continuing through the 50's and early 60's, nuclear devices were tested by aerial detonation in the United States and other countries around the world. Cesium-137 (137Cs) is one of the most important radionuclide by-products due to its abundance and slow decay (30-year half-life). The uptake of 137Cs in animal tissue is the result of its similarity to potassium. The somatic and genetic effects of 137Cs, along with its effect on reproductive cells, can pose great hazards to wildlife species. A reported buildup of 137Cs in white-tailed deer in the lower coastal plain of Georgia during the 1960's was followed by a gradual decline during the 1970's. Although numerous studies have involved terrestrial mammals of Georgia, few have involved aquatic mammals such as the river otter. With continued atmospheric testing by some foreign countries and the increased use of nuclear power as an energy source, there is a need for continued monitoring of radionuclides in wildlife to ascertain the quality of the environment. This study was initiated as part of an overall study of environmental pollutants in the river otter of Georgia and deals with analysis of the 137Cs accumulations in this species

  18. Uptake of cesium ions by human erythrocytes and perfused rat heart: a cesium-133 NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.G.; Murphy, E.; London, R.E.

    1988-05-17

    Cesium-133 NMR studies have been carried out on suspended human erythrocytes and on perfused rat hearts in media containing CsCl. The resulting spectra exhibit two sharp resonances, arising from intra-and extracellular Cs/sup +/, separated in chemical shift by 1.0-1.4 ppm. Thus, intra- and extracellular resonances are easily resolved without the addition of paramagnetic shift reagents required to resolve resonance of the other alkali metal ions. Spin-lattice relaxation times in all cases are monoexponential and significantly shorter (3-4 times) for the intracellular component. When corrections are made for the pulse repetition rate, the total intensity of the intracellular and extracellular Cs/sup +/ resonances in erythrocytes is conserve, implying total observability of the intracellular pool. The uptake of Cs/sup +/ by erythrocytes occurs at approximately one-third the reported rate for K/sup +/ and was reduced by a factor of 2 upon addition of ouabain to the sample. These results indicate that /sup 133/Cs NMR is a promising tool for studying the distribution and transport of cesium ions in biological systems and, in some cases such as uptake by cellular Na,K-ATPase, for analysis of K/sup +/ ion metabolism.

  19. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  20. A fundamental study on cesium migration to sodium at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experiment study aims to understand the behavior of cesium in severe accident of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor, especially cesium migration rate to sodium. In past study, exact migration rate of cesium to sodium has not been reported because of difficulty of the cesium-sodium interfacial area evaluations of gas bubble. In this study, we developed a pool-type experimental apparatus which can simplify the shape of interfacial area, and measured cesium migration rate in a low temperature range of 200degC to 300degC. The cesium migration rates obtained under the condition that the cesium mixed argon gas flow is the same temperature with sodium vary in the range of 10-3 - 10-1 mol/m2min and increase with increasing the system temperature. The difference of cesium migration rates between non-oxidized sodium surface and oxidized sodium surface is also clearly observed. (author)

  1. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri, E-mail: joskit@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kutty, K.V. Govindan [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Goswami, M.C. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs{sub 2}O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (E{sub c}) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth.

  2. Cesium corrosion process in Fe–Cr steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cesium corrosion out-pile test was performed to Fe–Cr steel in a simulated fuel pin environment. In order to specify the corrosion products, the corroded area was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A cesium corrosion process in Fe–Cr steel was successfully developed proceeding from both experimental results and thermochemical consideration. The corroded area was mainly formed by Fe layer and Fe depleted oxidized layer. The Fe depleted oxidized layer was formed by Cr0.5Fe0.5 and Cr2O3. The presumed main corrosion reactions were 2Cr+2/3 O2→Cr2O3(ΔG650°C=-894.1kJ/mol) and Cr23C6+46Cs+46O2→23Cs2CrO4+6C(ΔG650°C=-25018.1kJ/mol). Factors of these reactions are chromium, carbon, oxygen and cesium. Therefore, cesium corrosion progression must be dependent on the chromium content, carbon content in the steel, the supply rate of oxygen and temperature which correlated with the diffusion rate of cesium and oxygen into the specimen

  3. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs2O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (Ec) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth

  4. The diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel multi-layer diffusion couple was used to isolate the diffusion of strontium, europium and cesium in SiC without introducing radiation damage to SiC and at concentrations below the solubility limit for the fission products in SiC. Diffusion occurred by both bulk and grain boundary pathways for all three fission products between 900∘ C and 1 ,300∘ C. Cesium was the fastest diffuser below 1 ,100∘ C and the slowest above this temperature. Strontium and europium diffusion tracked very closely as a function of temperature for both bulk and grain boundary diffusion. Migration energies ranged from 1.0 eV to 5.7 eV for bulk diffusion and between 2.2 eV and 4.7 eV for grain boundary diffusion. These constitute the first measurements of diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium in silicon carbide, and the magnitude of the cesium diffusion coefficient supports the premise that high quality TRISO fuel should have minimal cesium release.

  5. Dissociative excitation of cesium atom upon e-CsOH collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of dissociative excitation of cesium atom in collisions with mono-kinetic molecules of cesium hydroxide is studied. It is established that behaviour of dissociative excitations the cesium atom in spectral series corresponds of to the grade dependence of cross sections on the main quantum number of the upper level. The values of constants, characterizing the behaviour of cross sections in the eight spectral series of the cesium atom are determined

  6. Sorption of cesium and uranium to Feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within safety assessment studies, for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic formations, calculation for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere are often carried out with models taking sorption into account. In the past 8 years the insight grew that other physico-chemical processes, besides sorption, could affect migration behaviour. While the currently used transport models were being improved taking either linear or non-linear sorption into account, the coupling of geochemical and transport models came into scope. In spite of these developments models which are still based on the sorption theory are frequently applied in studying migration behaviour of radionuclides. This is caused by the necessity of making preliminary pronouncements, while coupled models are still in stage of development and thermodynamic data are very limited available. Therefore one has to obtain insight in the reliability of the models based on the sorption theory. within the sorption database there is a lack of knowledge about mineralogy, composition of the fluid and the experimental conditions underlying the data. Therefore the Expert Group on geochemical Modelling supported by the Finnish proposal in order to obtain insight in the possible deviation of the sorption coefficients that can be estimated from experiments performed with standard samples, fluid composition and experimental conditions. Nine laboratories from OECD membership countries took part in this intercalibration study. In the framework of the Dutch safety assessment studies the Dutch National Institute of Public health and Environmental protection (RIVM) has decided to participate in this exercise. In this report the results are presented of sorption experiments for cesium and natural Uranium to Feldspar. (H.W.). 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  7. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of 137Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of 137Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope 137Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports

  8. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  9. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  10. Spins and magnetic moments of rubidium and cesium nuclides far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies at ISOLDE have concerned spins and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient rubidium and cesium isotopes. Here, the main results obtained, and, in the case of cesium, new moment measurements are briefly discussed also the results from measurements on neutron-rich nuclides of rubidium and cesium. (orig./AH)

  11. 38 CFR 21.129 - Home study course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services § 21.129 Home study course. (a) Definition. A home study...

  12. Atmospheric dispersal of 129iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I/127I ratios measured in meteoric water and epiphytes from the continental United States are higher than those measured in coastal seawater or surface freshwater and suggest long-range atmospheric transport of 129I from the main source for the earth's surface inventory, viz., nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The median ratio for 14 meteoric water samples is 2100 x 10-12, corresponding to a 129I concentration of 2.5 x 107 atoms/L, whereas 9 epiphyte samples have a median ratio of 1800 x 10-12. Calculated deposition rates of 129I in the continental United States reveal that a small but significant fraction of the atmospheric releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, England, and Cap de La Hague, France, is deposited after distribution by long-range transport. The inferred dominant mode of transport is easterly, within the troposphere, mainly in the form of the organic gas methyl iodide

  13. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  14. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: sludges and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation. (author)

  15. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

    1993-11-01

    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  16. Cesium 137 in oils and plants from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the project of radioactive and environmental contamination started in Guatemala. Studies about the radioactive contamination levels are made within the framework of this project. Cesium-137 has been an interest radionuclide, because it is a fission product released to the environment by the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants accidents. The sampling consisted in collection of soil and grass in 20 provinces of Guatemala, one point by province, and it was made in 1990. The cesium-137 concentration in the samples, was determined by gamma spectrometry, using an hyper pure germanium detector. The results show the presence of radioactive contamination in soil and grass due to cesium-137, at levels that might be considered as normal. The levels found are not harmful for human health, and its importance is the fact that can be used as reference levels for the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Guatemala

  17. Study of radiatively sustained cesium plasmas for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, A. J.; Dunning, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study aimed at developing a high temperature solar electric converter are reported. The converter concept is based on the use of an alkali plasma to serve as both an efficient high temperature collector of solar radiation as well as the working fluid for a high temperature working cycle. The working cycle is a simple magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rankine cycle employing a solid electrode Faraday MHD channel. Research milestones include the construction of a theoretical model for coupling sunlight in a cesium plasma and the experimental demonstration of cesium plasma heating with a solar simulator in excellent agreement with the theory. Analysis of a solar MHD working cycle in which excimer laser power rather than electric power is extracted is also presented. The analysis predicts a positive gain coefficient on the cesium-xenon excimer laser transition.

  18. On the compartmental modeling of cesium migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of the migration of radionuclides in soil following deposition after a nuclear accident is important for both external dose and plant uptake prediction. In this paper, the validity conditions of compartment models for cesium migration in soils are investigated. A compartment model is derived from a diffusion-convection model. The model considers free and bound cesium compartments and is applied to measured profiles of 137Cs of undisturbed soil in Northern Greece. It is concluded that the rate of cesium transfer must vary linearly with depth and that from measured equilibrium profiles, the ratios of model parameters can be determined but not the parameters themselves. This model is applied to measured profiles of 137Cs in soil due to wet deposition following the Chernobyl accident

  19. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Lars; Botner, Olga; Carlson, Per; Hulth, Per Olof; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics was held at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden during August 19 24, 2004. Invited to the symposium were around 40 globally leading researchers in the field of neutrino physics, both experimental and theoretical. In addition to these participants, some 30 local researchers and graduate students participated in the symposium. The dominant theme of the lectures was neutrino oscillations, which after several years were recently verified by results from the Super-Kamiokande detector in Kamioka, Japan and the SNO detector in Sudbury, Canada. Discussion focused especially on effects of neutrino oscillations derived from the presence of matter and the fact that three different neutrinos exist. Since neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have mass, this is the first experimental observation that fundamentally deviates from the standard model of particle physics. This is a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physics. The various oscillation parameters will be determined with increased precision in new, specially designed experiments. Theoretical physics is working intensively to insert the knowledge that neutrinos have mass into the theoretical models that describe particle physics. It will probably turn out that the discovery of neutrino oscillations signifies a breakthrough in the description of the very smallest constituents of matter. The lectures provided a very good description of the intensive situation in the field right now. The topics discussed also included mass models for neutrinos, neutrinos in extra dimensions as well as the `seesaw mechanism', which provides a good description of why neutrino masses are so small. Also discussed, besides neutrino oscillations, was the new field of neutrino astronomy. Among the questions that neutrino astronomy hopes to answer are what the dark matter in the Universe consists of and where cosmic radiation at extremely high energies comes from. For this purpose, large neutrino

  20. Soil bioassays and the {sup 129}I problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Iodine-129 is a very long-lived radionuclide associated with spent nuclear fuel. Because {sup 129}I has a 10{sup 7}-year half-life, is very mobile in the environment and is a biologically essential element, it is the most limiting radionuclide affecting disposal of spent fuel. Traditionally, the potential impacts of {sup 129}I have been estimated for human receptors, with the implicit assumption that all other organisms are less at risk. Risk is the operative word, the objective for protection of humans is to protect individuals, whereas the objective for other biota is usually to protect populations. Here, {sup 129}I poses an interesting problem: the half-life is so long it is barely radioactive. Thus, the chemical toxicity may be more limiting than the radiological impact. A series of soil bioassays were employed, including a life-cycle plant (Brassica rapa) bioassay, a modified earthworm survival bioassay, a microarthropod colonization/survival bioassay, and a series of more common soil and aquatic bioassays. Chemical toxicity was indicated at soil concentrations as low as 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. At these levels, radiological impact on non-human biota would not be expected, and therefore the chemical toxicity effects are more critical. However, human food-chain model estimates show these levels, as pure {sup 129}I, would be unacceptable for human radiological exposure, so that for {sup 129}I, protection of the human environment should also be protective of non-human biota.

  1. A summary of global 129I in marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic 129I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on 129I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on 129I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic 129I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about 129I distribution in the marine waters.

  2. Thallous and cesium halide materials for use in cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain thallous and cesium halides, either used alone or in combination with other ceramic materials, are provided in cryogenic applications such as heat exchange material for the regenerator section of a closed-cycle cryogenic refrigeration section, as stabilizing coatings for superconducting wires, and as dielectric insulating materials. The thallous and cesium halides possess unusually large specific heats at low temperatures, have large thermal conductivities, are nonmagnetic, and are nonconductors of electricity. They can be formed into a variety of shapes such as spheres, bars, rods, or the like and can be coated or extruded onto substrates or wires. (author)

  3. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-03-01

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs+) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs+ uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs+, chemical library screening was performed using Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs+ tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs+ concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs+. Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs+ tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs+ by inhibiting Cs+ entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for instance, providing a basis for phytostabilisation of radiocesium-contaminated farmland.

  4. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs(+)) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs(+) uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs(+), chemical library screening was performed using...... Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs(+) tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs(+) concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs......(+). Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs(+) tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs(+) by inhibiting Cs(+) entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for...

  5. Iodine-129 in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant: II. Iodine-129 and iodine-127 contents of soils, forage plants and deer thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 129I and 127I in soils, forage plants and deer thyroids collected in the environment of the small Karlsruhe nuclear fuel reprocessing plant (WAK) were determined by neutron activation analysis. Levels of 129I in all samples were found to be elevated by several orders of magnitude above current average biospheric background values. In particular, deer thyroids were found to have very high 129I levels and corresponding high 129I/127I ratios.Using all the analytical data for 129I and 127I concentrations in plants it seems probable that there is a correlation between the 129I and the natural 127I concentrations in plants

  6. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met

  7. A method for reducing the cesium-137 content in meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports a study of a method for reducing the amount of cesium-137 in meat from wild animals. The method is intended for use in the kitchen and is based on a combined leaching and mechanical process. (K.A.E.)

  8. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  9. Fission-product tellurium and cesium telluride chemistry revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of fission-product tellurium is discussed with a focus on conditions in an operating CANDU reactor and in an accident scenario, i.e., a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Cesium telluride, Cs2Te, is likely to be one of the most abundant tellurium species released to containment. Available thermodynamic data on gas phase Cs2Te is not complete; hence the volatility of cesium telluride was studied by Knudsen-cell mass spectrometry. Cesium telluride was found to vapourize incongruently, becoming more tellurium-rich in the condensed phase as vapourization progressed. Vapour-phase species that were observed were elemental cesium and tellurium, CsTe, Cs2Te, Cs2Te2 and Cs2Te3. Second-law enthalpies and entropies were obtained for many of these species, and a third-law value, ΔH298o, of 186 ± 2 kJ·mol-1 was obtained for Cs2Te. (author)

  10. Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M

    2011-01-01

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  12. Cesium ion desorption ionization with Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium ions (Cs+) are used for the production of the feed ions necessary to obtain Fourier transform mass spectra (FTMS). The molecule chosen for the initial study of this Cs+ desorption ionization (DI-FTMS) was vitamin B-12 because of its nonvolatile, thermally labile character. 21 references

  13. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, T.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah.

  14. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial cesium removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work done in support of the development of technology for the continuous removal and concentration of radioactive cesium in supernatant from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at the ORNL site. The primary objective was to test candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the MVSTs. An experimental system contained in a hot-cell facility was constructed to test the materials in columns or modules using the same batch of supernatant to allow comparison on an equal basis. Resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF) resin was evaluated at three flow rates with 50% breakthrough ranges of 35 to 50 column volumes (CV) and also through a series of five loading/elution/regeneration cycles. The results reported here include the cesium loading breakthrough curves, elution curves (when applicable), and operational problems and observations for each material. The comparative evaluations should provide critical data for the selection of the sorbent for the ORNL Cesium Removal Demonstration project. These results will be used to help determine the design parameters for demonstration-scale systems. Such parameters include rates of cesium removal, quantity of resin or sorbent to be used, and elution and regeneration requirements, if applicable

  15. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gutleb A.C.; Mraz, G.

    1991-01-01

    Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra). The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  16. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  17. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  18. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples, such as seawater, seaweed, lake water, lake sediment and grass collected from the Baltic Sea area were analyzed for 129I and 127I by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In 2000, the concentration of 129I in the seawater from Borholm and Moeen in the Baltic Sea has reached 6.0x10-13 and 16x10-13 g/l, respectively, these are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the global fallout level. The highest value of 270x10-13 g/l being found in the seawater from the Kattegat. By comparison of the level of 129I in the lake water and precipitation in this region, it is estimated that more than 95% of 129I in the Baltic Sea originates from reprocessing emissions, especially from the French nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. More than 30% of 129I in the south Baltic and 93% in the Kattegat directly originates from the marine discharges of the European reprocessing plants

  19. AMS of I-129: cross contamination and its correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, Christof [ETH Zurich, Labor fuer Ionenstrahlphysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Low-energy AMS is well suited for measurements of the long-lived nuclide {sup 129}I because the interfering stable isobar {sup 129}Xe does not form negative ions, thus high ion energies are not required for discrimination in the final detector. Furthermore, low-energy AMS has the advantage that in combination with helium stripping the most probable charge state can be selected; in our case at the TANDY running at 300 kV we select charge state 2+ with a transmission of >50%. With a proper spectrometer at the high-energy side interferences of the stable isotope {sup 127}I can be completely eliminated. Contrary to many AMS nuclides {sup 129}I readily forms negative ions and the overall efficiency is high. The challenges lie more in the ion source where cross contamination can be quite severe due to the volatile nature of iodine. This is particularly of importance when analyzing samples that are influenced from anthropogenic sources because the isotopic ratios can span several orders of magnitude. On the other hand special care must be taken when analyzing samples with low isotopic ratios ({sup 129}I/{sup 127}I < 10{sup -13}) or samples with very low iodine content (carrier free samples) due to the very same reason. This talk discusses the advantages and challenges of low-energy AMS of I-129 with the focus on the issues with cross contamination and its correction.

  20. Speciation of 129I in sea, lake and rain waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, Jukka; Räty, Tero; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2012-01-01

    11.1±4.3μg/l and 3.9±4.1×10−9 at/l. In rain and lake waters the concentration of 129I was more or less identical and almost one order of magnitude lower than in sea water. Based on these observations, and data from the literature, it is assumed that the source of 129I in lakes is precipitation and......Concentrations of the very long-lived fission product 129I and stable iodine (127I) in the Baltic Sea and lake and rain waters from Finland, were measured as well as their occurrence as iodide (I−) and iodate (IO3−). The highest concentrations of both 127I and 129I occurred in sea water, on average...... sea and lake waters by 92–96% and in rain water by 75–88%. Compared to 127I the fraction of iodide was slightly higher in case of 129I in all waters....

  1. Demonstration test for decontamination technology of cesium-contaminated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company (KEPCO E and C), architecture and engineering company of nuclear power plant, developed the 'decontamination technology of cesium-contaminated ash' in the basis of pre-owned 'decontamination technology of cesium-contaminated soil'. The new technology was demonstrated in Fukushima prefecture during 12 days from November 5, 2013, in order to verify the performance. Demonstration equipment (CEDECON-DA), with a capacity of treatment of 20 ℓ per batch, can be carried in a container in order to promote the ease of transportation and in-situ installation. Through the demonstration test it was verified the superior performance and the possibility of commercialization. This technique comprises of cesium separation and cesium coagulation processes. Briefly speaking, the principal of this process is as follows; cesium is separated from ash, detached to the coagulation and then deposited. The decontaminated ash can be disposed of into municipal landfills as conventional non-radioactive waste. The present technology is evaluated such that the disposal amount of radioactive waste will be significantly reduced. The ash with average concentration of 6,200 Bq/kg from a conventional incineration plant was used for the demonstration test. Each separate performance test has been carried out under acid, neutral and alkaline conditions, respectively. The test result for alkaline condition showed the highest decontamination ratio of 82-85% and the volume reduction ratio of 95%. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center (RANDEC) performed the radiation protection management, activity measurement and evaluation in the demonstration test results. (author)

  2. Some aspects of cesium deposition in Transilvania (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident of the Chernobyl atomic electric power station, a great quantity of radionuclides (∼100MCi) escaped from the reactor. It was estimated that 13% of the inventory activity of cesium representing 1.5-2 MCi left the reactor. The radioactive deposits were very nonuniform for the same distance and in the same direction from Chernobyl nuclear center having a close dependence upon direction and speed of wind and pluviometric conditions. The rains, especially the storms, spectacularly increased the radioactive fallout. Although, for the first two-three days, subsequent to accident, the meteorological conditions were favorable for Romania, after April 29/30, because of the changing in the wind direction on SW (initial it was N and NW) the countries were on this direction - Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, former Yugoslavia - began to be intensely contaminated with radioactive fallout. In Romania, the radioactive cloud passing coincided with abundant rains, especially on the direction mentioned above. On this direction, the cesium deposits are of 8-2 times larger than other Romanian regions. The torrential rain which fell on May 1st 1986, in the western side of Cluj Napoca town caused an intense contamination especially with short-life isotopes as Te, I, Ba, La, Mo. Medium and long-life isotopes as Ru, Zr, Cs, Sr were present in large quantities in this area.too. For the total contribution the value obtained was 1130 kBq/m2, much larger than the average in Romania. This work presents data about cesium content of pollen samples gathered daily between 1-30 May 1986; cesium deposits in five areas and some measurements in connection with cesium mitigation in soils

  3. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excesses of 129Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129Xe excesses based on the production of 129I from the spontaneous fission of 238U

  4. Excess /sup 129/Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of /sup 129/Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these /sup 129/Xe excesses have been thought to be related to /sup 129/I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial /sup 129/Xe excesses based on the production of /sup 129/I from the spontaneous fission of /sup 238/U.

  5. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  6. Recent improvements of a mobile polarizer system for 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (HP)129Xe has numerous applications both in fundamental physics like nuclear spin clocks and in medical research, e.g. in lung MRI. We report on a compact mobile 129Xe polarizer built in order to achieve high polarization degrees operating in counter flow. The optical pumping scheme is optimized in terms of magnetic field homogeneity, rubidium saturation, freeze-thaw method, gas-transport and its storage in special vessels with low wall relaxation. This talk will cover different aspects of HP gas production, manipulation and minimization of losses due to relaxation.

  7. Distribution and retention of cesium and strontium in Swedish boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and distribution of cesium, and to some extent strontium, in forest environments are being studied at three sites in Sweden. The main part of the cesium found in the soil was recovered in horizons rich in organic matter. The cesium was retained in the soil organic matter in a more or less extractable form. As different soil types have a different distribution pattern of organic matter, the distribution of cesium will depend on the forest soil type. The clay content in Swedish forest soils is, in general, low which will mitigate the retention of cesium in the soil mineral horizons. The cesium and strontium present in the trees was considered to be an effect of assimilation by the tissues in the canopy as well as by the roots. The redistribution of cesium within the trees was extensive which was considered to be the effect of a high mobility of cesium in the trees. The recovery of strontium-90 in pines, in relation to the deposition rate was higher compared to the relative recovery of cesium-137, 30 years after deposition. The cesium and strontium will remain in the forest environment for a considerable time but can be reduced by forest practice, by leaching out of the soil profile or by radioactive decay

  8. Analysis of 129I and its Application as Environmental Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Hou, Yingkun

    2012-01-01

    Iodine-129, the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, occurs naturally, but anthropogenic generated 129I has dominated the environment in the past 60 years. Due to active chemical and environmental properties of iodine and the enhanced analytical capacity for 129I measurement, the application of 129I...... as an environmental tracer has highly increased in the past 10 years. Neutron activation analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry are the only techniques for measurement of 129I at environmental level. This article mainly compares these two analytical techniques for the determination of 129I at...... environmental level, and highlights the progress of these analytical methods for chemical separation and sensitive measurement of 129I. The naturally occurred 129I has been used for age dating of samples/events in a range of 2-80 Ma. For the purpose of this study, an initial value of 129I has to be measured...

  9. Thyroidal burdens of 129I from various dietary sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroidal burdens of 129I were calculated for 1-, 4- and 14-yr-olds, and adults, using available dietary data. Milk and milk products contributed 63, 57, 54 and 33% of the total thyroidal 129I burden of the four respective age groups. As the contribution from dairy products decreased, that from meat increased from about 12% for 1-yr-olds to 35% for adults, while that from leafy vegetables remained relatively stable, from 17 to 21%. From ingested foods produced in air assumed to contain 1 pCi 129I per m3, daily dietary 129I intakes of 1.3, 1.2, 1.7 and 1.5 nCi were computed for the 1-, 4-, and 14-yr-old child and adult, respectively. For each nCi ingested daily, thyroidal dose rates for the respective age groups were calculated to be 4.9, 2.1, 1.7 and 2.6 rem/yr, with the altered dose rates reflecting age-related differences in thyroid gland size and iodine kinetics. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 129... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (a) Specialized definitions. (1) PCB Manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2) Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who...

  11. Iodine-129 in thyroid and urine in Ukraine and Denmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Malencheko, AF.; Kučera, Jan; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1, 2, 3 (2003), s. 63-73. ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : neutron-activation analysis * environmental materials * I-129 concentrations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2003

  12. Determination of the 129I in primary coolant of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the radioactive wastes generated from the nuclear power plant, a radioactive nuclide such as 129I is classified as a difficult-to-measure (DTM) nuclide, owing to its low specific activity. Therefore, the establishment of an analytical procedure, including a chemical separation for 129I as a representative DTM, becomes essential. In this report, the adsorption and recovery rate were measured by adding 125I as a radio-isotopic tracer (t1/2 = 60.14 d) to the simulation sample, in order to measure the activity concentration of 129I in a pressurized-water reactor primary coolant. The optimum condition for the maximum recovery yield of iodine on the anion exchange resins (AG1 x2, 50-100 mesh, Clform) was found to be at pH 7. In this report, the effect of the boron content in a pressurized-water reactor primary coolant on the separation process of 129I was examined, as was the effect of 3H on the measurement of the activity of iodine. As a result, no influence of the boron content and of the simultaneous 3H presence was found with activity concentrations of 3H lower than 50 Bq/mL, and with a boron concentration of less than 2,000 μg/mL.

