WorldWideScience

Sample records for cesium 126

  1. Investigation of two-color magneto-optical trap with cesium 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 ladder-type system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    A novel cesium (Cs) two-color magneto-optical trap (TC-MOT), which partially employs the optical radiation forces due to photon scattering of the 6P3/2 (F'=5) - 7S1/2 (F"=4) excited-state transition in the Cs 6S1/2 - 6P3/2 - 7S1/2 (852 + 1470 nm) ladder-type system, has been proposed and experimentally investigated. One of the three pairs of 852 nm cooling/trapping beams (CTBs) in a conventional Cs MOT is replaced with a pair of the 1470 nm CTBs (type-I) or with one 852 nm CTB plus another counter-propagating 1470 nm CTB (type-II). Both the type-I and type-II Cs TC-MOTs can cool and trap atoms on both the red- and blue-detuning sides of the two-photon resonance. The Cs TC-MOT demonstrated in this work may have applications in the background-free detection of cooled and trapped atoms, and the photon-pair sources compatible with the ensemble-based quantum memory and the long-distance quantum communication via optical fiber.

  2. Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Cesium-137

  3. Decorporation of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 (137Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, 137Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe β, γirradiations and contaminations. 137Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the 137Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  4. MAT 126 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    stylia

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 126 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Written Assignment (Arithmetic and geometric sequence) (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Assignment Is It Fat Free (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Assignment Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126...

  5. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  6. Cesium-137 in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of cesium-137 in environment is reviewed. Problems on 137Cs migration in environment, on metabolism andbiological effects are considered. Data on nuclide accumulation in various plants, ways of their entering the man's organism are presented. It is marked that the rate of 137Cs metabolism in the man's organism depends considerably on age, sex, temperature of environment, conditions for activity, water and mineral metabolism and some other factors. It is shown that the annual effective equivalent dose per capita will increase to 2000 yr. up to 1 μSv, that constitutes 0.05% of the average value of irradiation by a natural source

  7. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  8. Cesium transport data for HTGR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium transport data on the release of cesium from HTGR fuel elements are reviewed and discussed. The data available through 1976 are treated. Equations, parameters, and associated variances describing the data are presented. The equations and parameters are in forms suitable for use in computer codes used to calculate the release of metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements into the primary circuit. The data cover the following processes: (1) diffusion of cesium in fuel kernels and pyrocarbon, (2) sorption of cesium on fuel rod matrix material and on graphite, and (3) migration of cesium in graphite. The data are being confirmed and extended through work in progress

  9. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  10. 46 CFR 126.240 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting. 126.240 Section 126.240 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.240 Posting. The Certificate of Inspection must be framed under glass or...

  11. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot...

  12. 27 CFR 21.126 - Safrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safrole. 21.126 Section 21.126 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.126 Safrole....

  13. 29 CFR 570.126 - Parental exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parental exemption. 570.126 Section 570.126 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.126 Parental exemption. By... place of a parent may employ his own child or a child in his custody under the age of 16 years in...

  14. 5 CFR 185.126 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 185.126 Section 185.126 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.126 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided...

  15. 49 CFR 1.26 - Secretarial succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretarial succession. 1.26 Section 1.26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary § 1.26 Secretarial succession. (a) The following officials, in the order...

  16. 46 CFR 126.220 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 126.220 Section 126.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.220 Description. The Certificate of Inspection issued to an OSV specifies...

  17. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  18. Activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in game and mushrooms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 was measured in mushrooms and game in 1986-1991. The samples were collected all over Poland and most of the measurements were carried out for export purposes. The results indicate that the activity ratio of cesium-137 to cesium-134 in some samples is not comparable to that with fallout after the Chernobyl accident. The analysis of some samples of mushrooms from 1985 showed that the activity of cesium-137 was higher compared to any other foodstuff. The level of contamination varied greatly throughout Poland

  19. 7 CFR 4279.126 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 4279.126 Section 4279.126 Agriculture... Loan terms. (a) The maximum repayment for loans on real estate will not exceed 30 years; machinery and... or 15 years, whichever is less; and working capital repayment will not exceed 7 years. The term for...

  20. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR... measurement equipment, etc.). (3) Start the particulate dilution tunnel, the sample pumps, the engine...

  1. 37 CFR 41.126 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration. 41.126 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.126 Arbitration. (a) Parties to a contested case may resort to binding arbitration to determine any issue in...

  2. 7 CFR 12.6 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 12.6 Section 12.6 Agriculture Office....6 Administration. (a) General. A determination of ineligibility for benefits in accordance with the... making such determinations, as provided in this section. (b) Administration by FSA. (1) The provisions...

  3. Surface tension of liquid dilute solutions of lead-cesium and bismuth-cesium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of the maximal pressure in a drop was used to measure the surface tension of 15 liquid dilute solutions of lead-cesium system in 0-0.214 at% concentration range and of 12 diluted solutions of bismuth-cesium system in 0-0.160 at.% cesium range from solidification temperature up to 500 dec C. It was found that cesium was characterized as surfactant in lead and bismuth melts. It was established that the temperature coefficient of surface tension changes sufficiently in maximally diluted solutions of alkali metals in bismuth and lead melts. Effect of sodium, potassium, rubidum and cesium on the value of surface tension of lead and bismuth was systematized. Growth of activity in sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium series was noted

  4. Sorption of cesium on Latvian clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is like potassium - good solubility and mobile in a ground, easily assimilate in organism expressly brawn woof. It is a problem if pollutant is a radioactive 137Cs. We made experiments to sorption a 2M CsF solution on some Latvian clays which mainly contain hydro micas (cesium content after good elute of clays are in table). We establish, that clay treated with 25 % sulfuric acid adsorb cesium two times more that waste clay. Hereto unstuck elute Cs from clays. (author)

  5. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  6. Sorption of Cesium on Latvia clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is like potassium - good solubility and mobile in a ground, easy assimilates in organism expressly brawn woof. It is a problem if pollutant is radioactive 137Cs. We made experiments to sorption a 2M CsF solution on some Latvian clays which mainly contain hydro micas. We establish that clay treated with 25% sulfuric acid absorb cesium two times more that waste clay. Hereto unstuck elute Cs from clays

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHP126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHP126 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16379-1 VHP126P (Link to Original site) VHP1...26F 683 VHP126Z 765 VHP126P 1428 - - Show VHP126 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHP1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHP1-B/VHP126Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHP1...26P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHP126 (VHP126Q) /CSM/VH/VHP1-B/VHP1...Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHP126 (VHP126Q) /CSM/VH/VHP1-B/VHP126Q.Seq.d/ 2750

  8. Removal of cesium from wastewater: A cesium-specific ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) have applied for a patent for an ion exchange resin that will remove cesium from water. Radioactive cesium-137 is a fission product of nuclear reactor operations. Cesium may enter the water of spent fuel holding basins through defects in fuel cladding. Control of cesium in these basins is desirable to keep personnel exposure to a minimum. Cesium is also present in the waste from reprocessing of defense nuclear reactor fuel. Research has been underway at SRL for over a decade to improve management of high-level reprocessing waste. The current technology separates the waste into soluble and insoluble components. Radioactive constituents are removed from the soluble component stream and combined with the insoluble components, which are then converted to a glass for long-term storage. Cesium is the most radioactive constituent of the soluble components stream. The SRL resin is a resorcinol-formaldehyde condensation polymer highly specific for cesium and is about 10 times more effective in removal of cesium than other ion exchange resins evaluated for use in processing defense nuclear waste. Tests have been run at SRL using both simulated and actual waste streams

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLB126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB126 (Link to dictyBase) slb126 - - Contig-U16381-1 SLB126E ...(Link to Original site) - - - - - - SLB126E 454 Show SLB126 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB126 (Li...nk to dictyBase) Atlas ID slb126 NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16381-1 Original site URL h...ttp://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB1-B/SLB126Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB...126E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB126 (SLB126Q) /CSM/SL/SLB1-B/SLB126Q.Se

  10. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus cornucopioides often

  11. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 deg. C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei∼50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ∼40 nm/min at 40 deg. C to 380 nm/min at 330 deg. C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13±0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides

  12. Perlite for permanent confinement of cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balencie, J.; Burger, D.; Rehspringer, J.-L.; Estournès, C.; Vilminot, S.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Boos, A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the potential use of expanded perlite, a metastable amorphous hydrated aluminium silicate, as a permanent medium for the long-term confinement of cesium. The method requires simply a loading by mixing an aqueous cesium nitrate solution and expanded perlite at 300 K followed by densification by sintering. The formation of pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, a naturally occurring mineral phase, upon careful heat treatment is demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. Leaching tests on the resulting glass-ceramics reveal a very low Cs departure of 0.5 mg m-2 d-1.

  13. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  14. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  15. Dicty_cDB: AHB126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AH (Link to library) AHB126 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16336-1 AHB126P (Link... to Original site) AHB126F 598 AHB126Z 500 AHB126P 1078 - - Show AHB126 Library AH (Link to library) Clone ID AHB126 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16336-1 Original site URL http://dict...RGIRNHKKNETKFINQCINEIKEELKGDMQKKTVAVQKLTYIQMLGFDI SWASFKIVEVMSCNKFSSKRIGYLAASQSFNEGTDVIVLATHQIRKDFLSSNQSEAYLAL NCLSNICT...KKNETKFINQCINEIKEELKGDMQKKTVAVQKLTYIQMLGFDI SWASFKIVEVMSCNKFSSKRIGYLAASQSFNEGTDVIVLATHQIRKDFLSSNQSEAYLAL NCLSNICT

  16. Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chan Jang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive cesium (137Cs has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation.

  17. 40 CFR 93.126 - Exempt projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in 23 CFR part 771. Air Quality Continuation of ride-sharing and van-pooling promotion activities at... that action. Noise attenuation. Emergency or hardship advance land acquisitions (23 CFR 710.503... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt projects. 93.126 Section...

  18. 32 CFR 552.126 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.126 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following definitions... offensive or defensive weapon. Devices of this type include but are not limited to: (1) “Constant...

  19. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under...

  20. 37 CFR 1.26 - Refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by electronic funds transfer (31 U.S.C. 3332 and 31 CFR part 208), or instruct the Office that... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.26 Refunds. (a... check, electronic funds transfer, credit to a deposit account, etc.). Generally, reexamination...

  1. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  2. Anomalous wetting of helium on cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report studies of the anomalous wetting of a cesium substrate by a liquid helium film by means of the technique of third sound. A hysteretic pre-wetting transition is observed as a function of the amount of helium in the experimental cell. 10 refs., 2 figs

  3. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  4. miR-126 and miR-126*: New Players in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Meister

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is characterized by autarky in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-restrictive signals, evasion of apoptosis, a limitless potential to replicate, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, including metastasis. The regulation of these cellular processes relies on a fine-tuned control of molecular signal cascades. In recent years, short noncoding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs have been described as a novel class of molecular regulators. These affect various signaling cascades during the progression of neoplastic diseases by the regulation of gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. The novel endothelial cell–derived secreted protein epidermal growth factor–like domain 7 (EGFL7 has been suggested to control vascular tubulogenesis. Further, the two biologically active miRNAs miR-126 and its complement miR-126*, which are encoded by intron 7 of the egfl7 gene, have been described to mediate vascular functions. Knock-out studies in zebrafish and mice suggested a major role of miR-126 in angiogenesis and vascular integrity, which was mediated by the repression of inhibitors of VEGF-induced proliferation in endothelial cells. Recent studies revealed the distribution and function of miR-126 and miR-126* in various types of cancer, and assigned a role to both miRNAs as suppressors of tumor formation. Indeed, miR-126 and miR-126* have been reported to impair cancer progression through signaling pathways that control tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Conversely, miR-126 and miR-126* may have a supportive role in the progression of cancer as well, which might be mediated by the promotion of blood vessel growth and inflammation. In this work, we will summarize the current knowledge on functions of miR-126/miR-126* that are relevant for cancer formation, and we will discuss their potential clinical use as predictive markers of survival and application as novel therapeutic targets for the

  5. miR-126 and miR-126*: new players in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Jeannette; Schmidt, Mirko H H

    2010-01-01

    Cancer progression is characterized by autarky in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-restrictive signals, evasion of apoptosis, a limitless potential to replicate, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, including metastasis. The regulation of these cellular processes relies on a fine-tuned control of molecular signal cascades. In recent years, short noncoding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs) have been described as a novel class of molecular regulators. These affect various signaling cascades during the progression of neoplastic diseases by the regulation of gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. The novel endothelial cell-derived secreted protein epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) has been suggested to control vascular tubulogenesis. Further, the two biologically active miRNAs miR-126 and its complement miR-126*, which are encoded by intron 7 of the egfl7 gene, have been described to mediate vascular functions. Knock-out studies in zebrafish and mice suggested a major role of miR-126 in angiogenesis and vascular integrity, which was mediated by the repression of inhibitors of VEGF-induced proliferation in endothelial cells. Recent studies revealed the distribution and function of miR-126 and miR-126* in various types of cancer, and assigned a role to both miRNAs as suppressors of tumor formation. Indeed, miR-126 and miR-126* have been reported to impair cancer progression through signaling pathways that control tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Conversely, miR-126 and miR-126* may have a supportive role in the progression of cancer as well, which might be mediated by the promotion of blood vessel growth and inflammation. In this work, we will summarize the current knowledge on functions of miR-126/miR-126* that are relevant for cancer formation, and we will discuss their potential clinical use as predictive markers of survival and application as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of neoplastic

  6. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of cesium 7S1/2 state

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy in the 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 (852 nm + 1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between F"= 3 and F"= 4 manifolds of Cs 7S1/2 state [HFS = 2183.273(37) MHz], we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant [A = 545.818(09) MHz], which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more accurate.

  7. 46 CFR 126.110 - Inspection after accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection after accident. 126.110 Section 126.110... CERTIFICATION General § 126.110 Inspection after accident. (a) The owner or operator of an OSV shall make the vessel available for inspection by a marine inspector— (1) Each time an accident occurs, or a defect...

  8. 34 CFR 303.126 - Payor of last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payor of last resort. 303.126 Section 303.126 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.126 Payor of last resort....

  9. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. 26.126 Section 26.126 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which...

  10. 22 CFR 126.12 - Continuation in force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuation in force. 126.12 Section 126.12... PROVISIONS § 126.12 Continuation in force. All determinations, authorizations, licenses, approvals of... previous provisions of this subchapter, continue in full force and effect until or unless modified,...

  11. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  12. Surface interactions of cesium and boric acid with stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the effects of cesium hydroxide and boric acid on oxidized stainless steel surfaces at high temperatures and near one atmosphere of pressure are investigated. This is the first experimental investigation of this chemical system. The experimental investigations were performed using a mass spectrometer and a mass electrobalance. Surfaces from the different experiments were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify the presence of deposited species, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis to identify the species deposited on the surface. A better understanding of the equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetics of the steam-accelerated volatilizations, and the release kinetics are gained by these experiments. The release rate is characterized by bulk vaporization/gas-phase mass transfer data. The analysis couples vaporization, deposition, and desorption of the compounds formed by cesium hydroxide and boric acid under conditions similar to what is expected during certain nuclear reactor accidents. This study shows that cesium deposits on an oxidized stainless steel surface at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 Kelvin. Cesium also deposits on stainless steel surfaces coated with boric oxide in the same temperature ranges. The mechanism for cesium deposition onto the oxide layer was found to involve the chemical reaction between cesium and chromate. Some revaporization in the cesium hydroxide-boric acid system was observed. It has been found that under the conditions given, boric acid will react with cesium hydroxide to form cesium metaborate. A model is proposed for this chemical reaction

  13. Distribution and retention of cesium in Swedish boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and distribution of cesium in forest environments are being studied at three locations in Sweden. The main part of the cesium found in the soil was recovered in horizons rich in organic matter. The cesium was retained in the soil organic matter in a more or less extractable form. As different soil types have a different distribution pattern of organic matter the distribution of cesium will depend on the forest soil type. The clay content in Swedish forest soils is in general low which will mitigate the retention of cesium in the soil mineral horizons. The cesium present in the tree was considered to be an effect of assimilation by the tissues in the canopy as well as by the roots. The redistribution of cesium within the trees was extensive which was considered to be an effect of a high mobility of cesium in the close system of a forest environment. The cesium will remain in the forest environment for a considerable time but can be removed by forest practice, by leaching out of the soil profile or by the radioactive decay. (au)

  14. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puukko, E. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The mass distribution coefficient K{sub d} is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R{sub d} is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R{sub d} values to K{sub d} values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs{sup +} and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was {sup 134}Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  15. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  16. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  17. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100' (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually

  18. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  19. Double-resonance optical-pumping effect and laddertype electromagnetically induced transparency signal without Doppler background in cesium atomic vapour cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bao-Dong; Gao Jing; Liang Qiang-Bing; Wang Jie; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2011-01-01

    In a Doppler-broadened ladder-type cesium atomic system(6S1/2-6P3/2-8S1/2),this paper characterizes electromagneticauy inouced transparency(EIT)in two different experimental arrangements, and investigates the influence of the double-resonance optical-pumping(DROP)effect on EIT in both arrangements. When the probe laser is weak,DROP is explicitly suppressed. When the probe laser is moderate, population of the intermediate level(6P3/2 F′=5)is remarkable, therefore DROP is mixed with EIT. An interesting bimodal spectrum with the broad component due toDROP and the narrow part due to EIT has been clearly observed in cesium 6S1/2 F=4-6P3/2 F′=5-8S1/2 F″-4 transitions.

  20. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar was investigated in a range of temperatures and cesium concentrations. {yields} The pseudo-second order kinetic model produced a good fit with the experimental kinetic data. {yields} Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm adsorption model. {yields} The interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar was dominated by chemical adsorption. - Abstract: The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L{sup -1} and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L{sup -1} while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol{sup -1} suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  1. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,mf=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,mf=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,mf=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The last chapter

  2. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  3. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed

  4. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of cesium-137 on Rhodosporidium fluviale strain UA2 isolated from cesium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify a more efficient biosorbent for 137Cs, we have investigated the biosorption behavior and mechanism of 137Cs on Rhodosporidium fluviale (R. fluviale) strain UA2, one of the dominant species of a fungal group isolated from a stable cesium solution. We observed that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 was a fast and pH-dependent process in the solution composed of R. fluviale strain UA2 (5 g/L) and cesium (1 mg/L). While a Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of 137Cs was a monolayer adsorption, the biosorption behavior implied that R. fluviale strain UA2 adsorbed cesium ions by electrostatic attraction. The TEM analysis revealed that cesium ions were absorbed into the cytoplasm of R. fluviale strain UA2 across the cell membrane, not merely fixed on the cell surface, which implied that a mechanism of metal uptake contributed largely to the cesium biosorption process. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS analyses showed that ion-exchange was another biosorption mechanism for the cell biosorption of 137Cs, in which the decreased potassium ions were replaced by cesium ions. All the above results implied that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 involved a two-step process. The first step is passive biosorption that cesium ions are adsorbed to cells surface by electrostatic attraction; after that, the second step is active biosorption that cesium ions penetrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Microorganisms isolated from a cesium solution are considered as a biosorbent to remove cesium ions. • The biosorption equilibrium is fitted well to a Langmuir model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. • First attempt to explore biosorption mechanisms using PIXE and EPBS. • Living and dead microorganisms have different biosorption mechanisms. • The biosorption of 137Cs involved a two-step process: passive and active

  5. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchek, Konstantin; Miah, Muhammed Yusuf; Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack; Tezel, F Handan

    2011-10-30

    The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L(-1) and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive (137)Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L(-1) while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 μg cm(-2). Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol(-1) suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  6. Synthesis and peculiarities of the cesium zeolite crystal structure (cesite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to synthesize cesium zeolite by introduction of amorphous seed crystals which correspond by composition with cesium-containing zeolite into the aluminosilicate gel, since this method can produce zeolite with a crystal structure it would not adopt under the usual conditions. It is seen that during crystablization upon introduction of a seed crystal the cesium content in zeolite decreases. A more complete structural elucidation of zeolite obtained by the suggested method was carried out by x0ray and IR spectral analyses. The data of x-ray analysis showed that the structures of synthesized zeolite and binary octagonal pores are similar

  7. Pollution of drug-technical materials by cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug-technical raw materials are medicinal plants (flowers, folium, grasses, mushrooms, roots, fruits, berry, kidney, cortex), used in pharmacy. To limit receipt cesium-137 in people body in 1993 in the Republic of Belarus were created 'Temporary permission levels of the cesium-137 radionuclides contents in drug-technical raw materials' were created (TPL-1993). The permission levels of cesium-137 are following: for drug-technical raw material (flowers, folium, grass, mushrooms, roots and other plants parts) - 1850 Bq/kg, for dried up fruits and berries - 2590 Bq/kg. (Author)

  8. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of 137cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm2/d. (author)

  9. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.126 - Use of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of information. 1221.126 Section 1221.126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  11. 42 CFR 411.126 - Reopening of determinations and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 411.126 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Payment for Services Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.126 Reopening...

  12. 29 CFR 784.126 - Operation of the fishing vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of the fishing vessel. 784.126 Section 784.126... STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section 13(a)(5) Exemption §...

  13. 7 CFR 959.126 - Handling of culls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of culls. 959.126 Section 959.126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...) Handled for canning or freezing. (b) As a safeguard against culls entering fresh market channels...

  14. Structure of double hafnium and cesium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a compound whose formula according to the structural investigation is Cssub(2+x)Hf(SOsub(4))sub(2+x)(HSOsub(4))sub(2-x)x3Hsub(2)O (x approximately 0.7) (a=10.220, b=12.004, c=15.767 A, space group Pcmn) is determined by diffractometric data (2840 reflections, anisotropic refinement, R=0.087). It is build of complex unions [Hf(SO4)4H2O]4-, Cs+ cations and water molecules. Eight O atoms surrounding Hf atom (dodecahedron Hf-O 2.10-2.22 A) belong to four sulphate groups and water molecule. Three sulphate groups are bidentate-cyclic, and one group - monodentate relative to Hf. The structure has a cesium deficit in particular positions

  15. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137cesium and 226radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  16. Atmospheric transmission for cesium DPAL using TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2012-03-01

    The cesium (Cs) Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) operates near 894 nm, in the vicinity of atmospheric water vapor absorption lines. An open-path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption (TDLAS) system composed of narrow band (~300 kHz) diode laser fiber coupled to a 12" Ritchey-Chrétien transmit telescope has been used to study the atmospheric transmission characteristics of Cs DPALs over extended paths. The ruggedized system has been field deployed and tested for propagation distances of greater than 1 km. By scanning the diode laser across many free spectral ranges, many rotational absorption features are observed. Absolute laser frequency is monitored with a High Finesse wavemeter to an accuracy of less than 10 MHz. Phase sensitive detection is employed with an absorbance of less than 1% observable under field conditions.

  17. Sorption of cesium and strontium by arid region desert soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption and ion exchange in soil systems are the principal mechanisms that retard the migration of nuclear waste to the biosphere. Cesium and strontium are two elements with radioactive isotopes (Cs137 and Sr90) that are commonly disposed of as nuclear waste. The sorption and ion exchange properties of nonradioactive cesium and strontium were studied in this investigation. The soil used in this study was collected at an experimental infiltration site on Frenchman Flat, a closed drainage basin on the Nevada Test Site. This soil is mostly nonsaline-alkali sandy loam and loamy sand with a cation exchange capacity ranging from 13 to 30 me/100g. The clay fraction of the soil contains illite, montmorillonite, and clinoptilolite. Ion exchange studies have shown that this soil sorbs cesium preferentially relative to strontium, and that charge for charge, the exchange-phase cations released from exchange sites exceed the cesium and strontium sorbed by the soil. 38 references, 22 figures

  18. Sorption of cesium on Olkiluoto mica gneiss, granodiorite and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitti, T.; Hakanen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    Cesium was selected as a model to study the sorption in bedrock occurring by ion exchange mechanism. The aim of the study was to supplement the existing data on sorption occurring by ion exchange mechanism in bedrock of the candidate sites for spent fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. The sorption of cesium was studied on crushed mica gneiss, tonalite (granodiorite) and granite in artificial groundwaters. Fresh water was represented by Allard water, pH 8 and pH 7, and saline water by Ol-So water, pH 7 and pH 9. In addition, a Na-Ca-Cl brine water and its 1:10 dilution were used as simulants. Cesium concentrations were between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -3} mol/l. The distribution coefficients of the sorption, R{sub d} and R{sub a} values were determined by batch method. Isotherms were partly non-linear with slopes 0.7 - 1.0 depending on rock and water. At the end of the sorption experiment, the water was analysed for cations exchanged for cesium. The sorption of cesium was also studied as a function of ionic strength. The ionic strength increased in the order Allard < 0l-Br 1:10 < 0l-So < 0l-Br. The sorption of cesium was lower at higher ionic strength and higher Cs concentration. The mineral composition of rocks was determined by thin section analysis, and the sorption distribution ratios on thin sections in the different waters were determined by batch technique. The minerals, that sorbed most cesium were determined by autoradiography. These were biotite, muscovite and chlorite. Cordierite in mica gneiss also sorbed cesium very effectively. (orig.) 12 refs.

  19. Adsorption Behaviour of Liquid 4He on Cesium Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Iov, Valentin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the wetting properties of 4He on cesium substrates using optical and electrical methods. Due to the fact that the cesium substrates are deposited at low temperatures onto a thin silver underlayer, it is necessary firstly to study and understand the adsorption of helium on silver. The work presented here is structured as follows: some of the fundamental concepts on the theory of physisorbed films, such as van der Waals interaction, adsorption isotherms ...

  20. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. H. Eikelmann

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively.