  13. Biogeochemical Considerations Related To The Remediation Of I-129 Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Yeager, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM (United States); Denham, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Zhang, S. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Xu, C. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Schwehr, K. A. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Li, H. P. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Brinkmeyer, R. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Santschi, P. H. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2012-09-24

    The objectives of this report were to: provide a current state of the science of radioiodine biogeochemistry relevant to its fate and transport at the Hanford Site; conduct a review of Hanford Site data dealing with groundwater {sup 129}I; and identify critical knowledge gaps necessary for successful selection, implementation, and technical defensibility in support of remediation decisions.

  14. 46 CFR 129.350 - Batteries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.350 Batteries—general. (a) Wherever a battery is charged, there must be natural or induced ventilation to dissipate the gases generated. (b) Each battery must be located as high above the bilge as practicable within the space the battery is located in...

  15. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  16. 20 CFR 220.129 - Education as a vocational factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.129 Education as a vocational factor. (a... responsibilities the claimant had when he or she was working may show that he or she has intellectual abilities... results of testing may also show that the claimant has significant intellectual ability that can be...

  17. Methods of I-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the radioiodine isotopes discharged from nuclear facilities 12+H9I has the longest half-life of 1.7x107 years and is accumulated in the environment for a long time period. Therefore, it is one of the most important nuclides in the environmental monitoring around a fuel reprocessing plant. Low level contamination of environmental samples with 129I may cause considerably high thyroid dose to the population. For instance, only ten pico-curies of 129I per liter of fresh milk may give one millirem of thyroid dose. Methods for the analysis of low level 129I in environmental samples such as milk, leafy vegetables and seaweeds have been developed. Iodine in the samples dried at low temperature is sublimated by heating at about 900degC in oxygen gas flow, and then trapped in the first charcoal trap. The trapped iodine is purged and condensed into the second mini-charcoal trap, then transferred into a quartz tube for neutron activation analysis. Iodine in the sample activated by thermal neutrons is purified by solvent extraction technique using chloroform. Purified iodine ion is converted to silver iodide precipitate. 130I and 128I contents in the precipitate are determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The lower detection limit of 129I by this method was found to be 0.01 - 0.1 pCi/kg wet weight. (author)

  18. 129Xe EDM Search Experiment Using Active Nuclear Spin Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Ohtomo, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Yu; Kojima, Shuichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shirai, Hazuki; Chikamori, Masatoshi; Hikota, Eri; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Nanao, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Kunifumi; Tsuchiya, Masato; Inoue, Takeshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Bidinosti, Christopher P.; Ino, Takashi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Asahi, Koichiro

    An active nuclear spin maser, which enables a precision measurement of spin precession frequency, is employed in the experimental search for permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe. In order to eliminate systematic errors which limit the sensitivity of the experiment to an EDM, the following tactics are adopted: (i) 3He comagnetometry for the cancellation of long-term drifts in the external magnetic fields and (ii) double-cell geometry for the mitigation of frequency shifts due to interaction of 129Xe spin with polarized Rb atoms. In the present work, the design for the double-cell has been changed and a magnetic shield-coil system to provide a highly homogeneous magnetic field has been newly introduced. Thanks to increased polarization and longer 3He spin relaxation time, the dual-species maser of 129Xe and 3He in a double-cell geometry operated successfully. Our experiment is now at the stage of assembling these separate technical elements in order to start the measurement of 129Xe EDM in the 10-28 ecm region.

  19. I-129 Moessbauer effect of polyacetylene with iodine addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The I-129 Moessbauer effect of polyacetylene with iodine addition was measured. The gamma-ray used was emitted from the first excited state of I-129, which is a decay product of Te-129. The Te-129 was produced by neutron irradiation of ZnTe128. The state of iodine in the #betta#-carotene-iodine complex was studied by the Moessbauer method. An obtained Moessbauer spectrum showed the presence of two kinds of iodine. As a result, it can be said that the #betta#-carrotene iodine complex is present in an ionic state of (C40H56)+ I3-. The states of iodine doped into cis- and trans-polyacetylene were also measured by the Moessbauer method. The test samples were made by dipping the polyacetylene into carbon tetrachloride solution of iodine. The obtained Moessbauer spectra were more complex than that of the #betta#-carotene iodine complex. Eight components of iodine were assumed for the analysis of spectra. It is suggested that the iodine states in polyacetylene are I3- and I5-. The I5- ions are linear. The number of I5- increases with increase of the iodine concentration in cis and trans polyacetylene. (Kato, T.)

  20. Transport properties of the calcium ionophore ETH-129.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E; Erdahl, W L; Hamidinia, S A; Chapman, C J; Taylor, R W; Pfeiffer, D R

    2001-12-01

    The transport mechanism and specificities of ionophore ETH-29 have been investigated in a highly defined phospholipid vesicle system, with the goal of facilitating the application of this compound to biological problems. ETH-129 transports Ca(2+) via an electrogenic mechanism, in contrast to A23187 and ionomycin, which function in a charge neutral manner. The rate of transport is a function of membrane potential, increasing by 3.9-fold per 59 mV over a broad range of that parameter. Rate is independent of the transmembrane pH gradient and strongly stimulated by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone when no external potential has been applied. The effect of uncoupler reflects the collapse of an opposing potential arising during Ca(2+) transport, but also reflects the formation of a mixed complex between the uncoupler, ETH-129, and Ca(2+) that readily permeates the vesicle membrane. Oleate does not substitute for the uncoupler in either regard. ETH-129 transports polyvalent cations according to the selectivity sequence La(3+) > Ca(2+) > Zn(2+) approximately equal to Sr(2+) > Co(2+) approximately equal to Ni(2+) approximately equal to Mn(2+), with the magnitude of the selectivity coefficients reflecting the cation concentration range considered. There is little or no activity for the transport of Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+). These properties suggest that ETH-129 will be useful for investigating the consequences of a mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload in mammalian cells, which is difficult to pursue through the application of electroneutral ionophores. PMID:11720991

  1. 22 CFR 129.6 - Requirement for license/approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Brokering activities undertaken by or for an agency of the United States Government— (i) For use by an agency of the United States Government; or (ii) For carrying out any foreign assistance or sales program... LICENSING OF BROKERS § 129.6 Requirement for license/approval. (a) No person may engage in the business...

  2. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. May 1-29, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    CNN Newsroom is a daily 15-minute commercial-free news program specifically produced for classroom use and provided free to participating schools. These guides are designed to accompany the program broadcasts for May 1-29, 1998. Top stories include: effects of a labor strike on Denmark's economy (May 1); the new currency of the European Union, the…

  3. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations. The process, described by a three-level model with the Λ scheme, shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms. The |Fg = 3> → |Fe = 4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg = 4, mF = 4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg = 4. To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state, we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg = 4> → |Fe = 3> transition, in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field. (atomic and molecular physics)

  4. Electrode activation in cesium-free negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of emission electrode activation leading to enhancement of negative ion emission in cesium-free discharges are discussed. In some ion sources with cesium-free discharges, the emission of negative ions has been increased significantly by emission electrode activation using strong heating of the negative biased electrode by discharge plasma. A simple explanation of this enhancement is that it is due to an accumulation on the emission surface of the plasma electrode of impurities with low ionization potential that decreases in surface work function and increases the secondary emission of negative ions similar to ''Cesiation.'' The negative biasing of emission surface is important for accumulation and trapping the impurities on the emission surface. To effectively control the activation process it is important to directly detect the evolution of the work function and the impurity concentration during electrode activation with enhancement of negative ion emission.

  5. Trapping and cooling cesium atoms in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of two experiments where cold cesium atoms are trapped in a speckle field. In the first experiment, a YAG laser creates the speckle pattern and induces a far-detuned dipole potential which is a nearly-conservative potential. Localization of atoms near the intensity maxima of the speckle field is observed. In a second experiment we use two counterpropagating laser beams tuned close to a resonance line of cesium and in the lin perpendicular to lin configuration, one of them being modulated by a holographic diffuser that creates the speckle field. Three-dimensional cooling is observed. Variations of the temperature and of the spatial diffusion coefficient with the size of a speckle grain are presented. (orig.)

  6. Cesium exchange reaction on natural and modified clinoptilolite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium cation exchange reaction with K, Na, Ca and Mg ions on natural and modified clinoptilolite has been studied. Batch cation-exchange experiments were performed by placing 0.5 g of clinoptilolite into 10 ml or 20 ml of 1 x 10-3M CsCl solution for differing times. Two type deposits of clinoptilolite zeolites from, Nizny Hrabovec (NH), Slovakia and Metaxades (MX), Greece were used for ion-exchange study. The distribution coefficient (Kd) and sorption capacity (Γ) were evaluated. For the determination of K, Na, Ca and Mg isotachophoresis method, the most common cations in exchange reaction was used. Cesium sorption was studied using 137Cs tracer and measured by γ-spectrometry. (author)

  7. Kelvin Probe Studies of Cesium Telluride Photocathode for AWA Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, Eric; Yusof, Zikri; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff; Harkay, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (~50 nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin Probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating.

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have determined the levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust samples. Dust samples were collected by the aspiration of 3000 m3 or more air at 1.0 -- 1.5 m above the ground surface in 10 prefectural public health laboratories and institutes. The samples collected during three months were combined, and were forwarded to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization. These samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnance at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ash to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The solution was dissolved into hydrochloric and filtered, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 with low background beta-ray spectrometer. (author)

  9. Cesium and lead uptake by CSH phases of hydrated cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Kd from radwaste elements in concrete systems show a wide range of values, a modelling of cesium and lead immobilization in Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH, xCaO.SiO2.H2O, with 0.7 (aged cements)SiOH) and precipitation equilibria. Values of Kd from cesium and lead in CSH matrix can thus be calculated with Ca/Si evolution and ionic strength effect. Predictive calculations have been carried out with success with different Ca/Si ratios, ionic strengths and liquid/solid ratios, and results are well superimposed with experimental isotherm data. If the CSH really allow accounting for the radwaste behavior in hydrated cement matrices, this model can be used in safety assessment calculations, with varying pH and [Ca2+] as cement degradation state parameters. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  10. New thermodynamic regularity for cesium over the whole liquid range

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatee, M H

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we derive an equation of state for liquid cesium based on a suggested potential function in accord to the characteristics large attraction and soft repulsion at the asymptotes of interaction potentials. By considering the interaction of nearest adjacent atoms in dense fluid, the equation of state predicts that the isotherm is linear function of, where is the compression factor, is the molar volume, and is the molar density. The linear parameters are identified as interaction coefficients related to attraction and repulsion, and are used to evaluate the molecular parameters with interesting implications. The isotherm is intended to resolve the particular thermodynamic properties of alkali metals, which have been known for their unusual change of the nature of intermolecular force as the characteristic metal-nonmetal transition range is approached. When applied to liquid cesium, the isotherms persist linear over the whole liquid range including the metal non-metals transition range and at the crit...

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in airborne dust have been determined by Japan Chemical Analysis Center under the contact with Science and Technology Agency. Dust samples were collected at 1.0 -- 1.5m above the ground surface with electrostatic precipitators or on filter papers by each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes in 9 prefectures, and these samples were forwarded to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after the carbonization. These samples were asked in an electric muffle furnance at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The solution was dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtered, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by science and Technology Agency. (author)

  12. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2013-01-15

    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  13. Migration behavior of cesium in compacted sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safety assessments of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, it is important to study the migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in compacted bentonite. In the present study, the apparent diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the diffusion were determined for cesium ions in compacted montmorillonite, a major clay mineral in bentonite. The activation energies obtained in the present study were 32.9 to 52.9 kJ mol-1, clearly higher than for the diffusion of cesium ions in free water, 16.2 kJ mol-1. The activation energies for Na-montmorillonite specimens with dry densities of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 x 103 kg m-3 were similar at approximately 34 kJ mol-1. When the dry density of the Na-montmorillonite specimens increases, the activation energy also increases, to reach 52.9 kJ mol-1 at 1.8 x 103 kg m-3. These findings suggest that the cesium in the compacted Na-montmorillonite diffuses with a different process from that in free water. Basal spacings were determined by the X-ray diffraction method for water-saturated, compacted Na-montmorillonite specimens. Three-water layer hydrate in the interlamellar space was observed for the Na-montmorillonite with dry densities of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 x 103 kg m-3, where the activation energies for the diffusion were nearly constant. Only the two-water layer hydrate was found in the Na-montmorillonite with dry densities of 1.6 and 1.8 x 103 kg m-3, in which the activation energy increases with the dry density. It is possible that the basal spacing could affect the migration behavior of cesium in compacted Na-montmorillonite. (author)

  14. Radioactive cesium. Dynamics and transport in forestal food-webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises results from a radioecological study during 1994-1995 concerning turnover, redistribution and loss of radioactive Cesium (134 and 137) in boreal forest ecosystems, as well as uptake and transfer in important food-chains over moose, vole and vegetation. The basis for this report are 9 publications published 1994-95. These reports are presented in summary form. 9 refs, 17 figs

  15. Optimized production of a cesium Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Tobias; Herbig, Jens; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Naegerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2004-01-01

    We report on the optimized production of a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms using an optical trapping approach. Based on an improved trap loading and evaporation scheme we obtain more than $10^5$ atoms in the condensed phase. To test the tunability of the interaction in the condensate we study the expansion of the condensate as a function of scattering length. We further excite strong oscillations of the trapped condensate by rapidly varying the interaction strength.

  16. Cesium dihydrophosphate monocrystal growth and certain of their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of cesium dihydrophosphate (centrisymmetrical, monoclinic, point symmetric group 2/m) are obtained by methods involving solvent evaporation and temperature reduction. At -122 deg C, a ferroelectric phase transition occurs, and at 230 and 265 deg C first-kind transitions, which are not accompanied by composition changes. CsH2PO4 solubility substantially increases with higher medium acidity, and remains approximately constant in alkali medium

  17. Behaviour of radioactive cesium in northern boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1997-2001 a large number of environmental samples have been collected from the Muddusjaervi area in Finnish Lappland. These samples include soil, water, sediment, vegetation and fish samples. Radioactive contamination in this subarctic environment has mainly resulted from the nuclear weapons test fallout in the 1950s and 1960s. Chernobyl accident did not considerably increase the contamination level in this area. The Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki, has been studying the behaviour of fallout radionuclides in the environment and in food chains in Lappland from the beginning of the 1960s. The study area lies in the middle of northern reindeer herding area where accumulation of radioactive cesium has been observed in food chains. In this paper we report on the behaviour of radioactive cesium in soil columns. The soil in this area is typically nutrient-poor podzolic soil. Altogether thirty soil columns were collected and they were divided into horizons (litter, organic and mineral layers). The activity concentrations of the horizons were determined by gamma spectrometry. In general, cesium has been concentrated mainly in the litter and organic layers and it has not been migrated considerably to mineral layers. To study the long term behaviour of cesium in soil the activity concentrations have been compared to those found in earlier decades and to the activity concentrations earlier determined for other radionuclides, especially for Pu. A further major objective was to study runoff of radionuclides from ground to lakes and brooks and therefore many of the soil samples were collected from various distances from lakes and brooks. (author)

  18. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  19. Corrections to our results for optical nanofiber traps in Cesium

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, D; Choi, K S; Kimble, H J

    2012-01-01

    Several errors in Refs. [1, 2] are corrected related to the optical trapping potentials for a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap for the D2 transition of atomic Cesium. Section I corrects our basic formalism in Ref. [1] for calculating dipole-force potentials. Section II corrects erroneous values for a partial lifetime and a transition wavelength in Ref. [1]. Sections III and IV present corrected figures for various trapping configurations considered in Refs. [1] and [2], respectively.

  20. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 104 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  1. Studies on the Separation of Cesium From Fission Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANLi-juan; ZHANGSheng-dong; GUOJing-ru; CUIAn-zhi; YANGLei; WUWang-suo

    2003-01-01

    135Cs is a long-life fission product. When measuring its thermal cross section, we must separate radiochemical purity cesium from fission products. Except for decontaminating radio- nuclides, others which can be activated must be avoided to come into solution. So ion exchanger is used. Inorganic ion exchangers have received increased attention because of their high resistance to radiation and their very efficient separation of alkali metal ions.

  2. Extraction of rubidium and cesium from micas following sulfate-extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of semicommercial tests of procedure of rubidium and cesium extraction from micas. Micas has been processed by the 40% solution of sulphuric acid at boiling temperature. Separate extraction of cesium and rubidium from the solution with arylalkylsubstituted phenol has been conducted after alum crystallization and decomposition by lime. Pure rubidium carbonate and technical cesium carbonate with their 80 and 95% extraction, respectively, are prepared

  3. Investigations of the method of sodium decontamination from cesium and tritium aiming its utilization or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective methods of removing cesium and tritium from sodium are submitted. It is shown, that the cleaning from cesium with consecutive use of portions of carbon materials will allow on the orders to reduce amount of sorbent, in which is concentrated cesium. For cleaning from tritium technological process with use of a cold trap and special dosage hydrogen in sodium is offered. The data on required time of cleaning and depth of cleaning at various capacity of hydrogen source are given. (author)

  4. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  5. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  6. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  7. Transition of cesium in food chains [after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of 25,000 samples of foodstuffs and feedstuffs in Czechoslovakia, contaminated by fall-out cesium after the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, performed from May 5, 1986 to March 31, 1988, revealed that both the values of cesium transfer-factors in food--animal tissues--milk transitions and the values of biological half-life of cesium are functions of internal and external conditions of contamination. Organism individuality as the main internal condition causes the variance of about +/- 50% of the mean value of the respective transfer-factor. Through the external conditions, mainly the environmental contamination level, type of ingested food and time of ingestion, the mean values of transfer-factors are influenced up to 500%, e.g. to the value of 0.5. But this value converges with growing up contamination of food and environment to the limit of 0.3. The first two to three biological half-lives after the last ingestion of contaminated food are up to ten-times shorter than those at stabilized state

  8. Cesium transfer to agricultural crops for three years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986 about 50 farms in the fallout region were selected for sampling at fixed sites of the soil surface layer and of the grassland and grain crops to come. The aim was to cover the different soil types and the farming practices of the region during studies on the transfer levels and on the change with time in transfer of cesium to the crops. It was found that the transfer level, as expected, was much higher for the grassland than for the grain crops. However, within both groups of considerable variation in the transfer level for the same year as measured by the transfer factors has occurred. For the former crops it can be concluded that the transfer factor during year 1 depends on the interception capacity of the plant cover and on the dilution by growth i.e on soil fertility and on fertilization level. In the following years the cesium TF-value for the grass cover was reduced by a factor from 2 to about 10. The reduction rate differed above all between the organic soils and the mineral soils and should largely depend on the type of the grass cover, on the different cesium fixing capacities of the two soil groups and on the potassium fertilization level. On ploughed land the transfer by root uptake to grain crops was about one magnitude lower than the transfer to the hey crops. (orig.)

  9. Example of cesium sorption database in natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the database of the National Institute for Materials Science (MatNavi), the adsorption data of cesium, strontium, and iodine have been published. Among these data, the authors picked up the data of cesium adsorption against natural ores, which were measured and compiled by the authors, graphically expressed them for clarifying the overall trends, and described each mineral’s adsorption characteristics and future challenges. The partition coefficients for the following minerals are compiled: bentonite, acid clay, montmorillonite, beidellite, vermiculite, illite, mordenite, zeolite, etc. Many of the recorded data in MatNavi are the data obtained in the systems without existence of a large amount of competing ions. On the other hand, in the accumulated water at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, competing ions due to seawater are contained. In the immersion liquid of incineration fly ash and the immersion liquid of plants/vegetation, too, competing ions are considered to be contained. Accumulation of adsorption data under different solution conditions are considered important. In addition, the concentrations of radioactive cesium in decontamination target are lower values by 5-7 orders, compared with the lower limit of 0.01 ppm in the existing data. In face of experiments, the influence of adsorption to containers and filters cannot be neglected. (A.O.)

  10. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Houssni El-Saied; Samya El-Sherbiny; Omnia Ali; Wafaa El-Saied; Said Rohyem

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+) on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the...

  11. Mobility of cesium through the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones under partially saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of cesium was studied in an unsaturated core of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, which is a potential host rock for retrievable disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In-diffusion laboratory experiments were performed on rock samples with water saturation degrees ranging from 81% to 100%. The analysis of both cesium concentration monitoring in the source reservoir and postmortem cesium rock concentration profile of the samples was carried out using a chemical-transport code where the sorption of cesium was described by a multi-site ion-exchange model. The results showed that cesium exhibited a clear trend related to the saturation degree of the sample. The more dehydrated the rock sample, the slower the decrease of cesium concentration, and the thinner the penetration depth of cesium was. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) for cesium decreased from 18.5 *10-11 m2 s-1 at full-saturation to 0.3 * 10-11 m2 s-1 for the more dehydrated sample. This decrease is almost 1 order of magnitude higher than that for tritiated water (HTO), although a similar behavior could have been expected, since cesium is known to diffuse in the same parts of the pore space as HTO in fully saturated claystones. (authors)

  12. Cesium transport in Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of a large radioactive cesium release to a Savannah River Plant (SRP) stream was examined using a stable cesium release to Four Mile Creek. Measurements following the release show that most of the cesium released was transported downstream; however, sorption and desorption decreased the maximum concentration and increased the travel time and duration, relative to a dye tracer, at sampling stations downstream. The study was made possible by the development of an analytical technique using ammonium molybdophosphate and neutron activation that permitted the measurement of stable cesium concentrations as low as 0.2 μg/L

  13. Radioactive cesium dynamics derived from hydrographic observations in the Abukuma River Estuary, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Shigeho; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Ono, Tsuneo; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Shimizu, Yugo; Watanabe, Tomowo

    2016-03-01

    Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the air and the ocean as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent major tsunami off the Pacific coast. There is much concern about radioactive contamination in both the watershed of the Abukuma River, which flows through Fukushima Prefecture, and its estuary, where it discharges into the sea in Miyagi Prefecture. We investigated radioactive cesium dynamics using mixing diagrams obtained from hydrographic observations of the Abukuma River Estuary. Particulate radioactive cesium dominates the cesium load in the river, whereas the dissolved form dominates in the sea. As the salinity increased from <0.1 to 0.1-2.3, the mixing diagram showed that dissolved radioactive cesium concentrations increased, because of desorption. Desorption from suspended particles explained 36% of dissolved radioactive cesium in estuarine water. However, the dissolved and particulate radioactive cesium concentrations in the sea decreased sharply because of dilution. It is thought that more than 80% of the discharged particulate radioactive cesium was deposited off the river mouth, where the radioactive cesium concentrations in sediment were relatively high (217-2440 Bq kg(-1)). Radioactive cesium that was discharged to the sea was transported southward by currents driven by the density distribution. PMID:26698826

  14. Laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from waste solutions of the PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from a fission product waste solution of the fuel reprocessing is described. The plant consists of two stages. In the first stage cesium is adsorbed on ammonium molybdatophosphate (AMP). Then the adsorbent is dissolved. From the solution cesium is adsorbed on a cationic ion exchanger in the second stage. Then AMP can be reproduced from this solution. For the elution of cesium in the second stage a NH4NO3 solution (3 m) is used. Flow sheet, construction and the control device of the plant are described and the results of tests with a model solution are given. (author)

  15. Structure of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses: An infrared and Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses (IPG) was investigated using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of the cesium doped samples revealed a structural modification of the parent glass owing to the incorporation of cesium. The structural changes could be correlated with the variation observed in the glass transition temperature of these glasses. Increased Cs-mediated cationic cross linking appears to be the reason for the initial rise in glass transition temperature up to 21 mol% Cs2O in IPG; while, breakdown of the phosphate network with increasing cesium content, brings down the glass transition temperature.

  16. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 1. Radioactive cesium content in dried milk (1987-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of radioactive cesium in dried and dried skimmed milk from selected dairies was double determined. The highest content was found in samples from milk from OSM Siedlce (98 Bq/kg) and skimmed milk from Radzyn Podlaski and Ostroleka, (the former 90, the latter 62 Bq/kg). The lowest level of radioactive cesium was observed in samples from dried milk from Sieradz, Slups, Wrzesnia, Olecko and Elblag (about or below 10 Bq/kg). Although those levels of contamination with radiocesium did not exceed values recommended by FAO they were determined as high for year 1987/88 as compared milk dates from previous 1985 year. (author). 13 refs, 4 tabs

  17. Measurements of 129I in human and bovine thyroids in Europe--transfer of 129I into the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine thyroid glands from different countries in Europe and human thyroid glands from Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany) show isotopic 129I/127I ratios of 2.1 X 10(-9) to 8.2 X 10(-8) for cattle and 2.1 X 10(-9) to 8 X 10(-8) in humans. These values give information about the concentration of fallout 129I in Europe since most of these glands were collected in areas without nuclear facilities. Some of the human thyroids were collected after the Chernobyl accident between May 1986 and February 1988. Results obtained from human thyroids taken in some locations of Lower Saxony show no significant increase of the 129I during this time. Higher concentrations of 129I were only found in cattle grazing in the vicinity of a reprocessing plant in Mol, Belgium. Samples of soil, vegetation, milk, and water from this area contained higher than normal concentrations of 129I. The long-term transfer of radioiodine from the soil to the plant and the translocation within the soil were studied using a soil monolith with a 129I-contaminated surface. During the 4 y of the experiment, the transfer factor plant/soil decreased from 0.3 to 2.2 X 10(-3). Soil samples taken in 5-cm steps to a depth of 30 cm then at 40 and 50 cm depths showed that the transport of radioiodine to lower layers proceeds very slowly. In an in-vivo study with a dairy cow, the transfer of radioiodine from feed to milk to cow meat and to pig thyroid gland was followed for 53 d using 129I-labeled pasture grass contaminated via roots. A part of the milk obtained from the cow was fed to a pig as a substitute for humans. The mean value of the transfer factor milk/feed was 2.4 X 10(-3) d kg-1. The values of the transfer factor cow meat/feed obtained for different muscle cuts and organs (excluding thyroid) ranged between 3.0 X 10(-4) (kidney) and 5.4 X 10(-2) d kg-1 f.w

  18. Origin and Transport Mechanism of Iodine-129 to the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Kabuto, S.; Amano, H.; Togawa, O.

    2007-05-01

    Iodine-129 is a long-lived radioisotope with a half life of 1.57 ? 107 years and produced naturally (129Inatural) by cosmic ray-induced spallation of xenon and spontaneous fission of uranium. Anthropogenic 129I has two main sources of releases into the environment during the last 60 years: one is nuclear weapons testing (129INWT) and the other is nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (129INFRP). Because of its long half life, anthropogenic 129I has a potential using as a tracer of the migration behavior of iodine for the last several decades. In this presentation, we discuss not only the origin but also the transport mechanism of 129I to the Japan Sea. Seawater samples were collected at the Toyama Bay and a region off Sekine in or near the Japan Sea. The concentrations of 129I in these samples were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry. The observed concentrations exceed the amounts expected from 129Inatural and 129INWT. The total fraction of 129Inatural and 129INWT is only a few percent. The majority of the concentration must come primarily from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe. This result indicates a rapid distribution of 129I through atmospheric transport on a global scale. A depth profile of 129I in a seawater column at the Toyama Bay shows that the 129I maximum is in a mixed layer and decrease with depth. The inventory of 129I in the Toyama Bay is four times higher than the Gulf of Mexico which has almost the same depth as the Toyama Bay. This higher inventory probably reflects: 1) the seawater rapid sinking in the Japan Sea, 2) the difference of sampling locations associated with a distance from 129I released points and latitudinal distribution and 3) the differences of sampling dates before which integrated emissions from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants differed.

  19. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm−2), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm−2), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m−2 y−1). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a realistic approach

  20. Radioactive cesium. Dynamics and transport in forestal food-webs; Radioaktivt cesium. Dynamik och transport i skogliga naeringsvaevar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palo, T.; Nelin, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Ecology; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T. [FOA NBC Defence, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    This report summarises results from a radioecological study during 1994-1995 concerning turnover, redistribution and loss of radioactive Cesium (134 and 137) in boreal forest ecosystems, as well as uptake and transfer in important food-chains over moose, vole and vegetation. The basis for this report are 9 publications published 1994-95. These reports are presented in summary form. 9 refs, 17 figs.

  1. Epigenetic inactivation of the MIR129-2 in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kwan-Yeung

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MIR129-2 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor microRNA hypermethylated in epithelial cancers. Patients and methods Epigenetic inactivation of MIR129-2 was studied by methylation-specific PCR (MSP in 13 cell lines (eight myeloma and five lymphoma, 15 normal controls and 344 primary samples including acute myeloid leukemia (AML, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, multiple myeloma (MM at diagnosis, MM at relapse/progression, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. Expression of MIR129 and its target, SOX4, in cell lines was measured before and after hypomethylating treatment and MIR129 overexpression. MIR129 expression was correlated with MIR129-2 methylation status in primary lymphoma samples. Tumor suppressor function of MIR129 was demonstrated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assay after MIR129 overexpression. Results The sensitivity of the methylated-MSP was one in 103. Different MSP statuses, including complete methylation, partial methylation, and complete unmethylation, were verified by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. All five lymphoma and seven of eight myeloma cell lines showed complete and partial MIR129-2 methylation. In primary samples, MIR129-2 methylation was absent in AML and CML, but detected in 5% ALL, 45.9% CLL, 49.5% MM at diagnosis, and 59.1% NHL. In CLL, MIR129-2 methylation adversely impacted on survival (p=0.004. In MM, MIR129-2 methylation increased from 27.5% MGUS to 49.5% MM at diagnosis and 41.5% at relapse/progression (p=0.023. In NHL, MIR129-2 methylation was associated with MIR124-1 and MIR203 methylation (pMIR129 expression (p=0.009. Hypomethylation treatment of JEKO-1, homozygously methylated for MIR129-2, led to MIR129-2 demethylation and MIR129 re-expression, with downregulation of SOX4 mRNA. Moreover, MIR129 overexpression in both mantle cell lines, JEKO-1 and GRANTA

  2. Cesium and strontium exchange properties of marsh soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cesium and strontium exchange properties of some typical marsh soils of the estuary and lower river Weser region were described. Soil samples were taken according to the existing soil maps 1:25000 of Lower Saxony e.g. a “sea marsh soil”. a “brackish marsh soil”, and a “river marsh soil”. The exchange properties were determined by Cs/Ca and Sr/Ca exchange curves (Q/I relations) as generally used in soil potassium research. In addition to the Q/I relations the following investigations were carried out: - Cs and Sr desorption experiments (one time equilibration with Ca++ solutions) - Cs and Sr reexchange experiments (eight times equilibration with water, Ca++, Ba++, and K+ solutions) - the naturally-occuring Cs and Sr contents of the soils including amounts caused by imissions or fallout, respectively - clay mineral composition and swelling of layer silicates due to saturation with Ca++, Sr++, Cs+, and K+ ions. Q/I relations as well as desorption and reexchange experiments indicated strong cesium and low strontium fixation by the soils investigated. This was considered the reason for the stronger transfer of Sr from soil to plants as compared with Cs. Furthermore, the reexchange experiment revealed nearly complete reversibility of the Sr sorption reactions by equilibration with the divalent cations Ca++ and Ba++ and some Sr fixation after treatment with K+ solutions. However, cesium was much better reexchanged by K+ than by Ca++ and Ba++ ions. This led to the conclusion that Cs fixed in interlayer positions of clay minerals could be remobilized by potassium and ammonium fertilization. The naturally-occuring Cs contents of the soils were found to be below the detection limit of the analytical methods used. The contents of naturally-occuring exchangeable Sr, however, was in agreement with the amounts of “labile Sr” as derived from the Sr/Ca exchange curves. Concerning the cesium exchange properties a clear distinction between “sea and river marsh

  3. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192 GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192 GHz output signal are measured to be −42, −100, −117 dB rad2/Hz and −129 dB rad2/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10−14 at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out

  4. Dose coefficients from incorporated 129 Iodine. Influence of dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose coefficients from incorporated 129 Iodine. Influence of Dietary intake. Internal dose coefficients recently published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and adopted in the new European Directive, allow direct calculation of the committed effective dose by multiplying the intake of radionuclide, expressed as becquerels, Bq, by those dose coeffIcients. For iodine, however, this methodology needs adaptation as iodine uptake by thyroid from blood is ruled by an adjustment process to the daily iodine intake: The greater that intake, the smaller the iodine fraction of thyroid uptake. Dealing with the 129 iodine radioactive isotope, for a same ingested Bq, the uptake factor can vary, from 0.3, for a daily dietary intake of 165 μg, to 0.03 for a daily dietary intake of 2.2 mg. Illustrations of this variability are simulated in several situations that could involve contaminated water consumption. (authors)

  5. Pramipexole reduces phosphorylation of α-Synuclein at Serine-129

    OpenAIRE

    K. Y. Chau; Cooper, J.M.; Schapira, A H

    2013-01-01

    α-Synuclein is a central component of the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Phosphorylation at serine-129 represents an important post-translational modification and constitutes the major form of the protein in Lewy bodies. Several kinases have been implicated in the phosphorylation of α-synuclein. The targeting of kinase pathways as a potential to influence the pathogenesis of PD is an important focus of attention, given that mutations of specific kinases (LRRK2 and PINK1) are causes...

  6. Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

  7. Combustion resistance of the 129Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupic, Karl F; Six, Joseph S; Olsen, Michael D; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Using a methane-xenon mixture for spin exchange optical pumping, MRI of combustion was enabled. The (129)Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state was found to sufficiently survive the complete passage through the harsh environment of the reaction zone. A velocity profile (V(z)(z)) of a flame was recorded to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI velocimetry of transport processes in combustors. PMID:23165418

  8. 16 CFR 1500.129 - Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poison Act. 1500.129 Section 1500.129 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.129 Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act. The Commission finds that for those substances covered by the Federal Caustic Poison Act (44 Stat. 1406), the requirements of section 2(p)(1)...

  9. Seasonal variation of 129I species in the Baltic Proper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.;

    2013-01-01

    new data on profiles of 129I speciation in the Baltic Proper during November 2009. Along with the two earlier investigations (August 2006 and April 2007), an assessment of seasonal variation of 129I species is presented. The results show that, due to the anoxic nature of Baltic Proper, presence of 129...

  10. Time Series of I-129 and I-127 Speciation in Precipitation from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Possnert, Göran

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of total 129I in precipitation vary from 0.28 to 5.63 × 109 atoms 129I L−1 with an average of (2.34 ± 1.43) × 109 atoms 129I L−1, and the annual deposition flux of 129I is (1.25 ± 0.30) × 1012 atoms m−2. Increased 129I levels in precipitation and 129I/127I ratio are attributed to the releases of...... 129I from the reprocessing plants at La Hague and Sellafield. Iodide is the major specie of 129I, which accounts for 50−99% of total 129I. The concentrations of total 127I vary from 0.78 to 2.70 μg iodine L−1 with an average of 1.63 ± 0.47 μg iodine L−1, and annual deposition flux of 0.95 ± 0.26 mg m......−8. Seasonal variations of 129I/127I values and 129I concentrations are associated with highs in spring and lows in summer−autumn periods. Re-emission of 129I from the surface water of the English Channel, Irish Sea, North Sea, and Norwegian Sea, especially from the European continental coast areas, is...

  11. Optimisation of the measurement protocols of 129I and 129I/127I. Methodology establishment for the measurement in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I, is a natural long-lived isotope, with a half-life of 15,7 million years, also artificially produced in nuclear power plant. It is then released in the liquid and gaseous effluents of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. 129I is integrated in all biological compartments at different activity levels, depending on their distance from the emission source and their ability to metabolize iodine. Performances of the different 129I and 129I/127I measurement techniques available: Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, direct γ-X spectrometry and liquid scintillation were evaluated. Associated radiochemical preparation steps of the two first techniques were optimized and adapted to the characteristics of the major environmental matrices. In a first step, the radiochemical protocols were developed and validated. In a second step, intercomparison exercises have been lead on various environmental samples presenting different 129I activity levels. They showed the good agreement between the results given by the three techniques on different environmental matrices with activities between 0,2 and 200 Bq.kg-1 dry weight. As a conclusion, a methodology for the measurement of 129I and 129I/127I ratio in environmental samples is proposed. It includes a decisional diagram taking into account the characteristics of the matrices, the detection limits and the answer delay. A study on the losses of 129I during the calcination of an algae was lead by direct γ-X spectrometry and application studies were made to measure 129I levels in different biological compartments issued from various locations: 129I activity interspecific variation in different species of seaweeds from the French channel coast under the relative influence of La Hague, 129I levels in bovine thyroids from the Cotentin area and 129I in vegetal samples collected around the nuclear reprocessing plant of Marcoule. (author)

  12. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  13. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m-2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m-2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  14. Vacuum squeezed light for atomic memories at the D2 cesium line

    CERN Document Server

    Burks, Sidney; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Laurat, Julien; Ortalo, Jérémie; Jia, Xiaojun; Villa, Fabrizio; Chuimmo, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    We report the experimental generation of squeezed light at 852 nm, locked on the Cesium D2 line. 50% of noise reduction down to 50 kHz has been obtained with a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator operating below threshold, using a periodically-polled KTP crystal. This light is directly utilizable with Cesium atomic ensembles for quantum networking applications

  15. Ionizing mechanisms in a cesium plasma irradiated with a ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Robinson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A cesium filled diode--laser plasmadynamic converter was built to investigate the feasibility of converting laser energy to electrical energy at large power levels. Experiments were performed with a pulsed ruby laser to determine the quantity of electrons and cesium ions generated per pulse of laser beam and to determine the output voltage. A current density as high as 200 amp/sq cm from a spot of approximately 1 sq mm area and an open circuit voltage as high as 1.5 volts were recorded. A qualitative theory was developed to explain these results. In the operation of the device, the laser beam evaporates some of the cesium and ionizes the cesium gas. A dense cesium plasma is formed to absorb further the laser energy. Results suggest that the simultaneous absorption of two ruby laser photons by the cesium atoms plays an important role in the initial ionization of cesium. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption appears to be the dominant mechanism in subsequent processes. Recombinations of electrons and cesium ions appear to compete favorably with the simultaneous absorption of two photons.

  16. Peculiarities of presence of cesium-137 in soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granulometric composition of soil and the distribution of cesium-137 by soil fractions at the Azgir test site was determined. The characterization of cesium-137 presence in the layer of the thickness of 1 cm of the surface soil was gave. (author)

  17. Velocity Distribution of Effective Atoms in a Small Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; WANG Fengzhi; YANG Donghai; WANG YiQiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the velocity distribution of effective atoms in a small optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been achieved from the Fourier transforms of the experimentally recorded Ramsey patterns. The result fits well with the theoretical calculation. The second order Doppler shift correction of the small cesium atomic clock is obtained from the velocity distribution of effective atoms.

  18. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 in honey bees and cheese samples collected in the U.S. after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 25, 1986, possible radioactive contamination of honey bees and cheese sampled in several areas of the United States were measured. Of bees collected in May and June of 1986 in both Oregon and New York, only those from Oregon showed detectable levels of cesium-134 (T1/2 = 2.05 years), a radionuclide which would have originated from the Chernobyl incident. Cheese produced in Oregon and New York before the accident showed only cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30.23 years) but cheese produced afterwards (May and September, 1986) in Oregon contained cesium-134. Cheese produced in Ohio and California at the time of the accident and thereafter contained only cesium-137. In general, the levels of radioactivity were higher in the West coast samples as compared to those taken in the East. The levels of radioactivity detected were considered to be toxicologically of no consequence. (author)

  19. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered

  20. Cesium Eluate Evaporation Solubility and Physical Property Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baseline flowsheet for low activity waste (LAW) in the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) includes pretreatment of supernatant by removing cesium using ion exchange. When the ion exchange column is loaded, the cesium will be eluted with a 0.5M nitric acid (HNO3) solution to allow the column to be conditioned for re-use. The cesium eluate solution will then be concentrated in a vacuum evaporator to minimize storage volume and recycle HNO3. To prevent the formation of solids during storage of the evaporator bottoms, criteria have been set for limiting the concentration of the evaporator product to 80 percent of saturation at 25 degrees C. A fundamental element of predicting evaporator product solubility is to collect data that can be used to estimate key operating parameters. The data must be able to predict evaporator behavior for a range of eluate concentrations that are evaporated to the point of precipitation. Parameters that were selected for modeling include solubility, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Of central importance is identifying the effect of varying feed components on overall solubility. The point of solubility defines the upper limit for eluate evaporation operations and liquid storage. The solubility point also defines those chemical compounds that have the greatest effects on physical properties. Third, solubility behavior identifies intermediate points where physical property data should be measured for the database. Physical property data (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity) may be an integral part of tracking evaporator operations as they progress toward their end point. Once the data have been collected, statistical design software can develop mathematical equations that estimate solubility and other physical properties

  1. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m-2, 240 ± 65 Bq m-2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m-2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m-2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the Londrina

  2. Characterization of quantum efficiency and robustness of cesium-based photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J.

    High quantum efficiency, robust photocathodes produce picosecond-pulsed, high-current electron beams for photoinjection applications like free electron lasers. In photoinjectors, a pulsed drive laser incident on the photocathode causes photoemission of short, dense bunches of electrons, which are then accelerated into a relativistic, high quality beam. Future free electron lasers demand reliable photocathodes with long-lived quantum efficiency at suitable drive laser wavelengths to maintain high current density. But faced with contamination, heating, and ion back-bombardment, the highest efficiency photocathodes find their delicate cesium-based coatings inexorably lost. In answer, the work herein presents careful, focused studies on cesium-based photocathodes, particularly motivated by the cesium dispenser photocathode. This is a novel device comprised of an efficiently photoemissive, cesium-based coating deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under controlled heating cesium diffuses from the reservoir through the porous substrate and across the surface to replace cesium lost to harsh conditions---recently shown to significantly extend the lifetime of cesium-coated metal cathodes. This work first reports experiments on coated metals to validate and refine an advanced theory of photoemission already finding application in beam simulation codes. Second, it describes a new theory of photoemission from much higher quantum efficiency cesium-based semiconductors and verifies its predictions with independent experiment. Third, it investigates causes of cesium loss from both coated metal and semiconductor photocathodes and reports remarkable rejuvenation of full quantum efficiency for contaminated cesium-coated surfaces, affirming the dispenser prescription of cesium resupply. And fourth, it details continued advances in cesium dispenser design with much-improved operating characteristics: lower temperature

  3. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; GENG; Tao; YAN; Shubin; LI; Gang; ZHANG; Jing; WANG; Junmin; PENG; Kunchi; ZHANG; Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  4. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  5. Sensitive Detection of Cold Cesium Molecules by Radiative Feshbach Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Cheng; Kerman, Andrew J.; Vuletić, Vladan; Chu, Steven

    2002-01-01

    We observe the dynamic formation of $Cs_2$ molecules near Feshbach resonances in a cold sample of atomic cesium using an external probe beam. This method is 300 times more sensitive than previous atomic collision rate methods, and allows us to detect more than 20 weakly-coupled molecular states, with collisional formation cross sections as small as $\\sigma =3\\times 10^{-16}$cm$^2$. We propose a model to describe the atom-molecule coupling, and estimate that more than $2 \\times 10^5$ $Cs_2$ mo...

  6. Specific heat and thermodynamic properties of the cesium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cesium perchlorate specific heat has been measured in a vacuum adiabatic microcalorimeter in the 10-365 K range. On the basis of the data obtained the thermodynamic functions are calculated. Csub(p)sup(0) (298.15 K) = 110.4+-0.2 J/Kxmol; S0 (298.15 K)=175.9+-0.5 J/Kxmol; H0 (298.15 K) - H0(0)=22280+-50 J/mol; - [G0 (289.15 K) - H0(0)]/T = 101.2+-0.2 J/Kxmol

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of the sorption of cesium by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of cesium from nitric acid medium by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate, KNiFC, was investigated using the batch technique. The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the distribution coefficient of cesium has been studied in the pH range 1-5.5. The effect of particle size, the temperature on the sorption equilibrium and rate of uptake of cesium were investigated. The temperature effect on both sorption equilibrium and rate of uptake was found to be limited. The kinetic study shows that the sorption is controlled by particle diffusion mechanism. The diffusivity of cesium ions into different particle sizes of KNiFC, the activation energy, and the entropy change of the sorption process were calculated. The effect of the presence of cobalt ions on the equilibrium and the rate of uptake of cesium is presented. (author)

  8. Rational Design of Cesium-Selective Ionophores and Chemosensors: Dihydrocalix[4]arene Crown-6 Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Engle, Nancy L.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Urvoas, Agathe; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-12-15

    Molecular mechanics calculations performed on calix[4]arene crown-6 ethers predict that the 1,3-dihydro derivatives will exhibit greater complementarity for potassium and cesium ions than the parent 1,3-dialkoxy calix crowns. The X-ray crystal structures of 1,3-alt bis-octyloxycalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, and the cesium nitrate complex of dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether were determined. The cesium complex structure corresponds closely to the structure predicted by molecular mechanics. The dihydrocalix[4]arene crown-6 ethers exhibit enhanced cesium selectivity in the extraction of alkali metal salts and provide a platform for a highly sensitive and selective cesium chemosensor.

  9. Investigation of the behavior during incineration of cesium adsorbed in vegetation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination of wood and grass contaminated by radioactive cesium released after a nuclear power plant accident is a significant problem. During this research, the behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration was investigated experimentally. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was adsorbed into sunflower and wood pellet samples, and was burned in a lab-scale fluidized bed combustor. Up to 70% of the cesium was transferred to fly ash, which is captured in the quartz filter of the exhaust line. The concentration of cesium in the fly ash is 10 times greater than in the bottom ash, as the amount of fly ash makes up approximately 20% of the entire ash content. Careful management is vital when handling and disposing of fly ash generated from the incineration of vegetation waste. (author)

  10. Highlights of analytical chemistry in Switzerland. Increase of 129I in the European environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anthropogenic production of 129I produced a large increase of the abundance of this nuclide in the atmosphere. The sources of 129I are atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and nuclear fuel reprocessing, the Marcoule plant being the major European source of airborne 129I . For the period 1970-2002, the total emissions were compared with the analyses of an ice core from a Swiss Alp glacier, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry after extraction and purification of total iodine. The measured evolution of the 129I deposition agrees well with the estimated 129I releases into atmosphere

  11. Time Series of I-129 and I-127 Speciation in Precipitation from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Nielsen, Sven Poul;

    2009-01-01

    Environmental 129I mainly released from reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) provides a unique atmospheric and environmental tracer. This study deals with 129I and 127I speciation in precipitation collected in Denmark during 2001−2006 that indicates many new findings. The...... concentrations of total 129I in precipitation vary from 0.28 to 5.63 × 109 atoms 129I L−1 with an average of (2.34 ± 1.43) × 109 atoms 129I L−1, and the annual deposition flux of 129I is (1.25 ± 0.30) × 1012 atoms m−2. Increased 129I levels in precipitation and 129I/127I ratio are attributed to the releases of......−8. Seasonal variations of 129I/127I values and 129I concentrations are associated with highs in spring and lows in summer−autumn periods. Re-emission of 129I from the surface water of the English Channel, Irish Sea, North Sea, and Norwegian Sea, especially from the European continental coast areas, is...

  12. A review on speciation of iodine-129 in the environmental and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Violeta; Aldahan, Ala;

    2009-01-01

    As a long-lived beta-emitting radioisotope of iodine, I-129 is produced both naturally and as a result of human nuclear activities. At present time, the main part of I-129 in the environment originates from the human nuclear activity, especially the releases from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing...... plants, the I-129/I-127 ratios have being reached to values of 10(-10) to 10(-4) in the environment from 10(-12) in the pre-nuclear era. In this article, we review the occurrence, sources, inventory, and concentration level of I-129 in environment and the method for speciation analysis of I-129 in the...... environment. Measurement techniques for the determination of I-129 are presented and compared. An overview of applications of I-129 speciation in various scientific disciplines such as radiation protection, waste depository, and environmental sciences is given. In addition, the bioavailability and radiation...

  13. Photo-association of cold cesium atoms. Formation and characterisation of a cold cloud of diatomic cesium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a photo-association process, two colliding cold cesium atoms absorb one photon to form an ultracold molecule, electronically excited in a well defined ro-vibration level. Because of the small initial kinetic energy of the free atoms, the photo-association is resonant and permits high resolution spectroscopy of long-range states. We report spectra for states correlated to the excited limit 6S+6P. The 1u (6S+6P3/2) state is a pure long-range molecules. It hardly consists in a molecule, but rather in a pair of two atoms linked at 1, 5 nm by the multipolar electrostatic interaction. The intensity modulation of spectral lines for a given vibrational progression reflects the nodal structure of the radial s-wave function of two ground state atoms. The photo-association of the state 0g-(6S +6P3/2) of polarized atoms permits determining the scattering length of the triplet state of cesium (aT = -530 a0) and the Van der Waals parameter of the molecular ground state (C6 = 6510 u.a.). Photo-association of cold cesium atoms also leads to the formation of translationally cold molecules in singlet and triplet fundamental states after spontaneous emission of the excited molecules. Various schemes are characterized. The particular double-well shape of 0g-(6S+6P3/2) and 1u(6S+6P3/2) states creates a Condon point at intermediate distance. These states constitute ideal cases for very efficient formation of cold molecules. The cold molecular cloud is analyzed: temperatures as low as 20 micro-Kelvin are measured and the distribution of the ro-vibrational levels is studied. The efficiencies of the photo-association process and of the formation of cold molecules are measured, and compared with theoretical calculations. (author)

  14. Transportable cesium irradiator (TPCI): Final safety analysis report: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Safety Analysis Report describes the Transportable Cesium Irradiator (TPCI) and assesses the hazards associated with its operation. The TPCI consists of a mobile, lead-shielded, irradiation unit with support equipment mounted within an enclosed trailer. The irradiation unit has two basic compartments; a source chamber sized to mate with the transportation cask which houses the source capsules, and an irradiation chamber formed as a large shielded cylinder (drum) with a window. The irradiation chamber is mounted on a large diameter support bearing. As this chamber is rotated its window moves from the product access door, where produce is inserted or extracted, to a position in line with a similar window in the source chamber. When the windows are aligned the produce is irradiated, while the back wall of the irradiation chamber shields the product access door. The TPCI is designed to be transported throughout the continental United States. The transportation cask containing the cesium source capsules is transported separately from the irradiation unit and is installed when the TPCI unit has been readied for operation at a particular site. The transportation cask is a separate unit and is documented in a separate FSAR

  15. Morphological and electrical properties of zirconium vanadate doped with cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa F. Elkady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cesium doped zirconium vanadate ZrV2O7 with different Cs dopant content (Cs/Zr varied from 0 to 0.5 in weight ratio were fabricated by hydrothermal technique at 120 °C for 60 min. The synthesized materials are thermally treated using microwave technique. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized materials and thermally treated samples were investigated using XRD and SEM respectively. It was evident that all synthesized specimens have cubic phase structural without any extra phase but after heat treatment Orthorhombic phase appear with doped samples. However, the morphological structure of the doped synthesized materials has transferred from nanoparticles into rods aspect with heat treatment for the different dopant ratio. Moreover, the electrical properties of both the synthesized and thermally treated materials are studied by AC impedance measurements. The results indicated that the ionic conductivity of Cs-doped ZrV2O7 materials decreased by increasing the dopant ratio while that thermally treated samples the ionic conductivity increase by increasing the dopant ratio. Finally, the concentration of cesium dopants is found to play crucial role in tuning the morphology and electrical properties of nanostructures.

  16. A study of strontium and cesium sorption on granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion and sorption of cesium and strontium in crushed granite particles is discussed. Sorption experiments have been performed with one granite from Finnsjoen outside Forsmark on the east coast of Sweden and one granite from the Stripa mine in central Sweden. Granite samples have been crushed and screened, and six different particle size fractions from 0.10-0.12 mm to 4-5 mm of each rock have been used in the experiments. The initial concentrations of inactive cesium and strontium were 10-15 ppm. The experimental data indicate that the amount of sorption is dependent not only on the mass of granite particles, but also to some extent on the size of the particles. An attempt has been made to distinguish between sorption on external surfaces and inner surfaces. The amount of external surface adsorption was found to vary from 15-40 % of the total adsorption capacity for the particle size fraction 0.10-0.12 mm to a few percent or less for the largest particles used. (Auth.)