  1. High-Spin Level Scheme of 126Cs%126Cs的高自旋态能级结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守宇; Y.Iwata; T.Morikawa; G.B.Hagcmann; G.Sletten; J.Nyberg; D.Jerrestam; H.J.Jensen; J.Espino; J.Gascon; N.GjφJrnp; 马英君; B.Cederwall; P.O.TjφJm; T.Komatsubara; 刘运祚; 张玉虎; 梁国栋; K.Furuno; T.Hayakawa; J.Mukai

    2004-01-01

    利用融合蒸发反应 116Cd(14N,4n) 126Cs布居了 126Cs的高自旋态.观测到了100多条新的γ跃迁和相应的能级,建立了双奇核 126Cs由9个转动带构成的能级纲图.尝试性地指定了大部分能级的自旋和宇称以及各转动带的Nilsson单粒子组态.极大地丰富了已有的实验结果.

  2. Cluster (Cyanobacteria): 1158:126 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1158:126 ATPase family protein associated with various cellular activities (AAA),AT...Pase family protein associated with various cellular activities (AAA) 1150:1376 118323:547|118323:546|482564:2199|272129:938 ...

  3. 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 423, App. A Appendix A to Part 423—126...-bromophenyl phenyl ether 042Bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether 043Bis(2-chloroethoxy) methane 044Methylene...

  5. Cesium and strontium in Black Sea macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace level of metals and particularly radioactive ones should be monitored to evaluate the transfer along the trophic chain, assess the risk for biota and can be used for global changes assessment. Plants respond rapidly to all changes in the ecosystem conditions and are widely used as indicators and predictors for changes in hydrology and geology. In this work we represent our successful development and applications of a methodology for monitoring of stable and radioactive strontium and cesium in marine biota (Black Sea algae's). In case of radioactive release they are of high interest. We use ED-XRF, gamma spectrometers and LSC instrumentation and only 0.25 g sample. Obtained results are compared with those of other authors in same regions. The novelty is the connection between the radioactive isotopes and their stable elements in algae in time and space scale. All our samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. - Highlights: • An extraction chromatography method for radiochemical separation of Sr and Cs. • Assessment of Sr and Cs accumulation capacity of six Black Sea macroalgae species. • Connection between the isotopes and their stable elements content in algae. • Assessment of Sr and Cs content in ecosystems along the Bulgarian coast

  6. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri, E-mail: joskit@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kutty, K.V. Govindan [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Goswami, M.C. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs{sub 2}O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (E{sub c}) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth.

  7. Cesium corrosion process in Fe–Cr steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cesium corrosion out-pile test was performed to Fe–Cr steel in a simulated fuel pin environment. In order to specify the corrosion products, the corroded area was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A cesium corrosion process in Fe–Cr steel was successfully developed proceeding from both experimental results and thermochemical consideration. The corroded area was mainly formed by Fe layer and Fe depleted oxidized layer. The Fe depleted oxidized layer was formed by Cr0.5Fe0.5 and Cr2O3. The presumed main corrosion reactions were 2Cr+2/3 O2→Cr2O3(ΔG650°C=-894.1kJ/mol) and Cr23C6+46Cs+46O2→23Cs2CrO4+6C(ΔG650°C=-25018.1kJ/mol). Factors of these reactions are chromium, carbon, oxygen and cesium. Therefore, cesium corrosion progression must be dependent on the chromium content, carbon content in the steel, the supply rate of oxygen and temperature which correlated with the diffusion rate of cesium and oxygen into the specimen

  8. Viscosity and crystallization mechanism of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Melt viscosity of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses is measured and reported for the first time. • Viscosity – temperature followed Arrhenius model. • Activation energy of viscous flow is strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of the glasses. • Process of crystallization of cesium loaded glass by approximation-free kinetic method to understand the mechanism. • Cesium loaded IPG and IPG shows bulk crystallization mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes the melt viscosity behaviour and the crystallization mechanism of a series of iron phosphate glasses. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out on pristine iron phosphate glass and a series of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses in order to understand the effect of addition of Cs2O on viscosity of iron phosphate glasses. Activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from the experimental data by applying Arrhenius model of viscosity–temperature relationship. Activation energy of viscous flow is observed to be strongly correlated to glass transition temperature of these glasses. Fragility of iron phosphate and cesium loaded iron phosphate glass systems were also evaluated in region of high temperature. Crystallization of these glasses was studied using thermal analysis techniques. Temperature integral approximation free method was utilized to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy of crystallization (Ec) and Avrami exponent (n). The value of Avrami exponent ‘n’ obtained showed that the glasses under present study crystallize via bulk crystallization mechanism, i.e., nucleation and three dimensional growth

  9. The diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel multi-layer diffusion couple was used to isolate the diffusion of strontium, europium and cesium in SiC without introducing radiation damage to SiC and at concentrations below the solubility limit for the fission products in SiC. Diffusion occurred by both bulk and grain boundary pathways for all three fission products between 900∘ C and 1 ,300∘ C. Cesium was the fastest diffuser below 1 ,100∘ C and the slowest above this temperature. Strontium and europium diffusion tracked very closely as a function of temperature for both bulk and grain boundary diffusion. Migration energies ranged from 1.0 eV to 5.7 eV for bulk diffusion and between 2.2 eV and 4.7 eV for grain boundary diffusion. These constitute the first measurements of diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium in silicon carbide, and the magnitude of the cesium diffusion coefficient supports the premise that high quality TRISO fuel should have minimal cesium release.

  10. Dissociative excitation of cesium atom upon e-CsOH collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of dissociative excitation of cesium atom in collisions with mono-kinetic molecules of cesium hydroxide is studied. It is established that behaviour of dissociative excitations the cesium atom in spectral series corresponds of to the grade dependence of cross sections on the main quantum number of the upper level. The values of constants, characterizing the behaviour of cross sections in the eight spectral series of the cesium atom are determined

  11. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  12. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  13. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fröschle, M.

    2012-12-01

    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (metal at a cold spot is significantly hindered. The last feature is an integral surface ionization detector for measuring and controlling the evaporation rate. The dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  14. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

    1993-11-01

    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  15. Cesium 137 in oils and plants from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the project of radioactive and environmental contamination started in Guatemala. Studies about the radioactive contamination levels are made within the framework of this project. Cesium-137 has been an interest radionuclide, because it is a fission product released to the environment by the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants accidents. The sampling consisted in collection of soil and grass in 20 provinces of Guatemala, one point by province, and it was made in 1990. The cesium-137 concentration in the samples, was determined by gamma spectrometry, using an hyper pure germanium detector. The results show the presence of radioactive contamination in soil and grass due to cesium-137, at levels that might be considered as normal. The levels found are not harmful for human health, and its importance is the fact that can be used as reference levels for the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Guatemala

  16. Study of radiatively sustained cesium plasmas for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, A. J.; Dunning, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study aimed at developing a high temperature solar electric converter are reported. The converter concept is based on the use of an alkali plasma to serve as both an efficient high temperature collector of solar radiation as well as the working fluid for a high temperature working cycle. The working cycle is a simple magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rankine cycle employing a solid electrode Faraday MHD channel. Research milestones include the construction of a theoretical model for coupling sunlight in a cesium plasma and the experimental demonstration of cesium plasma heating with a solar simulator in excellent agreement with the theory. Analysis of a solar MHD working cycle in which excimer laser power rather than electric power is extracted is also presented. The analysis predicts a positive gain coefficient on the cesium-xenon excimer laser transition.

  17. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  18. Sorption of cesium in young till soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusa, Merja; Lempinen, Janne; Ahola, Hanna; Soederlund, Mervi; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry; Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2014-10-01

    Soil samples from three forest soil pits were examined down to a depth of approximately three metres using 1 M ammonium acetate extraction and microwave-assisted extraction with concentrated nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), to study the binding of cesium (Cs) at Olkiluoto Island, southern Finland. Ammonium acetate was used to extract the readily exchangeable Cs fractions roughly representing the Cs fraction in soil which is available for plants. Microwave-assisted HNO{sub 3} extraction dissolves various minerals, e.g. carbonates, most sulphides, arsenides, selenides, phosphates, molybdates, sulphates, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides and some silicates (olivine, biotite, zeolite), and reflects the total Cs concentrations. Cs was mostly found in the strongly bound fraction obtained through HNO{sub 3} extraction. The average Cs concentrations found in this fraction were 3.53 ± 0.30 mg/kg (d.w.), 3.06 ± 1.86 mg/kg (d.w.) and 1.83 ± 0.42 mg/kg (d.w.) in the three soil pits, respectively. The average exchangeable Cs found in the ammonium acetate extraction in all three sampling pits was 0.015 ± 0.008 mg/kg (d.w.). In addition, Cs concentrations in the soil solution were determined and in situ distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cs were calculated. Furthermore, the in situ K{sub d} data was compared with the Cs K{sub d} data obtained using the model batch experiments. The in situ K{sub d} values were observed to fairly well follow the trend of batch sorption data with respect to soil depth, but on average the batch distribution coefficients were almost an order of magnitude higher than the in situ K{sub d} data. In situ Cs sorption data could be satisfactory fitted with the Langmuir sorption isotherm, but the Freundlich isotherm failed to fit the data. Finally, distribution coefficients were calculated by an ion exchange approach using soil solution data, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as Cs to sodium (Na) and Cs to potassium (K) ion exchange selectivity

  19. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207...

  20. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  1. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, T.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah.

  2. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met

  3. Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M

    2011-01-01

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  5. MicroRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cell line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Yang; Bei-Bei Chen; Ming-Hua Zhang; Xin-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of microRNA-126 in the development of lung cancer.Methods:The biological function of microRNA-126 was detected using EdU assay and CCK-8 assay;the target gene of microRNA-126 was analyzed using real time RT-PCR and Western blot assay.Results: In A549 cell line, overexpression of microRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation rate; VEGF is the target gene of microRNA-126; microRNA-126 exerts its function via regulating VEGF protein level.Conclusions: microRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation in A549 cell line.

  6. Some aspects of cesium deposition in Transilvania (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident of the Chernobyl atomic electric power station, a great quantity of radionuclides (∼100MCi) escaped from the reactor. It was estimated that 13% of the inventory activity of cesium representing 1.5-2 MCi left the reactor. The radioactive deposits were very nonuniform for the same distance and in the same direction from Chernobyl nuclear center having a close dependence upon direction and speed of wind and pluviometric conditions. The rains, especially the storms, spectacularly increased the radioactive fallout. Although, for the first two-three days, subsequent to accident, the meteorological conditions were favorable for Romania, after April 29/30, because of the changing in the wind direction on SW (initial it was N and NW) the countries were on this direction - Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, former Yugoslavia - began to be intensely contaminated with radioactive fallout. In Romania, the radioactive cloud passing coincided with abundant rains, especially on the direction mentioned above. On this direction, the cesium deposits are of 8-2 times larger than other Romanian regions. The torrential rain which fell on May 1st 1986, in the western side of Cluj Napoca town caused an intense contamination especially with short-life isotopes as Te, I, Ba, La, Mo. Medium and long-life isotopes as Ru, Zr, Cs, Sr were present in large quantities in this area.too. For the total contribution the value obtained was 1130 kBq/m2, much larger than the average in Romania. This work presents data about cesium content of pollen samples gathered daily between 1-30 May 1986; cesium deposits in five areas and some measurements in connection with cesium mitigation in soils

  7. 40 CFR 421.126 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 421.126 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source... 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of... for monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver produced from leaching Copper .110 .053 Zinc .088...

  8. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Clara Valley. 9.126... Santa Clara Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Clara Valley.” (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  9. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry... of quality for frozen cherry pie is as follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie is such that...

  10. Candidates for Four Quasiparticle Chiral Structures in 126I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yun; ZHU; Li-hua; WU; Xiao-guang; GAO; Zao-chun; HE; Chuang-ye; LI; Guang-sheng; WANG; Lie-lin; CHEN; Yong-shou; YU; Bei-bei; YAO; Shun-he; HAO; Xin; LIU; Ying; LI; Xue-qin; PAN; Bo

    2012-01-01

    <正>Since the first prediction of chirality in triaxial nuclei was pointed out by Frauendorf and Meng, nuclei in the A≈80, 100, 130, and 190 mass regions have been extensively studied in recent years to investigate the characteristics of nuclear chirality. Excited states in the doubly odd nucleus 126I were populated via heavy-ion fusion-evaporation

  11. 38 CFR 21.126 - Farm cooperative course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services § 21.126 Farm cooperative course. (a) Definition... rehabilitation services. The areas in which proficiency is to be established include: (1) Planning; (2)...

  12. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lemonade by § 146.120, except that it is colored with a safe and suitable fruit juice, vegetable juice, or... Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  13. 10 CFR 72.126 - Criteria for radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....126 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C... exposed to radiation or airborne radioactive materials. Structures, systems, and components for...

  14. Distribution and retention of cesium and strontium in Swedish boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and distribution of cesium, and to some extent strontium, in forest environments are being studied at three sites in Sweden. The main part of the cesium found in the soil was recovered in horizons rich in organic matter. The cesium was retained in the soil organic matter in a more or less extractable form. As different soil types have a different distribution pattern of organic matter, the distribution of cesium will depend on the forest soil type. The clay content in Swedish forest soils is, in general, low which will mitigate the retention of cesium in the soil mineral horizons. The cesium and strontium present in the trees was considered to be an effect of assimilation by the tissues in the canopy as well as by the roots. The redistribution of cesium within the trees was extensive which was considered to be the effect of a high mobility of cesium in the trees. The recovery of strontium-90 in pines, in relation to the deposition rate was higher compared to the relative recovery of cesium-137, 30 years after deposition. The cesium and strontium will remain in the forest environment for a considerable time but can be reduced by forest practice, by leaching out of the soil profile or by radioactive decay

  15. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2013-01-15

    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  16. Trapping and cooling cesium atoms in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of two experiments where cold cesium atoms are trapped in a speckle field. In the first experiment, a YAG laser creates the speckle pattern and induces a far-detuned dipole potential which is a nearly-conservative potential. Localization of atoms near the intensity maxima of the speckle field is observed. In a second experiment we use two counterpropagating laser beams tuned close to a resonance line of cesium and in the lin perpendicular to lin configuration, one of them being modulated by a holographic diffuser that creates the speckle field. Three-dimensional cooling is observed. Variations of the temperature and of the spatial diffusion coefficient with the size of a speckle grain are presented. (orig.)

  17. Kelvin Probe Studies of Cesium Telluride Photocathode for AWA Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, Eric; Yusof, Zikri; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff; Harkay, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (~50 nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin Probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating.

  18. Cesium exchange reaction on natural and modified clinoptilolite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium cation exchange reaction with K, Na, Ca and Mg ions on natural and modified clinoptilolite has been studied. Batch cation-exchange experiments were performed by placing 0.5 g of clinoptilolite into 10 ml or 20 ml of 1 x 10-3M CsCl solution for differing times. Two type deposits of clinoptilolite zeolites from, Nizny Hrabovec (NH), Slovakia and Metaxades (MX), Greece were used for ion-exchange study. The distribution coefficient (Kd) and sorption capacity (Γ) were evaluated. For the determination of K, Na, Ca and Mg isotachophoresis method, the most common cations in exchange reaction was used. Cesium sorption was studied using 137Cs tracer and measured by γ-spectrometry. (author)

  19. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations. The process, described by a three-level model with the Λ scheme, shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms. The |Fg = 3> → |Fe = 4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg = 4, mF = 4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg = 4. To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state, we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg = 4> → |Fe = 3> transition, in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Fiber laser system for cesium and rubidium atom interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Diboune, Clément; Bidel, Yannick; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative fiber laser system for both cesium and rubidium manipulation. The architecture is based on frequency conversion of two lasers at 1560 nm and 1878 nm. By taking advantage of existing fiber components at these wavelengths, we demonstrate an all fiber laser system delivering 350 mW at 780 nm for rubidium and 210 mW at 852 nm for cesium. This result highlights the promising nature of such laser system especially for Cs manipulation for which no fiber laser system has been reported. It offers new perspectives for the development of atomic instruments dedicated to onboard applications and opens the way to a new generation of atom interferometers involving three atomic species $^{85}$Rb, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs for which we propose an original laser architecture.

  1. Studies on the Separation of Cesium From Fission Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANLi-juan; ZHANGSheng-dong; GUOJing-ru; CUIAn-zhi; YANGLei; WUWang-suo

    2003-01-01

    135Cs is a long-life fission product. When measuring its thermal cross section, we must separate radiochemical purity cesium from fission products. Except for decontaminating radio- nuclides, others which can be activated must be avoided to come into solution. So ion exchanger is used. Inorganic ion exchangers have received increased attention because of their high resistance to radiation and their very efficient separation of alkali metal ions.

  2. Optimized production of a cesium Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Tobias; Herbig, Jens; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Naegerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2004-01-01

    We report on the optimized production of a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms using an optical trapping approach. Based on an improved trap loading and evaporation scheme we obtain more than $10^5$ atoms in the condensed phase. To test the tunability of the interaction in the condensate we study the expansion of the condensate as a function of scattering length. We further excite strong oscillations of the trapped condensate by rapidly varying the interaction strength.

  3. Radioactive cesium. Dynamics and transport in forestal food-webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises results from a radioecological study during 1994-1995 concerning turnover, redistribution and loss of radioactive Cesium (134 and 137) in boreal forest ecosystems, as well as uptake and transfer in important food-chains over moose, vole and vegetation. The basis for this report are 9 publications published 1994-95. These reports are presented in summary form. 9 refs, 17 figs

  4. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 104 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  5. Corrections to our results for optical nanofiber traps in Cesium

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, D; Choi, K S; Kimble, H J

    2012-01-01

    Several errors in Refs. [1, 2] are corrected related to the optical trapping potentials for a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap for the D2 transition of atomic Cesium. Section I corrects our basic formalism in Ref. [1] for calculating dipole-force potentials. Section II corrects erroneous values for a partial lifetime and a transition wavelength in Ref. [1]. Sections III and IV present corrected figures for various trapping configurations considered in Refs. [1] and [2], respectively.

  6. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  7. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  8. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  9. Cesium Toxicity Alters MicroRNA Processing and AGO1 Expressions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Lae Jung

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA fragments that play important roles in controlled gene silencing, thus regulating many biological processes in plants. Recent studies have indicated that plants modulate miRNAs to sustain their survival in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as biotic stresses, cold, drought, nutritional starvation, and toxic heavy metals. Cesium and radio-cesium contaminations have arisen as serious problems that both impede plant growth and enter the food chain through contaminated plants. Many studies have been performed to define plant responses against cesium intoxication. However, the complete profile of miRNAs in plants during cesium intoxication has not been established. Here we show the differential expression of the miRNAs that are mostly down-regulated during cesium intoxication. Furthermore, we found that cesium toxicity disrupts both the processing of pri-miRNAs and AGONOUTE 1 (AGO1-mediated gene silencing. AGO 1 seems to be especially destabilized by cesium toxicity, possibly through a proteolytic regulatory pathway. Our study presents a comprehensive profile of cesium-responsive miRNAs, which is distinct from that of potassium, and suggests two possible mechanisms underlying the cesium toxicity on miRNA metabolism.

  10. Laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from waste solutions of the PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from a fission product waste solution of the fuel reprocessing is described. The plant consists of two stages. In the first stage cesium is adsorbed on ammonium molybdatophosphate (AMP). Then the adsorbent is dissolved. From the solution cesium is adsorbed on a cationic ion exchanger in the second stage. Then AMP can be reproduced from this solution. For the elution of cesium in the second stage a NH4NO3 solution (3 m) is used. Flow sheet, construction and the control device of the plant are described and the results of tests with a model solution are given. (author)

  11. Structure of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses: An infrared and Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of cesium loaded iron phosphate glasses (IPG) was investigated using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of the cesium doped samples revealed a structural modification of the parent glass owing to the incorporation of cesium. The structural changes could be correlated with the variation observed in the glass transition temperature of these glasses. Increased Cs-mediated cationic cross linking appears to be the reason for the initial rise in glass transition temperature up to 21 mol% Cs2O in IPG; while, breakdown of the phosphate network with increasing cesium content, brings down the glass transition temperature.

  12. Mobility of cesium through the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones under partially saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of cesium was studied in an unsaturated core of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, which is a potential host rock for retrievable disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In-diffusion laboratory experiments were performed on rock samples with water saturation degrees ranging from 81% to 100%. The analysis of both cesium concentration monitoring in the source reservoir and postmortem cesium rock concentration profile of the samples was carried out using a chemical-transport code where the sorption of cesium was described by a multi-site ion-exchange model. The results showed that cesium exhibited a clear trend related to the saturation degree of the sample. The more dehydrated the rock sample, the slower the decrease of cesium concentration, and the thinner the penetration depth of cesium was. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) for cesium decreased from 18.5 *10-11 m2 s-1 at full-saturation to 0.3 * 10-11 m2 s-1 for the more dehydrated sample. This decrease is almost 1 order of magnitude higher than that for tritiated water (HTO), although a similar behavior could have been expected, since cesium is known to diffuse in the same parts of the pore space as HTO in fully saturated claystones. (authors)

  13. Cesium transport in Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of a large radioactive cesium release to a Savannah River Plant (SRP) stream was examined using a stable cesium release to Four Mile Creek. Measurements following the release show that most of the cesium released was transported downstream; however, sorption and desorption decreased the maximum concentration and increased the travel time and duration, relative to a dye tracer, at sampling stations downstream. The study was made possible by the development of an analytical technique using ammonium molybdophosphate and neutron activation that permitted the measurement of stable cesium concentrations as low as 0.2 μg/L

  14. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Houssni El-Saied; Samya El-Sherbiny; Omnia Ali; Wafaa El-Saied; Said Rohyem

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+) on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the...

  15. 7 CFR 1.26 - Representation before the Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation before the Department of Agriculture. 1.26 Section 1.26 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Departmental Proceedings § 1.26 Representation before the Department of Agriculture. (a) Applicability....

  16. 17 CFR 1.26 - Deposit of instruments purchased with customer funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchased with customer funds. 1.26 Section 1.26 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.26 Deposit of instruments purchased with customer funds. (a) Each futures commission...

  17. 40 CFR 89.126 - Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity. 89.126 Section 89.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.126 Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity. (a) If... issued certificate of conformity if the Administrator finds any one of the following infractions to...

  18. Determination of Atom Number of Fission Product 126Sn by γ-ray Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>126Sn is a long-lived beta emitting radionuclide with a half-life of (2.35±0.07)×105 years[1]. Artificially produced 126Sn has entered our environment through nuclear weapons testing and released from reprocessing plants and may locally lead to strongly enhanced 126Sn concentrations. So the long

  19. 33 CFR 126.30 - What are the conditions for conducting welding and hotwork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conducting welding and hotwork? 126.30 Section 126.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... FACILITIES § 126.30 What are the conditions for conducting welding and hotwork? (a) The facility operator must ensure that all welding or hotwork conducted at the facility meets the requirements of...

  20. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant...

  1. 27 CFR 24.126 - Change in proprietorship involving a bonded wine warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... involving a bonded wine warehouse. 24.126 Section 24.126 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Changes Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.126 Change in proprietorship involving a bonded wine...

  2. 13 CFR 126.615 - May a large business participate on a HUBZone contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a large business participate on a HUBZone contract? 126.615 Section 126.615 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Contractual Assistance § 126.615 May a large business participate on a...

  3. 126 novel mutations in Italian patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchessi, Donatella; Morosini, Sara; Saletti, Veronica; Ibba, Maria Cristina; Natacci, Federica; Esposito, Silvia; Cesaretti, Claudia; Riva, Daria; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Eoli, Marica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genetic analysis of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) may facilitate the identification of patients in early phases of the disease. Here, we present an overview of our diagnostic research spanning the last 11 years, with a focus on the description of 225 NF1 mutations, 126 of which are novel, found in a series of 607 patients (513 unrelated) in Italy. Between 2003 and 2013, 443 unrelated patients were profiled by denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis of 60 ampl...

  4. The development of 126Sn separation procedure by means of TBP resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation possibilities of 126Sn with a new extraction-chromatographic material TBP Resin were studied. Suitable conditions for tin separation were determined in hydrochloric acid medium. 126Sn was concentrated on TBP resin from 6 mol L-1 HCl and was eluted with 0.1 mol L-1 HCl. A purification step to remove 137Cs with AMP-PAN column was necessary to obtain sufficiently purified samples which were directly measured with gamma spectrometry for 126Sn activity. Separation of 126Sn from a raw sludge sample was done according to proposed procedure, 126Sn was detected and its activity was determined. (author)

  5. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m-2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m-2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  6. Peculiarities of presence of cesium-137 in soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granulometric composition of soil and the distribution of cesium-137 by soil fractions at the Azgir test site was determined. The characterization of cesium-137 presence in the layer of the thickness of 1 cm of the surface soil was gave. (author)

  7. Velocity Distribution of Effective Atoms in a Small Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; WANG Fengzhi; YANG Donghai; WANG YiQiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the velocity distribution of effective atoms in a small optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been achieved from the Fourier transforms of the experimentally recorded Ramsey patterns. The result fits well with the theoretical calculation. The second order Doppler shift correction of the small cesium atomic clock is obtained from the velocity distribution of effective atoms.

  8. Vacuum squeezed light for atomic memories at the D2 cesium line

    CERN Document Server

    Burks, Sidney; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Laurat, Julien; Ortalo, Jérémie; Jia, Xiaojun; Villa, Fabrizio; Chuimmo, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    We report the experimental generation of squeezed light at 852 nm, locked on the Cesium D2 line. 50% of noise reduction down to 50 kHz has been obtained with a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator operating below threshold, using a periodically-polled KTP crystal. This light is directly utilizable with Cesium atomic ensembles for quantum networking applications

  9. Ionizing mechanisms in a cesium plasma irradiated with a ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Robinson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A cesium filled diode--laser plasmadynamic converter was built to investigate the feasibility of converting laser energy to electrical energy at large power levels. Experiments were performed with a pulsed ruby laser to determine the quantity of electrons and cesium ions generated per pulse of laser beam and to determine the output voltage. A current density as high as 200 amp/sq cm from a spot of approximately 1 sq mm area and an open circuit voltage as high as 1.5 volts were recorded. A qualitative theory was developed to explain these results. In the operation of the device, the laser beam evaporates some of the cesium and ionizes the cesium gas. A dense cesium plasma is formed to absorb further the laser energy. Results suggest that the simultaneous absorption of two ruby laser photons by the cesium atoms plays an important role in the initial ionization of cesium. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption appears to be the dominant mechanism in subsequent processes. Recombinations of electrons and cesium ions appear to compete favorably with the simultaneous absorption of two photons.