  17. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light

  18. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Eric E., E-mail: ewisniew@anl.gov [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Velazquez, Daniel [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Yusof, Zikri, E-mail: zyusof@hawk.iit.edu [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sarkar, Tapash J. [Rice University, 6100 Main, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Harkay, Katherine [Accelerator Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-21

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light.

  19. Studies on cesium sorption in hydrous zirconium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of 137Cs (T1/2 = 30.1 y) and 90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 y) are produced as fission products in nuclear reactors. These long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides, regarded as a waste few decades ago, are being termed now as valuables owing to the upsurge in the utilization of these radioisotopes in the area of medicine, food irradiation, and sewage treatment technologies in recent years. For long-term waste management it is necessary to minimize the volume and toxicity of the waste. Selective recovery and utilization of these radionuclides from the waste is the concept of growing interest to many researchers. Inorganic sorbents are proven candidates for the separation and recovery of cesium and strontium from aqueous waste streams. They are chemically durable and stable against ionizing radiation. In addition, these materials can be converted into unleachable ceramic form for final disposal. Hydrous metal oxides belong to a particular class of inorganic ion exchangers extensively investigated for various applications in nuclear waste treatment. The present study deals with the preparation of hydrous zirconium and titanium oxide and the studies aimed at separation of cesium from aqueous wastes

  20. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Hai; Zeng Xian-Jin; Li Qing-Meng; Huang Qiang; Sun Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations.The process,described by a three-level model with the A scheme,shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms.The |Fg =3> → |Fe-4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg =4,mF =4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg =4.To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state,we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg =4> → |Fe =3>transition,in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field.

  1. Diffusion of strontium, technetium, iodine and cesium in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of strontium, technetium, iodine and cesium in granitic rock has been studied. Rock samples were taken from drilling cores in granitic and granodioritic rock, and small (2x2x2 cm) rock tablets from the drilling cores were exposed to a groundwater solution containing one of the studied elements at trace levels. The concentration of the element versus penetration depth in the rock tablet was measured radiometrically. The sorption on the mineral faces and the diffusion into the rock were studied by an autoradiographic technique. The cationic strontium and cesium have apparent diffusivities of 10-13 - 10-14 m2/s. The migration is confined to microfissures or filled fractures containing e.g., calcite, epidote or chlorite or in veins with high capacity minerals (e.g. biotite). The anionic iodine and technetium have apparent diffusivities of about 10-14 m2/s. These species migrate along mineral boundaries and in open fractures and to a minor extent in high capacity mineral veins. (orig.)

  2. Mobility of radioactive cesium in soil originated from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Application of extraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction experiments on soil radioactively contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were conducted by using a variety of extractants to acquire knowledge on the mobility of radioactive cesium in soil. The experimental results revealed that cesium is tightly bound with soil particles and that radioactive cesium newly deposited on soil due to the accident had apparently a higher mobility than stable cesium commonly existing in soil. The results suggested that radioactive cesium deposited on soil hardly migrates via aqueous processes, although chemical and mineralogical conditions of soil affect their mobility. (author)

  3. Thermoemission and adsorption properties of diborides of transition metals of IV-V groups in cesium vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission and adsorption properties of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium diborides were studied in vacuum and cesium vapours. Some regularities were established in changes of thermoemission properties in transition from one boride to another. Under pressures p0K interaction of these diborides with cesium plasma is of adsorption character. Evaluation of absorption properties for the diborides in cesium vapours showed for oprimal surface coating with cesium the adsorption energy for cesium ions is qsub(a)=(1.1/1.3) eV and work function is phi sub(min)=(1.25/1.45) eV

  4. A social-scientific reading of Psalm 129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Botha

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 129 is analysed as a poetic composition, as well as an ideological document. It was found that the social codes of honour and shame play an important role in what and how the psalm was supposed to communicate. It is described as an attempt to strengthen the cohesion and loyalty of an in-group of people living near or in Jerusalem. This group considers itself to be part of the people of Israel. Its members expect Yahweh to intervene on their behalf and to restore their (and his own honour by shaming their enemies.

  5. Improvements in production and storage of HP-129 Xe

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto, Maricel Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Seit seiner Entdeckung im Jahre 1978 wurden für hyperpolarisiertes (HP) 129Xe zahlreiche Anwendungen gefunden. Aufgrund seiner hohen Verstärkung von NMR-Signalen wird es dabei typischerweise für Tracer- und Oberflächenstudien verwendet. Im gasförmigen Zustand ist es ein interessantes, klinisches Kontrastmittel, welches für dynamische Lungen MRT genutzt oder auch in Blut oder lipophilen Flüssigkeiten gelöst werden kann. Weiterhin findet HP-Xe auch in der Grundlagenphysik in He-Xe Co-Magnetomet...

  6. Transport properties of the calcium ionophore ETH-129.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, E.; Erdahl, W L; Hamidinia, S A; Chapman, C J; Taylor, R.W.; Pfeiffer, D R

    2001-01-01

    The transport mechanism and specificities of ionophore ETH-29 have been investigated in a highly defined phospholipid vesicle system, with the goal of facilitating the application of this compound to biological problems. ETH-129 transports Ca(2+) via an electrogenic mechanism, in contrast to A23187 and ionomycin, which function in a charge neutral manner. The rate of transport is a function of membrane potential, increasing by 3.9-fold per 59 mV over a broad range of that parameter. Rate is i...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHN129 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHN129 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16495-1 - (Link to Original site) ... e sequence. 44 2.4 1 AW048636 |AW048636.1 UI-M-BH1-amd -c-12-0-UI.s1 NIH_BMAP_M_S2 Mus musculus cDNA clone ... UI-M-BH1-amd -c-12-0-UI 3', mRNA sequence. 44 2.4 1 dna update 2 ...

  8. Environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129 was once thought to be similar, particularly with respect to their soil solubility and biological interactions. Over the past several years, the comparative behavior of these two anions has been studied with respect to their fate in natural environments (both aquatic and terrestrial). The mechanisms studied include physical, chemical and biological parameters that account for differences in soil behavior, cycling between soil and/or air to vegetation, adsorption and metabolism in plants, and their availability and fate following ingestion by animals

  9. Fast concentration of dissolved forms of cesium radioisotopes from large seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method developed for cesium concentration from large freshwater samples was tested and adapted for analysis of cesium radionuclides in seawater. Concentration of dissolved forms of cesium in large seawater samples (about 100 L) was performed using composite absorbers AMP-PAN and KNiFC-PAN with ammonium molybdophosphate and potassium–nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) as active components, respectively, and polyacrylonitrile as a binding polymer. A specially designed chromatography column with bed volume (BV) 25 mL allowed fast flow rates of seawater (up to 1,200 BV h-1). The recovery yields were determined by ICP-MS analysis of stable cesium added to seawater sample. Both absorbers proved usability for cesium concentration from large seawater samples. KNiFC-PAN material was slightly more effective in cesium concentration from acidified seawater (recovery yield around 93 % for 700 BV h-1). This material showed similar efficiency in cesium concentration also from natural seawater. The activity concentrations of 137Cs determined in seawater from the central Pacific Ocean were 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 Bq m-3 for an offshore (January 2012) and a coastal (February 2012) locality, respectively, 134Cs activities were below detection limit (-3). (author)

  10. Development of cesium trapper and single-gas-bubble injector into sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the core disruptive accident in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor, in fuel pins the cesium fission product with a high hazard is transferred to the sodium coolant together with noble gas including fission product, and the cesium accumulates on the cover gas area because of its low migration rate to sodium. The high temperature and high pressure in the cover gas due to the decay heat of fission products including cesium cause the leakage of cesium to the outside of reactor vessel. However the exact migration rate of cesium to sodium has not been reported because of difficulty on the evaluation of the interfacial area of large gas bubble (Minges et al., 1986). In this study, we developed a cesium trapper composed of β”-alumina cylindrical container and a single-gas-bubble injector without wettability. We confirmed that a single argon gas bubble was steadily produced in our injector. Bhaga proposed the bubble shape region map, which correlates the bubble shape with Reynolds number, Eotvos number and Morton number of the bubble ejected into sodium pool. The bubble shapes were estimated to be always ellipsoidal. We could successfully confirmed that the liquid sodium can be separated from liquid sodium cesium mixture by using β”-alumina, whose separation rate was found to be calculated by the Faraday's law of electrolysis. (author)

  11. Cesium-plasma-conductivity enhancement in the advanced thermionic energy converter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikopoulos, C.N.

    Two methods of plasma conductivity enhancement in a cesium vapor thermionic energy converter have been studied. The first involved resonance photoabsorption of several cesium lines and the second utilized cesium plasma sustenance by application of microwave power. An extensive study of ionization processes in a cesium discharge in the presence of resonance ionization was made. Calculations were made of expected percentage excitation levels for several cesium resonance transitions for different values of neutral density and temperature as well as incident radiation power levels. The results of some of these computations were tabulated. Several ionization schemes were considered. A number of cesium transitions were investigated in the range of 799 to 870 nanometers for four different cesium reservoir temperatures, 467, 511, 550 and 591 K. The related absorption coefficients of the radiation lines in the plasma were deduced and tabulated. The resulting plasma conductivity increase was recorded and the associated ionization enhancement was deduced. A microwave cavity was built where the emitter and collector of a simple thermionic converter made up two of the cavity walls and resonant microwave power was externally applied. The I-V characteristics of the thermionic converter were studied under several microwave power levels in the range of 0 to 2 watts. Significant shifts to higher currents were observed as the microwave power levels were raised. In conclusion, both methods show promise as auxiliary ionization mechanisms for the thermionic energy converter, especially at low emitter temperatures.

  12. Cesium-plasma-conductivity enhancement in the advanced thermionic energy converter. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of plasma conductivity enhancement in a cesium vapor thermionic energy converter have been studied. The first involved resonance photoabsorption of several cesium lines and the second utilized cesium plasma sustenance by application of microwave power. An extensive study of ionization processes in a cesium discharge in the presence of resonance ionization was made. Calculations were made of expected percentage excitation levels for several cesium resonance transitions for different values of neutral density and temperature as well as incident radiation power levels. The results of some of these computations were tabulated. Several ionization schemes were considered. A number of cesium transitions were investigated in the range of 799 to 870 nanometers for four different cesium reservoir temperatures, 467, 511, 550 and 591 K. The related absorption coefficients of the radiation lines in the plasma were deduced and tabulated. The resulting plasma conductivity increase was recorded and the associated ionization enhancement was deduced. A microwave cavity was built where the emitter and collector of a simple thermionic converter made up two of the cavity walls and resonant microwave power was externally applied. The I-V characteristics of the thermionic converter were studied under several microwave power levels in the range of 0 to 2 watts. Significant shifts to higher currents were observed as the microwave power levels were raised. In conclusion, both methods show promise as auxiliary ionization mechanisms for the thermionic energy converter, especially at low emitter temperatures

  13. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation. PMID:26683820

  14. Vitrification of spent organic ion exchange resins- 137Cesium volatility during oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic ion exchange (IX) resins are used to purify coolant water in nuclear power plants. The spent IX resins contain 137Cesium as major long-lived radioisotope. Their vitrification requires complete combustion of organic matter. 137Cesium volatility during their oxidation is most important factor for selection of oxidation procedure. Based on TGA studies, copper and vanadate catalysts were selected respectively for cationic and anionic IX resins to oxidise them at 500-700 degC. Experiments were conducted with 137Cesium and catalyst loaded cationic and anionic resins. About 56 to 60% 137Cesium was released from cationic resins in 3 hours. 137Cesium release from cationic resins could be brought down to 19 to 22% by addition of glass formers. The 137Cesium releases from anionic resins were nearly same for 2 hours heating. In absence of glass formers, the catalyst on anionic resins formed molten mass, which was difficult to remove. Experiment with one litre of 137Cesiuin loaded mixed cationic and anionic resins released 16.8% 137Cesium to off gases and formed a slag having specific gravity of 1.73 due to difficulty in oxidising last traces of carbon. The volume reduction factor achieved was 18.2 as against 68 expected for complete oxidation of IX resins. The higher volume reduction factor can be achieved by using improved oxidation procedure in scaling up studies. (author)

  15. possibilities of isotope separation of radioactive cesium by ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmutation of radioactive wastes is of high interest in order to reduce as much as possible the difficulties induced by their storage. In the case of radioactive cesium waste, cesium 137 which presents a short life time (30 years) is difficult to handle due to its high thermal load and and radiation level; cesium 135 is a long life time isotope with high mobility in storage glasses. As the processes of transmutation are different for cesium 135 and cesium 137 and as the neutron consumption is very high, it would be necessary to proceed to a preliminary isotope separation and it would not be worth to transmute the stable 133 isotope of cesium. Peculiar problems linked with cesium physico-chemical properties such as ionisation rat, vapour pressure, cooling of the components of the separation elements, especially the collector part, are discussed. It is shown that a high density plasma (1012 cm -3), with low ionic temperature (1 eV), good for isotope separation, can be achieved easily. It must be noticed that the cooling with water has to be avoided due to chemical reactions. After having defined the unitary separative element, different enrichment strategies and arrangements of the separative elements are proposed. An economic estimation with our code RICAN is given. (author)

  16. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Yuka; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric fallout samples collected from Tokyo between 1963 and 2003 were analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in order to determine (129)I/(127)I ratios and to examine the deposition rate of (129)I and its secular variation in Tokyo. The (129)I/(127)I ratios in the atmosphere during 1963-1977 ranged from 1 × 10(-8) to 2 × 10(-8). This is roughly 4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-atomic levels, possibly due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The calculated monthly atmospheric deposition rates of (129)I differed from those produced by nuclear fallout of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, indicating that the variations in (129)I deposition are not influenced exclusively by either nuclear bomb testing or by the Chernobyl accident. After 1978, high (129)I depositions (up to 0.13 mBq/m(2)/month) were observed. The (129)I depositions started to increase markedly at the latter half of the 1970s. The secular variation of the estimated annual (129)I deposition in Tokyo showed a close relationship between the annual atmospheric discharge of (129)I from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. PMID:22694935

  17. Long-lived radionuclides in the environment: the case of iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from an ongoing project to study the status and behavior of 129I and 127I in the environment. 129I and 127I abundances were investigated in precipitation, surface and ground waters from Lower Saxony, Germany, and in soil samples from various European locations. From the analysis of 129I in rain, 129I annual deposition densities were determined for the time period from 1997- 1999. We conclude that 129I deposition rates in Switzerland and Germany increased by three orders of magnitude since 1950 and changed just little after 1987. From the analysis of soils, 129I deposition densities at various places of Europe were determined. Thereby, the 129I natural equilibrium deposition density as well as that of the fall-out from atmospheric weapon tests was estimated. Elevated 129I abundances in Ukrainian soils contaminated by Chernobyl fall-out provide a basis for retrospective dosimetry of the radiation exposure due to 131I. Soil profiles from Germany exhibit the influence of ongoing emissions from European reprocessing plants and demonstrate the complexity of iodine migration. Biospheric 129I/127I ratios in Germany are an order of magnitude lower than in precipitation and. Because of the disequilibrium of iodine isotopes in the different compartments further detailed investigations of the pathways of 129I through the environment to man are considered necessary. (orig.)

  18. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  19. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H2O2 + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  20. Iodine-129 as a long-lived tracer in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I is an important tracer of human activities as well of environmental processes. However, its potential can only be exploited if the 129I abundances in and the pathways between the different environmental compartments are known. Until today, our knowledge of the radioecology of 129I is still insufficient. Results are presented from a long-term project which shall improve this situation. 129I and 127I abundances were investigated in precipitation, surface and ground waters from Lower Saxony, Germany, and in soil samples from various European locations. From the analysis of 129I in rain, 129I annual deposition densities were determined for the time period from 1997- 1999. We conclude that 129I deposition rates in Switzerland and Germany increased by three orders of magnitude since 1950 and changed just little after 1987. The different 129I/127I ratios in precipitation, surface and ground waters allow to estimate mean residence times of iodine in surface soil zones. From the analysis of soils, 129I deposition densities at various places of Europe were determined. Thereby, the 129I natural equilibrium deposition density as well as that of the fall-out from atmospheric weapon tests was estimated. Elevated 129I abundances in Ukrainian soils contaminated by Chernobyl fall-out provide a basis for retrospective dosimetry of the radiation exposure due to 131I. Soil profiles from Germany exhibit the influence of ongoing emissions from European reprocessing plants and demonstrate the complexity of iodine migration. Biospheric 129I/127I ratios in Germany are an order of magnitude lower than in precipitation. Because of the disequilibrium of iodine isotopes in the different compartments further detailed investigations of the pathways of 129I through the environment to man are considered necessary. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 86.129-94 - Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weight class determination, and fuel temperature profile. 86.129-94 Section 86.129-94 Protection of... Procedures § 86.129-94 Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature...,500 lb. equivalent test weight. (b)-(c) . For guidance see § 86.129-80. (d) Fuel temperature...

  2. Determination of Iodine-129 in Low Level Radioactive Wastes - 13334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the radioactivity determination of 129I in the radioactive wastes, alkali fusion and anion-exchange resin separation methods, which are sample pretreatment methods, have been investigated in this study. To separate and quantify the 129I radionuclide in an evaporator bottom and spent resin, the radionuclide was chemically leached from the wastes and adsorbed on an anion exchange resin at pH 4, 7, 9. In the case of dry active waste and another solid type, the alkali fusion method was applied. KNO3 was added as a KOH and oxidizer to the wastes. It was then fused at 450 deg. C for 1 hour. The radioactivity of the separated iodine was measured with a low energy gamma spectrometer after the sample pretreatment. Finally, it was confirmed that the recovery rate of the iodine for the alkali fusion method was 83.6±3.8%, and 86.4±1.6% for the anionic exchange separation method. (authors)

  3. A New Pumping-Probing Scheme for the Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景标; 朱程锦; 王凤芝; 杨东海

    2001-01-01

    A new pumping-probing scheme for the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been experimentally tested in our laboratory. The stability of the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard was measured by comparing its 10 MHz output with an HP5071A commercial cesium atomic clock. The result shows that the frequency stability for the 1 s and 30000s sample times are 1.2 × 10-11 and 3.7 × 10-13, respectively. It was proved that the new pumping scheme works well.

  4. A new ion exchanger for the removal of cesium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new exchange potassium copper nickel hexacyanoferrates(II) was prepared. It was characterized by chemical composition and surface area measurements. The removal of cesium from aqueous solution by ion exchange was studied as function of shaking time. pH and concentration of acids, salts and cesium. The data indicates high value of distribution coefficient over a wide range of pH, nitric and hydrochloric acids concentration and in the presence of higher concentration of Na and K ions. A potassium copper nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) column was also tested for elution of cesium using 8 M ammonium nitrate solution. (author)

  5. Application of Cesium isotopes in daily life; Aplicacoes dos isotopos do Cesio no cotidiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, B.O.; Quaresma, D.S.; Carvalho, R.J., E-mail: bjordan@on.br, E-mail: dansq@on.br, E-mail: carvalho@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (ON/LPTF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Tempo e Frequencia; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2014-07-01

    In the world of science, the desire of the scientific community to discover new chemical elements is crucial for the development of new technologies in various fields of knowledge. And the main chemical element addressed by this article is Cesium, but specifically {sup 133}Cesium isotope and radioisotope {sup 137}Cesium, exemplifying their physical and chemical characteristics, and their applications. This article will also show how these isotopes have provided researchers a breakthrough in the field of radiological medicine and in time and frequency metrology. (author)

  6. Cesium leaching from {gamma}-irradiated CsA and CsX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enrique [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: lima@xanum.uam.mx; Ibarra, Ilich A.; Lara, Victor [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bosch, Pedro [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, A. P. 70-360, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, Silvia [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    The present study discusses the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on Cs{sup +}-exchanged X and A zeolites. The incorporation of Cs{sup +} ions into A and X zeolites was performed using three different cesium salts (chloride, nitrate or acetate). Cs{sup +} ions immobilized into the vitrified zeolites by thermal treatment are located in different sites of the zeolite networks. It is found that {gamma}-irradiation favors cesium retention depending on the cesium precursor salt used in the cationic exchange step.

  7. Specific interaction of cesium with the surface of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of cesium at the calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) surface was investigated, both through sorption isotherm data and by solid-state NMR experiments. The sorption ability of CSH towards cesium is favored for low solid Ca/Si molar ratios, in agreement with the negative surface charge they develop then. A significant proportion of these sorbed cesium cations remains tightly bound to the surface sites forming, in dehydrated CSH, inner-sphere complexes, which can not be removed by alcohol washing. Chloride seems to present a lower affinity for CSH, even for high Ca/Si molar ratios, where the surface charge becomes positive. (orig.)

  8. First-principles study of cesium adsorption to weathered micaceous clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    A large amount of radioactive nuclides was produced into environment due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Residents near FDNPP were suffering from radioactive cesium and then evacuated, because which has long half-life and is retained by surface soil for long time. The Japanese government has been decontaminating the cesium by removing the surface soil in order to return them to their home. This decontamination method is very effective, but which produces huge amount of waste soil. This becomes another big problem in Fukushima, because it is not easy to find large storage sites. Then effective and economical methods to reduce the volume of the waste soil are needed. However, it has not been invented yet. One of the reasons is lack of knowledge about microscopic process of adsorption/desorption of cesium to/from soil. It is known that weathered micaceous clay minerals play crucial role on adsorption and retention of cesium. They are expected to have special sorption sites, called frayed edge sites (FESs), which adsorb cesium selectively and irreversibly. Properties of FES have been intensely investigated by experiments. But microscopic details of the adsorption process on FES are still unclear. Because direct observation of the process with current experimental techniques is quite difficult. We investigated the adsorption of cesium to FES in muscovite, which is a typical micaceous clay mineral, via first-principles calculations (density functional theory). We made a minimal model of FES and evaluate the energy difference before and after cesium adsorption to FES. This is the first numerical modeling of FES. It was shown that FES does adsorb cesium if the weathering of muscovite has been weathered. In addition, we revealed the mechanism of cesium adsorption to FES, which is competition between ion radius of cesium and the degree of weathering. I plan to discuss volume reduction of the waste soil based on our result. Reference M. Okumura

  9. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  10. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  11. Increasing the Space Charge Limit and Other Effects of Cesium Seeding in Hydrogen Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of cesium seeding in increasing the negative ion current in volume sources is described. By a reduction in the local plasma potential the current of extracted electrons is vastly reduced. As a result, cesium increases the fraction of the transverse space charge limit available to the ions by as much as a factor of three. In addition, cesium can increase the total space charge limit by injection of Cs+ into the presheath-a newly recognized phenomenon consistent with experimental measurements and determined from application of a Double-Vlasov model for negative ion extraction

  12. Investigation of adsorption and wetting of 3He on cesium and cesiated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the binding of 3He on cesium substrates, using optical pumping to spin-polarize the atoms. The behavior of 3He on the walls at low temperature can be analyzed through the evolution of the nuclear magnetization of the sample. Preliminary results are presented, including: (1) adsorption studies of gaseous 3He on cesiated glass; (2) magnetic relaxation time of polarized liquid 3He on cesium and cesiated glass; (3) evidence for wetting of liquid 3He on cesium. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Prospects for ''iodine-129 dating'' of marine organic matter using AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural levels of iodine 129 have been overwhelmed by a build-up of ''new'' iodine-129, a product of our nuclear age. Much of this new iodine-129 has entered the ocean and is now found in its upper layers. During primary production, marine organic matter incorporates iodine, which then moves through the food chain. The 129I/127I ratio in marine organics therefore represents the value found in the ocean's photic zone when the organic matter formed. Because the 129I/127I ratio in any well-mixed marine basin has increased rapidly since the advent of the nuclear age, establishing the build up pattern of 129I in that basin's surface waters would allow us to ''date'' the time of formation of any organics formed there, provided that we can obtain an adequate amount of iodine from samples. Measurement of this ratio requires the use of AMS. (orig.)

  14. Relative influence of 129I sources in a sediment core from the Kattegat area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth profiles of the 129I concentration and the 129I/127I ratio in a surface sediment core from the Kattegat area have been analyzed in order to obtain information about the different sources of 129I in that core. Therefore, a mathematical model that relates the measured values to the available emission data from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and nuclear weapons tests has been applied. Results show that the reprocessing plants at La Hague and Sellafield are the main sources of 129I in the sediment. Results about the transfer from the release points at the reprocessing plants to the sampling zone agree with other literature data. The model calculates quite fast the sedimentation of 129I in the sampling place, probably attached to organic matter. Finally, an estimation of approximately 89 kg of 129I released by Sellafield between 1952 and 1968 has been obtained from the model

  15. Separation and measurement of 129I and 127I in pre-nuclear-era marine algae with ultra-low 129I/127I isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodine isotopes 127I and 129I were isolated from marine algal samples to obtain 129I/127I ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The collection efficiency of iodine was 16–99%, and the treatment temperature in the present study was lower than that used in conventional methods for 129I analysis. Using the separation method reported here, we can easily measure ultra-low 129I/127I ratios in the orders of magnitude of 10−13–10−12, which were observed in algal samples from the pre-nuclear era (before 1945). The 129I/127I ratios observed in algae collected from 1929 to 1987 ranged from 10−13 to 10−10. The 129I/127I ratio in algae collected in 1987 was 100–1000 times as high as the ratio measured in algae collected before 1945. This dramatic increase in 129I/127I ratio after 1945 is attributed to human activity.

  16. Determinations of cesium-134, cesium-137 and potassium-40 as a measure of intrauterine exposure to rays and contamination of human milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain better insights into the degree of intrauterine exposure to rays after the Chernobyl reactor accident, placental measurements of the activity levels of cesium-134 and cesium-137 were carried out in 125 expectant mothers from the Munich area using four thallium-activated sodium iodine crystal detectors. The lower limit of detection determined for this technique was 1-2 bq/kg. Parallel tests were performed on human milk samples to establish their contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40. The ultrapure germanium detector used for this purpose measured levels down to a detection threshold of 1 bq/l. In a total of 13 placentae (10 %) and 56 milk samples (57%) the activity of cesium-137 was found to be so low as to preclude detection. The highest values measured were 18.6 bq/kg for the placentae and 10.6 bq/l for the milk samples. The activity concentrations of potassium-40 were frequently seen to exceed those of cesium-137, the highest value determined here being 73.6 bq/l. The author has come to the conclusion that the alleged increases in radiation levels remain within the range of variations generally expected to occur with natural radiation. Mothers are not discouraged from breast-feeding, even though their attention must be drawn to the fact that the rates of malignant diseases and genetic damage tend to rise on a global scale. (KST)

  17. Diffusion of water, cesium and neptunium in pores of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is investigating the feasibility to dispose of spent nuclear fuel within Finland. The present plan calls for the repository to be located in crystalline rock at a depth of several hundred meters. The safety assessment of the repository includes calculations of migration of waste nuclides. The flow of waste elements in groundwater will be retarded through sorption interaction with minerals and through diffusion into rock. Diffusion is the only mechanism retarding the migration of non-sorbing species and, it is expected to be the dominating retardation mechanism of many of the sorbing elements. In the investigation the simultaneous diffusion of tritiated water (HTO), cesium and neptunium in rocks of TVO investigation sites at Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara were studied. (11 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.)

  18. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  19. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Reitz, D; Mitsch, R; Schneeweiss, P; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  20. Coherence Properties of Nanofiber-Trapped Cesium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, D.; Sayrin, C.; Mitsch, R.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized ˜200nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time of T2*=0.6ms and an irreversible dephasing time of T2'=3.7ms. By modeling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, T2* and T2' are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  1. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility

  2. Norbadione A: synthetic approach and cesium complexation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was dedicated to the study of the synthesis and complexation studies of norbadione A: a pigment originating from a mushroom. A synthetic approach, based on a double Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, was developed. This strategy was applied with high yields to the synthesis of various norbadione A analogues, as well as to the synthesis of simple pulvinic acids. Access to functionalized precursors of the molecule was also studied and the final coupling remains to be done. Besides, a speciation study based on electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry was conducted with norbadione A and one of the analogues. This study allowed the assessment of the cesium complexation abilities of each molecule. Structural data was also obtained and complexation constants were calculated. Finally, norbadione A and various synthetic products have been tested via high-throughput screening methods and strong antioxidant properties were observed. Other biological results are also reported. (author)

  3. Comparative study of cesium adsorption on dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonites which are characterized by good rheological, mineralogical and chemical stability is considered used as sealing barriers in multibarrier Slovak system of deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. In Slovak Republic there are several significant deposits of bentonite, which are characterized by appropriate adsorption properties and meet the geotechnical requirements for this type of barriers. Study of adsorption properties of bentonites and other smectites is an essential step for developing the migration model long-lived corrosion and activation products, and fission products of uranium. Nuclear wastes contain the most important nuclear fission products, radioisotopes 134Cs and 137Cs. The present paper investigates and compares the cesium adsorption properties of Slovak and North America bentonites composed mainly of dioctahedral smectite montmorillonite (J, L, SAz-1 and STx-1) and trioctahedral smectites saponite (SapCa-2) and hectorite (SHCa-1). (author)

  4. Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents

  5. Quantitative analysis of cesium in synthetic lithium molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical technique for fission products in lithium molten salts of spent PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) fuels has been studied for the establishment of optimum chemical engineering process and the evaluation of process material balance in developing Direct Oxide Reduction Process with lithium metal. As part of the basic research, synthetic dissolver solutions of lithium chloride containing trace amounts of fission product elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y, Cs, Ru, Rh, Pd, Mo, Zr, Cd, Ba, Sr, Te and Se) was prepared and used in establishing the selective separation technique of cesium from lithium chloride matrix using cation exchange chromatography. Its recovery was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the reliability of this technique was evaluate

  6. Vector Cesium Magnetometer for the nEDM Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We use optical pumping combined with magnetic resonance in a Cesium vapor cell in order to measure the magnetic field. A Vector Cs Magnetometer uses multiple laser beams to follow the dynamics of the spin in 3D. The 3D signal is used to extract the Larmor frequency of the spins, and to extract the direction of the magnetic field through the path of the spins. The magnetometer was successfully tested in a proof of principle experiment. Its measured performance is ∼50 pT/Hz1/2 for the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, and ∼500 fT/Hz1/2 for the direction parallel to the magnetic field. (author)

  7. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  8. Elastic scattering of sodium and cesium atoms at ultracold temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji-Cai; Wang Ke-Dong; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The elastic scattering properties in a mixture of sodium and cesium atoms are investigated at cold and ultracold temperatures. Based on the accurate interatomic potential for the NaCs mixture,the interspecies s-wave scattering lengths,the effective ranges and the p-wave scattering lengths are calculated by the quantal method and the semiclassical method,respectively. The s-wave scattering lengths are 512.7ao for the singlet state and 33.4ao for the triplet state. In addition,the spin-change and elastic cross sections are also calculated,and the g-wave shape resonance is found in the total elastic cross sections.

  9. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial cesium removal technology: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium, strontium, and technetium radionuclides constitute a small fraction of the primarily sodium and potassium salts present in supernatants that are being stored in tanks at Hanford, Oak Ridge, Savannah River, and Idaho and must be remediated. Nuclide removal technologies supplied by the US Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology's Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Cross-Cutting Program have been previously proposed and tested in small batch and column tests using both simulated and actual supernatants. These technologies must now be tested and the most appropriate ones selected using a flow system of a scale suitable to obtain engineering data that can be applied to the design of pilot-scale equipment. This report describes the operation of the experimental test unit that is located in Building 4501 (ORNL) and the results using the sorbent materials that were tested

  10. Optimisation of the measurement protocols of {sup 129}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I. Methodology establishment for the measurement in environmental matrices; Optimisation des protocoles de mesurage de {sup 129}I et {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I. Etablissement d'une methodologie adaptee aux echantillons de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechou, C

    2000-07-01

    {sup 129}I, is a natural long-lived isotope, with a half-life of 15,7 million years, also artificially produced in nuclear power plant. It is then released in the liquid and gaseous effluents of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. {sup 129}I is integrated in all biological compartments at different activity levels, depending on their distance from the emission source and their ability to metabolize iodine. Performances of the different {sup 129}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I measurement techniques available: Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, direct {gamma}-X spectrometry and liquid scintillation were evaluated. Associated radiochemical preparation steps of the two first techniques were optimized and adapted to the characteristics of the major environmental matrices. In a first step, the radiochemical protocols were developed and validated. In a second step, intercomparison exercises have been lead on various environmental samples presenting different {sup 129}I activity levels. They showed the good agreement between the results given by the three techniques on different environmental matrices with activities between 0,2 and 200 Bq.kg{sup -1} dry weight. As a conclusion, a methodology for the measurement of {sup 129}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in environmental samples is proposed. It includes a decisional diagram taking into account the characteristics of the matrices, the detection limits and the answer delay. A study on the losses of {sup 129}I during the calcination of an algae was lead by direct {gamma}-X spectrometry and application studies were made to measure {sup 129}I levels in different biological compartments issued from various locations: {sup 129}I activity interspecific variation in different species of seaweeds from the French channel coast under the relative influence of La Hague, {sup 129}I levels in bovine thyroids from the Cotentin area and {sup 129}I in vegetal samples collected around the nuclear

  11. Sorption of cesium on bentonite: The role of calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since bentonite is investigated for its use in Engineered Barriers Systems as backfill material, many studies of their surfaces properties have been performed in the past years to qualify and quantify adsorption on their surfaces, which can be one of the major processes limiting migration of radionuclides away from a disposal site. Nevertheless, most of these studies concerned simplified systems, such as Na-montmorillonite in mono-electrolyte solution. As ion-exchange processes are of importance in water-clays interactions, adsorption of natural major ions has also to be taken into account for natural systems. The aim of this work is (i) to quantify the sorption of the natural major cations on the montmorillonite surface, (ii) to compare the sorption of cesium, in two different systems, a simple one (Na-montmorillonite in NaNO3 0.05 Mol.L-1) and a complex one (natural bentonite in a synthetic natural water) and then (iii) to assess the influence of the natural major ions on this sorption, and to identify the role of the calcite phase present in bentonite. The methodology used consists in several batch experiments, first considering a very simple solution (NaNO3), then using mixtures of two different electrolytes, and lastly using a synthetic natural water. A surface complexation model, describing the surface of clays as a mixture of ion-exchange and complexation surface sites, is used to provide interpretations and quantifications of the sorption processes. Observed results indicate that affinity for the montmorillonite surface is greatest for Ca, then Mg and then K. The sorption of cesium is strongly affected by the presence in solution of Ca, witch can come from the partial dissolution of calcite. (author)

  12. Sorption of cesium on bentonite: The role of calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since bentonite is investigated for its use in Engineered Barriers Systems as backfill material, many studies of their surfaces properties have been performed in the past years to qualify and quantify adsorption on their surfaces, which can be one of the major processes limiting migration of radionuclides away from a disposal site. Nevertheless, most of these studies concerned simplified systems, such as Na-montmorillonite in mono-electrolyte solution. As ion-exchange processes are of importance in water-clays interactions, adsorption of natural major ions has also to be taken into account for natural systems. The aim of this work is (i) to quantify the sorption of the natural major cations on the montmorillonite surface; (ii) to compare the sorption of cesium, in two different systems, a simple one ( Na-montmorillonite in NaNO3 0.05 Mol.L-1) and a complex one (natural bentonite in a synthetic natural water) and then; (iii) to assess the influence of the natural major ions on this sorption, and to identify the role of the calcite phase present in bentonite. The methodology used consists in several batch experiments, first considering a very simple solution (NaNO3), then using mixtures of two different electrolytes, and lastly using a synthetic natural water. A surface complexation model, describing the surface of clays as a mixture of ion-exchange and complexation surface sites, is used to provide interpretations and quantifications of the sorption processes. Observed results indicate that affinity for the montmorillonite surface is greatest for Ca, then Mg and then K. The sorption of cesium is strongly affected by the presence in solution of Ca, witch can come from the partial dissolution of calcite. This study is one part of a work supported by ANDRA on the retention properties of bentonite materials. (author)

  13. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  14. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  15. Determination of 129I in 131I-pharmaceuticals produced in THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is one of the most important radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. The accompanying isotope 129I with insignificant activities in 131I-pharmaceuticals, produced in THOR, were determined in terms of 129I/131I ratio by neutron activation analysis. The detection limit of 129I can be lowered to order of 0.1 Bq, superior to conventional radiometric methods. The 129I/131I ratios in the 131I-pharmaceuticals, were measured to be in the range from 3.9 to 8.3

  16. 129I assessment reveals the impact of Fukushima incident on Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the radioactive impact of Fukushima Incident on the coastal environment of Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen, China, combining accelerator mass spectrometry with epithermal neutron activation analysis, we measured the 129I/127I ratios and 129I levels in surface seawater, oyster (Ostrea gigas) and kelp (Sargassum henslouianum). The results showed that the influence of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base was ignorable to local environment, but the Fukushima Incident had caused significant increase of 129I levels in oyster (P 129I levels in oyster and kelp were far below the guideline given by Codex Alimentarius Commission and would not cause immediate harm to the health of local residents. (author)

  17. The measurement of {sup 129}I in ferromanganese crusts and aerosol samples with AMS at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kejun, E-mail: dkj401@aliyun.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); He, Ming; Lin, Min; Ouyang, Yinggen; Wu, Shaoyong [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Xie, Linbo; Liu, Guangshan; Ji, Lihong [College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Qi; Wang, Shilian [CTBT Beijing National Data Centre and Radionuclide Laboratory, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The determination of long-lived nuclide {sup 129}I in terrestrial formations has many important applications. The AMS measurement method of {sup 129}I has been set up for many years at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). For further exploring the potential applications of {sup 129}I, samples of Deep Sea Ferromanganese Crusts (DSFC) and aerosol were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The results show that {sup 129}I is not only a good tool for dating, but also an ideal nuclide for nuclear safety monitoring. The newest experimental progress and the main results are detailed in this presentation.

  18. Removal and adsorption of radioactive cesium from contaminated soil caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal and adsorption of radioactive cesium, 137Cs or 134Cs, from contaminated soil was investigated using various extractants: sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. In this experiment, a sand sample was used as contaminated soil. Although the radioactive cesium could not be removed from the soil by using sodium hydroxide, 64% of the removal efficiency was provided at room temperature when 10 M hydrochloric acid was used. Eighty percent of the radioactive cesium was removed by using 1 M sulfuric acid containing 0.1 M thiourea at 90℃. A more than 90% removal efficiency was obtained by increasing of the volume of sulfuric acid containing thiourea. The same result was obtained using custom-made radioactive cesium removal equipment. The adsorption of the radioactive cesium was also investigated. In an experiment of concerning adsorption, contaminated water containing radioactive cesium was prepared from a contaminated sand sample. More than 96% adsorption was obtained using zeolite (clinoptilolite). However, when commercial activated carbon was used, most the radioactive cesium was hardly removed. The influence of shaking time on the adsorption of radioactive cesium was investigated by a batch-system using zeolite. As a result, a shaking time of at least 5 min showed that the radioactive cesium was quantitatively adsorbed to zeolite. The adsorptive behavior of the radioactive cesium by a flow-system was also examined using zeolite. (author)

  19. Separation of radio cesium from acid-Purex solutions by sorption on granulated AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An organic polymer, poly vinylbutyral was used for the preparation of the composite exchanger containing ammonium molybdo phosphate (AMP) as the active component. The resultant granulated product (AMP-GR) has excellent column properties and stands high flow rates without generating fines. The method of preparation of the granulated sorbent, the batch and breakthrough capacities of the granules for cesium ions, their hydraulic properties and the results of column tests for cesium separation from acidic cesium solutions and simulated high level wastes (HLW) solutions is described. The process can be adapted to remove cesium from HLW solutions and could thus be incorporated in a waste management scheme. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. New separation techniques of cesium by redox type ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECS method, new cesium separation method, was developed in which a porous strong base anionic exchanger with copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) and inhibitor were used. Cesium could be separated from the high concentration nitric solution. By developing new impregnation method, large amount of CuFC was impregnated into the micropolar porous resin and silica gel pores. KFC adhered to outside of pores was recovered. Good complex with CuFC was prepared by use of copper chloride in ethyl alcohol solution. The adsorption ratio of cesium increased radically to 80% level in the very small range of hydrazine concentration 1.7 to 2.4x10-4M. The adsorption-desorption ratio of cesium did not decrease by repeating it seven times. The glassificated materials decreased large amount of γ-ray unless increase of volume could be produced by built RIECS method in the high level waste processing system. (S.Y.)

  1. Preparation, structure and application of a new ecomaterials cesium ion-sieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new ecomaterials cesium ion-sieve (Cs-IS), which has high selectivity to cesium and excellent acid resistance, is prepared with zirconyl molybdopyrophosphate as its matrix by specific chemical sieve-making means. Cs-IS has large exchange capacity ( 1.83mmol@g-1) and high distribution coefficient (4.09 x 104 mL@ L-1) in the medium of 3 mol@ L- 1 HNO3. In the static exchange with strongly acidic high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) (3 mol@ L-1 HNO3), Cs-IS exhibits high exchange rate for cesium (above 96.53 % ) and large separation factor (greater than 958.41). These indicate the possible use of Cs-IS in cesium-137 selective removal and recovery from highly saline acidic HLLW system.

  2. Cesium-137 in Lake Michigan sediments: areal distribution and correlation with other man-made materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grab samples of sediment were collected at 530 locations in Lake Michigan, primarily in the southeastern quarter of the lake. Each sample was analysed in the field and in the laboratory for fallout cesium-137. Twenty-five of the samples collected near the mouth of the St. Joseph River, were also analysed in the laboratory for 11 other man-made materials known to be discharged into the river. Two statistical methods were used to determine if cesium-137 can be used as an environmental tracer to predict the areal distributions of other man-made materials. The results show fallout cesium-137 to be a moderate to good tracer for locating areas of accumulation of plutonium-238, plutonium-239, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, dieldrin, DDT and PCB in sediment. Little or no correlation is found between fallout cesium-137 and strontium-90 or nickel. (author)

  3. Candlestick oven with a silica wick provides an intense collimated cesium atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailloux, A.; Alpettaz, T.; Lizon, E.

    2007-02-01

    This article shows that readily available glass and silica fibers and braids are suitable capillary structure for recirculating ovens, such as candlestick ovens, becoming then an alternative wick material to conventional metal based capillary structures. In order to study wettability and capillarity of metallic liquid cesium on borosilicate and silica microstructures, samples were selected, prepared, and tested experimentally. The contact angle of cesium on silica glass was roughly measured: θ =35°±10°. A commercially available silica braid was then introduced inside a candlestick oven to transfer the metallic liquid cesium from the cold reservoir to the hot emission point of the candlestick. A collimated cesium atomic beam of intensity of 2×1016at./ssr was obtained, stable and reproducible. Furthermore, this modified oven is easy to handle daily.

  4. Fission of Multiply Charged Cesium and Potassium Clusters in Helium Droplets - Approaching the Rayleigh Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Renzler, Michael; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with cesium or potassium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are $Cs_{9}^{2+}$ and $K_{11}^{2+}$; they are a factor two smaller than reported previously. The size of potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that their fissilities have been significantly overestimated. Triply charged cesium clusters as small as $Cs_{19}^{3+}$ are observed; they are a factor 2.6 smaller than previously reported. Mechanisms that may be responsible for enhanced formation of clusters with high fissilities are discussed.

  5. Assessment of food calcium radioprotection effectiveness against cesium-137, added alone and with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fish product with addition of food calcium had radioprotective properties, resulted in decreased cesium-137 content in organs and tissues of animals by 40-60% and lesser changes in differential blood count and biochemical indexes of blood serum

  6. Cold cesium molecules produced directly in a magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Shan; Ji Zhong-Hua; Yuan Jin-Peng; Zhao Yan-Ting; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of ultracold ground electric-state cesium molecules produced directly in a magnetooptical trap with a good signal-to-noise ratio.These molecules arise from the photoassociation of magneto-optical trap lasers and they are detected by resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization technology.The production rate of ultracold cesium molecules is up to 4× 104 s-1.We measure the characteristic time of the ground electric-state cesium molecules generated in the experiment and investigate the Cs2+ molecular ion intensity as a function of the trapping laser intensity and the ionization pulse laser energy.We conclude that the production of cold cesium molecules may be enhanced by using appropriate experimental parameters,which is useful for future experiments involving the production and trapping of ultracold ground electric-state molecules.

  7. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent. PMID:22464752

  8. Removal of cesium from low level waste solutions by copper hexacyanoferrate loaded resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbents for the separation of radio cesium from aqueous solutions were synthesized by incorporating copper hexacyanoferrate (II) in the matrix of anion exchange resins of Indian origin, viz. Indion-810 and Tulsion-A27MP. Their efficiency for the cesium removal was tested under both static and dynamic conditions. The resins were found to be highly selective for radio cesium from a variety of salt and acid solutions. In general, Tulsion-based resins showed more tolerance towards chemical load in the solutions than the other. Pilot column run with Indion-based loaded resin showed that it effectively removed all the cesium activity from few thousands of litres of mixed low level waste streams from reactors, fuel reprocessing plant and nuclear laboratories. (author). 24 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  10. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  11. Cs2 ‘diffuse bands’ emission from superheated cesium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Thomas, N.; Mathew, J.; Beuc, R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal emission from superheated cesium vapor was studied to very high temperatures from 700 °C to 1000 °C. This was performed in the vapor condition only and with no liquid cesium present in the all-sapphire cell. We observed a number of atomic and molecular spectral features simultaneously in emission and absorption, especially peculiar thermal emission of cesium dimer diffuse bands (2 3Πg → a 3∑u + transitions) around 710 nm coexisting with absorption bands around first resonance lines at 852 and 894 nm. We performed appropriate calculations of the diffuse band emission profiles and compared them with measured profiles. We also performed absorption measurements and compared observed diffuse band profiles with calculated ones. Possible applications of the observed phenomena will be discussed in terms of the solar energy conversion using dense cesium vapor.

  12. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste Division on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice

  13. Distribution of cesium 137 between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigation of distribution of cesium 137 ions between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products are received. Using NH42 and Sr2+ as ousted cations the portion of radionuclide adsorbed by specific (FES) and regular (RES) exchangeable sites have been determined. The distribution of cesium 137 ions and its exchangeable form between soils and liquid phases of water saturated soils have been established. The distribution coefficients have been evaluated. The behavior of cesium 137 in a system 'soil - solution' with different contribution of FES and RES sites into radionuclide adsorption were considered. Effect of solution acidity and cation concentration compete for exchangeable adsorption have been analyzed. Higher cesium 137 mobility during its transfer from solid phase into solution in soils, where content of specific adsorption sites is limited, was revealed

  14. Magnetic Field Stabilization for 129Xe EDM Search Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Nanao, Tsubasa; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Uchida, Makoto; Asahi, Koichiro

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic field stabilization is a crucial condition parameter for many kinds of ultra-high precision measurements such as a search for an electric dipole moment (EDM). The instability of magnetic field strength often arises from the drift of current flow in a solenoid coil to generate the magnetic field. For our EDM search experiment with maser oscillating diamagnetic 129Xe atoms, we have developed a new stabilized current source based on a feedback system which is devised to correct the amount of current flow measured precisely with high-precision digital multimeter and standard resistor. Using this new current source, we have successfully reduced the drifts of coil current by at least a factor of 100 compared to commercially available current sources.

  15. Magnetic Field Stabilization for 129Xe EDM Search Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic field stabilization is a crucial condition parameter for many kinds of ultra-high precision measurements such as a search for an electric dipole moment (EDM). The instability of magnetic field strength often arises from the drift of current flow in a solenoid coil to generate the magnetic field. For our EDM search experiment with maser oscillating diamagnetic 129Xe atoms, we have developed a new stabilized current source based on a feedback system which is devised to correct the amount of current flow measured precisely with high-precision digital multimeter and standard resistor. Using this new current source, we have successfully reduced the drifts of coil current by at least a factor of 100 compared to commercially available current sources.

  16. [Value of radioactive cesium content in selected food products. I. Content of radioactive cesium in dried milk (1987-1988)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewska, K A; Smoczyński, S S; Werner, B

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium in dried and dried skimmed milk from selected dairies was double determined. The highest content was found in samples from milk from OSM Siedlce (98 Bq/kg) and skimmed milk from Radzyń Podlaski and Ostrołeka, (the former 90, the latter 62 Bq/kg). The lowest level of radioactive caesium was observed in samples from dried milk from Sieradz, Słupsk, Września, Olecko and Elblag (about or below 10 Bq/kg). Although those levels of contamination with radiocesium didn't exceed values recommended by FAO they were determined as high for year 1987/88 as compared milk data from previous 1985 year. PMID:8016538

  17. Characterization of Lethal Zika Virus Infection in AG129 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emma C.; Larkin, Katrina E.; Camacho, Erwin; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever, which often is accompanied by maculopapular rash, headache, and myalgia. During the current outbreak in South America, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been hypothesized to cause microcephaly and other diseases. The detection of ZIKV in fetal brain tissue supports this hypothesis. Because human infections with ZIKV historically have remained sporadic and, until recently, have been limited to small-scale epidemics, neither the disease caused by ZIKV nor the molecular determinants of virulence and/or pathogenicity have been well characterized. Here, we describe a small animal model for wild-type ZIKV of the Asian lineage. Methodology/Principal Findings Using mice deficient in interferon α/β and Ɣ receptors (AG129 mice), we report that these animals were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection and disease, succumbing within seven to eight days. Rapid viremic dissemination was observed in visceral organs and brain; but only was associated with severe pathologies in the brain and muscle. Finally, these results were consistent across challenge routes, age of mice, and inoculum doses. These data represent a mouse model for ZIKV that is not dependent on adapting ZIKV to intracerebral passage in mice. Conclusions/Significance Foot pad injection of AG129 mice with ZIKV represents a biologically relevant model for studying ZIKV infection and disease development following wild-type virus inoculation without the requirement for adaptation of the virus or intracerebral delivery of the virus. This newly developed Zika disease model can be exploited to identify determinants of ZIKV virulence and reveal molecular mechanisms that control the virus-host interaction, providing a framework for rational design of acute phase therapeutics and for vaccine efficacy testing. PMID:27093158

  18. Characterization of Lethal Zika Virus Infection in AG129 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever, which often is accompanied by maculopapular rash, headache, and myalgia. During the current outbreak in South America, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been hypothesized to cause microcephaly and other diseases. The detection of ZIKV in fetal brain tissue supports this hypothesis. Because human infections with ZIKV historically have remained sporadic and, until recently, have been limited to small-scale epidemics, neither the disease caused by ZIKV nor the molecular determinants of virulence and/or pathogenicity have been well characterized. Here, we describe a small animal model for wild-type ZIKV of the Asian lineage.Using mice deficient in interferon α/β and Ɣ receptors (AG129 mice, we report that these animals were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection and disease, succumbing within seven to eight days. Rapid viremic dissemination was observed in visceral organs and brain; but only was associated with severe pathologies in the brain and muscle. Finally, these results were consistent across challenge routes, age of mice, and inoculum doses. These data represent a mouse model for ZIKV that is not dependent on adapting ZIKV to intracerebral passage in mice.Foot pad injection of AG129 mice with ZIKV represents a biologically relevant model for studying ZIKV infection and disease development following wild-type virus inoculation without the requirement for adaptation of the virus or intracerebral delivery of the virus. This newly developed Zika disease model can be exploited to identify determinants of ZIKV virulence and reveal molecular mechanisms that control the virus-host interaction, providing a framework for rational design of acute phase therapeutics and for vaccine efficacy testing.

  19. Fabrication and performance of fl y ash granule filter for trapping gaseous cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jang Jin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a disk-type fly ash filter has shown a good performance in trapping gaseous cesium, it has difficulty in charging filters into a filter container and discharging waste filters containing radioactive cesium from a container by remote action. To solve the difficulty of the disk-type fly ash filter, five types of granule filters, including a ball type, tube type, and sponge-structure type have been made. Among them, the best filter type was chosen through simple crucible tests. The five types of granule filters packed into containers were loaded into five alumina crucibles of 50 cc. Five grams of CsNO3 was used as a gaseous cesium source. They were then placed in a muffle furnace and heated to 900°C and maintained for 2 hours. After the experiment, the weights of the cesium trapped filters were measured. Among the five types of granule filters, the sponge-structure type granule filter was the best, which has the highest trapping capacity of cesium. Its capacity is 0.42 g-Cs/g-filter. The chosen sponge-structure type granule filters and disk-type filters have been tested using a two-zone tube furnace. Cs volatilization and Cs trapping zones were maintained at 900 and 1000°C, respectively. Sixteen grams of CsNO3 was used as a gaseous cesium source. The cesium trapping profile of the sponge-structure type granule filters was almost similar to that of the disk-type fly ash filters. For both cases, cesium was successfully trapped within the third filter.