  10. Sorption of iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate for the behavior of waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the sorption of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is to be considered. The chemistry and the sorption of these radionuclides in soils are described in this literature survey. Behavior of I-129, Cl-36 and Tc-99 in the environment is of great interest because of their long half-lives and relatively high mobilities. The importance of Cs-135 arises from its high content in spent nuclear fuel and long physical half-life, even though it is considered relatively immobile in soil. Factors affecting the migration and sorption of radionuclides in soils can be divided into elemental and soil specific parameters. The most important elemental factor is the speciation of the element, which is influenced by the soil redox potential, pH and complex forming ligands. Soil micro-organisms can either serve as sorbents for radionuclides or affect their speciation by altering the prevailing soil redox conditions. Soil organic matter content and mineral properties have a marked influence on the retention of radionuclides. The sorption of anionic radionuclides such as I-, Cl- and TcO4 - is pronounced in the presence of organic matter. Clay minerals are known to bound cesium effectively. The effect of speciation of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is considered in this study, as well as the effect of soil micro-organisms, organic matter and mineral properties. (orig.)

  11. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m-2, 240 ± 65 Bq m-2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m-2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m-2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the Londrina

  12. Rational Design of Cesium-Selective Ionophores and Chemosensors: Dihydrocalix[4]arene Crown-6 Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Engle, Nancy L.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Urvoas, Agathe; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-12-15

    Molecular mechanics calculations performed on calix[4]arene crown-6 ethers predict that the 1,3-dihydro derivatives will exhibit greater complementarity for potassium and cesium ions than the parent 1,3-dialkoxy calix crowns. The X-ray crystal structures of 1,3-alt bis-octyloxycalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, and the cesium nitrate complex of dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether were determined. The cesium complex structure corresponds closely to the structure predicted by molecular mechanics. The dihydrocalix[4]arene crown-6 ethers exhibit enhanced cesium selectivity in the extraction of alkali metal salts and provide a platform for a highly sensitive and selective cesium chemosensor.

  13. [Variation in amount of radioactive cesium before and after cooking dry shiitake and beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in food due to cooking in order to estimate the internal radiation exposure due to from radioactive materials in food. Our results revealed that soaking dry shiitake in water decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 50%, compared with that present in uncooked shiitake. Radioactive cesium in beef was decreased by about 10%, 12%, 60-65% and 80% by grilling, frying, boiling and stewing, respectively, compared to uncooked beef. For cooked beef, the decrease in the ratio of radioactive cesium was significantly different among the types of cooking. The decrease ratio of radioactive cesium in boiled and stewed beef was 8 times higher than that in grilled and fried beef.

  14. Sensitive Detection of Cold Cesium Molecules by Radiative Feshbach Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Cheng; Kerman, Andrew J.; Vuletić, Vladan; Chu, Steven

    2002-01-01

    We observe the dynamic formation of $Cs_2$ molecules near Feshbach resonances in a cold sample of atomic cesium using an external probe beam. This method is 300 times more sensitive than previous atomic collision rate methods, and allows us to detect more than 20 weakly-coupled molecular states, with collisional formation cross sections as small as $\\sigma =3\\times 10^{-16}$cm$^2$. We propose a model to describe the atom-molecule coupling, and estimate that more than $2 \\times 10^5$ $Cs_2$ mo...

  15. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; GENG; Tao; YAN; Shubin; LI; Gang; ZHANG; Jing; WANG; Junmin; PENG; Kunchi; ZHANG; Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  16. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  17. The Role of Circulating MicroRNA-126 (miR-126: A Novel Biomarker for Screening Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested an association of endothelial microRNA-126 (miR-126 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. In the current study, we examined whether circulating miR-126 is associated with T2DM and pre-diabetic syndrome. The study included 82 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 75 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 160 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, and 138 healthy individuals. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to examine serum miR-126. Serum miR-126 was significantly lower in IGT/IFG subjects and T2DM patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.05. After six months of treatment (diet control and exercise in IGT/IFG subjects, insulin plus diet control and exercise in T2DM patients, serum miR-126 increased significantly (p < 0.05. An analysis based on serum miR-126 in the sample revealed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR for the subjects with the lowest 1/3 of serum miR-126 for T2DM (OR: 3.500, 95% confidence interval: 1.901–6.445, p < 0.05 than subjects within the highest 1/3 of serum miR-126. Such an association was still apparent after adjusting for other major risk factors. The area under the curve (AUC for the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis was 0.792 (95% confidence interval: 0.707–0.877, p < 0.001. These results encourage the use of serum miR-126 as a biomarker for pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus, as well as therapeutic response.

  18. Morphological and electrical properties of zirconium vanadate doped with cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa F. Elkady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cesium doped zirconium vanadate ZrV2O7 with different Cs dopant content (Cs/Zr varied from 0 to 0.5 in weight ratio were fabricated by hydrothermal technique at 120 °C for 60 min. The synthesized materials are thermally treated using microwave technique. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized materials and thermally treated samples were investigated using XRD and SEM respectively. It was evident that all synthesized specimens have cubic phase structural without any extra phase but after heat treatment Orthorhombic phase appear with doped samples. However, the morphological structure of the doped synthesized materials has transferred from nanoparticles into rods aspect with heat treatment for the different dopant ratio. Moreover, the electrical properties of both the synthesized and thermally treated materials are studied by AC impedance measurements. The results indicated that the ionic conductivity of Cs-doped ZrV2O7 materials decreased by increasing the dopant ratio while that thermally treated samples the ionic conductivity increase by increasing the dopant ratio. Finally, the concentration of cesium dopants is found to play crucial role in tuning the morphology and electrical properties of nanostructures.

  19. Transportable cesium irradiator (TPCI): Final safety analysis report: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Safety Analysis Report describes the Transportable Cesium Irradiator (TPCI) and assesses the hazards associated with its operation. The TPCI consists of a mobile, lead-shielded, irradiation unit with support equipment mounted within an enclosed trailer. The irradiation unit has two basic compartments; a source chamber sized to mate with the transportation cask which houses the source capsules, and an irradiation chamber formed as a large shielded cylinder (drum) with a window. The irradiation chamber is mounted on a large diameter support bearing. As this chamber is rotated its window moves from the product access door, where produce is inserted or extracted, to a position in line with a similar window in the source chamber. When the windows are aligned the produce is irradiated, while the back wall of the irradiation chamber shields the product access door. The TPCI is designed to be transported throughout the continental United States. The transportation cask containing the cesium source capsules is transported separately from the irradiation unit and is installed when the TPCI unit has been readied for operation at a particular site. The transportation cask is a separate unit and is documented in a separate FSAR

  20. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Eric E., E-mail: ewisniew@anl.gov [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Velazquez, Daniel [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Yusof, Zikri, E-mail: zyusof@hawk.iit.edu [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sarkar, Tapash J. [Rice University, 6100 Main, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Harkay, Katherine [Accelerator Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-21

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light.

  1. Structure and bonding in crystalline cesium uranyl tetrachloride under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Hussien H; Pertierra, Pilar; Salvadó, Miguel A; Izquierdo-Ruiz, F; Recio, J M

    2016-07-21

    A thorough investigation of pressure effects on the structural properties of crystalline cesium uranyl chloride was performed by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory framework. Total energies, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies were computed at selected pressures up to 50 GPa. Zero pressure results present good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. Our calculated equation of state parameters reveal that Cs2UO2Cl4 is a high compressible material, similar to other ionic compounds with cesium cations, and displays a structural anisotropic behavior guided by the uranyl moiety. An unexpected variation of the U-O bond length, dUO, is detected as pressure is applied. It leads to a dUO-stretching frequency relationship that cannot be described by the traditional Badger's rule. Interestingly enough, it can be explained in terms of a change in the main factor controlling dUO. At low pressure, the charge transferred to the uranyl cation induces an increase of the bond length and a red shift of the stretching frequencies, whereas it is the mechanical effect of the applied pressure above 10 GPa that is the dominant factor that leads to a shortening of dUO and a blue shift of the stretching frequencies. PMID:27340008

  2. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Hai; Zeng Xian-Jin; Li Qing-Meng; Huang Qiang; Sun Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations.The process,described by a three-level model with the A scheme,shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms.The |Fg =3> → |Fe-4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg =4,mF =4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg =4.To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state,we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg =4> → |Fe =3>transition,in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field.

  3. Structure and bonding in crystalline cesium uranyl tetrachloride under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Hussien H; Pertierra, Pilar; Salvadó, Miguel A; Izquierdo-Ruiz, F; Recio, J M

    2016-07-21

    A thorough investigation of pressure effects on the structural properties of crystalline cesium uranyl chloride was performed by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory framework. Total energies, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies were computed at selected pressures up to 50 GPa. Zero pressure results present good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. Our calculated equation of state parameters reveal that Cs2UO2Cl4 is a high compressible material, similar to other ionic compounds with cesium cations, and displays a structural anisotropic behavior guided by the uranyl moiety. An unexpected variation of the U-O bond length, dUO, is detected as pressure is applied. It leads to a dUO-stretching frequency relationship that cannot be described by the traditional Badger's rule. Interestingly enough, it can be explained in terms of a change in the main factor controlling dUO. At low pressure, the charge transferred to the uranyl cation induces an increase of the bond length and a red shift of the stretching frequencies, whereas it is the mechanical effect of the applied pressure above 10 GPa that is the dominant factor that leads to a shortening of dUO and a blue shift of the stretching frequencies.

  4. A study of strontium and cesium sorption on granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion and sorption of cesium and strontium in crushed granite particles is discussed. Sorption experiments have been performed with one granite from Finnsjoen outside Forsmark on the east coast of Sweden and one granite from the Stripa mine in central Sweden. Granite samples have been crushed and screened, and six different particle size fractions from 0.10-0.12 mm to 4-5 mm of each rock have been used in the experiments. The initial concentrations of inactive cesium and strontium were 10-15 ppm. The experimental data indicate that the amount of sorption is dependent not only on the mass of granite particles, but also to some extent on the size of the particles. An attempt has been made to distinguish between sorption on external surfaces and inner surfaces. The amount of external surface adsorption was found to vary from 15-40 % of the total adsorption capacity for the particle size fraction 0.10-0.12 mm to a few percent or less for the largest particles used. (Auth.)

  5. Diffusion of strontium, technetium, iodine and cesium in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of strontium, technetium, iodine and cesium in granitic rock has been studied. Rock samples were taken from drilling cores in granitic and granodioritic rock, and small (2x2x2 cm) rock tablets from the drilling cores were exposed to a groundwater solution containing one of the studied elements at trace levels. The concentration of the element versus penetration depth in the rock tablet was measured radiometrically. The sorption on the mineral faces and the diffusion into the rock were studied by an autoradiographic technique. The cationic strontium and cesium have apparent diffusivities of 10-13 - 10-14 m2/s. The migration is confined to microfissures or filled fractures containing e.g., calcite, epidote or chlorite or in veins with high capacity minerals (e.g. biotite). The anionic iodine and technetium have apparent diffusivities of about 10-14 m2/s. These species migrate along mineral boundaries and in open fractures and to a minor extent in high capacity mineral veins. (orig.)

  6. Studies on cesium sorption in hydrous zirconium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of 137Cs (T1/2 = 30.1 y) and 90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 y) are produced as fission products in nuclear reactors. These long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides, regarded as a waste few decades ago, are being termed now as valuables owing to the upsurge in the utilization of these radioisotopes in the area of medicine, food irradiation, and sewage treatment technologies in recent years. For long-term waste management it is necessary to minimize the volume and toxicity of the waste. Selective recovery and utilization of these radionuclides from the waste is the concept of growing interest to many researchers. Inorganic sorbents are proven candidates for the separation and recovery of cesium and strontium from aqueous waste streams. They are chemically durable and stable against ionizing radiation. In addition, these materials can be converted into unleachable ceramic form for final disposal. Hydrous metal oxides belong to a particular class of inorganic ion exchangers extensively investigated for various applications in nuclear waste treatment. The present study deals with the preparation of hydrous zirconium and titanium oxide and the studies aimed at separation of cesium from aqueous wastes

  7. Prognostic value of microRNA-126 and CRK expression in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shun; Shi, Huichang; Han, Jun; Zhang, Tiecheng; Zhu, Weiguo; Zhang, Dahong

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNA (miR)-126, acting as a tumor suppressor, has been reported to inhibit the invasion of gastric cancer cells in part by targeting v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homologue (CRK). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of miR-126/CRK axis in gastric cancer. Methods miR-126 and CRK mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 220 self-pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Results Expression levels of miR-126 and CRK mRNA in gastric cancer tissues were, respectively, lower and higher than those in adjacent noncancerous tissues (both P<0.001). Low miR-126 expression and high CRK expression, alone or in combination, were all significantly associated with positive lymph node and distant metastases and advanced TNM stage of human gastric cancer (all P<0.05). We also found that the overall survival rates of the patients with low miR-126 expression and high CRK expression were, respectively, shorter than those with high miR-126 expression and low CRK expression. Interestingly, miR-126-low/CRK-high expression was associated with a significantly worse overall survival of all miR-126/CRK groups (P<0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis identified miR-126 and/or CRK expression as independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric cancer. Notably, the prognostic relevance of miR-126 and/or CRK expression was more obvious in the subgroup of patients with TNM stage IV. Conclusion Dysregulation of miR-126/CRK axis may promote the malignant progression of human gastric cancer. miR-126 and CRK combined expression may serve as an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

  8. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation. PMID:26683820

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen and Cesium Monitor for H- Magnetron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Cheng-Yang [Fermilab; Bollinger, Dan [Fermilab; Schupbach, Brian [Fermilab; Seiya, Kiyomi [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The relative concentration of cesium to hydrogen in the plasma of a H- magnetron source is an important parameter for reliable operations. If there is too much cesium, the surfaces of the source become contaminated with it and sparking occurs. If there is too little cesium then the plasma cannot be sustained. In order to monitor these two elements, a spectrometer has been built and installed on a test and operating source that looks at the plasma. It is hypothesized that the concentration of each element in the plasma is proportional to the intensity of their spectral lines.

  11. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Exchange Performances of Cesium Ion-Sieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠源; 王榕树; 林灿生; 张先业

    2003-01-01

    The exchange performances and the distribution coefficient of Cesium Ion-Sieve (Cs-IS) for cesium and for some rare earth elements were compared. In particular, the effects of neodymium on the cesium ion exchange and the Cs+ selectivity variation on Cs-IS owing to introduction of rare earth elements into HLLW were studied. Though rare earth elements exhibit a small influence on the distribution coefficient for Cs+, they impair Cs-exchange capacity of Cs-IS to some extent. This interruption on the selectivity to Cs+ can be significantly eliminated provided an appropriate ratio of liquid to solid V:m is used.

  12. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  13. Specific interaction of cesium with the surface of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of cesium at the calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) surface was investigated, both through sorption isotherm data and by solid-state NMR experiments. The sorption ability of CSH towards cesium is favored for low solid Ca/Si molar ratios, in agreement with the negative surface charge they develop then. A significant proportion of these sorbed cesium cations remains tightly bound to the surface sites forming, in dehydrated CSH, inner-sphere complexes, which can not be removed by alcohol washing. Chloride seems to present a lower affinity for CSH, even for high Ca/Si molar ratios, where the surface charge becomes positive. (orig.)

  14. First-principles study of cesium adsorption to weathered micaceous clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    A large amount of radioactive nuclides was produced into environment due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Residents near FDNPP were suffering from radioactive cesium and then evacuated, because which has long half-life and is retained by surface soil for long time. The Japanese government has been decontaminating the cesium by removing the surface soil in order to return them to their home. This decontamination method is very effective, but which produces huge amount of waste soil. This becomes another big problem in Fukushima, because it is not easy to find large storage sites. Then effective and economical methods to reduce the volume of the waste soil are needed. However, it has not been invented yet. One of the reasons is lack of knowledge about microscopic process of adsorption/desorption of cesium to/from soil. It is known that weathered micaceous clay minerals play crucial role on adsorption and retention of cesium. They are expected to have special sorption sites, called frayed edge sites (FESs), which adsorb cesium selectively and irreversibly. Properties of FES have been intensely investigated by experiments. But microscopic details of the adsorption process on FES are still unclear. Because direct observation of the process with current experimental techniques is quite difficult. We investigated the adsorption of cesium to FES in muscovite, which is a typical micaceous clay mineral, via first-principles calculations (density functional theory). We made a minimal model of FES and evaluate the energy difference before and after cesium adsorption to FES. This is the first numerical modeling of FES. It was shown that FES does adsorb cesium if the weathering of muscovite has been weathered. In addition, we revealed the mechanism of cesium adsorption to FES, which is competition between ion radius of cesium and the degree of weathering. I plan to discuss volume reduction of the waste soil based on our result. Reference M. Okumura

  15. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  16. A New Pumping-Probing Scheme for the Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景标; 朱程锦; 王凤芝; 杨东海

    2001-01-01

    A new pumping-probing scheme for the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been experimentally tested in our laboratory. The stability of the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard was measured by comparing its 10 MHz output with an HP5071A commercial cesium atomic clock. The result shows that the frequency stability for the 1 s and 30000s sample times are 1.2 × 10-11 and 3.7 × 10-13, respectively. It was proved that the new pumping scheme works well.

  17. Investigation of adsorption and wetting of 3He on cesium and cesiated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the binding of 3He on cesium substrates, using optical pumping to spin-polarize the atoms. The behavior of 3He on the walls at low temperature can be analyzed through the evolution of the nuclear magnetization of the sample. Preliminary results are presented, including: (1) adsorption studies of gaseous 3He on cesiated glass; (2) magnetic relaxation time of polarized liquid 3He on cesium and cesiated glass; (3) evidence for wetting of liquid 3He on cesium. 8 refs., 2 figs

  18. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  19. miR-126 Is Involved in Vascular Remodeling under Laminar Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mondadori dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and changes in gene expression of vascular endothelium are mainly due to shear stress and inflammation. Cell phenotype modulation has been clearly demonstrated to be controlled by small noncoding micro-RNAs (miRNAs. This study focused on the effect of laminar shear stress (LSS on human endothelial cells (HUVECs, with an emphasis on the role of miRNA-126 (miR-126. Exposure of HUVECs in vitro to LSS modified the shape of HUVECs and concomitantly regulated the expression of miR-126, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, and syndecan-4 (SDC-4. A significant upregulation of miR-126 during long-term exposure to flow was shown. Interestingly, LSS enhanced SDC-4 expression on the HUVEC membranes. Overexpression of miR-126 in HUVECs decreased the levels of targets stromal cell-derived factor-1 SDF-1/CXCL12 and VCAM-1 but increased the expression of RGS16, CXCR4, and SDC-4. No significant difference in terms of cell proliferation and apoptosis was observed between scramble, anti-miR-126, and pre-miR-126 transfected HUVECs. In Apo-E KO/CKD mice aortas expressing a high level of miR-126, SDC-4 was concomitantly increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-126 (i is overexpressed by long-term LSS, (ii has a role in up- and downregulation of genes involved in atherosclerosis, and (iii affects SDC-4 expression.

  20. Semiempirical Shell Model Tabulated Masses for Translead Elements with Magic Proton Number Z = 126

    OpenAIRE

    Liran, S.; Marinov, A.(Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia, Bulgaria); Zeldes, N.

    2001-01-01

    We present two tables of calculated masses of translead nuclei, for 351 nuclei with N from 94 to 126 and Z from 82 to 100, and for 1969 nuclei with N from 126 to 184 and Z from 82 to 126. The tables are calculated from a semiempirical shell-model mass equation based on Z = 126 as a proton magic number which seems to be highly extrapolatable inside shell regions. Useful separation and decay energies are given as well. Some properties of the calculated masses and applications to superheavy elem...

  1. Diffusion of water, cesium and neptunium in pores of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is investigating the feasibility to dispose of spent nuclear fuel within Finland. The present plan calls for the repository to be located in crystalline rock at a depth of several hundred meters. The safety assessment of the repository includes calculations of migration of waste nuclides. The flow of waste elements in groundwater will be retarded through sorption interaction with minerals and through diffusion into rock. Diffusion is the only mechanism retarding the migration of non-sorbing species and, it is expected to be the dominating retardation mechanism of many of the sorbing elements. In the investigation the simultaneous diffusion of tritiated water (HTO), cesium and neptunium in rocks of TVO investigation sites at Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara were studied. (11 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.)

  2. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  3. Coherence Properties of Nanofiber-Trapped Cesium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, D.; Sayrin, C.; Mitsch, R.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized ˜200nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time of T2*=0.6ms and an irreversible dephasing time of T2'=3.7ms. By modeling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, T2* and T2' are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  4. Norbadione A: synthetic approach and cesium complexation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was dedicated to the study of the synthesis and complexation studies of norbadione A: a pigment originating from a mushroom. A synthetic approach, based on a double Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, was developed. This strategy was applied with high yields to the synthesis of various norbadione A analogues, as well as to the synthesis of simple pulvinic acids. Access to functionalized precursors of the molecule was also studied and the final coupling remains to be done. Besides, a speciation study based on electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry was conducted with norbadione A and one of the analogues. This study allowed the assessment of the cesium complexation abilities of each molecule. Structural data was also obtained and complexation constants were calculated. Finally, norbadione A and various synthetic products have been tested via high-throughput screening methods and strong antioxidant properties were observed. Other biological results are also reported. (author)

  5. Vector Cesium Magnetometer for the nEDM Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We use optical pumping combined with magnetic resonance in a Cesium vapor cell in order to measure the magnetic field. A Vector Cs Magnetometer uses multiple laser beams to follow the dynamics of the spin in 3D. The 3D signal is used to extract the Larmor frequency of the spins, and to extract the direction of the magnetic field through the path of the spins. The magnetometer was successfully tested in a proof of principle experiment. Its measured performance is ∼50 pT/Hz1/2 for the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, and ∼500 fT/Hz1/2 for the direction parallel to the magnetic field. (author)

  6. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Reitz, D; Mitsch, R; Schneeweiss, P; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  7. Quantitative analysis of cesium in synthetic lithium molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical technique for fission products in lithium molten salts of spent PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) fuels has been studied for the establishment of optimum chemical engineering process and the evaluation of process material balance in developing Direct Oxide Reduction Process with lithium metal. As part of the basic research, synthetic dissolver solutions of lithium chloride containing trace amounts of fission product elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y, Cs, Ru, Rh, Pd, Mo, Zr, Cd, Ba, Sr, Te and Se) was prepared and used in establishing the selective separation technique of cesium from lithium chloride matrix using cation exchange chromatography. Its recovery was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the reliability of this technique was evaluate

  8. Elastic scattering of sodium and cesium atoms at ultracold temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji-Cai; Wang Ke-Dong; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The elastic scattering properties in a mixture of sodium and cesium atoms are investigated at cold and ultracold temperatures. Based on the accurate interatomic potential for the NaCs mixture,the interspecies s-wave scattering lengths,the effective ranges and the p-wave scattering lengths are calculated by the quantal method and the semiclassical method,respectively. The s-wave scattering lengths are 512.7ao for the singlet state and 33.4ao for the triplet state. In addition,the spin-change and elastic cross sections are also calculated,and the g-wave shape resonance is found in the total elastic cross sections.

  9. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  10. Can the 126 GeV boson be a pseudoscalar?

    CERN Document Server

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E

    2012-01-01

    We test the possibility that the newly-discovered 126 GeV boson is a pseudoscalar by examining the correlations among the loop-induced pseudoscalar decay branching fractions to $\\gamma\\gamma$, $ZZ^*$, $Z\\gamma$, and $WW^*$ final states in a model-independent way. These four decays are controlled by only two effective operators, so that the rates in $Z\\gamma$ and $WW^*$ are predicted now that the rates in $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $ZZ^*,Z\\gamma^* \\to 4 \\ell$ have been measured. We find that the pseudoscalar possibility is disfavored but not conclusively excluded. Experimental exclusion of the $Z\\gamma$ decay to well below $\\sigma/\\sigma_{\\rm SM} \\sim 170$ or conclusive observation of the $WW^*$ decay near the Standard Model rate would eliminate the pseudoscalar possibility. The $Z\\gamma$ exclusion should be possible using existing data. The only loophole in our argument is the possibility that the $4\\ell$ signal comes from pseudoscalar decays to a pair of new neutral gauge bosons with mass near the $Z$ pole.

  11. Candlestick oven with a silica wick provides an intense collimated cesium atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailloux, A.; Alpettaz, T.; Lizon, E.

    2007-02-01

    This article shows that readily available glass and silica fibers and braids are suitable capillary structure for recirculating ovens, such as candlestick ovens, becoming then an alternative wick material to conventional metal based capillary structures. In order to study wettability and capillarity of metallic liquid cesium on borosilicate and silica microstructures, samples were selected, prepared, and tested experimentally. The contact angle of cesium on silica glass was roughly measured: θ =35°±10°. A commercially available silica braid was then introduced inside a candlestick oven to transfer the metallic liquid cesium from the cold reservoir to the hot emission point of the candlestick. A collimated cesium atomic beam of intensity of 2×1016at./ssr was obtained, stable and reproducible. Furthermore, this modified oven is easy to handle daily.

  12. Preparation, structure and application of a new ecomaterials cesium ion-sieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new ecomaterials cesium ion-sieve (Cs-IS), which has high selectivity to cesium and excellent acid resistance, is prepared with zirconyl molybdopyrophosphate as its matrix by specific chemical sieve-making means. Cs-IS has large exchange capacity ( 1.83mmol@g-1) and high distribution coefficient (4.09 x 104 mL@ L-1) in the medium of 3 mol@ L- 1 HNO3. In the static exchange with strongly acidic high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) (3 mol@ L-1 HNO3), Cs-IS exhibits high exchange rate for cesium (above 96.53 % ) and large separation factor (greater than 958.41). These indicate the possible use of Cs-IS in cesium-137 selective removal and recovery from highly saline acidic HLLW system.