  20. Calculations of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. Final report, April 23--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task involved the calculation of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. The author has written a computer code that calculates radii according to two models: Myers 1983 and FRDM 1992. Results of calculations in both these models for both cesium and francium isotopes are attached as figures. He is currently interpreting these results in collaboration with D. Vieira and J.R. Nix, and they expect to use the computer code for further studies of nuclear radii

  1. Thermoemission and adsorption properties of tungsten alloy with osmium in cesium atoms flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoemission and absorption properties of (110) and (100) planes of monocrystal of W+0.5%Os melt in a flux of cesium atoms are studied. Despite the fact that the electron work function from planes (100) and (110) was only 0.05 eV different it turned out during adsorption of Cs atoms that plane (110) adsorbes cesium atoms much better and reduces the work function to a greater extent

  2. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of the dosage of 137Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by γ spectrometry enable the determination of the 137Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors)

  3. Contribution of the pectin in the cesium elimination in organism. results of analysis on Belarus children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results make appear that the cesium 137 would be eliminated less quick than what the ICRP considered for its models. Pectin would accelerate the cesium elimination but less quick than what is announced by its promotors. Politically speaking, the pectin is ignored by the officials of medicine and radiation protection at the pretext that its efficiency is not proved but no study is made. (N.C.)

  4. Iodine and cesium behavior during the first PBF Severe Fuel Damage Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of iodine and cesium measurements made during the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test at the Power Burst Facility are presented. On-line gamma spectroscopy and grab samples of the test effluent were used to measure the isotopic release histories at four locations in the effluent sampling system. Total release fractions, release rates, analysis of filter debris, and sample line deposition characteristics are discussed. Iodine and cesium release rate constants measured during the experiment are compared with published NRC data

  5. Iodine and cesium behavior during the first PBF severe fuel damage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of iodine and cesium measurements made during the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test at the Power Burst Facility are presented. On-line gamma spectroscopy and grab samples of the test effluent were used to measure the isotopic release histories at four locations in the effluent sampling system. Total release fractions, release rates, analysis of filter debris, and sample line deposition characteristics are discussed. Iodine and cesium release rate constants measured during the experiment are compared with published NRC data

  6. Iodine and cesium behavior during the first PBF Severe Fuel Damage test: Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of iodine and cesium measurements made during the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test at the Power Burst Facility are presented. On-line gamma spectroscopy and grab samples of the test effluent were used to measure the isotopic release histories at four locations in the effluent sampling system. Total release fractions, release rates, analysis of filter debris, and sample line deposition characteristics are discussed. Iodine and cesium release rate constants measured during the experiment are compared with published NRC data

  7. Enhanced electronic injection in organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating silver nanoclusters and cesium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Chung; Gao, Chia-Yuan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Po-Wen [Department of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The localized electric field around SNCs is enhanced. • When the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained. • The structure for efficient electron injection is critical to characteristics of the device. - Abstract: The influence of the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure (CSC-EIS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The silver nanoclusters (SNCs) are introduced between the electron-injection layers by means of thermal evaporation. When the CSC-EIS replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained because the electron-injection barrier between the cathode and the electron-transport layer is remarkably reduced from 1.2 to 0 eV. In addition, surface plasmon resonance effect will cause the enhanced localized electric field around the SNCs, resulting that electron-injection ability is further enhanced from the cathode to the emitting layer.

  8. Cesium absorption from acidic solutions using ammonium molybdophosphate on a polyacrylonitrile support (AMP-PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have included evaluation of cesium removal technologies as applied to ICPP acidic radioactive waste streams. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) immobilized on a polyacrylonitrile support (AMP-PAN) has been studied as an ion exchange agent for cesium removal from acidic waste solutions. Capacities, distribution coefficients, elutability, and kinetics of cesium-extraction have been evaluated. Exchange breakthrough curves using small columns have been determined from 1M HNO3 and simulated waste solutions. The theoretical capacity of AMP is 213 g Cs/kg AMP. The average experimental capacity in batch contacts with various acidic solutions was 150 g Cs/kg AMP. The measured cesium distribution coefficients from actual waste solutions were 3287 mL/g for dissolved zirconia calcines, and 2679 mL/g for sodium-bearing waste. The cesium in the dissolved alumina calcines was analyzed for; however, the concentration was below analytical detectable limits resulting in inconclusive results. The reaction kinetics are very rapid (2-10 minutes). Cesium absorption appears to be independent of acid concentration over the range tested (0.1 M to 5 M HNO3)

  9. Measurement of cesium emissions during the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to eliminate a startup test that would involve adding small amounts of radioactive cesium-137 to simulated high-level waste. In order to eliminate this test, a reliable method for measuring non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter is required. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICPMS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 μg, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. Typical particulate loadings ranged from 800 μg of cesium. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. The decontamination factors measured experimentally compared favorably with the process design basis values

  10. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. ► The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. ► Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  11. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Baiyang [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yu, Hongwen [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Abe, Yoshiteru [Kyoei Engineering Corporation, Niigata 959-1961 (Japan)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  12. Test evaluation of a cesium vapor source and regulator for thermionic space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of nearly 8000 hours of testing of a fully developed cesium vapor source on the integrated TOPAZ II Ya-21U thermionic space power system. The test period included 4000 hours of system thermal vacuum operation and evaluation by Russian specialists at the Central Design Bureau for Machine Building (CDBMB), St. Petersburg, Russia; nearly 4000 hours of thermal vacuum tests at the Thermionic Systems Evaluation Test (TSET) laboratory; and mechanical tests at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, NM. Testing of the non-nuclear Ya-21U system provided significant information for evaluation and characterization of the cesium vapor source that could not be obtained by development and qualification testing of only components. The Ya-21U system and cesium vapor source were subjected to excessive, unplanned stress levels during the system evaluation tests which resulted in leakage of oxygen into the cesium subsystem and cesium vapor from the TFEs. The information and experience gained during the thermionic system evaluation test are useful for improvement of future cesium vapor subsystem designs, test support equipment, and system test procedures. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of cesium from acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of cesium from acidic waste. The most promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods, along with some of the attributes for each method, are listed. The main criteria used in evaluating the separation methods were as follows: (1) good potential for cesium separation must be demonstrated (i.e., cesium decontamination factors on the order of 50 to 100). (2) Good selectivity for cesium over bulk components must be demonstrated. (3) The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process. (4) The process should be safe to operate. (5) The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating cesium from various acidic waste types). (6) Secondary waste generation must be minimized. (7) The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The most promising separation methods did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria, thus key areas requiring further development are suggested for each method. The report discusses in detail these and other areas requiring further development, as well as alternative solvent extraction, precipitation, ion exchange, and open-quote other close-quote technologies that, based on current information, show less promise for the separation of cesium from acidic wastes because of significant process limitations. When appropriate, the report recommends areas of future development

  14. Individual difference of concentration of radio cesium on olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms were contaminated with radio cesium released from TEPCO Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants and coastal fisheries are still restricted. Olive flounder is one of the most important fishery species in Japan and live in coastal area. About one hundred of olive flounder were caught in northern and southern part of Fukushima prefecture and the concentrations of radio cesium in muscle of them were measured individually. The averages of concentration (with standard deviations) of total radio cesium in the muscle of the fish were 87.0 (72.3) Bq/kg-wet and 101 (104) Bq/kg-wet in the northern and southern coasts, respectively. Seventy percent of the results were distributed between 50 and 150 Bq/kg-wet but some of them were much higher (and much lower) than the average. According to the individuals with under 200 Bq/kg-wet of radio cesium collected in northern part of Fukushima, the concentrations of radio cesium were correlated to the amounts of 15N in the muscles. It suggests that the concentration of radio cesium in olive flounder might be influenced by the species of prey organisms that individual flounder predated a certain period before catch. (author)

  15. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  16. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Q Chen

    Full Text Available Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1(tm1Rds homozygous uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment.

  17. Distribution and sources of 129I in rivers of the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 129I was measured in 54 river waters discharging into the Baltic Sea from Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Germany. Sample collection was performed during a well-bracketed time interval (June-July 1999), thus allowing comparison of the rivers over a wide latitude range without the effect of long temporal spread. Although there is no direct input of anthropogenic 129I in the watersheds, the concentration of the isotope is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the expected pre-nuclear era natural values in the rivers of Finland and northern Sweden, and in the rivers of southern Sweden, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Germany; the 129I concentration may reach five orders of magnitude higher. Furthermore, there are significant correlations between the 129I concentration and latitude and/or distance from the North Sea and between 129I and Cl. These findings suggest seawater as a main source of 129I to the rivers through atmospheric transport. Of the many chemical parameters investigated, the pH may account for some of the variability in 129I concentrations of the rivers. The contribution from nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident to the riverine 129I is insignificant compared to the releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The total flux of 129I by rivers to the Baltic Sea and related basins represents minor amounts of the isotope pool in these marine waters. External radioactivity hazards from 129I are considered to be negligible in the Baltic region. However, as the main 129I intake to the human body is likely through water, due to the large amount of daily water consumption, more concern should be given to internal radioactivity hazard that may be associated with the isotope's localized elevated concentration in the human organs

  18. Level and source of 129I of environmental samples in Xi'an region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 is widely used as a tracer in various environmental practices such as monitoring of nuclear environmental safety, seawater exchange and transport, geochemical cycle of stable iodine and dating of geological events. The spatial distribution of 129I concentration varies significantly on global scale because of anthropogenic input from nuclear activities coupled with scarcity of data on environmental 129I variability in many parts of the world including Asia. Here we report new data on 129I and 127I concentrations in soil, vegetation, river water and precipitation collected from Xi'an area, China. The results indicate values for environmental 129I/127I ratios in the investigated area range from 1.1 x 10-10 to 43.5 x 10-10 with a mean of 20.6 x 10-10, which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the ratios observed in Europe, but comparable with those observed in the locations far from direct effect of point release sources and at similar latitude. The main source of 129I in the investigated area is attributed to the global fallout of both atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and long distance dispersion of fuel reprocessing releases. - Research highlights: → We present the first investigation of anthropogenic radioactive 129I in the terrestrial environment in middle China. → River water, surface soil and vegetation samples from Xi'an region were analyzed for 129I and stable 127I. → The distribution, source term, and transfer from soil to plants of 129I in middle China are presented. → AMS shows its unique capacity in 129I analysis and environmental safety research using 129I and other radionuclides. → The results supplied a basic data for evaluating nuclear risk in the future.

  19. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environment. Part. 4. Factors influencing depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the vertical migration behavior of radioactive cesium, which contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of radioactive cesium in different type of soils, e.g., bare ground, grass land, conifer forest floor were measured on October 2011, 2012, 2013, in Abiko, Chiba, Japan. Even three years after the deposition, most of radioactive cesium were deposited in the depths of within 5 cm at anywhere in this area. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil was significantly correlated with organic matter content in soils (r=0.82; p<0.0001), whereas the factors such as potassium ion and ammonium ion in soil, stable cesium content, and clay mineral content were not correlated clearly. This indicates that the vertical migration rate of radioactive cesium is very slow and it would be influenced by organic matter in soil, not just clay. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... labeled drug or regarding human physiology, pathophysiology, or biochemistry (but not intended for... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  1. 34 CFR 76.129 - How does a consolidated grant work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applies for a consolidated grant under the Vocational Education Act, the Handicapped Preschool and School... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a consolidated grant work? 76.129 Section 76.129 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS How a...

  2. Iodine-129 in Seawater Offshore Fukushima: distribution, inorganic speciation, sources, and budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Povinec, Pavel P.; Zhang, Luyuan;

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 has released a large amount of radioactive pollutants to the environment. Of the pollutants, iodine-129 is a long-lived radionuclide and will remain in the environment for millions of years. This work first report levels and inorganic speciation of 129I...... geochemical cycle of iodine in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in the future....

  3. Iodine 129 concentration in river and lake water in the Fukushima area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of radionuclides, including 129I, were released into the environment by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. In determination of 129I, accelerator mass spectrometry is extraordinarily sensitive. We found that river and lake water in Fukushima area contained significant amount of 129I from the accident, and provided fruitful information for us. The concentration of 129I in the river and lake water taken in June 2012 ranged from 3.88 x 107 atoms/L to 3.32 x 109 atoms/L. The concentration of 129I in samples taken in Kawauchi village and Tamura city located in the west of the nuclear power plant was low, while that in Namie town, Iitate village and Minamisouma city was relatively high. In addition, the concentration of 129I in samples taken at the same place in December 2011, March 2012 and June 2012 was increased except one sample. This is result from the outflow of 129I which was attached to the organic matter, and from seasonal changes. To investigate the state of dilution of 129I in river and lake, it is necessary to take long-term and fixed-point observation. (author)

  4. Behavior in water system of iodine-129 from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because determination of 129I by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is a very high sensitivity, measuring the concentration of 129I in tap water shows clearly the impact of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. So we examined the range of effects by the accident and natural dilution of 129I by the aqueous flow, by measuring the concentration of 129I in tap water samples taken in Tokyo, Nagano, Aomori, and Ehime. The concentration of 129I in tap water taken in Nagano, Aomori, and Ehime were lower than 2.69 x 107 atoms/L which that of Tokyo before the accident was, while the concentration of 129I in tap water taken in Tokyo in April 2011 was 1.20 x 108 atoms/L. This was considered as the impact of the accident. The concentration of 129I in samples taken in Tokyo in May and in July 2011 was 6.55 x 107 atoms/L and 5.91 x 107 atoms/L, respectively. The concentration of 129I has been decreased. (author)

  5. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  6. New insights on the role of sea ice in intercepting atmospheric pollutants using 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 129I content was measured in sea ice collected in 2007 in the Arctic Ocean. • The 129I inventory in the sea ice was estimated to be (6.5 ± 4.5) × 1012 atoms m−2. • Atmospheric transport from Sellafield and La Hague is the main source of 129I. • This source provides 98.4% of the total 129I present in the Arctic sea ice. - Abstract: Measurements of 129I carried out on sea ice samples collected in the central Arctic Ocean in 2007 revealed relatively high levels in the range of 100–1400 × 107 at L−1 that are comparable to levels measured in the surface mixed layer of the ocean at the same time. The 129I/127I ratio in sea ice is much greater than that in the underlying water, indicating that the 129I inventory in sea ice cannot be supported by direct uptake from seawater or by iodine volatilization from proximal (nearby) oceanic regimes. Instead, it is proposed that most of the 129I inventory in the sea ice is derived from direct atmospheric transport from European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Cap La Hague. This hypothesis is supported by back trajectory simulations indicating that volume elements of air originating in the Sellafield/La Hague regions would have been present at arctic sampling stations coincident with sampling collection

  7. Speciation analysis of 129I and its applications in environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    129I, a long-lived radionuclide, is important in view of geological repository of nuclear waste, and environmental tracing applications related to diverse natural processes of iodine. The environmental behaviors and bioavailability of 129I are highly related to its species. A number of methods have...

  8. 14 CFR 129.111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (EWIS) maintenance program. 129.111 Section 129.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, this....S.-registered airplane identified in paragraph (a) of this section unless the maintenance...

  9. On the origin of 129I in rain water near Zuerich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I concentrations in precipitation at Duebendorf/Zuerich, Switzerland, have been determined with monthly resolution for almost three years in the mid 1990s. The results confirm that annual mean 129I concentrations in precipitation in central Europe have remained about constant since the late 1980s. Liquid and gaseous emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield and La Hague are discussed as the only possible sources of 129I in precipitation in central Europe. Based on an upper limit estimate for iodine transferred from the sea to the atmosphere, the gaseous discharges constitute the potentially bigger 129I reservoir for precipitation. Moreover, the time dependence of the annual gaseous 129I releases from Sellafield and La Hague correlates much better with the 129I concentrations in precipitation in central Europe since the late 1980s than does the time dependence of the liquid emissions from these sites. At monthly resolution, the 129I concentrations in the precipitation samples close to Zuerich exhibit a large variability. A meteorological transport analysis was carried out for four selected months with particularly low or high observed 129I concentrations. It was found that meteorological transport alone, based upon assimilated wind fields and observed precipitation values, can not directly account for the large month-to-month variability. (orig.)

  10. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  11. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  12. Optical hyperpolarization and NMR detection of $^{129}$Xe on a microfluidic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Rosenbluh, Michael; Donley, Elizabeth A; Knappe, Svenja; Seltzer, Scott J; Ring, Hattie L; Bajaj, Vikram S; Kitching, John

    2014-01-01

    Optically hyperpolarized $^{129}$Xe gas has become a powerful contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging, with applications ranging from studies of the human lung to the targeted detection of biomolecules. Equally attractive is its potential use to enhance the sensitivity of microfluidic NMR experiments, in which small sample volumes yield poor sensitivity. Unfortunately, most $^{129}$Xe polarization systems are large and non-portable. Here we present a microfabricated chip that optically polarizes $^{129}$Xe gas. We have achieved $^{129}$Xe polarizations greater than 0.5$\\%$ at flow rates of several microliters per second, compatible with typical microfluidic applications. We employ in situ optical magnetometry to sensitively detect and characterize the $^{129}$Xe polarization at magnetic fields of 1 $\\mu$T. We construct the device using standard microfabrication techniques, which will facilitate its integration with existing microfluidic platforms. This device may enable the...

  13. 129I record in a sediment core from Tinto River (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of 129I (T 1/2 = 15.7 x 106 y) as an environmental tracer has extensively been shown in the literature. However, more information about the transport and distribution of this radionuclide in nature is needed. In this work, we present the results obtained for the 129I concentration in a sediment core profile taken at the Tinto River, in Southern Spain. This place can be considered far away from the direct impact of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, which are the main anthropogenic 129I sources. However, the 129I profile found in the core clearly not only shows the presence of anthropogenic 129I but it also allows obtaining information about its possible specific origin

  14. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil. PMID:27320744

  15. Transmutation rates of technetium 99 and iodine 129 in the CANDU actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmutation rates for the two long-lived fission products technetium 99 and iodine 129 have been calculated for the CANDU Actinide Burner that operates with weapons grade plutonium in an inert matrix as fuel. These transmutation rates are compared with those obtained for the current natural uranium CANDU and for LWRs and FBRs. The higher thermal flux and the softer neutron spectrum of the CANDU Actinide Burner, which is a result of its lower fissile requirements can provide net transmutation half lives as short as 14 y for technetium 99 and 2 y for iodine 129. It is assumed that the iodine 129 can be irradiated as a solution in heavy water. The shorter half life for iodine 129 is due to the large volume of moderator and reflector available that leads to negligible self shielding of the iodine 129 cross section. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  16. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.;

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...... from 0.10 to 0.30, with an average of 0.18, and no correlation between I-129/Cs-137 ratio and the distance from Chernobyl reactor to sampling location was observed. It seems feasible to use the I-129/Cs-137 ratio to reconstruct the deposition pattern of I-131 in these areas. The association of I-129...

  17. Effect of electrolytes concentration on recovery of cesium from AMP-PAN by Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium from the simulated acidic waste solution was separated using Ammonium Molybdophosphate (AMP) - Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ion exchange resin in column operations. Electrodialysis - Ion exchange (EDIX) has been tried for the recovery of cesium from the AMP-PAN which was saturated with cesium. The electrodialysis setup consists of three compartments; cesium loaded AMP-PAN is placed in the middle compartment and is separated from the anode and cathode compartments by cation exchange membranes. Ammonium sulphate was used as anolyte and HNO3 as catholyte. 0.1N HNO3 was circulated in the middle compartment containing AMP-PAN to keep the resin in acidic form. On application of potential, the ammonium ions from the anode compartment migrate towards cathode through the middle compartment where they exchange with cesium ions on the resin and the exchanged cesium ions migrate towards cathode to get concentrated. Some part of cesium is recovered in the middle compartment due to convection. Cesium recovery from the AMP-PAN in the electrodialysis setup was studied at different anolyte and catholyte concentrations. All the experiments were carried out at constant current density of 40 mA/cm2 for 15h. It was found that more than 50% of cesium recovery was observed for all the experiments studied and recovery percentage increased with increasing the anolyte concentration. It was observed that the electrolytes concentration affects the voltage drop across the cell

  18. 3D MRI of impaired hyperpolarized 129Xe uptake in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I; Virgincar, Rohan S; Qi, Yi; Robertson, Scott H; Degan, Simone; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2014-12-01

    A variety of pulmonary pathologies, in particular interstitial lung diseases, are characterized by thickening of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier, and this thickening results in reduced gas exchange. Such diffusive impairment is challenging to quantify spatially, because the distributions of the metabolically relevant gases (CO2 and O2) cannot be detected directly within the lungs. Hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe is a promising surrogate for these metabolic gases, because MR spectroscopy and imaging allow gaseous alveolar (129)Xe to be detected separately from (129)Xe dissolved in the red blood cells (RBCs) and the adjacent tissues, which comprise blood plasma and lung interstitium. Because (129)Xe reaches the RBCs by diffusing across the same barrier tissues (blood plasma and interstitium) as O2, barrier thickening will delay (129)Xe transit and, thus, reduce RBC-specific (129)Xe MR signal. Here we have exploited these properties to generate 3D, MR images of (129)Xe uptake by the RBCs in two groups of rats. In the experimental group, unilateral fibrotic injury was generated prior to imaging by instilling bleomycin into one lung. In the control group, a unilateral sham instillation of saline was performed. Uptake of (129)Xe by the RBCs, quantified as the fraction of RBC signal relative to total dissolved (129)Xe signal, was significantly reduced (P = 0.03) in the injured lungs of bleomycin-treated animals. In contrast, no significant difference (P = 0.56) was observed between the saline-treated and untreated lungs of control animals. Together, these results indicate that 3D MRI of HP (129)Xe dissolved in the pulmonary tissues can provide useful biomarkers of impaired diffusive gas exchange resulting from fibrotic thickening. PMID:24816478

  19. Gamma-ray spectroscopic determination of iodine-131 and cesium-137 in foods: Two collaborative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AOAC method for iodine-131, cesium-137, and barium-140 in milk by gamma-ray spectroscopy (48.025-48.029) was extended to include other foods for the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137. Two collaborative studies were performed to validate this extension. In the first study, a food sample containing 119 pCi 131I/kg and 53 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 45 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 25 responses, the mean of the reported values was 123.8 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 27 responses, the mean was 53.4 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Repeatability (within-laboratory) standard deviations (Sr) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 4.6 and 3.7 pCi/kg, respectively. Reproducibility (among-laboratories) standard deviations (SR) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 12.1 and 6.0 pCi/kg, respectively. In the second study, a food sample containing 25 pCi 131I/kg and 27 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 54 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 21 responses, the mean of the reported values was 25.0 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 19 responses, the mean was 28.9 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Sr Values were 4.0 and 1.6 pCi/kg for iodine-131 and cesium-137, respectively, and SR values were 5.0 and 2.8 pCi/kg, respectively. The method extension was adopted official first action

  20. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (CsTPB) precipitates also increases. Serkiz also demonstrated that the precipitation of potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice. In the crystallographic structure of these three tetraphenylborate salts (Cs,K,NaTPB), the tetraphenylborate ion dominates the size of the crystals. Also, note that the three crystals have nearly identical structures with the exception of two additional peaks in the cesium pattern. Given these similarities, TPB precipitation in the presence of Na+, Cs+ and K+ likely produces an impure isomorphic crystalline mixture of CsTPB, KTPB and NaTPB. The authors speculate that the primary crystalline structure resembles that of KTPB with NaTPB and CsTPB mixed throughout the crystal structure. The precipitation of NaTPB makes some of the anticipated excess tetraphenylborate relatively unavailable for precipitation of cesium. Thus, the amount of excess tetraphenylborate required to completely precipitate all of the potassium and cesium may increase significantly

  1. Improvement of cesium retention in uranium dioxide by additional phases; Amelioration de la retention du cesium dans le dioxyde d`uranium au moyen de phases exogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamaury Dubois, S.

    1995-09-19

    The objective of this study is to improve the cesium retention in nuclear fuel. A bibliographic survey indicates that cesium is rapidly released from uranium dioxide in an accident condition. At temperatures higher than 1500 deg C or in oxidising conditions, our experiments show the difficulty of maintaining cesium inside simulated fuel. Two ternary systems are potentially interesting for the retention of cesium and to reduce the kinetics of release from the fuel: Cs{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} et Cs{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}. The compounds CsAISi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} were studied from 1200 deg C to 2000 deg C by thermogravimetric analysis. The volumetric diffusion coefficients of cesium in these structures, in solid state as well as in liquid one, were measured. A fuel was sintered with (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2}) or (ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}) and the intergranular phase was characterized. In the presence of (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2}), the sintering is realized at 1610 deg C in H{sub 2}. It is a liquid phase sintering. On the other end, with (ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}), the sintering is a low temperature one in oxidising atmosphere. Finally, cesium containing simulated fuels were produced with these additives. According to the effective diffusion coefficients that were measured, the additives improved the retention of cesium. We have predicted the improvement that could be hoped for in a nuclear reactor, depending on the dispersion of the intergranular additives, the temperature and the degree of oxidation of the UO{sub 2+x}. We wait for a factor of 2 for x=0 and more than 8 for x=0.05, up to 2000 deg C. (author). 148 refs., 122 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na+. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A ampersand M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications

  3. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na{sup +}. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A&M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications.

  4. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  5. Biogeochemistry of Cesium in a Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. D.; Hess, J. R.; Hamilton, M. A.; Cook, L. L.; Siegel, L. S.; Yancey, N. A.

    2002-12-01

    The nature of radiocesium sources is such that they often have resulted in the contamination of shallow (SL-1 reactor show changes in concentrations and transfer factors with the stage of plant growth. The samples included both rhizosphere and bulk soils as well as roots and shoots from the crested wheatgrass. The ranges of total cesium in rhizosphere and bulk soils are similar, are fairly narrow (1.7 to 5.2 mg kg-1), and do not appear to vary seasonally. In contrast, 137Cs activities in rhizosphere and bulk soils are significantly different, vary over orders of magnitude (10-180 pCi g-1), and show seasonal differences. Shoot and root 137Cs activities decrease between April and May. Total Cs shoot-to-root ratios are greater than the corresponding ratios for radiocesium. Total Cs root-to-rhizosphere soil ratios are lower than the corresponding ratios for 137Cs. These results are being used to enhance our understanding of phytoremediation scenarios and issues associated with long-term stewardship of 137Cs-contaminated lands.

  6. Cesium sorption and desorption behavior of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium sorption and desorption of clay minerals (montmorillonite, beidellite, nontronite, weathered biotite, rectorite and illite) were investigated by consecutive sorption-desorption (CSD) experiments. In batch sorption experiment, two solutions with different Cs concentration 10-3 and 10-7 mol/L) were used. In batch desorption experiments, Cs sorbed samples in sorption experiments were treated 5 times with 1 mol/L ammonium acetate solution. In the case of CSD experiments using 10-3 mol/L Cs solution, the exchangeable cations (Na, Ca, and K) in the clay samples affected to the sorption ratio of Cs, and this effect depended on the type of clay mineral. The desorption ratios of untreated, Na-exchanged and Ca-exchanged weathered biotite ranged from 23 to 33%, while that of other samples was over 80%. In the case of CSD experiments using 10-7 mol/L Cs solution, the sorption ratio of montmorillonite was smaller than that of the other clay samples. In desorption experiments, more than 10-9 mol sorbed Cs remained in 1.0 g of the sample after 5 extraction times. These results indicate that all examined clay samples are able to strongly adsorb Cs with a capacity of more than 10-9 mol/g. (author)

  7. ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

  8. Broadband Vibrational Cooling of Cold Cesium Molecules: Theory and Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Sofikitis; A. Fioretti; S. Weber; M. Viteau; A. Chotia; R. Horchani; M. Allegrini; B. Chatel; D. Comparat; P. Pillet

    2009-01-01

    The use of a broadband, frequency shaped femtosecond laser on translationally cold cesium molecules has recently demonstrated to be a very efficient method of cooling also the vibrational degree of freedom. A sample of cold molecules, initially distributed over several vibrational levels, has thus been transfered into a single selected vibrational level of the singlet X1∑g ground electronic state. Our method is based on repeated optical pumping by laser light with a spectrum broad enough to excite all populated vibrational levels but limited in its frequency bandwidth with a spatial light modulator. In such a way we are able to eliminate transitions from the selected level, in which molecules accumulate. In this paper we briefly report the main experimental results and then address, in a detailed way by computer simulations, the perspectives for a "complete" cooling of the molecules, including also the rotational degree of freedom. Since the pumping process strongly depends on the rclative shape of the ground and excited potential curves, ro-vibrational cooling through different excited states is theoretically compared.

  9. Evaluation of a cesium adsorbent grafted with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takuya; Seko, Noriaki; Amada, Haruyo; Kasai, Noboru; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A fibrous cesium (Cs) adsorbent was developed using radiation-induced graft polymerization with a cross-linked structure containing a highly stable adsorption ligand. The ligand, ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP), was successfully introduced onto the fibrous polyethylene trunk material. The resulting Cs adsorbent contained 36% nonwoven fabric polyethylene (NFPE), 1% AMP, 2% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and 61% glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorbent's Cs adsorption capacity was evaluated using batch and column tests. It was determined that the adsorbent could be used in a wide pH range. The amount of desorbed molybdenum, which can be used as an estimate for AMP stability on the Cs adsorbent, was minimized at the standard drinking water pH range of 5.8-8.6. Based from the inspection on the adherence of these results to the requirements set forth by the Food Sanitation Act by a third party organization, it can be concluded that the developed Cs adsorbent can be safely utilized for drinking water.

  10. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department's mission as stated in that document. ''The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.''

  11. Proton tunneling in low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1 (monoclinic phase of CsHSi2O5), anomalous infrared absorption bands observed at 93, 155, 1210, and 1220 cm−1 are assigned to the vibrational mode of protons, which contribute to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal oxygen atoms of silicate chain (O–O distance = 2.45 Å). The integrated absorbance (oscillator strength) for those modes is drastically enhanced at low temperatures. The analysis of integrated absorbance employing two different anharmonic double-minimum potentials makes clear that proton tunneling through the potential barrier yields an energy splitting of the ground state. The absorption bands at 93 and 155 cm−1, which correspond to the different vibrational modes of protons, are attributed to the optical transition between the splitting levels (excitation from the ground state (n = 0) to the first excited state (n = 1)). Moreover, the absorption bands at 1210 and 1220 cm−1 are identified as the optical transition from the ground state (n = 0) to the third excited state (n = 3). Weak Coulomb interactions in between the adjacent protons generate two types of vibrational modes: symmetric mode (93 and 1210 cm−1) and asymmetric mode (155 and 1220 cm−1). The broad absorption at 100–600 cm−1 reveals an emergence of collective mode due to the vibration of silicate chain coupled not only with the local oscillation of Cs+ but also with the proton oscillation relevant to the second excited state (n = 2)

  12. Cesium 137 redistribution by horizontal migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiation monitoring the local nonuniformities of contamination density were noticed which can not be explained by meteorologic conditions at the moment of fallout. The mathematical model of redistribution of cesium 137 radionuclides of Chernobyl origin for the post accidental period on account of migration with horizontal outflow in the upper layer of soils was developed. It has been shown that for nonuniform landscapes (borders of fields, forests, roads etc.) redistribution of radionuclides with increasing of their concentration at the places, where the objects with different migration characteristics are connected, will take place. In Belarus the typical size of such 'spots' will increase with the time up to 1 m/year. It is possible the increasing of contamination density of territories on account of the process of shifting of radioactive 'spots', caused by horizontal flow. The speed of replacement of such 'spots' along the direction of underground water is about 1 m/year; increasing of their typical size is going on with the speed up to 0.3 m/year. 4 refs., 1 fig

  13. Desorption of cesium from granite under various aqueous conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-H. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wei, Y.-Y. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Teng, S.-P., E-mail: spteng@ess.nthu.edu.t [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    In this work the desorption of cesium ions from crushed granite in synthetic groundwater (GW) and seawater (SW) was investigated. Results were compared with those obtained in deionized water (DW) and in two kinds of extraction solutions, namely: MgCl{sub 2} and NaOAc (sodium acetate). In general, the desorption rate of Cs from crushed granite increased proportionally with initial Cs loadings. Also, amounts of desorbed Cs ions followed the tendency in the order SW>GW>NaOAc{approx}MgCl{sub 2}>DW solutions. This indicated that the utilization of extraction reagents for ion exchange will underestimate the Cs desorption behavior. Fitting these experimental data by Langmuir model showed that these extraction reagents have reduced Cs uptake by more than 90%, while only less than 1% of adsorbed Cs ions are still observed in GW and SW solutions in comparison to those in DW. Further SEM/EDS mapping studies clearly demonstrate that these remaining adsorbed Cs ions are at the fracture areas of biotite.

  14. The crystal structures of potassium and cesium trivanadates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Block, S.

    1966-01-01

    Potassium and cesium trivanadates are monoclinic and isomorphous, space group P21/m, with the following dimensions (Z = 2): KV3O8, a = 7.640 A, b = 8.380 A, c = 4.979 A, ??= 96?? 57???; CsV3O8, a = 8.176 A, b = 8.519 A, c = 4.988 A, ?? = 95?? 32???. The crystal structure of KV3O8 has been determined from hk0, 0kl, and h0l Weissenberg data with an R factor of 0.15. The structure of CsV3O8 has been refined with 1273 hkl Weissenberg data to an R factor of 0.089. The structures consist of corrugated sheets based on a linkage of distorted VO6, octahedra. Two of the vanadium atoms lie in double, square-pyramid groups V2O8, which are linked through opposite basal corners into chains along the b axis. The chains are joined laterally along the c axis into sheets by the third vanadium atom in VO groups, also forming part of a square-pyramid coordination. Various aspects of these structures are compared with other known oxovanadate structures.

  15. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, A A; Tordoff, M G; Beauchamp, G K

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice of the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by B6 mice, but not by 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485

  16. An approach for measuring the 129I/127I ratio in fish samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-10-01

    The 129I/127I ratio in marine fish samples was measured employing accelerator mass spectrometry. The measurement was successful because of the low experimental background of 129I. Pyrohydrolysis was applied to extract iodine from fish samples. The experimental background of pyrohydrolysis was checked carefully and evaluated as 104-105 atoms 129I/combustion. The methodology employed in the present study thus required only 0.05-0.2 g of dried fish samples. The methodology was then applied to obtain the 129I/127I ratio of marine fish samples collected from the Western Pacific Ocean as (0.63-1.2) × 10-10. These values were similar to the ratio for the surface seawater collected at the same station, 0.4 × 10-10. The 129I/127I ratio of IAEA-414, which was a mix of fish from the Irish Sea and the North Sea, was also measured and determined as 1.82 × 10-7. Consequently, fish from the Western Pacific Ocean and the North Sea were distinguished by their 129I/127I ratios. The 129I/127I ratio is thus a direct indicator of the area of habitat of fish.

  17. The determination of iodine-129 in environmental samples used mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 is important radionuclides for environmental assessment, because it has a long half-life. In the JNC, the Neutron activation analysis was developed to determine the iodine-129 in environmental samples. The above method is influenced by the operation cycle of the nuclear reactor. New analytical technique using the Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of iodine-129 in environmental samples. The MIP-MS uses the nitrogen gas for plasma and carrier gas. The above gas has no Xe-129, therefore the background counts in the region of m/z=129 are lower compared to the ICP-MS. The above reason is effective for the determining iodine-129 in the level of environmental sample. In environmental samples, a large amount of matrix elements is present. Therefore, the matrix elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000degC, and iodine was trapped by the activated charcoal and finally extracted by the tetramethylammonium hydroxide. A soil sample was analyzed by the neutron activation analysis as well as the MIP-MS method. Good agreement resulted. In order to widely apply the MIP-MS method for determining iodine-129 in environmental samples, the TMAH concentration was examined by stable iodine. (author)

  18. Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site

  19. Input of 129I into the western Pacific Ocean resulting from the Fukushima nuclear event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an initial characterization of the input of 129I into the Pacific Ocean resulting from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This characterization is based primarily on 129I measurements on samples collected from a research cruise conducted in waters off the eastern coast of Japan in June 2011. These measurements were compared with samples intended to reflect pre-Fukushima background that were collected during a May 2011 transect of the Pacific by a commercial container vessel. In surface waters, we observed peak 129I concentrations of ∼300 μBq/m3 which represents an elevation of nearly three orders of magnitude compared to pre-Fukushima backgrounds. We coupled our 129I results with 137Cs measurements from the same cruise and derived an average 129I/137Cs activity ratio of 0.442 x 10-6 for the effluent from Fukushima. Finally, we present 129I depth profiles from five stations from this cruise which form the basis for future studies of ocean transport and mixing process as well as estimations of the total budget of 129I released into the Pacific. (author)

  20. Interactions between cesium and dispersed kaolinite powders at high temperatures for the treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential use of sorbents to manage emissions of trace radiological metals during mixed waste incineration was investigated using a down-fired 82-k W-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor. Non-radioactive aqueous cesium acetate was sprayed down the center of a natural gas flame supported on a variable swirl burner. Kaolinite powder was injected at a post-flame location in the combustor. Cesium sorption was determined by differences in the particle size distributions (PSDs) as measured by micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) samples and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Without kaolinite injection, the cesium readily vaporizes within the combustor to form difficult to collect ultrafine particles with a mean diameter of approximately 0.09μm. With kaolinite injection rates representing 8:1 molar stoichiometry (A12O3-2SiO2:Cs), up to 85% of the cesium reported to collectable supermicron particle sizes representative of the kaolinite (mean diameter - 1.4μm). However, this capture was dependent on the kaolinite injection temperature with a maximum seen between 1400 and 1500 K. The data suggest that kaolinite powders are effective at capturing vapor phase cesium. However, mechanisms and rates still remain to be quantified

  1. Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particles (MAG*SEPSM) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEPSM particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEPSM particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEPSM particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective

  2. Efficiency of fly ash belite cement and zeolite matrices for immobilizing cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, S; Guerrero, A; Lorenzo, M P

    2006-10-11

    The efficiency of innovative matrices for immobilizing cesium is presented in this work. The matrix formulation included the use of fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) and gismondine-type Na-P1 zeolite, both of which are synthesized from fly ash of coal combustion. The efficiency for immobilizing cesium is evaluated from the leaching test ANSI/ANS 16.1-1986 at the temperature of 40 degrees C, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient of cesium is obtained. Matrices with 100% of FABC-2-W are used as a reference. The integrity of matrices is evaluated by porosity and pore-size distribution from mercury intrusion porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Both matrices can be classified as good solidify systems for cesium, specially the FABC-2-W/zeolite matrix in which the replacement of 50% of belite cement by the gismondine-type Na-P1 zeolite caused a decrease of two orders of magnitude of cesium mean Effective Diffusion Coefficient (D(e)) (2.8e-09 cm(2)/s versus 2.2e-07 cm(2)/s, for FABC-2-W/zeolite and FABC-2-W matrices, respectively). PMID:16759800

  3. Improvement of cesium leaching resistance of solidified borate wastes with copper-ferrocyanide-vermiculite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of cesium from deionized water, sea water, and lime water with copper ferrocyanide (CFC) and porous media including silica gel, bentonite, vermiculite, and zeolite were investigated; CFC and vermiculite were incorporated to prepare a compound adsorbent which was used to improve the Cs-leaching resistance of solidified borate wastes. It was shown that the Cs-removal efficiency by CFC is largely affected by pHs of the solutions, good cesium removal occurs in pHs ranged from 3 to 12 and the best from 7 to 10; the effect of Cs concentration is significantly only from lime water for Cs > 10-6 M at high pH and is insignificant from other solutions. Vermiculite and zeolite were shown to have better removal efficiency than silica gel and bentonite, and vermiculite was chosen to incorporate with CFC to make compound adsorbents because of its good compatibility with CFC. Compound adsorbents with different CFC contents were used as additives in the solidification of borate radwaste for improving the cesium leaching resistance of waste forms. Experimental results showed that the measured, cesium leaching index following ANSI/ANS 16.1, was increased from 7.96 to 9.76 by adding 0.25% of a compound adsorbent containing 20% CFC and 80% vermiculite, which indicated that the CFC-vermiculite compound adsorbent is very useful for improving cesium leaching resistance of the solidified borate radwastes

  4. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssni El-Saied

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+ on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the kaolin. Paper handsheets were prepared containing various percentages of the modified kaolin. The mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets were studied. The prepared paper handsheets were irradiated by gamma irradiation using different doses. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the effect of kaolin modification by cesium and gamma irradiation on paper handsheets properties. The results indicated that modified kaolin enhanced the mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS were also used. They provided rapid, sensitive and nondestructive techniques in differentiating between different questioned documents. This study presents a new concept in manufacturing security papers and anticounterfeiting applications.

  5. Misinterpretation on the risk of radioactive cesium contained in the disaster wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka Prefectural Government accepted the disaster wastes contained radioactive cesium after investigation them during one year. I explained the process and discussed about the risk management by people and the self-government body. The environmental pollution by radioactive cesium and Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials, the progress of treatment of debris, the concentration of radioactive cesium in debris, the acceptance conditions of debris contained small amount of radioactive cesium, evaluation of effects of radioactive materials in debris on the environment, and citizen's opinion of Osaka prefecture are described. The important investigation area of radioactive contamination on the basis of Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials, total amount of waste from Fukushima nuclear accident and debris in Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima prefecture, the concentration of radioactive cesium in debris in Rikuzentakata and Miyako city as of September, 2011, and cumulative number of citizen's opinion to Osaka are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  6. Local mat-forming cyanobacteria effectively facilitate decontamination of radioactive cesium in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective and widespread method to decontaminate radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster was peeling topsoil. But the method had problems, such as large amounts of discarded soil and large-scale work. In nature, cyanobacteria formed biomats on the ground surface and facilitated peeling topsoil when the biomats dried. The cyanobacteria-facilitating peeling decontamination method utilized these cyanobacterial properties. Cyanobacteria are located all over Japan and 'local' cyanobacteria could be used for decontamination without introducing new species. Utilizing cyanobacteria could decrease the amount of discarded soil to about 30% and downsize the execution-scale to individual locations. Cyanobacterial biomats were easily cultivated, especially in rice fields, by maintaining wet conditions and exposure to 100 - 83% solar radiation. Shading by a thin net was helpful in maintaining an environment suitable for cyanobacteria. Nowadays, to prevent uptake of radioactive cesium into rice, K+ is usually added to fertilizer in rice fields. The K+ fertilization in rice fields might also enhance cyanobacterial capture of radioactive cesium, because high concentrations of K+ enhanced cyanobacterial uptake of Cs+. Cyanobacteria could also mitigate the risk of radioactive cesium moving away from a decontaminating rice field. Therefore, the cyanobacteria-facilitating peeling decontamination method was proposed as an easy and safe 'D.I.Y.' method for both farmers and the environment. Besides, plowing rice fields with water before peeling improved the efficiency of this method, because plowing increased the radioactive cesium concentration in the topsoil. (author)

  7. miR-129 suppresses tumor cell growth and invasion by targeting PAK5 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jian [Department II of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Qu, Shuping [Department II of Special Medical Care, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Li, Xiaowei; Zhong, Jiaming; Chen, Xiaoxia [Department II of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Qu, Zengqiang, E-mail: drquzengqiang@163.com [Department II of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Wu, Dong, E-mail: wudongstc@126.com [Department II of Special Medical Care, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China)

    2015-08-14

    Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating HCC development and progression; however, the mechanisms by which their specific functions and mechanisms remained to be further explored. miR-129 has been reported in gastric cancers, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, we disclosed a new tumor suppresser function of miR-129 in HCC. We also found the downregulation of miR-129 occurred in nearly 3/4 of the tumors examined (56/76) compared with adjacent nontumorous tissues, which was more importantly, correlated to the advanced stage and vascular invasion. We then demonstrated that miR-129 overexpression attenuated HCC cells proliferation and invasion, inducing apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, we used miR-129 antagonist and found that anti-miR-129 promoted HCC cells malignant phenotypes. Mechanistically, our further investigations revealed that miR-129 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion by targeting the 3’-untranslated region of PAK5, as well as miR-129 silencing up-regulated PAK5 expression. Moreover, miR-129 expression was inversely correlated with PAK5 expression in 76 cases of HCC samples. RNA interference of PAK5 attenuated anti-miR-129 mediated cell proliferation and invasion in HCC cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-129 suppressed tumorigenesis and progression by directly targeting PAK5, defining miR-129 as a potential treatment target for HCC. - Highlights: • Decreased of miR-129 is found in HCC and associated with advanced stage and metastasis. • miR-129 suppresses proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-129 directly targets the 3′ UTR of PAK5 and diminishes PAK5 expression. • PAK5 is involved in miR-129 mediated suppression functions.

  8. Cesium-137 in soil texture fractions and its impact on Cesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies at two sites contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout showed 137Cesium (Cs) soil-to-plant transfer factors in wheat, rye and potato. Transfer values ranged from 0.0017 (potato tuber) to 0.07 (wheat straw). Generally transfer coefficients in cereal grains and potato tubers were significantly below the values of the shoots. A comparison of the two sites led to the conclusion that for all plants investigated 137Cs transfer factors were higher in Lower Austria (Calcic Chernozem) than in Upper Austria (Eutric Cambisol). The specific activities of the texture fractions of the two soil types increased from sand to silt and clay. In the Calcic Chernozem the ratio of the 137Cs activity in the silt fraction to the total activity in the soil was considerably higher than in the Eutric Cambisol. At the same time extractability of 137Cs from the silt fraction of the latter soil was clearly lower. Both results mainly were attributed to the differences between the soils according to the organic matter content of the silt fractions, the Calcic Chernozem being seven times higher. Therefore, the differences in the 137Cs-soil-to-plant transfer can be attributed partly to these soil characteristics. (authors)

  9. Diffusion of hyperpolarized 129Xe in the lung: a simplified model of 129Xe septal uptake and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Samuel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Washko, George R.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2011-01-01

    We used hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR to measure pulmonary alveolar surface area per unit gas volume SA/Vgas, alveolar septal thickness h and capillary transit time τ, three critical determinants of the lung's primary role as a gas exchange organ. An analytical solution for a simplified diffusion model is described, together with a modification of the xenon transfer contrast imaging technique utilizing 90° radio-frequency pulses applied to the dissolved phase, rather than traditional 180° pulses. With this approach, three-dimensional (3D) maps of SA/Vgas were obtained. We measured global SA/Vgas, h and τ in four normal subjects, two subjects with mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two subjects with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In normals, SA/Vgas decreased with increasing lung volume from ~320 to 80 cm-1 both h~13 μm and τ~1.5 s were relatively constant. For the two ILD subjects, h was, respectively, 36 and 97% larger than normal, quantifying an increased gas/blood tissue barrier; SA/Vgas and τ were normal. The two COPD subjects had SA/Vgas values ~25% that of normals, quantifying septal surface loss in emphysema; h and τ were normal. These are the first noninvasive, non-radiation-based, quantitative measurements of h and τ in patients with pulmonary disease.

  10. Diffusion of hyperpolarized 129Xe in the lung: a simplified model of 129Xe septal uptake and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR to measure pulmonary alveolar surface area per unit gas volume SA/Vgas, alveolar septal thickness h and capillary transit time τ, three critical determinants of the lung's primary role as a gas exchange organ. An analytical solution for a simplified diffusion model is described, together with a modification of the xenon transfer contrast imaging technique utilizing 900 radio-frequency pulses applied to the dissolved phase, rather than traditional 1800 pulses. With this approach, three-dimensional (3D) maps of SA/Vgas were obtained. We measured global SA/Vgas, h and τ in four normal subjects, two subjects with mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two subjects with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In normals, SA/Vgas decreased with increasing lung volume from ∼320 to 80 cm-1; both h∼13 μm and τ∼1.5 s were relatively constant. For the two ILD subjects, h was, respectively, 36 and 97% larger than normal, quantifying an increased gas/blood tissue barrier; SA/Vgas and τ were normal. The two COPD subjects had SA/Vgas values ∼25% that of normals, quantifying septal surface loss in emphysema; h and τ were normal. These are the first noninvasive, non-radiation-based, quantitative measurements of h and τ in patients with pulmonary disease.

  11. Measurement of reaction cross sections of {sup 129}I induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The cross sections were measured for the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reactions by DT neutrons, at OKTAVIAN facility of Osaka University, Japan. The foil activation method was used in the measurement. The sample was a sealed source of {sup 129}I, which was covered with a Cd foil. The irradiations were performed for 75 minutes to obtain the cross section of reaction producing {sup 128}I (T{sub 1/2}=24.99m) and 22 hours for the {sup 130}I (T{sub 1/2}=12.36h), respectively. The gamma-rays emitted from the irradiated sample were measured with a high purity Ge detector. The measured cross sections of {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reactions were 0.92{+-}0.11 barn and 0.013{+-}0.002 barn, respectively. For the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction, the evaluation of JENDL-3.2 overestimates cross section about 60% to the experimental result. However, especially for the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) reaction, the measured cross section may include the contribution from the neutrons in MeV region as well as epithermal ones. Also, the obtained cross section of the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reaction was evaluated as an effective production cross section of {sup 130}I including {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130m}I reaction. In order to remove the contribution from the epithermal and MeV region neutrons. A new method was proposed for the measurement of (n,{gamma}) reaction cross section. (author)

  12. 7 CFR 1.29 - Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.29 Section 1.29 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Departmental Proceedings § 1.29 Subpoenas relating to...

  13. Determination of proton-induced production cross sections and production rates of {sup 129}I from Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, C.; Lopez-Guitierrez, J.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gloris, M.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In order to model the production of {sup 129}I in meteoroids, proton-induced production cross sections in the medium range of {sup 129}I from Te as well as production from meteoroid simulation experiments have been determined. {sup 129}I is a very important cosmogenic nuclide to study the constancy of cosmic radiation on long time scales. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  14. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.; Gary K Beauchamp

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of the B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred b...

  15. Iodine (I-129 and I-127) in aerosols from northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, E.; Aldahan, A.; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2010-01-01

    Huge amount of 129I has been emitted to the environment during the last decades from a variety of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Aerosols represent a carrier of iodine in the atmosphere in addition to gaseous forms for which data are lacking in Sweden. In this study the first time series of io...... concentrations between the sites being 6 times higher for 129I compared to 3 times for 127I. The portion of the 129I related to dry deposition, based on aerosol data, represents only a minor amount of the total fallout which is dominated by wet deposition....