  13. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent. PMID:22464752

  14. Synthesis of novel calix[4]crown telomers and selective extraction of cesium ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Bing Li; Yuan Yin Chen; De Jun Xiong; Jun Yan Zhan; Cui Ping Han

    2007-01-01

    p-tert-Butylcalix[4]diazacrown-4 telomer, which contains hard and soft ion binding sites, was synthesized. It exhibited high selectivity toward cesium ions. The binding sites may complex alkali metal ions selectively.

  15. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  16. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  17. Assessment of food calcium radioprotection effectiveness against cesium-137, added alone and with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fish product with addition of food calcium had radioprotective properties, resulted in decreased cesium-137 content in organs and tissues of animals by 40-60% and lesser changes in differential blood count and biochemical indexes of blood serum

  18. Cold cesium molecules produced directly in a magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Shan; Ji Zhong-Hua; Yuan Jin-Peng; Zhao Yan-Ting; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of ultracold ground electric-state cesium molecules produced directly in a magnetooptical trap with a good signal-to-noise ratio.These molecules arise from the photoassociation of magneto-optical trap lasers and they are detected by resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization technology.The production rate of ultracold cesium molecules is up to 4× 104 s-1.We measure the characteristic time of the ground electric-state cesium molecules generated in the experiment and investigate the Cs2+ molecular ion intensity as a function of the trapping laser intensity and the ionization pulse laser energy.We conclude that the production of cold cesium molecules may be enhanced by using appropriate experimental parameters,which is useful for future experiments involving the production and trapping of ultracold ground electric-state molecules.

  19. Cs2 ‘diffuse bands’ emission from superheated cesium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Thomas, N.; Mathew, J.; Beuc, R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal emission from superheated cesium vapor was studied to very high temperatures from 700 °C to 1000 °C. This was performed in the vapor condition only and with no liquid cesium present in the all-sapphire cell. We observed a number of atomic and molecular spectral features simultaneously in emission and absorption, especially peculiar thermal emission of cesium dimer diffuse bands (2 3Πg → a 3∑u + transitions) around 710 nm coexisting with absorption bands around first resonance lines at 852 and 894 nm. We performed appropriate calculations of the diffuse band emission profiles and compared them with measured profiles. We also performed absorption measurements and compared observed diffuse band profiles with calculated ones. Possible applications of the observed phenomena will be discussed in terms of the solar energy conversion using dense cesium vapor.

  20. Fission of Multiply Charged Cesium and Potassium Clusters in Helium Droplets - Approaching the Rayleigh Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Renzler, Michael; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with cesium or potassium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are $Cs_{9}^{2+}$ and $K_{11}^{2+}$; they are a factor two smaller than reported previously. The size of potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that their fissilities have been significantly overestimated. Triply charged cesium clusters as small as $Cs_{19}^{3+}$ are observed; they are a factor 2.6 smaller than previously reported. Mechanisms that may be responsible for enhanced formation of clusters with high fissilities are discussed.

  1. Fabrication and performance of fl y ash granule filter for trapping gaseous cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jang Jin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a disk-type fly ash filter has shown a good performance in trapping gaseous cesium, it has difficulty in charging filters into a filter container and discharging waste filters containing radioactive cesium from a container by remote action. To solve the difficulty of the disk-type fly ash filter, five types of granule filters, including a ball type, tube type, and sponge-structure type have been made. Among them, the best filter type was chosen through simple crucible tests. The five types of granule filters packed into containers were loaded into five alumina crucibles of 50 cc. Five grams of CsNO3 was used as a gaseous cesium source. They were then placed in a muffle furnace and heated to 900°C and maintained for 2 hours. After the experiment, the weights of the cesium trapped filters were measured. Among the five types of granule filters, the sponge-structure type granule filter was the best, which has the highest trapping capacity of cesium. Its capacity is 0.42 g-Cs/g-filter. The chosen sponge-structure type granule filters and disk-type filters have been tested using a two-zone tube furnace. Cs volatilization and Cs trapping zones were maintained at 900 and 1000°C, respectively. Sixteen grams of CsNO3 was used as a gaseous cesium source. The cesium trapping profile of the sponge-structure type granule filters was almost similar to that of the disk-type fly ash filters. For both cases, cesium was successfully trapped within the third filter.

  2. Enhanced electronic injection in organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating silver nanoclusters and cesium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Chung; Gao, Chia-Yuan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Po-Wen [Department of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The localized electric field around SNCs is enhanced. • When the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained. • The structure for efficient electron injection is critical to characteristics of the device. - Abstract: The influence of the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure (CSC-EIS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The silver nanoclusters (SNCs) are introduced between the electron-injection layers by means of thermal evaporation. When the CSC-EIS replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained because the electron-injection barrier between the cathode and the electron-transport layer is remarkably reduced from 1.2 to 0 eV. In addition, surface plasmon resonance effect will cause the enhanced localized electric field around the SNCs, resulting that electron-injection ability is further enhanced from the cathode to the emitting layer.

  3. Measurement of cesium emissions during the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to eliminate a startup test that would involve adding small amounts of radioactive cesium-137 to simulated high-level waste. In order to eliminate this test, a reliable method for measuring non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter is required. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICPMS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 μg, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. Typical particulate loadings ranged from 800 μg of cesium. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. The decontamination factors measured experimentally compared favorably with the process design basis values

  4. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  5. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. ► The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. ► Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  6. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Baiyang [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yu, Hongwen [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Abe, Yoshiteru [Kyoei Engineering Corporation, Niigata 959-1961 (Japan)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  7. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  8. 34 CFR 75.126 - Application must list all programs to which it is submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application must list all programs to which it is submitted. 75.126 Section 75.126 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT... all programs to which it is submitted. If an applicant is submitting an application for the...

  9. Effects of PCB 126 and cadmium on the anaerobic metabolism of the mussel Mytilus edulis L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.; Zurburg, W.; Schipper, C.A.; Sandee, B.; Smaal, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of mussels to PCB 126 and/or cadmium resulted in elevated anaerobic metabolic activity during 48 hr of aerial exposure. In mussels exposed to PCB 126 or cadmium this was achieved by an increased opine production. The largest increase was observed in PCB exposed mussels. In mussels that were

  10. 13 CFR 126.800 - Who may protest the status of a qualified HUBZone SBC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may protest the status of a qualified HUBZone SBC? 126.800 Section 126.800 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... apparent successful offeror's qualified HUBZone SBC status....

  11. 22 CFR 126.1 - Prohibited exports and sales to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applies to countries with respect to which the United States maintains an arms embargo (e.g., Burma, China... type enumerated on the United States Munitions List (22 CFR part 121), irrespective of origin, are... countries. 126.1 Section 126.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN...

  12. 49 CFR 572.126 - Knees and knee impact test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Knees and knee impact test procedure. 572.126... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Six-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.126 Knees and knee impact test procedure. (a)...

  13. 13 CFR 126.303 - Where must a concern submit its application and certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where must a concern submit its application and certification? 126.303 Section 126.303 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... certification? A concern seeking certification as a HUBZone SBC must submit either an electronic application...

  14. 13 CFR 126.305 - What format must the certification to SBA take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What format must the certification to SBA take? 126.305 Section 126.305 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... submit the required information in either a written or electronic application form provided by SBA....

  15. 50 CFR 648.126 - Protection of threatened and endangered sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sea turtles. This section supplements existing regulations issued to regulate incidental take of sea turtles under authority of the Endangered Species Act under 50 CFR parts 222 and 223. In addition to the... sea turtles. 648.126 Section 648.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND...

  16. Study on No- carrier-added Separation of 126Sn From High-level Liquid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    126Sn is a long-lived fission product nuclide, its fission yield values, in fission of 235U by thermalneutron, fission spectrum neutron and high energy neutron, are 5.59×10-2%, 1.39×10-1% and 1.76%,respectively. So scientists are paying more attention to 126Sn in high radioactive waste disposal.

  17. The effects of K+ growth conditions on the accumulation of cesium by the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hailei; KONG; Fanjing; ZHENG; Mianping

    2006-01-01

    The accumulation of cesium by the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG6 was examined under different K+ growth conditions. The effects of external pH and Na+ on the accumulation of cesium were also studied, and the mechanism involved was discussed. K+ regimes played an important role in the accumulation of cesium by the strain TibetanG6. The quantity of cesium accumulated (24 h) was much higher in K+-deficient regime than that in K+-sufficient regime. The pH and Na+ had different effects on the accumulation of cesium in the two K+ regimes. IR spectra analyses indicated that the biosorption is a process of homeostasis with cesium initially accumulated on the cell wall.

  18. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environment. Part. 4. Factors influencing depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the vertical migration behavior of radioactive cesium, which contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of radioactive cesium in different type of soils, e.g., bare ground, grass land, conifer forest floor were measured on October 2011, 2012, 2013, in Abiko, Chiba, Japan. Even three years after the deposition, most of radioactive cesium were deposited in the depths of within 5 cm at anywhere in this area. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil was significantly correlated with organic matter content in soils (r=0.82; p<0.0001), whereas the factors such as potassium ion and ammonium ion in soil, stable cesium content, and clay mineral content were not correlated clearly. This indicates that the vertical migration rate of radioactive cesium is very slow and it would be influenced by organic matter in soil, not just clay. (author)

  19. Syndecan-1 responsive microRNA-126 and 149 regulate cell proliferation in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji [Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Tatsumi, Yoshihiro [Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Department of Urology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiyohide [Department of Urology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Konishi, Noboru, E-mail: nkonishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Syndecan-1 is highly expressed in androgen independent prostate cancer cells, PC3. • Syndecan-1 regulates the expression of miR-126 and -149 in prostate cancer cells. • MiR-126 and 149 control cell growth via p21 induction and senescence mechanism. • MiR-126 and 149 promote cell proliferation by suppressing SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19–24 nt), low molecular weight RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of target genes associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and development, by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression of miRNA-126 (miR-126) and miR-149 in prostate cancer, and investigated the molecular mechanisms by which they affect syndecan-1 in prostate cancer. Functional analysis of miR-126 and miR-149 was conducted in the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3, Du145, and LNCaP. The expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, Oct4, miR-126 and miR-149 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. After silencing syndecan-1, miR-126, and/or miR-149 in the PC3 cells, cell proliferation, senescence, and p21 induction were assessed using the MTS assay, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Compared to the Du145 and LNCaP cells, PC3 cells exhibited higher expression of syndecan-1. When syndecan-1 was silenced, the PC3 cells showed reduced expression of miR-126 and miR-149 most effectively. Suppression of miR-126 and/or miR-149 significantly inhibited cell growth via p21 induction and subsequently, induced senescence. The mRNA expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4 were significantly increased in response to the silencing of miR-126 and/or miR-149. Our results suggest that miR-126 and miR-149 are associated with the expression of syndecan-1 in prostate cancer cells. These miRNAs promote cell proliferation by suppressing SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4. The regulation of these factors by mi

  20. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  1. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  2. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven fully loaded 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 15000C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of 137Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded 137Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10-10 kg m-2s-1, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10-12 kg m-2s-1. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10-16m2s-1, 6.88 x 10-17m2s-1, and 1.35 x 10-17m2s-1, respectively

  3. Tyrphostin AG126 exerts neuroprotection in CNS inflammation by a dual mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzfeld, Christiane; John, Michael; van Rossum, Denise; Regen, Tommy; Scheffel, Jörg; Janova, Hana; Götz, Alexander; Ribes, Sandra; Nau, Roland; Borisch, Angela; Boutin, Philippe; Neumann, Konstantin; Bremes, Vanessa; Wienands, Jürgen; Reichardt, Holger M; Lühder, Fred; Tischner, Denise; Waetzig, Vicky; Herdegen, Thomas; Teismann, Peter; Greig, Iain; Müller, Michael; Pukrop, Tobias; Mildner, Alexander; Kettenmann, Helmut; Brück, Wolfgang; Prinz, Marco; Rotshenker, Shlomo; Weber, Martin S; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    2015-06-01

    The putative protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor tyrphostin AG126 has proven beneficial in various models of inflammatory disease. Yet molecular targets and cellular mechanisms remained enigmatic. We demonstrate here that AG126 treatment has beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis. AG126 alleviates the clinical symptoms, diminishes encephalitogenic Th17 differentiation, reduces inflammatory CNS infiltration as well as microglia activation and attenuates myelin damage. We show that AG126 directly inhibits Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a PTK associated with B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, BTK inhibition cannot account for the entire activity spectrum. Effects on TLR-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in microglia involve AG126 hydrolysis and conversion of its dinitrile side chain to malononitrile (MN). Notably, while liberated MN can subsequently mediate critical AG126 features, full protection in EAE still requires delivery of intact AG126. Its anti-inflammatory potential and especially interference with TLR signaling thus rely on a dual mechanism encompassing BTK and a novel MN-sensitive target. Both principles bear great potential for the therapeutic management of disturbed innate and adaptive immune functions. PMID:25731696

  4. The crystal structures of potassium and cesium trivanadates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.; Block, S.

    1966-01-01

    Potassium and cesium trivanadates are monoclinic and isomorphous, space group P21/m, with the following dimensions (Z = 2): KV3O8, a = 7.640 A, b = 8.380 A, c = 4.979 A, ??= 96?? 57???; CsV3O8, a = 8.176 A, b = 8.519 A, c = 4.988 A, ?? = 95?? 32???. The crystal structure of KV3O8 has been determined from hk0, 0kl, and h0l Weissenberg data with an R factor of 0.15. The structure of CsV3O8 has been refined with 1273 hkl Weissenberg data to an R factor of 0.089. The structures consist of corrugated sheets based on a linkage of distorted VO6, octahedra. Two of the vanadium atoms lie in double, square-pyramid groups V2O8, which are linked through opposite basal corners into chains along the b axis. The chains are joined laterally along the c axis into sheets by the third vanadium atom in VO groups, also forming part of a square-pyramid coordination. Various aspects of these structures are compared with other known oxovanadate structures.

  5. ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

  6. Cesium sorption and desorption behavior of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium sorption and desorption of clay minerals (montmorillonite, beidellite, nontronite, weathered biotite, rectorite and illite) were investigated by consecutive sorption-desorption (CSD) experiments. In batch sorption experiment, two solutions with different Cs concentration 10-3 and 10-7 mol/L) were used. In batch desorption experiments, Cs sorbed samples in sorption experiments were treated 5 times with 1 mol/L ammonium acetate solution. In the case of CSD experiments using 10-3 mol/L Cs solution, the exchangeable cations (Na, Ca, and K) in the clay samples affected to the sorption ratio of Cs, and this effect depended on the type of clay mineral. The desorption ratios of untreated, Na-exchanged and Ca-exchanged weathered biotite ranged from 23 to 33%, while that of other samples was over 80%. In the case of CSD experiments using 10-7 mol/L Cs solution, the sorption ratio of montmorillonite was smaller than that of the other clay samples. In desorption experiments, more than 10-9 mol sorbed Cs remained in 1.0 g of the sample after 5 extraction times. These results indicate that all examined clay samples are able to strongly adsorb Cs with a capacity of more than 10-9 mol/g. (author)

  7. Broadband Vibrational Cooling of Cold Cesium Molecules: Theory and Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Sofikitis; A. Fioretti; S. Weber; M. Viteau; A. Chotia; R. Horchani; M. Allegrini; B. Chatel; D. Comparat; P. Pillet

    2009-01-01

    The use of a broadband, frequency shaped femtosecond laser on translationally cold cesium molecules has recently demonstrated to be a very efficient method of cooling also the vibrational degree of freedom. A sample of cold molecules, initially distributed over several vibrational levels, has thus been transfered into a single selected vibrational level of the singlet X1∑g ground electronic state. Our method is based on repeated optical pumping by laser light with a spectrum broad enough to excite all populated vibrational levels but limited in its frequency bandwidth with a spatial light modulator. In such a way we are able to eliminate transitions from the selected level, in which molecules accumulate. In this paper we briefly report the main experimental results and then address, in a detailed way by computer simulations, the perspectives for a "complete" cooling of the molecules, including also the rotational degree of freedom. Since the pumping process strongly depends on the rclative shape of the ground and excited potential curves, ro-vibrational cooling through different excited states is theoretically compared.

  8. Evaluation of a cesium adsorbent grafted with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takuya; Seko, Noriaki; Amada, Haruyo; Kasai, Noboru; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A fibrous cesium (Cs) adsorbent was developed using radiation-induced graft polymerization with a cross-linked structure containing a highly stable adsorption ligand. The ligand, ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP), was successfully introduced onto the fibrous polyethylene trunk material. The resulting Cs adsorbent contained 36% nonwoven fabric polyethylene (NFPE), 1% AMP, 2% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and 61% glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorbent's Cs adsorption capacity was evaluated using batch and column tests. It was determined that the adsorbent could be used in a wide pH range. The amount of desorbed molybdenum, which can be used as an estimate for AMP stability on the Cs adsorbent, was minimized at the standard drinking water pH range of 5.8-8.6. Based from the inspection on the adherence of these results to the requirements set forth by the Food Sanitation Act by a third party organization, it can be concluded that the developed Cs adsorbent can be safely utilized for drinking water.

  9. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na{sup +}. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A&M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications.

  10. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  11. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department's mission as stated in that document. ''The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.''

  12. Misinterpretation on the risk of radioactive cesium contained in the disaster wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka Prefectural Government accepted the disaster wastes contained radioactive cesium after investigation them during one year. I explained the process and discussed about the risk management by people and the self-government body. The environmental pollution by radioactive cesium and Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials, the progress of treatment of debris, the concentration of radioactive cesium in debris, the acceptance conditions of debris contained small amount of radioactive cesium, evaluation of effects of radioactive materials in debris on the environment, and citizen's opinion of Osaka prefecture are described. The important investigation area of radioactive contamination on the basis of Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials, total amount of waste from Fukushima nuclear accident and debris in Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima prefecture, the concentration of radioactive cesium in debris in Rikuzentakata and Miyako city as of September, 2011, and cumulative number of citizen's opinion to Osaka are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. Local mat-forming cyanobacteria effectively facilitate decontamination of radioactive cesium in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective and widespread method to decontaminate radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster was peeling topsoil. But the method had problems, such as large amounts of discarded soil and large-scale work. In nature, cyanobacteria formed biomats on the ground surface and facilitated peeling topsoil when the biomats dried. The cyanobacteria-facilitating peeling decontamination method utilized these cyanobacterial properties. Cyanobacteria are located all over Japan and 'local' cyanobacteria could be used for decontamination without introducing new species. Utilizing cyanobacteria could decrease the amount of discarded soil to about 30% and downsize the execution-scale to individual locations. Cyanobacterial biomats were easily cultivated, especially in rice fields, by maintaining wet conditions and exposure to 100 - 83% solar radiation. Shading by a thin net was helpful in maintaining an environment suitable for cyanobacteria. Nowadays, to prevent uptake of radioactive cesium into rice, K+ is usually added to fertilizer in rice fields. The K+ fertilization in rice fields might also enhance cyanobacterial capture of radioactive cesium, because high concentrations of K+ enhanced cyanobacterial uptake of Cs+. Cyanobacteria could also mitigate the risk of radioactive cesium moving away from a decontaminating rice field. Therefore, the cyanobacteria-facilitating peeling decontamination method was proposed as an easy and safe 'D.I.Y.' method for both farmers and the environment. Besides, plowing rice fields with water before peeling improved the efficiency of this method, because plowing increased the radioactive cesium concentration in the topsoil. (author)

  14. Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particles (MAG*SEPSM) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEPSM particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEPSM particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEPSM particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective

  15. Efficiency of fly ash belite cement and zeolite matrices for immobilizing cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, S; Guerrero, A; Lorenzo, M P

    2006-10-11

    The efficiency of innovative matrices for immobilizing cesium is presented in this work. The matrix formulation included the use of fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) and gismondine-type Na-P1 zeolite, both of which are synthesized from fly ash of coal combustion. The efficiency for immobilizing cesium is evaluated from the leaching test ANSI/ANS 16.1-1986 at the temperature of 40 degrees C, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient of cesium is obtained. Matrices with 100% of FABC-2-W are used as a reference. The integrity of matrices is evaluated by porosity and pore-size distribution from mercury intrusion porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Both matrices can be classified as good solidify systems for cesium, specially the FABC-2-W/zeolite matrix in which the replacement of 50% of belite cement by the gismondine-type Na-P1 zeolite caused a decrease of two orders of magnitude of cesium mean Effective Diffusion Coefficient (D(e)) (2.8e-09 cm(2)/s versus 2.2e-07 cm(2)/s, for FABC-2-W/zeolite and FABC-2-W matrices, respectively). PMID:16759800

  16. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssni El-Saied

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+ on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the kaolin. Paper handsheets were prepared containing various percentages of the modified kaolin. The mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets were studied. The prepared paper handsheets were irradiated by gamma irradiation using different doses. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the effect of kaolin modification by cesium and gamma irradiation on paper handsheets properties. The results indicated that modified kaolin enhanced the mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS were also used. They provided rapid, sensitive and nondestructive techniques in differentiating between different questioned documents. This study presents a new concept in manufacturing security papers and anticounterfeiting applications.

  17. Cesium-137 in soil texture fractions and its impact on Cesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies at two sites contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout showed 137Cesium (Cs) soil-to-plant transfer factors in wheat, rye and potato. Transfer values ranged from 0.0017 (potato tuber) to 0.07 (wheat straw). Generally transfer coefficients in cereal grains and potato tubers were significantly below the values of the shoots. A comparison of the two sites led to the conclusion that for all plants investigated 137Cs transfer factors were higher in Lower Austria (Calcic Chernozem) than in Upper Austria (Eutric Cambisol). The specific activities of the texture fractions of the two soil types increased from sand to silt and clay. In the Calcic Chernozem the ratio of the 137Cs activity in the silt fraction to the total activity in the soil was considerably higher than in the Eutric Cambisol. At the same time extractability of 137Cs from the silt fraction of the latter soil was clearly lower. Both results mainly were attributed to the differences between the soils according to the organic matter content of the silt fractions, the Calcic Chernozem being seven times higher. Therefore, the differences in the 137Cs-soil-to-plant transfer can be attributed partly to these soil characteristics. (authors)

  18. 77 FR 41473 - Proposed Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C126b, 406 MHz Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Proposed Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C126b, 406 MHz Emergency Locator... Transmitter (ELT) Equipment, and TSO-C126/C126a, 406 MHz Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) AGENCY: Federal...) Transportation Safety Board of Canada Aviation Safety Advisory A11W0151-D1-A2, Loose Attachment of Kannad 406...

  19. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.160 Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  20. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YER081W, YPR126C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YPR126C - Dubious open reading frame unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative...ubious open reading frame unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative

  1. High Power Narrow Linewidth 1.26 Micron Ho-Doped Fiber Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26-micron Ho-doped fluoride fiber amplifier. The proposed fiber...

  2. Estimating Magic Numbers Larger Than 126 by Fermi-Yang Liming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-Hui; ZHOU Zhi-Ning; ZHONG Yu-Shu; YANG Ze-Sen

    2001-01-01

    The Fermi Yang Liming method is followed and developed to estimate new magic numbers in nuclei with a Woods Saxon density function. The calculated results predict that the magic number next to 126 should be around 184 and 258.

  3. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms; Sympathetisches Kuehlen in einer Rubidium-Caesium-Mischung: Erzeugung ultrakalter Caesiumatome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,m{sub f}=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,m{sub f}=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,m{sub f}=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The

  4. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  5. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  6. Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger

  7. Immobilisation and solidification of cesium on 11 A calcium silicate hydroxy hydrate column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium silicate hydrate closely resembling silicate mineral 11 A tobermorite has been synthesised by hydrothermal treatment of lime and silica at 175 degC. The synthetic mineral exhibits selectivity for Cs+ in the presence of strong solutions of alkali and alkaline earth cations, viz, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, etc. The Al-substituted form of this mineral effectively separates cesium ion when used as an exchanger in column of size 35x5 mm (hxr). It is possible to remove 98.65±0.5%Cs+ from a mixed solution of cesium and sodium (0.0001N Cs+ + 0.5N Na+). Column separation of cesium from simulated intermediate level waste solution shows that from the first run ∼ 76% Cs+ can be immobilised on a small column, 18x10mm (hxr), having 2.0 g of exchanger. (author)

  8. Studies of cesium and strontium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) were measured for cesium and strontium in 16 samples of Canadian unconsolidated geological materials. The samples were collected to cover a wide range of grain size, clay-mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and carbonate mineral content. Distribution coefficients ranged between 102 and 2.0 x 104 ml/g for cesium and between 2.5 and 102 ml/g for strontium, indicating that most unconsolidated geological materials have a substantial ability to retard the migration of cesium, while strontium could generally be expected to be somewhat more mobile. The measured K values were not significantly correlated with the measured soil properties, but appeared to be significantly affected by the background concentration of stable isotopes of the respective radionuclides

  9. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  10. Phosphate ceramic solidification and stabilization of cesium-containing crystalline silicotitanate resins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.

    1999-05-11

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP)-bonded cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resins. Typical waste loading of CST resins in the final waste forms was 50 wt.%. Physical and chemical characterization of the MKP materials has shown them to be physically, chemically, and mineralogically stable. Long-term durability studies (using the AN 16.1 standard test) showed a leachability index of {approx}18 for cesium in the phosphate matrix when exposed to deionized water under ambient and elevated temperatures. Leaching of cesium was somewhat higher than in glass waste forms as per PCT and MCC-1 tests. MKP-based final waste forms showed no significant weight changes after exposure to aqueous media for {approx}90 days, indicating the highly insoluble nature of the phosphate matrix. In addition, durability of the CST-MKP waste forms was further established by freeze-thaw cycling tests.

  11. Determining Reactor Flux from Xenon-136 and Cesium-135 in Spent Fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to infer the reactor flux from spent fuel or seized fissile material would enhance the tools of nuclear forensics and nuclear nonproliferation significantly. We show that reactor flux can be inferred from the ratios of xenon-136 to xenon-134 and cesium-135 to cesium-137. If the average flux of a reactor is known, the flux inferred from measurements of spent fuel could help determine whether that spent fuel was loaded as a blanket or close to the mid-plane of the reactor. The cesium ratio also provides information on reactor shutdowns during the irradiation of fuel, which could prove valuable for identifying the reactor in question through comparisons with satellite reactor heat monitoring data. We derive analytic expressions for these correlations and compare them to experimental data and to detailed reactor burn simulations. The enrichment of the original uranium fuel affects the correlations by up to 3 percent, but only at high flux.

  12. Reduction of cesium levels in the diet through management of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several processes influence the radionuclide concentration of food products during processing: dilution, losses, concentration. Boiling of leaf vegetables yields a decontamination effect of up to 80% in the case of radioiodine. Peeling of potato tubers results in a reduction of the cesium concentration of 30%. The cesium and strontium concentration of flour is a factor of two lower as compared to the corresponding cereal grain due to the milling process. Significant discrimination occurs during the milk processing. The skimmed milk is significantly richer in cesium, iodine and especially in strontium than the cream. It follows that butter is depleted in its radionuclide contents as compared to other milk produce. Strontium is concentrated in the casein. Pressurized cooking in combination with salting or a treatment with acetic acid results in an Cs-activity loss of beef, veal and lamb meat of 50 to 90%. (Author) 3 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Continuous Separation of Cesium Based on NiHCF/PTCF Electrode by Electrochemically Switched Ion Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌; 郝晓刚; 王忠德; 张忠林; 刘世斌; 官国清

    2012-01-01

    Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) film was synthesized on porous three-dimensional carbon felt (PTCF) substrate by repetitious batch chemical depositions, and the NiHCF/PTCF electrode was used as electrochemically switched ion exchange (ESIX) electrode in a packed bed for continuous separation for cesium ions. The morphologies of the prepared electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and the effects of solution concentration on the ion-exchange capacity of the electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Cycling stability and long-term storage stability of NiHCF/PTCF electrodes were also studied. The NiHCF/PTCF electrodes with excellent ion-exchange ability were used to assemble a diaphragm-isolated ESIX reactor for cesium separation. Continuous separation of cesium and regeneration of NiHCF/PTCF electrode based on the diaphragm-isolated reactor were performed in a laboratory-scale two-electrode system.

  14. 126例结核性腹膜炎临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 126 Cases of Tuberculous Peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘风霞; 战云飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of tuberculosis preitonitis and explore the diagnosis and treatment methods.Methods Analyze 126 cases who had tubeculous peritonitis diagnoded in our hospital retrospectively.Results 79.3% ( 100/126) of the cases have incrsased biood sedimentation rates.PPD testings are positive in 62.2% (74/119 ) of the cases.39.7% (50/126)have anti-tuberculosis antibody.Abdomen B-ultrasonic are positive in 78.6% (99/126).Abdomen CT examinations are positive in 48.7% (38/78).X-ray examinations of breast are positive in 40.5% (51/126).Activity of ascitos adenosine deaminase(ADA) increased in 73.9% (34/46).Peritoneoscopy showed positive findings in 88% ( 16/18 ).Petitoneum bispoy is in 100/100 (6/6).By means of prompt diagnosis and reasonal medication,the total treatment effective rate was 80.15%.Conclusion The level of clinical diagnosis and treatment for tuberculous peritonitis could be elevated by making the correct final diagnosis combined with the different ways and with the routine drug treatnent of internal medicine and surgical intervention.%目的 分析结核性腹膜炎的临床特点,探讨其诊断和治疗方法.方法 分析2002年3月~2009年1月我院确诊126例结核性腹膜炎患者的临床特点.结果 各项检查的阳性率分别为血沉增快79.3%(100/126),PPD阳性62.2%(74/119),血结核抗体39.7(50/126),腹部B超78.6%(99/126),腹部CT 48.7(38/78),胸部X线片40.5%(51/126),腹水腺苷酸脱氨酶(ADA)活性增高73.9(34/46),腹腔镜检查阳性88.9%(16/18),腹膜活检100%(6/6),通过各项诊断方法及时诊断,合理用药,治疗总有效率达 80.15%.结论 联合不同诊断方法,正确诊断,联合长期用药,必要时配以手术治疗,可提高结核性腹膜炎的临床诊治水平.

  15. 126 kV GIS用绝缘拉杆的研制%Preparation of Insulated Tension Pole for 126 kV GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范孝红; 史明; 董伟志; 杜超云

    2014-01-01

    采用环氧树脂、液态酸酐胶粘剂,将玻璃布与聚酯纤维布卷绕到模具中,在真空压力下浸渍,经高温固化制成真空浸胶环氧玻璃布管,并通过无丝扣粘接装配金属接头制成126 kV GIS用绝缘拉杆。对绝缘拉杆基材的力学性能和电性能进行测试,并对绝缘拉杆成品按其使用要求进行测试。结果表明:采用无丝扣粘接工艺研制的126 kV GIS用绝缘拉杆能满足126 kV GIS断路器的使用要求。%Using glass cloth and polyester fiber cloth wind a mold then impregnate the adhesive com-posed of epoxy resin and liquid anhydride under vacuum pressure, a VPI epoxy glass cloth tube was pre-pared after cured at high temperature. An insulated tension pole for 126 kV GIS was prepared using VPI epoxy glass cloth tube bond with metallic joint by unthreaded bonding technique. The mechanical proper-ties and electrical properties of the base material and end product of insulated tension pole were tested. The results show that the prepared insulated tension pole can meet the application requirements of 126 kV GIS.

  16. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  17. Cesium removal from high-pH, high-salt wastwater using crystalline silicotitanate sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Lee, D.D.

    1997-11-01

    Treatment and disposal options for Department of Energy (DOE) underground storage tank waste at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are limited by high gamma radiation fields that are produced by high concentrations of cesium in the waste. Treatment methods are needed to remove the cesium from the liquid waste and thus concentrate the cesium into high-activity, remote-handled waste forms. The treated liquids could then be processed and disposed of by more cost-effective means with less radiation exposure to workers. A full-scale demonstration of one cesium removal technology is currently being conducted at ORNL. This demonstration utilizes a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was chosen on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, has several advantages over current organic ion-exchange technologies. These advantages include (1) the ability to remove cesium in the presence of high concentrations of potassium, (2) a high affinity for cesium in both alkaline and acidic conditions, (3) physical stability over wide alkaline and acidic ranges, and (4) the elimination of large volumes of secondary waste required for regeneration of organic ion exchangers. Approximately 100,000 L of wastewater will be processed during the demonstration. The wastewater being processed has a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO{sub 3}, and a pH of 12 to 13. This paper discusses the results of the full-scale demonstration and compares these results with data from the laboratory tests.

  18. Separation of cesium from simulated active waste using zinc hexacyanoferrate supported composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate (KZnHCF) was prepared and supported on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binding polymer. This composite was characterized and used to study the elimination of cesium from acidic radioactive waste containing Sr(II), Eu(II), Am(II), Zr(IV), Hf(IV) and Nb(V) using batch and column techniques. The sorption capacity of this composite for cesium was found to be 1.14 meq/g for column technique. The effect of presence of NH4SCN, NaNo3 and other complexing agents in the aqueous solutions was studied

  19. A preliminary deposit model for lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; McCauley, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. We emphasize practical aspects of pegmatite geology that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites, or for assessing regions for pegmatite-related mineral resource potential. These deposits are an important link in the world’s supply chain of rare and strategic elements, accounting for about one-third of world lithium production, most of the tantalum, and all of the cesium.

  20. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  1. Synthesis of novel calixcrown derivatives with selective complexation towards cesium ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Juan Du; Li Hua Yuan; Dong Zhang; Gui Ping Dan; Yuan You Yang; Wen Feng

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel calix [4]arenecrown-6 derivatives with an alkenyl loop of various sizes 5-8 were synthesized via intramolecular ring closing olefin metathesis and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-HRMS. Their complexation property towards cesium ion was studied by 'H NMR technique. Two-phase extraction of alkali metal ions using UV-vis spectroscopy revealed remarkably different extractabilities. These results indicate that the complexation capacities towards cesium ions can be tuned and controlled through cooperative regulation of the strain of the loop and conformational change of calixcrown skelton.

  2. Measurement of Ionization Threshold of Ultracold Cesium Rydberg Atoms in Static Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Lin-Jie; ZHAO Jian-Ming; LI Chang-Yong; LI An-Ling; JIA Suo-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the field ionization spectra of ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms in dc electric field. The ionization thresholds of different electric fields are measured and shift of the ionization threshold relative to field-free ionization threshold is accurately described by (6.06±0.14) F1/2, which is in good agreement with the classical saddle-point model for field ionization. We obtain the field-free ionization threshold of cesium (6P,3/2) as 19674.89士2.99cm-1 by fitting experimental data.

  3. A direct frequency comb for two-photon transition spectroscopy in a cesium vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi-Chi; Wu Ji-Zhou; Li Yu-Qing; Jin Li; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Zhao Yan-Ting; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    A phase-stabilized femtosecond frequency comb is used to measure high-resolution spectra of two-photon transition 62S1/2-62P1/2,3/2-82S1/2 in a cesium vapor.The broadband laser output from a femtosecond frequency comb is split into counter-propagating parts,shaped in an original way,and focused into a room-temperature cesium vapor.We obtain high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy by scanning the repetition rate of femtosecond frequency comb,and through absolute frequency measurements.

  4. Recent progress in optically-pumped cesium beam clock at Peking University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Zhou, S.; Wan, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    A compact, long-life, and low-drift cesium beam clock is investigated at Peking University, where the atoms are magnetic-state selected and optically detected. Stability close to that of the best commercial cesium clocks has been achieved from 10 to 105 s. As previously shown, the short-term stability is determined by atomic shot noise or laser frequency noise. The stabilizations of microwave power and C-field improve the long-term stability, with the help of a digital servo system based on field-programmable gate array.

  5. Separation of cesium from rad waste solutions with hexacyanoferrate(II) resins of copper and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of radiocesium from low and intermediate level waste solutions by ion exchange with potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate(II) and potassium copper-cobalt hexacyanoferrate(II) loaded resins was studied. The distribution coefficient(Kd) of cesium as a function of sodium ion concentration was determined. High batch capacity of these resins with regards to cesium make them ideal sorbents that can be used in once through mode in the treatment of rad waste solutions. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Concentration Ratios for Cesium and Strontium in Produce Near Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Salazar, M.McNaughton, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    The ratios of the concentrations of radionuclides in produce (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to the concentrations in the soil have been measured for cesium and strontium at locations near Los Alamos. The Soil, Foodstuffs, and Biota Team of the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) obtained the data at locations within a radius of 50 miles of LANL. The concentration ratios are in good agreement with previous measurements: 0.01 to 0.06 for cesium-137 and 0.1 to 0.5 for strontium-90 (wet-weight basis).

  7. Computational study of organo-cesium complexes and the possibility of lanthanide/actinide ions substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabanal-León, Walter A.; Martinez-Ariza, Guillermo; Roberts, Sue A.; Hulme, Christopher; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2015-11-01

    Relativistic DFT calculations suggest that two organo-cesium complexes studied herein afford large HOMO-LUMO gaps of around 2.4 eV with the PBE xc-functional, which accounts for their stability. Energy decomposition studies suggest these two complexes are largely ionic with about 20% covalency. However, when the Cs+ ions are substituted by the isoelectronic La3+ and Th4+, their predicted ionicity decreases significantly. The significant increase in covalence indicates that employing Ugi reaction cascades that afford tetramic acid-based organo-cesium complexes may be extended to La3+ and Th4+ organometallics.

  8. Circulating microRNA-126 in patients with coronary artery disease: correlation with LDL cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is a major problem worldwide. Atherosclerosis and thrombosis underlying CAD involve multiple cell types. New and useful diagnostic markers are required. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the gene expressions involved in various cellular processes. Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in early processes of athero-thrombosis. Thus, it was hypothesized that the level of vascular endothelium-enriched miRNAs would be altered in plasma samples of CAD patients. Methods Vascular endothelium-enriched miRNA (miR-126 level was analyzed in plasma from 31 patients with CAD and 36 patients without CAD (qRT-PCR analysis. Results MiR-126 was not significantly down-regulated or up-regulated in CAD patients. Interestingly, the level of miR-126 was significantly decreased in patients with CAD and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level. In contrast, the level of miR-126 was significantly increased when LDL cholesterol was high in patients who had risk factors for CAD but did not have angiographically significant CAD. Conclusion MiR-126 was not significantly down-regulated or up-regulated in CAD patients and was not suitable for discriminating CAD patients from patients without CAD. The oppositely-directed relationship between miR-126 and LDL cholesterol in patients with or without CAD may have significant implications for identifying a potential role of miR-126 in cholesterol metabolism.

  9. X-ray imaging performance of structured cesium iodide scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Ristic, Goran; Rowlands, J A

    2004-09-01

    Columnar structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators doped with Thallium (Tl) have been used extensively for indirect x-ray imaging detectors. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for systematic investigation of the inherent imaging performance of CsI as a function of thickness and design type. The results will facilitate the optimization of CsI layer design for different x-ray imaging applications, and allow validation of physical models developed for the light channeling process in columnar CsI layers. CsI samples of different types and thicknesses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were optimized either for light output (HL) or image resolution (HR), and the thickness ranged between 150 and 600 microns. During experimental measurements, the CsI samples were placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS optical sensor with a pixel pitch of 48 microns. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector with different CsI configurations were measured experimentally. The aperture function of the CMOS sensor was determined separately in order to estimate the MTF of CsI alone. We also measured the pulse height distribution of the light output from both the HL and HR CsI at different x-ray energies, from which the x-ray quantum efficiency, Swank factor and x-ray conversion gain were determined. Our results showed that the MTF at 5 cycles/mm for the HR type was 50% higher than for the HL. However, the HR layer produces approximately 36% less light output. The Swank factor below K-edge was 0.91 and 0.93 for the HR and HL types, respectively, thus their DQE(0) were essentially identical. The presampling MTF decreased as a function of thickness L. The universal MTF, i.e., MTF plotted as a function of the product of spatial frequency f and CsI thickness L, increased as a function of L. This indicates that the light channeling process in CsI improved the MTF of

  10. Acetylcholinesterase triggers the aggregation of PrP 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a senile plaque component, promotes amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) fibril formation in vitro. The presence of prion protein (PrP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) senile plaques prompted us to assess if AChE could trigger the PrP peptides aggregation as well. Consequently, the efficacy of AChE on the PrP peptide spanning-residues 106-126 aggregation containing a coumarin fluorescence probe (coumarin-PrP 106-126) was studied. Kinetics of coumarin-PrP 106-126 aggregation showed a significant increase of maximum size of aggregates (MSA), which was dependent on AChE concentration. AChE-PrP 106-126 aggregates showed the tinctorial and optical amyloid properties as determined by polarized light and electronic microscopy analysis. A remarkable inhibition of MSA was obtained with propidium iodide, suggesting that AChE triggers PrP 106-126 and Aβ aggregation through a similar mechanism. Huprines (AChE inhibitors) also significantly decreased MSA induced by AChE as well, unveiling the potential interest for some AChE inhibitors as a novel class of potential anti-prion drugs

  11. Influence of PrP 106 - 126 on expression of laminin and fibronectin in astrocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YuRong; GUAN LeLuo; YANG JianMin; ZHOU XiangMei; YIN XiaoMin; ZHAO DeMing

    2008-01-01

    Astrogliosis is a hallmark of prion disease, but the metabolic alterations of astrocytes remain poorly documented. A synthetic pepUde corresponding to amino acid 106-126 of the human prion protein (PrP) has been shown to be toxic to neurons. In this study, the effects of PrP 106-126 on astrocytes were investigated in vitro. The proliferation of astrocytes was significantly (P < 0.05) increased when grown in media conditioned with PrP 106-126 (80 μmol/L) from microglia. The expression of laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) was examined at both mRNA and protein levels. The results showed that ex-posure of astrocytes to PrP 106-126 enhanced the expression of LN and FN. The increase of FN in astrocyte cultures required cytokines previously released by activated microglia. This study reveals the expression ofLN and FN affected by PrP106-126.

  12. Zinc, copper, and carnosine attenuate neurotoxicity of prion fragment PrP106-126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Masahiro; Koyama, Hironari; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sadakane, Yutaka

    2011-07-01

    Prion diseases are progressive neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with the conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to abnormal pathogenic prion protein (PrP(SC)) by conformational changes. Prion protein is a metal-binding protein that is suggested to be involved in metal homeostasis. We investigated here the effects of trace elements on the conformational changes and neurotoxicity of synthetic prion peptide (PrP106-126). PrP106-126 exhibited the formation of β-sheet structures and enhanced neurotoxicity during the aging process. The co-existence of Zn(2+) or Cu(2+) during aging inhibited β-sheet formation by PrP106-126 and attenuated its neurotoxicity on primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Although PrP106-126 formed amyloid-like fibrils as observed by atomic force microscopy, the height of the fibers was decreased in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cu(2+). Carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) significantly inhibited both the β-sheet formation and the neurotoxicity of PrP106-126. Our results suggested that Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) might be involved in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. It is also possible that carnosine might become a candidate for therapeutic treatments for prion diseases. PMID:21442127

  13. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of 126 I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of 125 I where 126 I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of 126 I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the 127 I(n, 2n)126 I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of 126 I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The βbranch measurement was carried out in a 4 π(PC)β-γ coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-γ coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  14. Physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on diffusivity of cesium and strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J G; Park, S M; Lee, H K

    2016-11-15

    The present study investigates the physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on leaching behavior of cesium and strontium. Fly ash-based geopolymers and slag-blended geopolymers were used as solidification agents. The leaching behavior of cesium and strontium from geopolymers was evaluated in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1. The diffusivity of cesium and strontium in a fly ash-based geopolymer was lower than that in Portland cement by a factor of 10(3) and 10(4), respectively, showing significantly improved immobilization performance. The leaching resistance of fly ash-based geopolymer was relatively constant regardless of the type of fly ash. The diffusivity of water-soluble cesium and strontium ions were highly correlated with the critical pore diameter of the binder. The critical pore diameter of the fly ash-based geopolymer was remarkably smaller than those of Portland cement and slag-blended geopolymer; consequently, its ability physically to retard the diffusion of nuclides (physical barrier effect) was superior.

  15. Immobilisation of radio cesium loaded ammonium molybdo phosphate in glass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long half life and easy availability from high level wastes make 137Cesium most economical radiation source. High level liquid waste processing for 137 Cesium removal has become easier due to development of Cesium specific granulated ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) composite. In such applications, resulting spent composite AMP itself represents high active solid waste and immobilization of these materials in cement may not be acceptable. Studies on immobilization of 137Cs loaded AMP were taken up in order to achieve twin goals of increasing safety and minimizing processing costs of the final matrix. Studies indicated that phosphate modified sodium borosilicate SPNM glasses prepared under usual oxidizing conditions are not suitable for immobilization of 137Cs loaded on AMP .Phosphate glasses containing Na2O, P2O5, B2O3, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 as major constituents are capable of incorporating 6 to 8 % AMP. The Normalized Leach rates of these glasses for sodium, cesium, boron and silica are 10-4 to 10-6 gm/cm2/day which are comparable to or better than those reported for NBS glasses incorporating HLW. Homogeneity of the final matrix was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. Further studies on characterization of these glasses would establish their acceptability. (author)

  16. Removal of cesium ions from waste solution using sericite incorporated into nickel hexacyanoferrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Choong; Cha, Ju-Hyun [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    To increase adsorption capacity and selectivity for cesium ions from waste solution, sericite was chemically modified by means of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) with a high selectivity trap agent for cesium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used for the characteristic analysis of surface onto the NiHCF-sericite. The adsorption capacity of cesium ions for the NiHCF-sericite increased about 2.5 times, as compared with natural sericite at initial pH 5.0 of waste solution. Adsorption equilibrium was investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 16.583mg/g, and the Langmuir isotherm fits the adsorption data better than Freundlich model. The adsorption process was determined as an exothermic reaction and all adsorption was completed in 30 min. In addition, the adsorption capacity of cesium ions was not greatly affected by ionic strength (-0.1M NaCl concentration) and other metals in mixed waste solution.

  17. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  18. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor fcs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, fcs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of fcs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V)

  19. Cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by granulometric fractions of soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measurements of radionuclide specific content in surface soil layer of contaminated territories it is important to determine in what agglomerations of soil particles there is the highest radionuclide concentration. For this purpose granulometric composition of soil at Azgir test site was studied and cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by soil fractions was researched. (author)

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. 1982 to Dec. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. to Dec. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from 22 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are sown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983) were determined. Fishes were collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fishes (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Leachability of cobalt and cesium from natural and chemically treated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of leachability of radioisotopes of cesium and cobalt from preloaded zeolites in distilled water, base solution and acid solution has been studied. For the experiment, we used natural and chemically treated zeolites. The zeolites before leaching were calcined at different temperatures. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Nanophotonic hybridization of narrow atomic cesium resonances and photonic stop gaps of opaline nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harding, P.J.; Pinkse, P.W.H.; Mosk, A.P.; Vos, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    We study a hybrid system consisting of a narrow-band atomic optical resonance and the long-range periodic order of an opaline photonic nanostructure. To this end, we have infiltrated atomic cesium vapor in a thin silica opal photonic crystal. With increasing temperature, the frequencies of the opal'

  5. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in a multi-V-type system in cesium atomic vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建明; 尹王保; 汪丽蓉; 肖连团; 贾锁堂

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency is observed in a three-level multi-V-type system in cesium vapour atroom temperature. The absorption property is measured and the hyperfine structures of atomic states can be determined.The results of the experiment agree with the theoretical analysis.

  6. Dual cesium and rubidium atomic fountain with a 10-16 level accuracy and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic fountains are the most accomplished development of the atomic clocks based on the cesium atom whose hyperfine resonance defines the SI second since 1967. Today these systems are among those which realize the second with the best accuracy. We present the last developments of the cold cesium and rubidium atom dual fountain experiment at LNE-SYRTE. This unique dual setup would allow to obtain an outstanding resolution in fundamental physics tests based on atomic transition frequency comparisons. In order to enable operation with both atomic species simultaneously, we designed, tested and implemented on the fountain new collimators which combine the laser lights corresponding to each atom. By comparing our rubidium fountain to another cesium fountain over a decade, we performed a test of the stability of the fine structure constant at the level of 5 * 10-16 per year. We carried on the work on the clock accuracy and we focused on the phase gradients effects in the interrogation cavity and on the microwave leakage. The fountain accuracy has been evaluated to 4 * 10-16 for the cesium clock and to 5 * 10-16 for the refurbished rubidium clock. As a powerful instrument of metrology, our fountain was implicated in many clock comparisons and contributed many times to calibrate the International Atomic Time. Furthermore, we used the fountain to perform a new test of Lorentz local invariance. (author)

  7. Separation of cesium-137 from uranium fission products via a NeoflonR column supporting tetraphenylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is a member of the Group I alkali metals, very reactive earth metals that react vigorously with both air and water. The chemistry of cesium is much like the chemistry of neighboring elements on the periodic table, potassium and rubidium. This close relation creates many problems in plant-life exposed to cesium because it is so easily confused for potassium, an essential nutrient to plants. Radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs are also chemically akin to potassium and stable cesium. Uptake of these radioactive isotopes from groundwater by plant-life destroys the plant-life and can potentially expose humans to the radioactive affects of 134Cs and 137Cs. Much experimental work has been focused on the separation of 137Cs from uranium fission products. In previous experimental work performed a column consisting of Kel-F supporting tetraphenylboron (TPB) was utilized to separate 137Cs from uranium fission products. It is of interest at this time to attempt the separation of 134Cs from 0.01M EDTA using the same method and Neoflon in the place of Kel-F as the inert support. The results of this experiment give a separation efficiency of 88% and show a linear relationship between the column bed length and the separation efficiency obtained. (author)

  8. Cesium Sorption from Concentrated Acidic Tank Wastes Using Ammonium Molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile Composite Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry Allen; Mann, Nicholas Robert; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.,

    2002-10-01

    Ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) composite sorbents have been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) concentrated acidic tank waste. Batch contacts were performed to qualitatively evaluate the effects of increased nitric acid, sodium and potassium. An equilibrium isotherm was generated with simulated concentrated tank waste solutions and fit to the Langmuir equation. Additional batch contact experiments were performed to determine if mercury, plutonium and americium would sorb onto AMP-PAN. Dynamic sorption was evaluated in column tests employing 1.5 cm3 columns operating at 5, 10 and 20 bed volumes of flow per hour. Results indicate, as expected, that dynamic cesium sorption capacity is reduced as the flowrate is increased. Calculated dynamic capacities for cesium were 22.5, 19.8 and 19.6 mg Cs/g sorbent, for 5, 10 and 20 bed volume per hour flows, respectively. The thermal stability of loaded AMP-PAN was evaluated by performing thermogrovimetric analysis (TGA) on samples of AMP, PAN (polymer), and AMP-PAN. Results indicate that AMP-PAN is stable to 400 °C, with less than a 10% loss of weight, which is at least partially due to loss of water of hydration. The evaluation of AMP-PAN indicates that it will effectively remove cesium from concentrated acidic tank waste solutions.