  16. Dose estimation due to 129I release by nuclear installations. Local and regional scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a regional scale, doses related to 129I release in the environment were calculated by two methods: the specific activity method and the critical pathway or transfer chain method. The transfer chain method evaluates all the possible pathways of man environmental exposure and calculates 129I concentration in the various part of the food chain and the corresponding exposure. This method enables a more realistic dose estimation than the specific activity method. On a regional scale, the published estimations of 129I release impact are few and based on very different hypothesis, nevertheless the results obtained are relatively similar

  17. Determination of 129I/127I in aerosol samples in Seville (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present results of the 129I/127I ratio in aerosols of Seville, Southwest of Spain (37.4 deg. N,6 deg. W). A radiochemical method is applied to extract the iodine from the aerosols and prepare samples to be measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the ETH facility in Zuerich. We have found the possibility of monitoring the 129I/127I isotopic ratio on a two-days basis with sensitivities in the order of 104-105 atoms 129I/m3, and values of 10-8-10-9 for the isotopic ratio

  18. Bronchial artery embolization: Clinical analysis of 129 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronchial artery embolization is well-accepted and widely used for management of massive and recurrent hemoptysis. This may either provide a definite therapeutic measure or a stabilizing effect on the patient in preparation for surgery. Retrospectively we reviewed 129 cases(106 patients) of bronchial artery embolization with Gelfoam pudding and Ivalon for control of hemoptysis from July 1985 to January 1991. The causes of hemoptysis were pulmonary tuberculosis(80.2%), bronchiectasis(11.3%), aspergilloma(2.8%), and other (5.7%). The cases of pulmonary tuberculosis included tuberculous bronchiectasis(40.0%), active(34.1%), undetermined(14.1%) and inactive(11.8%). The results were as follows: Immediate control of hemoptysis was achieved in 104 of 122 cases(85.2%). Immediate control of massive hemoptysis was achieved in 94 of 107 cases(87.6%) and of chronic intermittent hemoptysis in 10 of 15 cases(76%). Hemoptysis recurred in 39 of 90 follow up cases(43.3%) on follow-up studies performed ranging in period from 2 to 49 month after the initial studies. Thirty three of 81 cases of massive hemoptysis recurred(40.7%) and six of 9 cases of chronic intermittent hemoptysis recurred(67.0%). One year rebleeding rate of massive hemoptysis was 34.6%. The rebleeding cases of massive hemoptysis were controlled by conservative treatment in 25 of 33 cases(75.8%). In conclusion, bronchial artery embolization for hemoptysis control is effective in massive hemoptysis, but nearly ineffective in chronic intermittent hemoptysis. The goal of bronchial artery embolization is life-saving procedure without permanent effect, especially hemoptysis related to pulmonary tuberculosis

  19. Selection of a form for fixation of iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work on the selection of an 129I disposal form. Iodine compounds have been screened on the basis of solubilities, thermal stabilities, cost and availability, toxicity of the cation, and the thermodynamic resistance to oxidation and hydrolysis, and leaching of that compound in portland type III cement. Also considered were iodine capture technology, disposal criteria or guidelines, and the disposal site/strategy. The recommended iodine fixation forms, based on their leach resistance and chemical stability and contingent on the disposal strategy/site and capture technique, are silver iodide in cement and barium, calcium, or strontium, and mercuric iodates in cement. Iodine sodalite appears promising and merits further study. If compatible with disposal requirements, the recommended forms for Mercurex and Iodox are insoluble iodates in cement and for silver sorbents the sorbents in cement or AgI in cement. Conversion between the different oxidation states of iodine is feasible but complicates the iodine treatment. For the different disposal strategies, isotopic dilution or ocean disposal has the least stringent disposal form requirements. Any of the recommended forms should be suitable with proper site selection. Isolation in a geologic repository for thousands of years requires the disposal form to be thermally and chemically stable and resistant to leaching at elevated temperatures. Probably the best form studied for isolation is silver iodide in cement. For extraterrestrial disposal, the disposal form may have to withstand reentry impact and surface disposal in the event of an aborted mission; this assumes the capsule is not recovered. Thus the primary containment barrier is critical. The suggested iodine form for space disposal is a heavy metal iodide

  20. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms; Sympathetisches Kuehlen in einer Rubidium-Caesium-Mischung: Erzeugung ultrakalter Caesiumatome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,m{sub f}=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,m{sub f}=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,m{sub f}=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The

  1. Cesium-137 concentration of soils in Pest County, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    diffusion coefficient and migration velocity) than predicted in a previous study for brown forest soils in the same area of Hungary. - Highlights: ► We have constructed the first detailed cesium map for Pest County of Hungary. ► Demonstrative indication of well known cesium fixation on illite and kaolinite. ► 78% of the total detected 137Cs concentration was found in the top 3 cm of a vertical soil profile. ► Vertical distribution suggests slower migration speed than expected previously for this type of soil. ► Our fitted parameters are at the lower end of the range for migration parameters for loamy soils.

  2. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  3. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  4. Development of an adsorbent for both cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the development of the adsorbent in the title at the process of developing the agent to adsorb each element. For cooling the reactors injured by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident by the earthquake and tsunami on the day before (Mar. 11, 2011), fresh/ sea water is supplied in the reactor and flows out contaminated with radioactive elements in the turbine building and then in the treatment plant to remove oil and cesium for re-circulation to the reactor. Water from the plant still contains radioisotopes derived from fission, like 90Sr/90Y at 1.2 x 108 Bq/L and 137Cs/137mBa at 6.1 x 103 Bq/L, and from activation of reactor materials. Before the plant, the water contains 137Cs at the level as high as 4.1 x 107 Bq/L. Authors have examined various agents to adsorb 90Sr and 137Cs with a measure of partition coefficient Kd (L of the artificial sea water/kg) and have come to find out the adsorbent in the title: it is derived from the Cs-adsorbing crystalized silico-titanate (CST). The adsorbent is obtainable by surface treatment of CST with NaOH and has high Kds of >1 x 103 and >1 x 104 L/kg for Sr and Cs, respectively, while other ordinary adsorbents' Kds are: artificial zeolite 1-10 x 102/1-10 x 101 for Sr/Cs, respectively; natural one 0.1-10 x 101/1-10 x 102; ferrocyanide 0.1-10 x 101/1-10 x 104, and CST 1 x 101/>1 x 104. When 1 m3 of the present adsorbent is used, >99% of Cs and Sr can be removable in >3,000 m3 of contaminated water, suggesting its usefulness for dealing with water after the Accident. (T.T.)

  5. Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger

  6. Pillared montmorillonites: Cesium-selective ion-exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, P.; Clearfield, A.; Diaz, R.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    A zirconia-pillared and an alumina-pillared montmorillonite clay were found to exhibit high K{sub d}S for trace levels of cesium (2.5 ppb) in the presence of high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} ions with distribution coefficients (K{sub d}S) for {sup 137}Cs exceeding 1 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g over a wide range of competing ion concentrations. An excess of K{sup +} ions, however, caused a dramatic reduction in the Cs K{sub d}S for both of the materials. These results were in contrast to the parent montmorillonite which exhibited far lower K{sub d}S for {sup 137}Cs, particularly in the presence of high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}. Batch tests in simulated groundwaters showed that both pillared clays efficiently removed {sup 137}Cs from solution, with the best K{sub d}S being approximately 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5} mL/g in a potassium-free groundwater. The materials performed less well in a groundwater with a high potassium concentration, but still gave K{sub d}S similar to commercially available zeolites. The rate of {sup 137}Cs uptake was found to be rapid with both the alumina- and zirconia-pillared clays extracting >90% of the {sup 137}Cs from a 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution within 5 minutes.

  7. Cesium Chloride Compatibility Testing Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G.H.; Divine, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of a prior examination, it was found that one of the aged test capsules exhibited discoloration and pitting on the outer surface of the inner capsule. The damage was attributed to problems encountered in the electropolishing operation, which is used to decontaminate the inner capsule after it is loaded with the CsCl and welded shut. A study was carried out in FY 1984 to: determine if the pitting was associated with the electropolishing operation; identify acceptable solution(s) to the problem; and establish the effect, if any, on the long-term integrity of the capsule. Another special study performed in FY 1984 was that of examining two capsules from the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) storage pool. The objective was to establish the extent of the capsule corrosion while in storage. The study of cause and long-term consequences of the pitting on the WESF cesium chloride capsules has found: The pitting is caused by a nonuniform current distribution at the rack/capsule contact, which forms localized hot spots. The high temperature causes the acid to become more concentrated through boiling of the acid. The concentrated boiling phosphoric acid causes a high rate of corrosion which forms the crevice. The lack of intergranular attack at the base of the crevices and the favorable results of the mechanical testing leads to the conclusion that there will be no long-term failure mechanism accentuated by the pitting, beyond that of having a small hole in the capsule wall with a consequential thinner wall. An attempt to penetrate the capsule wall by electropolishing failed after 30 min with the loss of electrical contact. Consequently, the maximum wall penetration is 40 mils, out of a total thickness of 136 mil. No justification was found to require examination and repack of the existing capsules. A modification of the rack design is recommended for future work, however, to eliminate the pitting.

  8. The effectiveness of radioactive cesium removal countermeasure due to the Prussian blue nonwoven-textile fabrics proposed by International Research Institute for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of radioactive-cesium removal countermeasure by using Prussian blue is described: The verified technique for practical use to countermeasure of cesium-contaminated water by using nonwoven textile fabrics; the evaluation of effectiveness of cesium adsorbent, Prussian blue, by using model ecosystem of aquatic animals and plants. (M.H.)

  9. Physical Property Modeling of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Solutions, Part I - Derivation of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Pierce, R. A.; Edwards, T. B.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-09-15

    Major analytes projected to be present in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant cesium ion-exchange eluate solutions were identified from the available analytical data collected during radioactive bench-scale runs, and a test matrix of cesium eluate solutions was designed within the bounding concentrations of those analytes. A computer model simulating the semi-batch evaporation of cesium eluate solutions was run in conjunction with a multi-electrolyte aqueous system database to calculate the physical properties of each test matrix solution concentrated to the target endpoints of 80% and 100% saturation. The calculated physical properties were analyzed statistically and fitted into mathematical expressions for the bulk solubility, density, viscosity, heat capacity and volume reduction factor as a function of temperature and concentration of each major analyte in the eluate feed. The R{sup 2} of the resulting physical property models ranged from 0.89 to 0.99.

  10. Characterization of pollucite as a material for long-term storage of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollucite (Cs2O.Al2O3.4SiO2) may be an acceptable material for the long-term storage of purified 137CsCl. Pollucite is made at near theoretical yields when CsCl (or any cesium salt) reacts at approx. = 9700K with a montmorillonite-containing clay. Pollucite dissolves in deionized water at rates -7 kg/(m2 d) based on cesium. Microstructural analyses showed that cesium reacts with montmorillonite clay to form ill-defined pollucite crystals containing low concentrations of the impurities found in the clay. Although further work needs to be done, pollucite is considered to be an excellent materials for the long-term storage of 137Cs

  11. Characterization of pollucite as a material for the long term storage of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of nuclear waste requires materials which are thermodynamically stable. Pollucite (Cs2O . Al2O3 . 4SiO2) may be an acceptable material for the long-term storage of the purified 137CsCl. Pollucite is made at near theoretical yields when CsCl (or any cesium salt) reacts at about 9700K with a montmorillonite-containing clay. Pollucite dissolves in deionized water at rates which are less than 2 x 10-9 kg/(m2 . s) based on cesium. Microstructural analyses show that cesium reacts with the montmorillonite clay to form ill-defined pollucite crystals which contain low concentrations of the impurities found in the clay. Although further work needs to be done, pollucite is considered to be an excellent material for the long-term storage of 137Cs

  12. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  13. Immobilisation and solidification of cesium on 11 A calcium silicate hydroxy hydrate column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium silicate hydrate closely resembling silicate mineral 11 A tobermorite has been synthesised by hydrothermal treatment of lime and silica at 175 degC. The synthetic mineral exhibits selectivity for Cs+ in the presence of strong solutions of alkali and alkaline earth cations, viz, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, etc. The Al-substituted form of this mineral effectively separates cesium ion when used as an exchanger in column of size 35x5 mm (hxr). It is possible to remove 98.65±0.5%Cs+ from a mixed solution of cesium and sodium (0.0001N Cs+ + 0.5N Na+). Column separation of cesium from simulated intermediate level waste solution shows that from the first run ∼ 76% Cs+ can be immobilised on a small column, 18x10mm (hxr), having 2.0 g of exchanger. (author)

  14. Phosphate ceramic solidification and stabilization of cesium-containing crystalline silicotitanate resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP)-bonded cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resins. Typical waste loading of CST resins in the final waste forms was 50 wt.%. Physical and chemical characterization of the MKP materials has shown them to be physically, chemically, and mineralogically stable. Long-term durability studies (using the AN 16.1 standard test) showed a leachability index of ∼18 for cesium in the phosphate matrix when exposed to deionized water under ambient and elevated temperatures. Leaching of cesium was somewhat higher than in glass waste forms as per PCT and MCC-1 tests. MKP-based final waste forms showed no significant weight changes after exposure to aqueous media for ∼90 days, indicating the highly insoluble nature of the phosphate matrix. In addition, durability of the CST-MKP waste forms was further established by freeze-thaw cycling tests

  15. A study of radioactive cesium in relation to soil properties in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regions of Greece with a high degree of contamination were selected for sampling the main soil types in various depths and determining their physicochemical characteristics and radiocesium content. Data from 62 sites used and results indicate an existing contamination of the surface 0-20 cm layer of soils ranging from approximately 3 to over 160 Bq/kg soil. In certain cases a contamination of the 20-50 cm layer is determined which is kept rather low on the average. In correlating various soil characteristics to cesium-137 content it is indicated that smaller amounts of 137Cs are determined in the second soil layer with increasing pH values from 3.5 to 6.0 in the surface layer. No correlation of organic matter content to the translocation of cesium has been established while the clay percentage and the cation exchange capacity seem to affect the amount of cesium-137 in the examined soils. (author)

  16. Equilibrium data for cesium ion exchange of Hanford CC and NCAW tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford alkaline waste storage-tank contents will be processed to remove the soluble salts. A major fraction of these solutions will require cesium recovery to produce a low-level waste (LLW). The technology for decontamination of high-level alkaline waste and sludge wash waters is being developed. At the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied several ion exchange materials for the recovery of cesium from Hanford waste tanks. The WHC program was divided into tow main tasks, (1) to obtain equilibrium data for cesium ion exchange, and (2) to evaluate ion exchange column performance. The subject of this letter report is the measurement of batch distribution coefficients for several ion exchange media for a range of operating conditions for two types of waste; complexant concentrate (CC) and neutralized current acid waste (NCAW)

  17. Studies of cesium and strontium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) were measured for cesium and strontium in 16 samples of Canadian unconsolidated geological materials. The samples were collected to cover a wide range of grain size, clay-mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and carbonate mineral content. Distribution coefficients ranged between 102 and 2.0 x 104 ml/g for cesium and between 2.5 and 102 ml/g for strontium, indicating that most unconsolidated geological materials have a substantial ability to retard the migration of cesium, while strontium could generally be expected to be somewhat more mobile. The measured K values were not significantly correlated with the measured soil properties, but appeared to be significantly affected by the background concentration of stable isotopes of the respective radionuclides

  18. Reduction of cesium levels in the diet through management of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several processes influence the radionuclide concentration of food products during processing: dilution, losses, concentration. Boiling of leaf vegetables yields a decontamination effect of up to 80% in the case of radioiodine. Peeling of potato tubers results in a reduction of the cesium concentration of 30%. The cesium and strontium concentration of flour is a factor of two lower as compared to the corresponding cereal grain due to the milling process. Significant discrimination occurs during the milk processing. The skimmed milk is significantly richer in cesium, iodine and especially in strontium than the cream. It follows that butter is depleted in its radionuclide contents as compared to other milk produce. Strontium is concentrated in the casein. Pressurized cooking in combination with salting or a treatment with acetic acid results in an Cs-activity loss of beef, veal and lamb meat of 50 to 90%. (Author) 3 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs

  19. Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

  20. Determination of the cesium distribution coefficient in Goiania and Abadia de Goias cities soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficent for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author)

  1. Specific features of cesium chemistry and physics affecting reactor accident source term predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of assessing remaining uncertainties in predicting the source term of severe reactor accidents, a special investigation is devoted in this report to the case of cesium. The cesium isotopes, especially Cs137 and Cs134, are among those nuclides which could have a major impact on the environment in the event of a release. The processes for release from fuel and retention in the reactor coolant system and the containment are presented. Releases to the atmosphere are also discussed. The intention is to identify and discuss those specific features of cesium chemistry and physics that strongly affect source term predictions. The report has been prepared on contract from the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate as a contribution to the cooperative work within international experts groups of OECD/NEA

  2. Metabolism of 137cesium, 137barium in the rat. Therapeutics of the contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors carry out research into the distribution kinetics, the metabolism and the excretion of 137Cs - 137Ba in the rat. They show that these phenomena are independent of the method of applying a single dose. The distribution tends to adopt in all cases a typical shape which remains the same depending on the body burden. Biological analysis of the state of the cesium in the biological media shows that it is transported in the free and ionised form. Considering the problem of the method of penetration of the cesium ion in the intracellular medium, and in particular by the in vivo and in vitro kinetic study of the plasma - red cell system, the authors make the assumption that an active transport of cesium occurs by the cell membrane. They thus arrive at an overall picture of the cesium distribution in the organism which is essentially characterized by a dynamic distribution equilibrium between two compartments: 99 per cent of the cesium accumulates in the intracellular pool, 1 per cent in the extracellular liquids. This latter compartment is open to the emunctories. Because, of the active transport by the cell membranes, the intracellular pool is filled rapidly but discharge is slow. This phenomenon is the limiting factor in the decrease of the body burden. From this representation, the authors deduce the reasons for the relative failure of the various therapeutic methods examined up till now by themselves or by other authors. The stimulation of the natural emunctories in the case of diuretics for example, can only improve the purification of the extracellular compartment. Now this latter contains only 1 per cent of the body burden and recharging is slow. Furthermore the methods designed to counteract or inhibit the active transport of cesium by the cell membrane are still at the present time incompatible with the survival of the cell. (authors)

  3. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  4. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Extended Equilibrium Modeling of Cesium and Potassium Distribution Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    An extension of the model developed in FY01 for predicting equilibrium distribution ratios in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process is presented here. Motivation for extending the model arose from the need to predict extraction performance of the recently optimized solvent composition and the desire to include additional waste components. This model involves the extraction of cesium and potassium from different cesium, potassium, and sodium media over a large range of concentrations. Those different media include a large variety of anions such as nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate. The model was defined based on several hundreds of experimental data points and predicted satisfactorily the cesium extraction from five different SRS waste simulants. This process model encompassed almost exclusively 1:1:1 metal:anion:ligand species. Fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate species were found to be very little extractable, and their main impact is reflected through their activity effects. This model gave a very good cesium and potassium extraction prediction from sodium salts, which is what is needed when trying to predict the behavior from actual waste. However, the extraction from potassium or cesium salts, and the extraction of sodium could be improved, and some additional effort was devoted to improve the thermodynamic rigor of the model. Toward this end, more detailed anion-specific models were developed based on the cesium, potassium, and sodium distribution ratios obtained with simple systems containing single anions, but it has not yet proven possible to combine those models to obtain better predictions than provided by the process model.

  5. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  6. Estimation of 129I in marine algal samples from Tarapur (Bombay) west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine algal samples were examined for 129I content to evaluate the rate of build up of this radionuclide in the environment. The radiochemical procedure for 129I separation from algal samples and the liquid scintillation counting technique were also discussed. The average specific activity of algal samples was 0.037 μCig-1 of iodine which was 740 times higher than that measured in the background samples. The average atom ratio of 129I/127I in algal samples was 2.5x10-4 while the same was 2.2x10-12 in the ocean as the general background due to the natural production of 129I. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Radioactive 129I in surface water of the Celtic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala;

    2014-01-01

    Relatively large amounts of radioactive iodine 129I (T 1/2 = 15.7 Ma) have been documented in seawater such as the English Channel, the Irish Sea and the North Sea. Data on the concentration of the iodine isotopes in waters of the Celtic Sea are missing. Aiming to provide first 129I data in the...... Sellafield reprocessing facilities. 127I concentrations are rather constant while the 129I/127I ratio reaches up to 2.8 × 10−8 (ranging from 10−10 to 10−8), which is 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-nuclear era natural level. Transport of 129I to the Celtic Sea is difficult to depict accurately since...

  8. NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging of blood-dissolved hyperpolarized 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperpolarization (HP) of noble gases, e.g. 3He and 129Xe, as a means of increasing the signal by several orders of magnitude has been widely employed in NMR over the last decades. The advantages of 129Xe are its solubility and the sensitive chemical shifts. Dissolved HP 129Xe has been of growing importance, especially since the introduction of the so-called ''xenonizer'' setups. They consist of hollow fiber membranes in oxygenators allowing for efficient and continuous dissolution into carrier agents without formation of foams or bubbling, and have been proven to be feasible for HP 129Xe MRI. The xenon dissolution process has been analyzed for various solvents including porcine blood in home-built xenonizer setups featuring different fibers. The deoxygenating effect of the xenonization on blood with defined oxygen levels could be monitored online spectroscopically. The results presented offer a more comprehensive understanding of the xenonizer and yield valuable information about xenon-blood interactions.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of dissolved hyperpolarized 129Xe using a membrane-based continuous flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, N.; Zänker, P. P.; Blümler, P.; Meise, F. M.; Schreiber, L. M.; Scholz, A.; Schmiedeskamp, J.; Spiess, H. W.; Münnemann, K.

    2009-11-01

    A technique for continuous production of solutions containing hyperpolarized 129Xe is explored for MRI applications. The method is based on hollow fiber membranes which inhibit the formation of foams and bubbles. A systematic analysis of various carrier agents for hyperpolarized 129Xe has been carried out, which are applicable as contrast agents for in vivo MRI. The image quality of different hyperpolarized Xe solutions is compared and MRI results obtained in a clinical as well as in a nonclinical MRI setting are provided. Moreover, we demonstrate the application of 129Xe contrast agents produced with our dissolution method for lung MRI by imaging hyperpolarized 129Xe that has been both dissolved in and outgassed from a carrier liquid in a lung phantom, illustrating its potential for the measurement of lung perfusion and ventilation.

  10. A wine tour around the world traced with 129I; potential as a forensic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitoussi, C.; Raisbeck, G. M.; Hubert, P.

    2010-04-01

    Various quantities of anthropogenic 129I have been released out worldwide in the last decades, principally by nuclear reprocessing plants in England and France. This work was a preliminary attempt to exploit the spatial and temporal variability of these emissions to investigate the possibility of tracing the provenance and age of wines worldwide. Using carrier free iodine extraction followed by measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Tandetron of Gif-sur-Yvette, we find a good correlation between the distribution of 129I/ 127I and the extent to which 129I releases are expected as a function of the geographical setting. 129I concentrations, also measured in wines using the same method but with a carrier, show the same pattern.

  11. A wine tour around the world traced with {sup 129}I; potential as a forensic tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, C., E-mail: caroline.fitoussi@erdw.ethz.c [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM) IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, Bat 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Raisbeck, G.M. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM) IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, Bat 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Hubert, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG) IN2P3/CNRS, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2010-04-15

    Various quantities of anthropogenic {sup 129}I have been released out worldwide in the last decades, principally by nuclear reprocessing plants in England and France. This work was a preliminary attempt to exploit the spatial and temporal variability of these emissions to investigate the possibility of tracing the provenance and age of wines worldwide. Using carrier free iodine extraction followed by measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Tandetron of Gif-sur-Yvette, we find a good correlation between the distribution of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I and the extent to which {sup 129}I releases are expected as a function of the geographical setting. {sup 129}I concentrations, also measured in wines using the same method but with a carrier, show the same pattern.

  12. Determination method for 129I in soil samples by MIP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive iodine-129 (129I) is an important radionuclide for environmental assessment because it has a long half-life and is accumulated in the thyroid gland in humans. A new analytical technique by Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of 129I in soil samples. In environmental samples, a large amount of matrix elements are present. Therefore, the matrix elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000degC, and iodine isotopes were trapped by an activated charcoal and finally extracted by 10% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The concentration of 129I in a soil samples were compared between results of neutron activation analysis and MIP-MS method. The results showed an excellent agreement. (author)

  13. New determination method for iodine-129 in the environmental samples by using MIP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 is an important radionuclide for environmental assessment, because it has a long half-life. A new analytical technique with Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of iodine-129 (129I) in the environmental samples. Environmental samples contain a large amount of matrices elements. Therefore, the interference elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000degC, and iodine was trapped by activated charcoal and finally extracted by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). I-129 in the soil sample was also analyzed by conventional method [neutron activation analysis (NAA)] and MIP-MS method. The analytical data by MIP-MS and NAA methods showed excellent agreement. (author)

  14. Results of removing radioactive cesium from the shallow rice fields by planting sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoping that revival of agriculture in the disaster area by Fukushima nuclear plant accident, the author and others cultivated shallow fields by planting sunflower and measured the cesium concentration absorbed in root, steam and the surrounding soil and also absorptive situation at fixed intervals as the plant grows. They could obtain the results that the sunflower has its maximum ability for cesium absorption and adsorption just before going into bloom. They conclude that the Cs 137-contaminated shallow fields (<15 cm) may be decontaminated with the efficiency of 30%/year assuming the root contamination is 8,000 Bq/kg and twice harvesting per year. (S. Ohno)

  15. Measurement of Ionization Threshold of Ultracold Cesium Rydberg Atoms in Static Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Lin-Jie; ZHAO Jian-Ming; LI Chang-Yong; LI An-Ling; JIA Suo-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the field ionization spectra of ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms in dc electric field. The ionization thresholds of different electric fields are measured and shift of the ionization threshold relative to field-free ionization threshold is accurately described by (6.06±0.14) F1/2, which is in good agreement with the classical saddle-point model for field ionization. We obtain the field-free ionization threshold of cesium (6P,3/2) as 19674.89士2.99cm-1 by fitting experimental data.

  16. Psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented work had as objective the accomplishment of a comparative study of cesium-137 radioactive element effects in the psychological and motor development of children which were going submitted the intra-uterus irradiation during the chronological age of three years. The comparison of the results of study is done through a group-control composed for five children without any involvement with the cesium-137 accident - occurred in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil - of same social, economic and cultural level and with the same age of the reached

  17. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  18. Removal of cesium from aqueous solutions and radioactive waste stimulants by coprecipitated flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitated flotation (CPF) investigations show that cesium can be efficiently separated from aqueous solutions by coprecipitation with zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) and subsequent flotation of the precipitate. Collectors of different types were tested but pyridinium chloride showed the best performance before undertaking the flotation investigations coprecipitation of Cs with ZnHCF was studied to determine the optimal coprecipitation conditions. The developed CPF process was applied successfully for 137Cs removal from process wastewater and low level liquid radioactive waste stimulants . The obtained results compare favorably with data published for cesium removal by coprecipitation or adsorption processes. Besides, CPF seems to be more advantageous

  19. On specific features of thermoemission of cesium-implanted molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of keeping in an electric field of the anode on the emission current of cesium ion doped molybdenum single crystal has been observed. An X-ray diffractometer has been used to show the formation of a new phase in the near-surface region of crystals after doping that is not identified with none of the known molybdenum compounds. The observed specific features of the thermoemission are attributed to a change of the work function of the crystal surface as a result of cesium ions migration in the lattice of the formed ternary chemical compound

  20. Behaviour of cesium in contaminated soils with and without agricultural practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of cesium into affected agricultural soils, five years after the Chernobyl accident, is examined in this study. Samples of soil were taken from an undisturbed non-cultivated rural area in the north of Greece, where an important contamination has been detected. The migration of 137Cs into these soils was measured by γ spectrometry. Slight movement of 137Cs was observed during the five year period following the accident. The agricultural practices, used in this area from 1986 up to now, have diluted the contamination into the 0-40 cm horizon and thus only low concentration of cesium in the cultivated soils was detected. (orig.)