  9. Sorption behavior of cesium from aqueous solution on magnetic hexacyanoferrate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hengxuan; Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wei, Jiying; Li, Fuzhi

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel pathway of synthesizing magnetic hexacyanoferrate material was developed. • The synthesized material can offer a high capacity for sorption of cesium. • The material can offer a fast removal of cesium in kinetic performance. • The fine M-PTH particle can be easily separated from wastewater for recirculation. - Abstract: The rapid development of the nuclear power plant in China leads to increasing attention to the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). One of possibilities is the application of inorganic adsorbent like potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate (PTH), which can exhibit the effective adsorption of cesium. In this paper, the PTH material was optimized by means of being loaded on magnetite substrate. The synthesized material (magnetic PTH, M-PTH), with a particle size of less than 100 nm, can offer a high capacity and favorable kinetic performance, however, without difficulties of separation from the LLRW due to its magnetic characterizations. The batch experiments demonstrate that cesium sorption isotherm of M-PTH coincide well with Langmuir model. The calculated capacity amounts to 0.517 mmol/g, approximately 1.5 times the capacity of zeolite materials. The sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order sorption model. In the initial phase the rate-controlling step is intraparticle diffusion. With the Cs accumulation on the particle surface, external diffusion performs an important role together with intraparticle diffusion.

  10. Z' indication from new APV data in Cesium and searches at linear colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.; Gatto, R.; Riemann, S.

    2000-01-01

    New data on parity violation in atomic cesium can be explained by a new neutral vector boson almost unmixed with Z, with a mass in the TeV range and sizeable couplings to the fermions. The properties of such additional Z' can be investigated at future linear colliders.

  11. Cobalt-60 and cesium-137 for the sterilization of food. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief article discusses the reasons justifying in the eyes of the authors the irradiation of food with ionizing readiation, the irradiation technique applied using cobalt-60 and cesium-137 as a radiation source, and the possible secondary effects of the method. (VHE)

  12. High-temperature cesium capture using activated kaolinite in the presence of chlorine and volatile heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Kim, Jeoung Guk; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong Sung [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated the use of porous activated kaolin particles in the size range of 300- 400 {mu}m as high-temperature sorbents for cesium capture in the presence of chlorine and/or in the presence of cadmium and lead. Packed bed sorption tests by passing CsCl-carrying flue gas through the packed bed of activated porous kaolin particles were first performed at the temperature range of 973-1173 K and a CsCl partial pressure range of 7.4-11.1 Pa. The observed structural change of the sorbent mineral at the stage of sorption revealed the characteristics of an irreversible chemical reaction as a major cesium capturing mechanism. In the fully saturated kaolin sorbent, Cs{sub 2}O{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}SiO{sub 2} is present as a sorption reaction product, together with much smaller amount of water-soluble cesium species. The increase in sorbent bed temperature resulted in an increase in the rate of sorption, but it had no effect on maximum cesium uptake. In the presence of other condensable gas-phase metal chlorides such as cadmium and lead, cesium was preferentially adsorbed onto tested activated kaolinite, but a half of cesium appeared to be physically-sorbed cesium species, CsCl.

  13. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  14. 126例小儿肾综合征出血热临床分析%Clinical analysis of 126 children with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翠萍; 李汝勇; 郄良毅; 夏德全

    2003-01-01

    @@ 我院自1991年1月~2001年12月共收治肾综合征出血热(Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, HFRS)患者2 536例,其中14岁以下患儿126例,我们对其临床资料进行回顾性分析,以探讨小儿HFRS临床特点,供临床医师借鉴.

  15. Ion exchange kinetics of cesium for various reaction designs using crystalline silicotitanate, UOP IONSIV IE-911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hyun

    Through collaborative efforts at Texas A&M University and Sandia National Laboratories, a crystalline silicotitanate (CST), which shows extremely high selectivity for radioactive cesium removal in highly concentrated sodium solutions, was synthesized. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on a CST under cesium ion exchange conditions has been investigated. The experimental results with hydrogen peroxide showed that the distribution coefficient of cesium decreased and the tetragonal phase, the major component of CST, slowly dissolved at hydrogen peroxide concentrations greater than 1 M. A simple and novel experimental apparatus for a single-layer ion exchange column was developed to generate experimental data for estimation of the intraparticle effective diffusivity. A mathematical model is presented for estimation of effective diffusivities for a single-layer column of CST granules. The intraparticle effective diffusivity for Cs was estimated as a parameter in the analytical solution. By using the least square method, the effective diffusivities of 1.56 +/- 0.14 x 10-11 m2/s and 0.68 +/- 0.09 x 10-11 m2/s, respectively, were obtained. The difference in the two values was due to the different viscosities of the solutions. A good fit of the experimental data was obtained which supports the use of the homogeneous model for this system. A counter-current ion exchange (CCIX) process was designed to treat nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site. A numerical method based on the orthogonal collocation method was used to simulate the concentration profile of cesium in the CCIX loaded with CST granules. To maximize cesium loading onto the CST and minimize the volume of CST, two design cases of a moving bed, where the fresh CST is pulsed into the column at certain periods or at certain concentration of cesium, were investigated. Simulation results showed that cesium removal behavior in the pilot-scale test of CCIX experiment, where the column length is 22 ft and the CST is pulsed

  16. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1

  17. Biosorption of cesium by native and chemically modified biomass of marine algae: introduce the new biosorbents for biotechnology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali-Rad, R. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: rjalali@aeoi.org.ir; Ghafourian, H. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asef, Y. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dalir, S.T. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahafipour, M.H. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharanjik, B.M. [Offshore Fisheries Research Center, Chabahar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-12-10

    Biosorption batch experiments were conducted to determine the cesium binding ability of native biomass and chemically modified biosorbents derived from marine algae, namely ferrocyanide algal sorbents type 1 and type 2 (FASs1 and FASs2). The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for representation of the experimental data was investigated. The cesium sorption performances of the various types of sorbents were compared using the maximum capacities (q{sub max} values) obtained from fitting the Langmuir isotherm to the values calculated from the sorption experiments, which FASs type 1 and type 2 showed better sorption performances for cesium. FASs1 and FASs2 derived from formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde crosslinked Padina australis exhibited lower sorption capacities than those prepared from the non-crosslinked one. Most of the cesium ions were bound to FASs1, derived from Sargassum glaucescens and P. australis, in <2 min and equilibrium reached within the first 30 min of contact. Biosorption of cesium by FASs1 derived from P. australis and Cystoseria indica was constantly occurred at a wide range of pH, between 1 and 10, and the highest removal took place at pH 4. The presence of sodium and potassium at 0.5 and 1 mM did not inhibit cesium biosorption by algae biomass. The maximum cesium uptake was acquired using the large particles of FAS2 originated from S. glaucescens (2-4 mm). Desorption of cesium from the metal-laden FASs1 (from P. australis, S. glaucescens and Dictyota indica) was completely achieved applying 0.5 and 1 M NaOH and KOH, although the cesium sorption capacity of the biosorbents (from C. indica and S. glaucescens) decreased by 46-51% after 9 sorption-desorption cycles.

  18. Signature of the N=126 shell closure in dwell times of alpha-particle tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G

    2016-01-01

    Characteristic quantities such as the penetration and preformation probabilities, assault frequency and tunneling times in the tunneling description of alpha decay of heavy nuclei are explored to reveal their sensitivity to neutron numbers in the vicinity of the magic neutron number $N$ = 126. Using realistic nuclear potentials, the sensitivity of these quantities to the parameters of the theoretical approach is also tested. An investigation of the region from $N=116$ to $N=132$ in Po nuclei reveals that the tunneling $\\alpha$ particle spends the least amount of time with an $N=126$ magic daughter nucleus. The shell closure at $N=126$ seems to affect the behaviour of the dwell times of the tunneling alpha particles and this occurs through the influence of the $Q$-values involved.

  19. Signature of the N = 126 shell closure in dwell times of alpha-particle tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    Characteristic quantities such as the penetration and preformation probabilities, assault frequency and tunneling times in the tunneling description of alpha decay of heavy nuclei are explored to reveal their sensitivity to neutron numbers in the vicinity of the magic neutron number N = 126. Using realistic nuclear potentials, the sensitivity of these quantities to the parameters of the theoretical approach is also tested. An investigation of the region from N = 116 to N = 132 in Po nuclei reveals that the tunneling α particle spends the least amount of time with an N = 126 magic daughter nucleus. The shell closure at N = 126 seems to affect the behavior of the dwell times of the tunneling alpha particles and this occurs through the influence of the Q-values involved.

  20. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI ''driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE

  1. Synthesis of Iron-ferrocyanide functionalized magnetic nanocluster for the removal of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, magnetite nanocluster was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and coated with iron ferrocyanide for the adsorption of cesium in an aqueous solution through simple addition of iron ferrocyanide in acid condition. We describe the morphology, structure, and physical property of these nanoparticles. In addition, their ability to eliminate cesium from water was also evaluated. In this study, we fabricated Iron ferrocyanide immobilized magnetite nanocluster (IFC-MNC) using hydrothermal methods. The CIFC-MNC exhibited easy separation ability from water by an external magnet, and showed a high removal efficiency of cesium in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the IFC-MNC demonstrated good potential for the treatment of water contaminated with radioactive cesium. gnetic nanoadsorbents composed of a magnetic particles core and functional shell, which adsorb the contaminants, has attracted significant attention in environmental remediation owing to their high surface area and unique superparamagnetism. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011 released a huge quantity of radioactive contaminants into the environment. Among these, cesium Cs-137 is the most problematic contaminant due to its long half-life (30.2 years), and high-energy gamma ray (γ-ray) emissions. Among various adsorbents to treat Cs-137 contaminated water, metal ferrocyanides were widely applied to remove the Cs-137 in water. For better separation of metal ferrocyanide from water, recently, our group reported the fabrication of copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Cu-FC-EDA-MNPs) using alkoxysilanes, having ethylenediamine (EDA) group, modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (EDA-MNPs) for the fast and easy magnetic separation of metal ferrocyanide. However, the fabrication method was multistep procedure. Thus, a more simplified fabrication procedure is still desired

  2. An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Harold, E-mail: rogers22@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed an isotope dilution-precipitation treatment process for Cs-137 contaminated water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste seeded with non-radioactive Cs-133 prior to precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Final Cs-137 concentrations below DOE discharge limit of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/mL can be achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthetic wastewater, and industrial low level radioactive proof of principle studies completed. - Abstract: A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-{mu}m filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers.

  3. Synthesis of Iron-ferrocyanide functionalized magnetic nanocluster for the removal of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee-Man; Jang, Sung-Chan; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, magnetite nanocluster was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and coated with iron ferrocyanide for the adsorption of cesium in an aqueous solution through simple addition of iron ferrocyanide in acid condition. We describe the morphology, structure, and physical property of these nanoparticles. In addition, their ability to eliminate cesium from water was also evaluated. In this study, we fabricated Iron ferrocyanide immobilized magnetite nanocluster (IFC-MNC) using hydrothermal methods. The CIFC-MNC exhibited easy separation ability from water by an external magnet, and showed a high removal efficiency of cesium in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the IFC-MNC demonstrated good potential for the treatment of water contaminated with radioactive cesium. gnetic nanoadsorbents composed of a magnetic particles core and functional shell, which adsorb the contaminants, has attracted significant attention in environmental remediation owing to their high surface area and unique superparamagnetism. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011 released a huge quantity of radioactive contaminants into the environment. Among these, cesium Cs-137 is the most problematic contaminant due to its long half-life (30.2 years), and high-energy gamma ray (γ-ray) emissions. Among various adsorbents to treat Cs-137 contaminated water, metal ferrocyanides were widely applied to remove the Cs-137 in water. For better separation of metal ferrocyanide from water, recently, our group reported the fabrication of copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Cu-FC-EDA-MNPs) using alkoxysilanes, having ethylenediamine (EDA) group, modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (EDA-MNPs) for the fast and easy magnetic separation of metal ferrocyanide. However, the fabrication method was multistep procedure. Thus, a more simplified fabrication procedure is still desired.

  4. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  5. Potential role of microRNA-126 in the diagnosis of cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Ma, Shijie; Zhang, Yifeng; Yin, Chengqiang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cancer has become a major public concern all over the world and early diagnosis of cancer is of great benefit for treatment and prognosis. Several studies have investigated the association between abnormal circulating microRNA-126 (miR-126) expression and the risk of various cancers, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was carried out to assess the potential diagnostic value of miR-126 for cancer. Methods: Relevant studies were searched from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science and we calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) to assess the diagnostic value of miR-126 for cancer detection. Results: A total of 745 cancer patients and 749 controls from 11 studies of 7 papers were included in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity was 68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60–75%), the specificity was 76% (95% CI: 65–85%), the PLR was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.96–4.21), the NLR was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35–0.52), the DOR was 7 (95% CI: 4–11), and the AUC was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.73–0.80). Moreover, the sample type, cancer type, sample size, and quality score might be sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that miR-126 has great potential to be a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of cancer. However, more well-designed studies with larger sample size on the diagnostic value of miR-126 for cancer are needed in the future. PMID:27583885

  6. Genetic and Protein Analysis of Betadefensin 126 and Association with Success Rate of Intrauterin Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdeye Hassani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human β-defensin 126 (DEFB126 is a small cationic glycoprotein that is considered as an important component of the primates and human sperm glycocalix. It protects sperm from infection-causing microbes and against the female immune system antibodies. Human DEFB126 gene is located on the sub-telomeric region of 20p13. DEFB126 variations caused by a frame shift deletion of two cytosines was found to affect the sperms functionality. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation of this gene mutation with success rate of IUI. Methods: In the present study, the rate of DEFB126 gene mutation was elucidated in 76 Iranian men with unexplained infertility whose wives had undergone IUI with either positive or negative results. DNA properties quantified with NanoDrop spectrophotometers. Standard PCR, Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP and sequencing were used to confirm the results. Moreover,immunocytochemistry was performed for the assessment of the protein expression on sperm cells. Results: DNA quantification revealed that 24.4% of men, whose wives showed a negative result for IUI, were homozygote for this mutation, whereas none of the couples with a positive IUI result carried the mutation for this gene (P≤0.05. Moreover, the amount of this protein was decreased on the sperms of men who carried the mutant allele. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggested that common alteration in DEFB126 gene could be considered as a critical factor in the success rate of IUI operation.

  7. Cytogenetic Analysis on Wheat Female Sterile Line XND126%小麦雌性不育系XND126的细胞遗传学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 徐弘娇; 冯雪娇; 鲁媛媛; 窦秉德

    2011-01-01

    The research of wheat female sterile line was not only of important significance to the sex determination and phylogenesis mechanism of fertility in plant, but also of potential practical value to the utilization of heterosis. The mitosis of root tip cells was observed in wheat female sterile line XND126 and cultivar LiaochunlO, Longchun15 and Gaocheng 8901. The meiosis of pollen mother cell (PMC) was mainly analyzed in XND126, Fi hybrids from XND126 and 3 other parents. The result showed that the chromosome numbers in the somatic cells of the 4 parents were all 42. There were 2-6 mono-somes at meiotic metaphase I , 2 or more lagging chromosomes or chromosome bridges at meiotic anaphase I , one or multiple micronucleus at bispore and quartet in a small proportion of PMC respectively. The data suggested that there were abnormal homologous chromosomes pairing and chromosomal structural variation such as inversion in PMC of XND126. These data provided basic information to show the effect and mechanism of related genes or chromosome behavior in the phylogenesis of female or male fertility.%小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)雌性不育系的研究和选育,对认识植物的育性发生和性别决定机制具有重要的理论意义,对其杂种优势的研究和利用也具有潜在的实践价值.以小麦雌性不育系XND126及品种辽春10号、陇春15、藁城8901为试验材料,对其根尖细胞的有丝分裂过程进行了观察,重点对XND126及其所配的3个F1的花粉母细胞减数分裂过程进行了研究.结果显示,4个亲本体细胞中均含有42条染色体.雌性不育系及其杂种的小部分花粉母细胞在减数分裂的中期Ⅰ有2~6个单价体,后期则有染色体桥和落后染色体出现,二分体和四分体时期也观察到有微核的出现.表明XND126的少数同源染色体在减数分裂中配对异常,并可能存在倒位等染色体结构变异.该资料的获得,为进一步研究相关基因或染色体行为在雌

  8. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Di Vitta, Patricia B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  9. Frequency doubling with periodically poled KTiOPO4 at the fundamental wave of cesium D2 transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Song; Zhigang Li; Pengfei Zhang; Gang Li; Yuchi Zhang; Junmin Wang; Tiancai Zhang

    2007-01-01

    @@ We report the continuous wave (CW) second harmonic generation (SHG) with a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) pumped by a diode laser at 852.356 nm, which is exactly resonant on the cesium D2 transition.

  10. Application of a composite sorbent based om natural and synthetic zeolites for cesium ion elimination from water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study has been carried out to determine the effect of variations in the content of natural and synthetic zeolites, being the components of the composite sorbent, on the cesium sorption from the water solution

  11. Spin-dependent asymmetry functions in the elastic and inelastic electron-cesium scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the measurements of the relative differential cross section, the exchange asymmetry, the spin-orbit asymmetry, and the interference asymmetry for the electron scattering on cesium atoms from 4 to 18 eV is described. (HSI)

  12. Cesium-137 in ash from combustion of biofuels. Application of regulations from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Cesium-137 i aska fraan foerbraenning av biobraenslen. Tillaempning av Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens regler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (SE))

    2009-03-19

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, has issued an ordinance on ash contaminated with Cesium-137. It implies amongst other things that ash containing 0,5 - 10 kBq/kg Cesium-137 (so-called contaminated ash) can be used for geotechnical purposes provided that the content in a near-by well does not exceed 1 Bq/litre and that the increase in a near-by fish producing recipient does not exceed 0,1 Bq/litre. The initial plan with the presently reported work was to provide a compilation of how the ordinance for Cesium-137 can be applied in practical work. It became evident, however, in the course of the work that issues related to the co-variation between potassium and Cesium needed further investigation. As a result, the present report comprises also a compilation of this extended information search. Cesium-137 is present in ash as a result of the accident in a nuclear power reactor in Chernobyl in 1986 during which material having a very small grain size was spread to a high altitude. A few days later, Cesium-137 was deposited during rains over large parts of Sweden. This activity penetrated to a depth of one or a few decimetres during the course of the subsequent few days and weeks, after which it was partially taken up by plants and spread in the ecosystem. Section 2 has the character of a handbook. It provides basic information on radiation, and also about the ordinance and other material from the SSI. Section 3 comprises compilations of relevant international status of knowledge. This regards how potassium and Cesium behave in soil and ash, and also how spreading of Cesium can be modelled. Cesium behaves similarly to Potassium but with the difference that Cesium is bonded much more strongly to mineral soil and ash. Potassium and Cesium appears in soil in four different forms: dissolved in the pore water, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and as bonded to minerals. The amount dissolved in the pore water is the smallest and that bonded to minerals is the largest

  13. The promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol synthesis from syngas over cesium-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jie; Cai, Qiuxia; Wan, Yan; Wan, Shaolong; Wang, Li; Lin, Jingdong; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol (C2+OH) synthesis from syngas over Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated using a combined experimental and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculation method. In the presence of cesium, the C2+OH productivity increases from 77.1 g•kgcat-1•h-1 to 157.3 g•kgcat-1•h-1 at 583 K due to the enhancement of the initial C–C bond formation. Detailed analysis of chain growth probabilities (CGPs) confirms that initial C–C bond formation is the rate-determining step in the temperature range of 543-583 K. Addition of cesium promoter significantly increases the productivities of 2-methyl-1-propanol, while the CGPs values (C3* to 2-methyl-C3*) is almost unaffected. With the assistance of cesium promoter, the CGPs of the initial C–C bond formation step (C1* to C2*) could be increased from 0.13 to 0.25 at 583 K. DFT calculations indicate that the initial C–C bond formation is mainly contributed by the HCO+HCO coupling reaction over the ZnCu(211) model surface. In the presence of the Cs2O, the stabilities of key reaction intermediates such as HCO and H2CO are enhanced which facilitates both HCO+HCO and HCO+H2CO coupling reaction steps with lower activation barriers over the Cs2O-ZnCu(211) surface. The promotional effects of cesium on the C2+OH productivity are also benefited from the competitive CH+HCO coupling reaction over CH hydrogenation that leads to lower alkane formation. In addition, Bader charge analysis suggests that the presence of cesium ions would facilitate the nucleophilic reaction between HCO and H2CO for initial C–C bond formation. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91545114 and No. 91545203). We appreciate the joint PhD scholarship support from the China Scholarship Council. The authors would also like to thank the support from Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (2011-iChEM). DM

  14. Interaction of the 106-126 prion peptide with lipid membranes and potential implication for neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation in the brain of an abnormally misfolded, protease-resistant, and β-sheet rich pathogenic isoform (PrPsc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPc). In the present work, we were interested to study the mode of prion protein interaction with the membrane using the 106-126 peptide and small unilamellar lipid vesicles as model. As previously demonstrated, we showed by MTS assay that PrP 106-126 induces alterations in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We demonstrated for the first time by lipid-mixing assay and by the liposome vesicle leakage test that PrP 106-126, a non-tilted peptide, induces liposome fusion thus a potential cell membrane destabilization, as supported by membrane integrity assay (LDH). By circular dichroism (CD) analysis we showed that the fusogenic property of PrP 106-126 in the presence of liposome is associated with a predominantly β-sheet structure. These data suggest that the fusogenic property associated with a predominant β-sheet structure exhibited by the prion peptides contributes to the neurotoxicity of these peptides by destabilizing cellular membranes. The latter might be attached at the membrane surface in a parallel orientation as shown by molecular modeling

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  16. 45 CFR 96.126 - Capacity of treatment for intravenous substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.126 Capacity of treatment... programs that receive funding under the grant and that treat individuals for intravenous substance abuse to... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of treatment for intravenous...

  17. Performance Test of gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) in Kyoto and ITB Jatinangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, E. J.; Fukuda, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Itakura, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gravity team of ITB, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University plan to carry out super hybrid measurement to monitor Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) injection in Gundih. During preparation stage and baseline survey before injection phase, gravity team analyze gPhone performance. Performance test of gPhone gravimeters in 2014 conducted in Kyoto and Jatinangor (three gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) placed in the same location). The tidal analysis program BAYTAP-G was used to decompose the gravity data into four components (tidal, trend, irregular, and response for auxiliary data). Response component in Kyoto relatively has lower frequency compare to Jatinangor, due to differences of the two measurement location. Response component from the longest time recording data (gPhone #123) give similiar pattern as gPhone #126, while gPhone #127 slightly different. Average standard deviation of the response component of three gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) respectively were 0.8, 1.0, and 1.9 μGal. Best drift achieved from this test show possibility to reach -4 to 5 pGal/day. Although gPhone #126 records different trend, but from tidal analysis comparison shows similiarity with gPhone #123.

  18. 13 CFR 126.204 - May a qualified HUBZone SBC have affiliates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a qualified HUBZone SBC have... PROGRAM Requirements to be a Qualified HUBZone SBC § 126.204 May a qualified HUBZone SBC have affiliates? A concern may have affiliates provided that the aggregate size of the concern and all of...

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  20. Crystal structure and conformational flexibility of the unligated FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui; Mustafi, Sourajit M. [New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); LeMaster, David M. [New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); University at Albany – SUNY, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Li, Zhong [New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Héroux, Annie [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Li, Hongmin; Hernández, Griselda, E-mail: griselda@wadsworth.org [New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); University at Albany – SUNY, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Two crystal forms of unligated FKBP12.6 exhibit multiple conformations in the active site and in the 80s loop, the primary site for known protein-recognition interactions. The previously unreported NMR backbone assignment of FKBP12.6 revealed extensive doubling of amide resonances, which reflects a slow conformational transition centered in the 80s loop. The primary known physiological function of FKBP12.6 involves its role in regulating the RyR2 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca{sup 2+} channels in cardiac muscle, pancreatic β islets and the central nervous system. With only a single previously reported X-ray structure of FKBP12.6, bound to the immunosuppressant rapamycin, structural inferences for this protein have been drawn from the more extensive studies of the homologous FKBP12. X-ray structures at 1.70 and 1.90 Å resolution from P2{sub 1} and P3{sub 1}21 crystal forms are reported for an unligated cysteine-free variant of FKBP12.6 which exhibit a notable diversity of conformations. In one monomer from the P3{sub 1}21 crystal form, the aromatic ring of Phe59 at the base of the active site is rotated perpendicular to its typical orientation, generating a steric conflict for the immunosuppressant-binding mode. The peptide unit linking Gly89 and Val90 at the tip of the protein-recognition ‘80s loop’ is flipped in the P2{sub 1} crystal form. Unlike the >30 reported FKBP12 structures, the backbone conformation of this loop closely follows that of the first FKBP domain of FKBP51. The NMR resonances for 21 backbone amides of FKBP12.6 are doubled, corresponding to a slow conformational transition centered near the tip of the 80s loop, as recently reported for 31 amides of FKBP12. The comparative absence of doubling for residues along the opposite face of the active-site pocket in FKBP12.6 may in part reflect attenuated structural coupling owing to increased conformational plasticity around the Phe59 ring.

  1. Crystal structure and conformational flexibility of the unligated FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two crystal forms of unligated FKBP12.6 exhibit multiple conformations in the active site and in the 80s loop, the primary site for known protein-recognition interactions. The previously unreported NMR backbone assignment of FKBP12.6 revealed extensive doubling of amide resonances, which reflects a slow conformational transition centered in the 80s loop. The primary known physiological function of FKBP12.6 involves its role in regulating the RyR2 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channels in cardiac muscle, pancreatic β islets and the central nervous system. With only a single previously reported X-ray structure of FKBP12.6, bound to the immunosuppressant rapamycin, structural inferences for this protein have been drawn from the more extensive studies of the homologous FKBP12. X-ray structures at 1.70 and 1.90 Å resolution from P21 and P3121 crystal forms are reported for an unligated cysteine-free variant of FKBP12.6 which exhibit a notable diversity of conformations. In one monomer from the P3121 crystal form, the aromatic ring of Phe59 at the base of the active site is rotated perpendicular to its typical orientation, generating a steric conflict for the immunosuppressant-binding mode. The peptide unit linking Gly89 and Val90 at the tip of the protein-recognition ‘80s loop’ is flipped in the P21 crystal form. Unlike the >30 reported FKBP12 structures, the backbone conformation of this loop closely follows that of the first FKBP domain of FKBP51. The NMR resonances for 21 backbone amides of FKBP12.6 are doubled, corresponding to a slow conformational transition centered near the tip of the 80s loop, as recently reported for 31 amides of FKBP12. The comparative absence of doubling for residues along the opposite face of the active-site pocket in FKBP12.6 may in part reflect attenuated structural coupling owing to increased conformational plasticity around the Phe59 ring

  2. Sugar-metal ion interactions: the complicated coordination structures of cesium ion with D-ribose and myo-inositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haijian; Xue, Junhui; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2013-11-18

    The novel cesium chloride-D-ribose complex (CsCl·C5H10O5; Cs-R) and cesium chloride-myo-inositol complex (CsCl·C6H12O6; Cs-I) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and FTIR, FIR, THz, and Raman spectroscopy. Cs(+) is eight-coordinated to three chloride ions, O1 and O2 from one D-ribose molecule, O1 from another D-ribose molecule, and O4 and O5 from the third D-ribose molecule in Cs-R. For one D-ribose molecule, the oxygen atom O1 in the ring is coordinated to two cesium ions as an oxygen bridge, O2 is cocoordinated with O1 to one of the two cesium ions, and O4 and O5 are coordinated to the third cesium ion, respectively. O3 does not coordinate to metal ions and only takes part in forming hydrogen bonds. One chloride ion is connected to three cesium ions. Thus, a complicated structure of Cs-D-ribose forms. For Cs-I, Cs(+) is 10-coordinated to three chloride ions, O1 and O2 from one myo-inositol molecule, O3 and O4 from another myo-inositol molecule, O5 and O6 from the third myo-inositol molecule, and O6 from the fourth myo-inositol molecule. One metal ion is connected to four ligands, and one myo-inositol is coordinated to four Cs(+) ions, which is also a complicated coordination structure. Crystal structure results, FTIR, FIR, THz, and Raman spectra provide detailed information on the structure and coordination of hydroxyl groups to metal ions in the cesium chloride-D-ribose and cesium chloride-myo-inositol complexes.

  3. Methylation of the miR-126 gene associated with glioma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongwei; Mu, Yongping; Yu, Lei; Xi, Ya-guang; Matthiesen, Rune; Su, Xiulan; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-04-01

    Gliomas are the most common and the most malignant brain tumors, accouting for 45-55% of all intracranial tumors. The incidence of glioma worldwide is about 6-12 per 100,000. Recently, several studies showed that the activation of the oncogenes and the inactivation and/or loss of the tumor suppressor genes, especially for miRNA-21, let-7 and so on, are the most primary molecule event in gliomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs which are usually 21-23 nucleotides long. miRNAs regulate gene expression and play important roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. To date, Growing evidence has shown that mi RNAs are frequently dysregulated in human cancers and can act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Along with the discovery of micro RNA, more and more research focusing on its relationship with glioma was carried out to investigate the biological features of glioma and to provide experimental evidence for glioma mechanism. In the present study, we aimed to verify the miRNA-126 down-regulation which showed in the results of glioma tissue miRNAs chip and discuss the miRNA-126 methylation in patients with glioma. A total of 50 samples from patients with glioma and 20 control samples from patients with cerebral trauma were included in this study. The expression levels of the miR-126 gene were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the methylation status of miR-126 was examined using methylation-specific PCR-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (MSP-DHPLC). The expression level of miRNA-126 was found to be significantly higher in the control group (0.6134 ± 0.1214) than in the glioma group (0.2771 ± 0.1529; P < 0.05). The expression was also significantly elevated in low-grade gliomas (0.3117 ± 0.1474) compared with high-grade gliomas (0.1582 ± 0.1345; P < 0.05). In addition, increased methylation of

  4. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H; Ditto, Mary E; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna G; Haverlock, Tamara J; Levitskaia, Taiana G; Bartsch, Richard A; Surowiec, Malgorzata A; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and "switch off" when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.

  5. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Ditto, Mary E.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and ''switch off'' when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.

  6. Experiments and simulations for the dynamics of cesium in negative hydrogen ion sources for ITER N-NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutser, Raphael

    2010-07-21

    The injection of fast neutral particles (NBI) into a fusion plasma is an important method for plasma heating and current drive. A source for negative deuterium ions delivering an 1 MeV beam that is accelerated to a specific energy and neutralized by a gas target is required for the ITER-NBI. Cesium seeding is required to extract high negative ion current densities from these sources. The optimization of the cesium homogeneity and control are major objectives to achieve the source requirements imposed by ITER. Within the scope of this thesis, the Monte Carlo based numerical transport simulation CsFlow3D was developed, which is the first computer model that is capable of simulating the flux and the accumulation of cesium on the surfaces of negative-ion sources. Basic studies that support the code development were performed at a dedicated experiment at the University of Augsburg. Input parameters of the ad- and desorption of cesium at ion source relevant conditions were taken from systematic measurements with a quartz micro balance, while the injection rate of the cesium oven at the ion source was determined by surface ionization detection. This experimental setup was used for further investigations of the work function of cesium-coated samples during plasma exposure. (orig.)

  7. Experiments and simulations for the dynamics of cesium in negative hydrogen ion sources for ITER N-NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection of fast neutral particles (NBI) into a fusion plasma is an important method for plasma heating and current drive. A source for negative deuterium ions delivering an 1 MeV beam that is accelerated to a specific energy and neutralized by a gas target is required for the ITER-NBI. Cesium seeding is required to extract high negative ion current densities from these sources. The optimization of the cesium homogeneity and control are major objectives to achieve the source requirements imposed by ITER. Within the scope of this thesis, the Monte Carlo based numerical transport simulation CsFlow3D was developed, which is the first computer model that is capable of simulating the flux and the accumulation of cesium on the surfaces of negative-ion sources. Basic studies that support the code development were performed at a dedicated experiment at the University of Augsburg. Input parameters of the ad- and desorption of cesium at ion source relevant conditions were taken from systematic measurements with a quartz micro balance, while the injection rate of the cesium oven at the ion source was determined by surface ionization detection. This experimental setup was used for further investigations of the work function of cesium-coated samples during plasma exposure. (orig.)

  8. P126

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Makashov

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: 1. The evolution of human oncogenome advances ahead of all other human gene classes. 2. On the other hand, the evolution of tumor antigen gene classes goes behind the rest of human gene classes, i.e. tumor antigens genome is more evolutionary novel.

  9. The beta strength function structure in \\beta + decay of lutecium, thulium and cesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Alkhazov, G D; Naumov, Yu V; Orlov, S Yu; Vitman, V D

    1981-01-01

    The spectra of total gamma -absorption in the decays of some lutetium, thulium and cesium isotopes have been measured. The probabilities for level population in the decay of the isotopes have been determined. The deduced beta strength functions reveal pronounced structure. Calculations of the strength functions using the Saxon-Woods potential and the residual Gamow-Teller interaction are presented. It is shown that in beta /sup +/ decay of light thulium and cesium isotopes the strength function comprises more than 70% of the Gamow-Teller excitations with mu /sub tau /=+1. This result is the first direct observation of the Gamov-Teller resonance in beta /sup +/ decay of nuclei with T/sub z/>0. (21 refs).

  10. Light storage via coherent population oscillation in a thermal cesium vapor

    CERN Document Server

    de Almeida, A J F; Maynard, M -A; Laupretre, T; Bretenaker, F; Felinto, D; Goldfarb, F; Tabosa, J W R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the storage of light via the phenomenon of Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) in an atomic cesium vapor at room temperature. In the experiment the optical information of a probe field is stored in the CPO of two ground states of a Lambda three-level system formed by the Zeeman sublevels of the hyperfine transition F = 3 - F' = 2 of cesium D2 line. We show directly that this CPO based memory is very insensitive to stray magnetic field inhomogeneities and presents a lifetime which is mainly limited only by atomic motion. A theoretical simulation of the measured spectra was also developed and is in very good agreement with the experiment.

  11. Leaching Study in Immobilization of Cesium and Cobalt Radionuclides In Fly Ash- Zeolite Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash-zeolite cement was synthesized from industrial by-product fly ash obtained from the thermal electric power station. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination-route of the fly ash. The microstructure of fly ash-zeolite cement was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT infrared spectroscopy and surface area (F-N2). The efficiency of innovative matrices for immobilizing cesium and cobalt radionuclides is presented in this work. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of solidifying 137Cs and 60Co radionuclides in synthetic fly ash zeolite cement. Leaching behavior of the radionuclides have been studied. The leachability index measured indicated that fly ash zeolite cement matrix can be utilized as an efficient material for immobilizing cesium and cobalt radionuclides than portland cement.

  12. Static and dynamic experiments for the retention of cesium in nitrate containing, nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of cesium from medium active waste (MAW) of the Purex-Process by chromatographic methods is demonstrated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammoniummolybdatophosphate (AMP-1). Other inorganic exchangers like ammoniumhexacyanocobaltousferrate (NCFC), zirkoniumphosphate (ZPH) and antimonypentoxid (HAP) have shown for different pH-values a reasonable retention for cesium (NCFC (pH 12) : 35 g Cs/kgNCFC, ZPH(pH 7) : 100 g Cs/kgZPH and HAP (pH 2) : 55 g Cs/kgHAP). But with a high salt loading (300 g/l NaNO3) a loss of capacities occurs which does not allow the use of these exchangers, whereas AMP-1 is useful from a pH of 9 to conc. HNO3 with this high salt loadings with a capacity of 60 g Cs/kg AMP-1. (orig.)

  13. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for the AWA photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, D.; Wisniewski, E. E.; Yusof, Z.; Harkay, K.; Spentzouris, L.; Terry, J. [Physics Department at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 and High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Accelerator Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (> 1%), is robust in a photoinjector, and long lifetime. This photocathode is fabricated in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch ({approx}50 nC) in a long bunch train. We present some results from a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin Probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV light exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating.

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May 1984 to July 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil measured throughout Japan from May to July 1984 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km2. Sampling points are total of 8 from Kawabe-gun (Akita) to Ibasuki-gun (Kagoshima). Collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting are described. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without past disturbance on the surface. Soil was taken from two layers of different depths, 0 aproximately 5 cm and 5 approximately 20 cm. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 minutes. (Mori, K.)

  15. Characterization of cesium uptake mediated by a potassium transport system of bacteria in a soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found that bacteria in a commercial soil conditioner sold in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, exhibited concentrative and saturable cesium ion (Cs+) uptake in the natural range of pH and temperature. The concentration of intracellular Cs+ could be condensed at least a few times higher compared with the outside medium of the cells. This uptake appeared to be mediated by a K+ transport system, since Cs+ uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by potassium ion (K+). Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the Cs+ uptake involved a single saturable process. The maximum uptake amount (Jmax) was the same in the presence and absence of K+, suggesting that Cs+ and K+ uptakes were competitive with respect to each other. These bacteria might be useful for bioremediation of cesium-contaminated soil. (author)

  16. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokapić, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrđa, D.; Vesković, M.; Slivka, J.; Mihaljev, Ž.; Ćupić, Ž.

    2007-04-01

    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450°C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  17. Determination of modelling parameter in the fluctuation and migration of Cesium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium radionuclide is one of fission products with high level activity and long life, of about 30 years, therefore it is used as an indicator of a fission product released from a nuclear reactor or a radioactive waste storage. The migration process of cesium in soil is influent by physical and chemical properties of soil and environment in which the sorption process occurred. The data of the physical and chemical properties and the radionuclide retardation in such area are needed for the study of mathematical models of radionuclide migration. The experiment has been performed in laboratory by using soils with particle sizes of -4 - 4.48x10-2 cm/second; the longitudinal dispersivity 0.030 - 0.241 cm; the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion was 4.96x10-5 - 7.69x10-3 cm2/second and retardation factor was 2.30 - 3.39

  18. Chemical treatment of aqueous radioactive Cesium-137 waste using Ferri Chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferric Chloride 6H2O was used for treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Cesium-137. Various concentration of ferric chloride 6H2O have been added into the waste at different pH and speed of stirrer. The treatment was based on the coagulans-flocculation and coprecipitation mechanisms. The best result of this experiment was achieved by adding 300 ppm of Ferric chloride 6 H2O into liquid waste on following condition the rate Stirrer was 250 rpm. At this condition, it was found that the separation efficiency and the decontamination factor were 83.32 % and 5.99. The activity of decreasing of aqueous radioactive Cesium-137 waste was 2.10 x 10-4 Ci/l to 3.50 x 10-5 Ci/l

  19. Spectroscopic approach for an electron EDM measurement using neutral cesium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kunyan; Solmeyer, Neal; Weiss, David S.

    2012-06-01

    Observation of a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) would imply CP violating effects not contained in the Standard Model. We describe the state preparation and spectroscopy that will be used to measure the eEDM. Cesium atoms are guided into a measurement chamber, where they are laser-cooled and trapped in a pair of parallel one-dimensional optical lattices. The lattices thread three specially coated glass electric field plates. The measurement chamber is surrounded by a four layer magnetic shield inside of which eight magnetic field coils control the bias and gradient magnetic fields. A series of microwave and low frequency magnetic field pulses transfer the atoms into a superposition state that is sensitive to the eEDM signal. A measurement of the eEDM using neutral cesium atoms can obtain an ultimate shot noise limit of 3x10-30 e-cm.

  20. Adsorption of uranium, cesium and strontium onto coconut shell activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of uranium (VI), cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions onto a commercial activated carbon obtained by physical activation of coconut shell has been studied in batch systems. In particular the adsorption of uranium, studied as a function of contact time and metal ion concentration, followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the maximum adsorption capacity of the activated carbon resulted to be 55.32 mg/g. The study showed that the considered activated carbon could be successfully used for uranium adsorption from aqueous solutions. Feasibility of cesium and strontium adsorption onto the same activated carbon has been also investigated. Results showed that no affinities with both of these ions exist. (author)

  1. Stark spectra of Rydberg states in atomic cesium in the vicinity of n=18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hui-Jie; Wang Ting; Li Chang-Yong; Zhao Jian-Ming; Zhang Lin-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Stark structures in a cesium atom around n =18 are numerically calculated.The results show that the components of 20D states with a small azimuthal quantum number |m| shift upward a lot,and those with a large |m| shift downward a little within 1100 V/cm.All components of P states shift downward.Experimental work has been performed in ultracold atomic cesium.Atoms initially in 6P3/2 state are excited to high-n Rydberg states by a polarization light perpendicular to the field,and Stark spectra with 丨m丨=1/2,3/2,5/2 are simultaneously observed with a large linewidth for the first time.The observed spectra are analyzed in detail.The relative transition probability is calculated.The experimental results are in good agreement with our numerical computation.

  2. Mössbauer study on the gamma radiolysis of anhydrous cesium tris (oxalato) ferrate(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladriere, J.; Senterre, V.; Apers, D.

    1992-04-01

    The final product of the gamma radiolysis of anhydrous cesium tris(oxalato) ferrate(III) has been identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy as Cs2Fe(ox)2. The radiolytic decomposition proceeds as a first-order process due to the original compound depletion and to the radiolytic stability of the ferrous compound. Lamb-Mössbauer factors measurements indicate that the recoilless fractions of the iron species are practically unaffected by the radiolysis.

  3. Spatial variability and the fate of cesium in coastal sediments near Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Black

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the amount of cesium incorporated into marine sediments as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident has proven challenging due to the limited multi-core sampling from within the 30 km zone around the facility, the inherent spatial heterogeneities in ocean sediments, and the potential for inventory fluctuations due to physical, biological, and chemical processes. Using 210Pb, 234Th, 137Cs, and 134Cs profiles from 20 sediment cores, coastal sediment inventories were reevaluated. A minimum 137Cs sediment inventory of 100 ± 50 TBq was found for an area of 55 000 km2 using cores from this study and a total of 130 ± 60 TBq using an additional 181 samples. These inventories represent less than 1% of the estimated 15–30 PBq of cesium released during the FDNPP disaster and constitute ~ 90% of the total coastal inventory of 137Cs remaining in 2012. The time needed for surface sediment activities (0 to 3 cm at the 20 locations to reduce by 50% via bioturbation was estimated to range from 0.4 to 26 years, indicating a much greater persistence of cesium in the sediments relative to coastal water activities. However, due to the observed variability in mixing rates, grain size, and inventories, additional cores are needed to further improve estimates and capture the full extent of cesium penetration into the shallow coastal sediments, which was deeper than 14 cm for all cores retrieved from water depths less than 150 m.

  4. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-01-01

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/P...

  5. The effects of different factors at the cesium 137 accumulation by tree plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that cesium 137 accumulation by tree plants depended from numerous factors that had to be take into account by utilisation of forest production and conducting of forestry in the whole. It is necessary to elaborate a new classification of contaminated forests which could take into account not only radionuclide density of soils but existence of different tree species and their growth conditions

  6. Evaporative cooling of cesium atoms in the gravito-optical surface trap

    CERN Document Server

    Hammes, M; Grimm, R

    2000-01-01

    We report on cooling of an atomic cesium gas closely above an evanescent-wave. Our first evaporation experiments show a temperature reduction from 10muK down to 300nK along with a gain in phase-space density of almost two orders of magnitude. In a series of measurements of heating and spin depolarization an incoherent background of resonant photons in the evanescent-wave diode laser light was found to be the limiting factor at this stage.

  7. Quantized atomic motion in 1D cesium molasses with magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of quantized energy levels for the motion of cesium atoms in optical molasses consisting two counterpropagating σ+ beams and a small transverse magnetic field. The observation of overtones proves the existence of at least four bound states in each optical potential well. The absorption spectrum is dramatically modified when an additional longitudinal magnetic field is applied. In particular, a population inversion between quantized levels is observed. (orig.)

  8. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents For Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Nyman, M.; Clearfield, A.; Maginn, E.

    2006-06-01

    The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased affinity for cesium, strontium and actinide separations. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to nonradioactive separations.

  9. Development of an Advanced Polymeric Composite (ALIX) for separation of cesium from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137Cs is one of the major isotopes present in high level radioactive waste (HLW). Its presence makes nuclear waste handling difficult. A new composite (ALIX) containing Ammonium molybdophosphate and a derivative of Bisphenol was developed for column operations to selectively remove cesium from acidic high level nuclear waste. The composite is stable in nitric acid, radiation field and exhibits fast kinetics for uptake. The properties of the composite are attributed to molecular structure of the polymer and morphology of the composite. (author)

  10. Prussian blue as an antidote for radioactive thallium and cesium poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altagracia-Martinez M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Juan Manuel Martínez-Núñez, Camilo Ríos-Castañeda, Francisco López-NaranjoDepartments of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoBackground: Following the attacks on the US on September 11, 2001, potentially millions of people might experience contamination from radioactive metals. However, before the specter of such accidents arose, Prussian blue was known only as an investigational agent for accidental thallium and cesium poisoning. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the art concerning use of Prussian blue as an effective and safe drug against possible bioterrorism attacks and to disseminate medical information in order to contribute to the production of Prussian blue as a biodefense drug.Methods: We compiled articles from a systematic review conducted from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2011. The electronic databases consulted were Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus.Results: Prussian blue is effective and safe for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Prussian blue as a drug, but there is only one manufacturer providing Prussian blue to the US. Based on the evidence, Prussian blue is effective for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium, but additional clinical research on and production of Prussian blue are needed.Keywords: Prussian blue, radioactive cesium, thallium, intoxication, biodefense drug

  11. Laser-pumped cesium magnetometers for high-resolution medical and fundamental research

    OpenAIRE

    Groeger, Stephan; Bison, Georg; Knowles, Paul E.; Wynands, Robert; Weis, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Laser-pumped cesium magnetometers allow highly sensitive magnetometry at room temperature. We report on applications of that technique in biomagnetic diagnostics and in a neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment. In the biomagnetic application the magnetic field from the beating human heart is detected using a gradiometer, which reaches an intrinsic sensitivity of 80 fT/Hz1/2. The device can record time-resolved magnetic field maps above the human body surface with a spatial resolutio...

  12. Cesium under pressure: First-principles calculation of the bcc-to-fcc phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, S.; Franchini, A.; Bortolani, V.; Martinelli, S.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we present the ab initio calculation of the structural properties of cesium under pressure. The calculation of the total energy is done in the local-density approximation of density-functional theory, using a nonlocal pseudopotential including the nonlinear core corrections proposed by Louie et al. The calculation of the pressure-volume diagram for both bcc and fcc structures allows us to prove that the transition from bcc to fcc structure is a first-order transition.

  13. Photoemission from Graphene on Copper and Cesium Antimonide: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstadt, Daniel; Jensen, Kevin L.; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Shabaev, Andrew; Moody, Nathan A.

    The work function is calculated using DFT for a substrate of flat copper on which a single layer of graphene is deposited. These calculations show a reduced work function, compared to bare copper, when graphene is deposited on a cathode. Based on our DFT-calculated results, a simple model using the transfer matrix approach gives the transmission probability near and above the barrier maximum. An important element of our model is the DFT-calculated, macroscopically-averaged electrostatic potential. Using this potential, graphene behaves as a resonant well for electrons transmitted between the substrate and vacuum regions. Another system to be discussed is graphene atop cesium antimonide, which has very low work function making it technologically useful, in particular for the development of an x-ray free electron laser. On cesium antimonide, we examine whether graphene may allow for the retention of an underlying cesium layer that is often damaged in high-field applications. A discussion of these results in light of recent experimental characterization at LANL will be given. Funding and support provide by ONR and DOE.

  14. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May to July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured values in soil of strontium-90 and cesium-137 at a total of 4 locations throughout Japan from May to July, 1983 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km2 in the tables. The method of measurement is also described: collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of the samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without any past disturbance. Soil was taken from two layers having different depths: 0--5 cm and 5--20 cm. The sample solution was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The maximum values were 690 pCi/kg for Sr-90 and 1300 pCi/kg for Cs-137, which were obtained from the samples in the 5-to-20 cm depth, in June 1983, at Akita-ken,Japan. (Mori, K.)

  16. Enhanced capacity and stability for the separation of cesium in electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfic, A.F.; Dickson, S.E.; Kim, Y. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Mekky, W. [AMEC NSS, Power and Process America, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) can be used to separate ionic contaminants from industrial wastewater, including that generated by the nuclear industry. The ESIX method involves sequential application of reduction and oxidation potentials to an ion exchange film to induce the respective loading and unloading of cesium. This technology is superior to conventional methods (e.g electrodialysis reversal or reverse osmosis) as it requires very little energy for ionic separation. In previous studies, ESIX films have demonstrated relatively low ion exchange capacities and limited film stabilities over repeated potential applications. In this study, the methodology for the deposition of electro-active films (nickel hexacyanoferrate) on nickel electrodes was modified to improve the ion exchange capacity for cesium removal using ESIX. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the ion exchange capacity and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the modified film surfaces. Additionally, the films were examined for the separation of cesium ions. This modified film preparation technique enhanced the ion exchange capacity and improves the film stability compared to previous methods for the deposition of ESIX films. (authors)

  17. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  18. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

  19. Cesium and strontium tolerant Arthrobacter sp. strain KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Joshi, Santa Ram; Acharya, Celin

    2016-12-01

    Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit at Domiasiat located in North-East India exhibited noteworthy tolerance for cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr). The strain displayed a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 400 mM for CsCl and for SrCl2. Flow cytometric analysis employing membrane integrity indicators like propidium iodide (PI) and thiazole orange (TO) indicated a greater sensitivity of Arthrobacter cells to cesium than to strontium. On being challenged with 75 mM of Cs, the cells sequestered 9612 mg Cs g(-1) dry weight of cells in 12 h. On being challenged with 75 mM of Sr, the cells sequestered 9989 mg Sr g(-1) dry weight of cells in 18 h. Heat killed cells exhibited limited Cs and Sr binding as compared to live cells highlighting the importance of cell viability for optimal binding. The association of the metals with Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 was further substantiated by Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. This organism tolerated up to 1 kGy (60)Co-gamma rays without loss of survival. The present report highlights the superior tolerance and binding capacity of the KMSZP6 strain for cesium and strontium over other earlier reported strains and reveals its potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste. PMID:27620733

  20. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The method for the soil decontamination by the superconducting magnet is proposed. • Magnetic separation of clay minerals was performed by HGMS. • Soil separation ratio was evaluated by quantitative analysis using XRD. • It is expected that HGMS can be applied to the actual soil decontamination. - Abstract: The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil

  1. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L

    2004-05-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility.

  2. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario)

  3. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Susumu, E-mail: igarashi@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The method for the soil decontamination by the superconducting magnet is proposed. • Magnetic separation of clay minerals was performed by HGMS. • Soil separation ratio was evaluated by quantitative analysis using XRD. • It is expected that HGMS can be applied to the actual soil decontamination. - Abstract: The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  4. DFB-ridge laser diodes at 894 nm for Cesium atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bandel, N.; Garcia, M.; Lecomte, M.; Larrue, A.; Robert, Y.; Vinet, E.; Driss, O.; Parrilaud, O.; Krakowski, M.; Gruet, F.; Matthey, R.; Mileti, G.

    2016-02-01

    Time and frequency applications are in need of high accuracy and high stability clocks. Optically pumped compact industrial Cesium atomic clocks are a promising approach that could satisfy these demands. However, the stability of these clocks relies, among others, on the performances of the laser diodes that are used. This issue has led the III-V Lab to commit to the European Euripides-LAMA project that aims to provide competitive compact optical Cesium clocks for ground applications. This work will provide key experience for further space technology qualification. III-V Lab is in charge of the design, fabrication and reliability of Distributed-Feedback diodes (DFB) at 894 nm (D1 line of Cesium) and 852 nm (D2 line). LTF-Unine is in charge of their spectral characterisation. The use of D1 line for pumping will provide simplified clock architecture compared to the D2 line pumping thanks to simpler atomic transitions and a larger spectral separation between lines in the 894 nm case. Also, D1 line pumping overcomes the issue of unpumped "idle states" that occur with D2 line. The modules should provide narrow linewidth (= 10 Hz and 109 Hz2/Hz @ f >= 10 Hz.

  5. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig(regsign) 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig(regsign) 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig(regsign) 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig(regsign) 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility

  6. Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of agricultural animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of an agricultural animals. Is intended for vital measurements of the contents of radiocesium in muscular tissue of a cattle. Can be used on cattle-breeding farms, providing points, in meat factories and personal facilities. As a base means for accommodation of the control point the motor-car is used. Design of the car allows to automate operations on deployment of the control point on a place and translation of one to a transport mode. Limits of measured specific activity of cesium contamination of a cattle is up 5*10-9 to 5*10-6 Ci/kg. The basic error on the bottom limit of measurement at confidence coefficient 0,95 is no more than 30%. Measurement time for the bottom limit of determined specific activity is no more than 30 s. There is automatic measurement mode. Type of a power is 220 V, 50 Hz. Range of working temperatures is up -15 to +35 centigrade. Relative humidity is no more than 98% at 25 centigrade. External gamma background is till 0.035 mR/h. Time of installation and dismantle of stationary control point is no more than 1,5 hours. The direct radiometric control in divo allows to fulfil and to use biotechnological process of removing of cesium isotopes from body of animals for decrease of levels of radioactive contamination

  7. Crown bridged thiacalix[4]arenes as cesium-selective ionophores in solvent polymeric membrane electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereczki, Robert [Technical Analytical Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szt. Gellert ter 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Csokai, Viktor [Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp.3, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Gruen, Alajos [Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp.3, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Bitter, Istvan [Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp.3, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Klara [Technical Analytical Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szt. Gellert ter 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ktoth@mail.bme.hu

    2006-05-31

    Novel 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]mono- and biscrown-6 ethers were studied as ionophores in poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes. Their selectivity behavior was characterized with respect to large number of cations, including potential interferents in environmental samples, and the membrane composition was optimized for cesium ion response. Among the ionophores, 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]mono(crown-6) ether showed, especially high selectivity for cesium over other alkali-metal ions. Transition and heavy metal ions did not interfere seriously with the electrode response, which indicates that the bridging sulfur atoms do not take part in the ion recognition process. The potentiometric cesium responses of all electrodes involved in this study were found close to Nernstian and the detection limits were lower than 10{sup -7} M. The Cs{sup +}/Na{sup +} selectivity of the different ionophore-based sensors and the solvent extraction ability of the ligands were interpreted based on the respective constants of complex formation.

  8. Temperature and number evolution of cold cesium atoms inside a wall-coated glass cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄家强; 张建伟; 王时光; 王力军

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental study on the temperature and number evolution of cold cesium atoms diffusively cooled inside a wall-coated glass cell by measuring the absorption profile of the 62S1/2 (F=4)→62P3/2(F0=5) transition line with a weak probe laser in the evolution process. We found that the temperature of the cold atoms first gradually decreases from 16 mK to 9 mK, and then rapidly increases. The number of cold atoms first declines slowly from 2.1 × 109 to 3.7 × 108 and then falls drastically. A theoretical model for the number evolution is built and includes the instantaneous temperature of the cold atoms and a fraction p, which represents the part of cold cesium atoms elastically reflected by the coated cell wall. The theory is overall in good agreement with the experimental result, and a nonzero value is obtained for the fraction p, which indicates that the cold cesium atoms are not all heated to the ambient temperature by a single collision with the coated cell wall. These results can provide helpful insight for precision measurements based on diffuse laser cooling.

  9. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  10. Determination of collisional ionization rate and ionization yield from excited levels of cesium in a flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for determining the rate constants of collisional ionization and the ionization yield from excited levels of cesium atoms in a flame, using experimental curves of optical saturation and laser-stimulated ionization of excited atoms. It is shown that deviations of the shape of the saturation curves from ideal shape are due to the time dependence of the trailing edge of the exciting laser pulse. The ionization yield of cesium in an acetylene--air flame during its one-step excitation to the 6p2p1/2 level was 0.95%, rising to 50% for two-step excitation to the 8d2D3/2 level. The corresponding values of the rate constants of collisional ionization were 3.2x105 and 3.3x107 sec-1. From the known value of the ionization yield in the two-step excitation scheme, estimates of the atomization coefficient of cesium in the flame were made. The proposed method can be used for other elements in different flames

  11. Temperature and number evolution of cold cesium atoms inside a glass cell

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, J Q; Wang, S G; Wang, Z B; Wang, L J

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental study on the temperature and number evolution of the cold cesium atoms diffusively cooled inside a wall-coated glass cell by measuring the absorption profile of the 62S1/2 (F=4)-62P3/2 (F'=5) transition line with a weak probe laser in the evolution process. We found that the temperature of the cold atoms first gradually decreases from 16 mK to 9 mK, and then rapidly increases. A theoretical model of the number evolution is built, which includes the temperature of the cold atoms and the fraction p of the cold cesium atoms elastically reflected by the cell wall. The theoretical model is consistent with the experimental result very well, and the fraction p is obtained to be (0.58 +/- 0.03), which reveals that the cold cesium atoms are not all heated to the ambient temperature by a single collision with the cell wall.

  12. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  13. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers: Conception and characterization of a single mode source for Cesium atoms manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasers currently used in atomic clocks or inertial sensors are suffering from a lack of power, narrow linewidth or compactness for future spatial missions. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers, which combine the approach of classical solid state lasers and the engineering of semiconductor laser, are considered here as a candidate to a metrological laser source dedicated to the manipulation of Cesium atoms in these instruments. These lasers have demonstrated high power laser emission in a circular single transverse mode, as well as single longitudinal mode emission, favoured by the semiconductor structure and the external cavity design. We study the definition and the characterization of a proper semiconductor structure for the cooling and the detection of Cesium atoms at 852 nm. A compact and robust prototype tunable on the Cesium D2 hyperfine structure is built. The laser frequency is locked to an atomic transition thanks to a saturated absorption setup. The emission spectral properties are investigated, with a particular attention to the laser frequency noise and the laser linewidth. Finally, we describe and model the thermal properties of the semiconductor structure, which enables the simulation of the laser power characteristic. The experimental parameters are optimised to obtain the maximum output power with our structure. Thanks to our analysis, we propose several ways to overcome these limitations, by reducing the structure heating. (authors)

  14. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  15. Fabrication of stimuli-sensitive hydrogel for the removal of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee-Man; Bong, Sang Bum; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011 released a huge quantity of radioactive contaminants into the environment.1 Among these, cesium Cs-137 is the most problematic contaminant due to its long half-life (30.2 years), and high-energy gamma ray (γ-ray) emissions. 2 Various surface including road, roof, house, building were contaminated with Cs-137. These coating materials have some problems and limitation such as toxic component, and lack of reusability of materials related to the cost. Thus, a more cost-effective and environmental friendly coating materials is still desired. 3 In the present study, the stimuli-sensitive hydrogel were fabricated for the removal of radioactive Cs from solid surface. We describe the morphology, structure, and physical property of these stimuli sensitive hydrogel. In addition, their ability to eliminate cesium was also evaluated. The smart hydrogel coating materials showed an excellent morphology change from the liquid to film by addition of Ca ion. Therefore, the stimuli-sensitive hydrogel demonstrated good potential for the treatment of contaminated surface for the removal of radioactive cesium.

  16. The effect of organic amendment on mobility of cesium in tropical soils - The effect of organic amendment on sorption mechanisms for cesium and cobalt in tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, M.A.V.; Santos-Oliveira, R. [Instituto de Engenharia nuclear/CNEN. Rua Helio de Almeida, 75. Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP 21941-906 (Brazil); Garcia, R.J.L.; Ferreira, A.C.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Sobrinho, G.A.N. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN. Av. Salvador Allende s /no. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP: 22780-160 (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos/EMBRAPA. R. Jardim Botanico, 1024.Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 22460-000 (Brazil); Wasserman, J.C. [dUFF Network of Environment and Sustainable Development (REMADS-UFF), University Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co as a function of the physico-chemical properties of some types of Brazilian soils and the changes on the behavior of these radionuclides due to changes in soil properties promoted by organic amendment. The experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different types of soils (Ferralsol, Nitisol and Histosol) and different doses of organic amendment (no amendment; 2 kg.m{sup -2} and 4 kg.m{sup -2}) were spiked with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The organic amendment used in this experiment was obtained in the Unit of Compost of the Organic Material of Pinheiral (RJ, Brazil), where the compost is made up from the leaves swept from the streets of the Pinheiral city. The mobility of these radionuclides in the soil was assessed through sequential chemical extraction and desorption studies as a function of pH. The bioavailability was evaluated through the effective absorption of radionuclide by root crops (Raphanus sativus, L). This study evidenced that the organic amendment plays an important role in the desorption processes of cobalt and cesium, reducing desorption of both nuclides beneath higher organic amendment dose. This behavior was observed in acid conditions as well in alkaline. However extreme acid conditions may mobilize both radionuclides, although cobalt mobility was shown to be more sensitive to low pH than cesium. (authors)

  17. The effect of organic amendment on mobility of cesium in tropical soils - The effect of organic amendment on sorption mechanisms for cesium and cobalt in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the sorption of 137Cs and 60Co as a function of the physico-chemical properties of some types of Brazilian soils and the changes on the behavior of these radionuclides due to changes in soil properties promoted by organic amendment. The experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different types of soils (Ferralsol, Nitisol and Histosol) and different doses of organic amendment (no amendment; 2 kg.m-2 and 4 kg.m-2) were spiked with 137Cs and 60Co. The organic amendment used in this experiment was obtained in the Unit of Compost of the Organic Material of Pinheiral (RJ, Brazil), where the compost is made up from the leaves swept from the streets of the Pinheiral city. The mobility of these radionuclides in the soil was assessed through sequential chemical extraction and desorption studies as a function of pH. The bioavailability was evaluated through the effective absorption of radionuclide by root crops (Raphanus sativus, L). This study evidenced that the organic amendment plays an important role in the desorption processes of cobalt and cesium, reducing desorption of both nuclides beneath higher organic amendment dose. This behavior was observed in acid conditions as well in alkaline. However extreme acid conditions may mobilize both radionuclides, although cobalt mobility was shown to be more sensitive to low pH than cesium. (authors)

  18. The Effect of Pressure and Organic Constituents on the Cesium Ion Exchange Performance of IONSIV IE-911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined cesium (137Cs) ion exchange of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) in simulated waste solution. In particular, the study focused on the effect of CST pretreatment on the kinetics and extent of cesium adsorption. The test used IONSIV IE-911 (UOP LLC, Molecular Sieves Division, Des Plaines, IL), the engineered form of CST. Pretreatment steps examined include: soaking CST in 2M NaOH solution for three days, exposing CST to 50% relative humidity for one week, flowing organic-containing (saturated) salt solution through a CST packed bed (at 5 cm/min. superficial velocity), or drying CST in air at 100 C for three days. Some tests occurred under 50 and 25 psig of argon. The following conclusions summarize the results. Pretreatment of IE-911 in organic-containing (e.g., tri-n-butyl phosphate, dibutylphosphate, butanol, paraffin and Dow Corning H-10 defoamer) simulated waste or simulated waste yielded a 83% slower rate of cesium adsorption and 56% lower cesium capacity after one week. Pretreatment of IE-911 in 2M caustic solution for 48 hours yielded a slower approach to equilibrium cesium distribution in batch contact tests--7.7 mL/(g*h) during the first 48 hours and 2.4 ml/(g*h) thereafter. Carboxylates and adsorbed carbonates inside the pores likely affect the cesium transport by either increasing the path-length or reducing mass transfer rate. Heating IE-911 as received from the vendor at 100 C for 24 hours significantly degraded its cesium removal performance by a 40.7% reduction in capacity and 43% reduction in sorption rate over one week of testing. Testing determined nearly identical distribution coefficients Kd between lot numbersign 9990-9681-0004 and 9990-9881-0005 (i.e., difference of only 5.6%). Tests measuring water insertion rates into IE-911 show that hydration of the IE-911 does not appear to limit the rate of cesium sorption. Increasing the atmospheric pressure from 0 to 50 psig had no effect on cesium sorption. Note that lower apparent

  19. A Putative Association of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in GPR126 with Aggressive Periodontitis in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro; Imai, Atsuko; Kawai, Shinji; Michikami, Ikumi; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease causing loss of tooth-supporting periodontal tissue. Disease susceptibility to the rapidly progressive form of periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis (AgP), appears to be influenced by genetic risk factors. To identify these in a Japanese population, we performed whole exome sequencing of 41 unrelated generalized or localized AgP patients. We found that AgP is putatively associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs536714306 in the G-protein coupled receptor 126 gene, GPR126 [c.3086 G>A (p.Arg1029Gln)]. Since GPR126 activates the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, we performed cAMP ELISA analysis of cAMP concentrations, and found that rs536714306 impaired the signal transactivation of GPR126. Moreover, transfection of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells with wild-type or mutant GPR126 containing rs536714306 showed that wild-type GPR126 significantly increased the mRNA expression of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and Runx2 genes, while mutant GPR126 had no effect on the expression of these calcification-related genes. The increase in expression of these genes was through the GPR126-induced increase of bone morphogenic protein-2, inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) 2, and ID4 expression. These data indicate that GPR126 might be important in maintaining the homeostasis of periodontal ligament tissues through regulating the cytodifferentiation of HPDL cells. The GPR126 SNP rs536714306 negatively influences this homeostasis, leading to the development of AgP, suggesting that it is a candidate genetic risk factor for AgP in the Japanese population. PMID:27509131

  20. In-gas-cell laser spectroscopy for magnetic dipole moment of $^{199}$Pt toward $N=$ 126

    CERN Document Server

    Hirayama, Y; Watanabe, Y X; Jeong, S C; Jung, H S; Kakiguchi, Y; Kimura, S; Moon, J Y; Oyaizu, M; Park, J H; Schury, P; Wada, M; Miyatake, H

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moment and mean-square charge radius of $^{199}$Pt ($I^{\\pi}=$ 5/2$^-$) have been evaluated for the first time from the investigation of the hyperfine splitting of the $\\lambda_1=$ 248.792 nm transition by in-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy. Neutron-rich nucleus $^{199}$Pt was produced by multi-nucleon transfer reaction at the KISS where the nuclear spectroscopy in the vicinity of $N=$ 126 is planed from the aspect of an astrophysical interest as well as the nuclear structure. Measured magnetic dipole moment $+$0.63(13)$\\mu_{\\rm N}$ is consistent with the systematics of those of nuclei with $I^{\\pi}=$ 5/2$^-$. The deformation parameter $|^{1/2}|$ evaluated from the isotope shift indicates the gradual shape change to spherical shape of platinum isotopes with increasing neutron number toward $N=$ 126.

  1. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined.

  2. Investigation on X-Radiation for 126 kV Vacuum Interrupters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jing; LIU Zhiyuan; GENG Yingsan; ZHANG Sheng; ZHANG Yingyao

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to high voltages between opened contacts,vacuum interrupters may emit X-rays.In order to ensure that these are of an acceptable level,vacuum interrupters should comply with the limits for X-ray emission and the test procedures to be carried out to verify this based on relevant standards and specifications.In this paper,a comprehensive experimental study has been performed for 126 kV vacuum interrupters used in a transmission system to understand the X-radiation level and its influence by three main parameters,namely applied power-frequency voltage,contact gap and power-frequency voltage conditioning.The radiation instrument is an FJ347 radiometer and the X-radiation dose was measured at the power-frequency test voltage.These tests demonstrated that the X-radiation emission level for a 126 kV vacuum interrupter did not exceed the following:5μSv per hour at a rated voltage of 126 kV and 150 μSv per hour at a power-frequency voltage of 230 kV at 1 m distance.The X-radiation dose increased with the applied power-frequency voltage increasing and decreased with the contact gap increasing.The X-radiation dose for 126 kV vacuum interrupters decreased by 57% after the conditioning procedure with a certain power-frequency voltage.During the conditioning procedure,the average value of the X-radiation dose was 4.49 mSv,which means if a professional conditions 180 interrupters per year,it will be safe at the 6.4 m distance.

  3. Investigation on X-Radiation for 126 kV Vacuum Interrupters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yingyao

    2016-05-01

    When subjected to high voltages between opened contacts, vacuum interrupters may emit X-rays. In order to ensure that these are of an acceptable level, vacuum interrupters should comply with the limits for X-ray emission and the test procedures to be carried out to verify this based on relevant standards and specifications. In this paper, a comprehensive experimental study has been performed for 126 kV vacuum interrupters used in a transmission system to understand the X-radiation level and its influence by three main parameters, namely applied power-frequency voltage, contact gap and power-frequency voltage conditioning. The radiation instrument is an FJ347 radiometer and the X-radiation dose was measured at the power-frequency test voltage. These tests demonstrated that the X-radiation emission level for a 126 kV vacuum interrupter did not exceed the following: 5 μSv per hour at a rated voltage of 126 kV and 150 μSv per hour at a power-frequency voltage of 230 kV at 1 m distance. The X-radiation dose increased with the applied power-frequency voltage increasing and decreased with the contact gap increasing. The X-radiation dose for 126 kV vacuum interrupters decreased by 57% after the conditioning procedure with a certain power-frequency voltage. During the conditioning procedure, the average value of the X-radiation dose was 4.49 mSv, which means if a professional conditions 180 interrupters per year, it will be safe at the 6.4 m distance. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002)

  4. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined. PMID:27374774

  5. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  6. Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziri, Davood; Hamidi, Masoud; Hassanzadeh, Salar; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Maleki Zanjani, Bahram; Nazemyieh, Hossein; Hejazi, Mohammd Amin; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotenoids are of great interest in many scientific disciplines because of their wide distribution, diverse functions and interesting properties. The present report describes a new natural source for carotenoid production. Methods: Halorubrum sp., TBZ126, an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from Urmia Lack following culture of water sample on marine agar medium and incubation at 30 °C. Then single colonies were cultivated in broth media. After that the cells were collected and carotenoids were extracted with acetone-methanol (7:3 v/v). The identification of carotenoids was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in the presence of antimony pentachloride (SbCl5). The production profile was analyzed using liquid-chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) techniques. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were carried out and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: LC-MS analytical results revealed that produced carotenoids are bacterioruberin, lycopene and β-carotene. Bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant produced carotenoid. 16S rRNA analysis showed that TBZ126 has 100% similarity with Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G*T (AM048786). Conclusion: Halorubrum sp. TBZ126, isolated from Urmia Lake has high capacity in the production of carotenoids. This extremely halophilic archaeon could be considered as a prokaryotic candidate for carotenoid production source for future studies. PMID:24409411

  7. Small stress molecules inhibit aggregation and neurotoxicity of prion peptide 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prion diseases, the posttranslational modification of host-encoded prion protein PrPc yields a high β-sheet content modified protein PrPsc, which further polymerizes into amyloid fibrils. PrP106-126 initiates the conformational changes leading to the conversion of PrPc to PrPsc. Molecules that can defunctionalize such peptides can serve as a potential tool in combating prion diseases. In microorganisms during stressed conditions, small stress molecules (SSMs) are formed to prevent protein denaturation and maintain protein stability and function. The effect of such SSMs on PrP106-126 amyloid formation is explored in the present study using turbidity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cellular toxicity assay. Turbidity and AFM studies clearly depict that the SSMs-ectoine and mannosylglyceramide (MGA) inhibit the PrP106-126 aggregation. Our study also connotes that ectoine and MGA offer strong resistance to prion peptide-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells, concluding that such molecules can be potential inhibitors of prion aggregation and toxicity

  8. A study of mechanisms responsible for incorporation of cesium and radiocesium into fruitbodies of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, 02-096 Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1 (Poland)], E-mail: byst@biol.uw.edu.pl; Bazala, Michal A. [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, 02-096 Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1 (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    Ex vitro cultures of Pleurotus eryngii were carried out under controlled conditions using sterile medium composed of barley seeds. The influence of alkali and alkaline earth element salts (CsCl, KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CaCl{sub 2}) and tetraethylammonium chloride on incorporation of cesium, potassium, sodium, rubidium and calcium, and their distribution within fruitbodies, was examined. The results show that incorporation of cesium into fruitbodies was not suppressed by Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +} or tetraethylammonium chloride. However, it was inhibited by Ca{sup 2+} and stimulated by high concentrations of K{sup +}. The inhibition of cesium incorporation by Ca{sup 2+}, lack of influence of tetraethylammonium chloride and stimulation by high K{sup +} concentrations suggest that there may exist two pathways of passive transport of cesium in mycelium: (i) uptake mediated by a non-specific potassium channel localised in plasmalemma (similar to voltage-insensitive cation channel, VICC) followed by diffusive transport inside hyphae and (ii) extracellular transport from the medium through inter-hyphal cavities into fruitbodies. The results highlight distinctiveness of mechanisms responsible for the uptake and incorporation of cesium in mushrooms and plants.

  9. A tentative assessment of cesium 137 direct and indirect transfer rates in a simplified fresh water food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the direct transfer of cesium from water to carps and the indirect transfer via the food. In a first experiment on chronic contamination of carps by water, the kinetics and distribution of cesium in the organs of the carps were studied. Equilibrium was not reached on the 56th day, 4% of the initial water activity had been retained by the carps and the concentration factor was below 10. The highest specific activities were found in the transit organs. In a second experiment, the water activity varied by alternating contamination and decontamination. A fluctuating equilibrium was reached on the 22nd day. The concentration factor was of the same order of magnitude than in the previous experiment. Indirect contamination of fish by ingestion of contaminated daphnids was studied in a third experiment. Cesium levels in carps increased with the cumulated activities in meals, and the uptake rate in fish was 4%. Both decorporation and biological half-lives (30-40 days) were independent of the contamination routes. The respective significance of the transfer pathways is discussed taking into account the biomass pyramids to be found in the nature. It is estimated that in a cesium environment, 70% of the carp activity should come from the diet and 30% from the water. The concentration factor would then be 75 instead of 22 when only direct transfer of cesium from water to fish is considered

  10. Kinetics of iodine and cesium reactions in the CANDU reactor primary heat transport system under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-phase reaction kinetics have been modelled for the release of cesium and iodine into steam and steam/hydrogen atmospheres. The conditions are those anticipated in a CANDU reactor fuel channel following some postulated loss-of-coolant accidents. A total of seventeen chemical species were used in the model, including all important cesium and iodine species. Reaction rate constants were taken from the literature, or calculated where possible, or estimated. The composition evolution of the system was calculated, following a burst release of cesium and iodine, as a function of total iodine and cesium concentrations, cesium/iodine release ratio, iodine release form (atomic I or CsI), fuel channel atmosphere, and radiolysis effects. In general, the calculation demonstrates that CsI and CsOH rapidly (-2 s) become the most important species in the system for virtually all conditions. Atomic I is found to be significant only for very low release concentrations, or for Cs:I ratios less than unity. The main body of the modelling was performed at 1000 K. Some calculations were also performed for a three-node temperature system - 1500 K, 1000 K and 750 K - with the fission products being transported from high to low temperature. Thus, a qualitative picture is provided of the evolution of the chemistry in the fuel channel as the fission products are swept out by the residual steam flow

  11. Cesium accumulation by bacterium Thermus sp.TibetanG7: hints for biomineralization of cesiumbearing geyserite in hot springs in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7, isolated from hot springs in Tibet, China, was examined for the ability to accumulate cesium from solutions. Environmental conditions were simulated and the effects of pH, K+, Na+ and K+-regimes were then studied to determine the possible role of the bacterium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite around these hot springs. In despite of the inhibition of K+ and Na+, the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7 revealed noticeable accumulation of cesium from solutions, with maximum accumulations of 53.49 and 40.41 μmol Cesium/g cell dry weight in Na+ and K+ inhibition experiments, respectively. The accumulation of cesium by this microorganism is rapid, with 40%―50% accumulated within the first 5 min. K+-deficient cells showed a much higher capacity of cesium accumulation compared with K+-sufficient cells. It is evident that the bacteria within the genus thermus play a significant role in the cesium assembly. The formation of cesium-bearing geyserite is also considered.

  12. Expression and function mechanism of microRNA-126 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma%微小RNA-126在食管鳞癌中的表达及作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩淼; 孟凡宇; 马军; 于永魁; 华胸怀; 秦建军; 李印

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigated microRNA (miR)-126 expression and its potential targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).Methods The expression level of miR-126 was detected in cancerous and paired paracancerous tissues from 75 patients with ESCC,association between miR-126 level and clinicopathologic characteristics were analysised.Target analysis of miR-126 was predicted using online tools.The effect of miR-126 expression on target proteins was assessed through up/down miR-126 level in ESCC cell lines.Results The relative expression of miR-126 in ESCC tissues was 0.28 ± 0.32 and 0.45 ± 0.47 in normal tissues (P < 0.01).Low level of miR-126 was associated with tumor differentiation,lymph nodes metastasis,tumor in-depth,and TNM stages (P < O.05).Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was over-expressed and associated with cell differentiation (P <0.01).In ESCC cell line Eca9706,Eca109 and TE-1,miR-126 mimics down-regulated the expression of IRS-1 protein (0.785 ± 0.337,1.873 ± 0.684,1.938 ± 1.081) compared with non-treated control (1.188 ± 0.336,2.756 ± 1.097,3.028 ± 0.789,P < 0.01),whereas miR-126 inhibitors lead to the opposite results (2.543±0.610,5.182±1.897,5.940±0.997,P<0.01).Conclusion This study revealed that miR-126 is low-expressed in ESCC and acts as a tumor suppressor in the carcinogenesis of ESCC.IRS-1 was downstream targets of miR-126 in ESCC.%目的 观察微小RNA-126(miR-126)在食管鳞癌组织中的表达及其可能调控的靶基因.方法 采用实时定量反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-qPCR)法,检测75例患者食管鳞癌组织和其匹配的癌旁组织中miR-126的表达水平,应用软件预测miR-126的靶基因,免疫组织化学法分析靶蛋白在癌组织中的表达,在食管鳞癌细胞中提高或降低miR-126表达水平,验证其对靶基因的调控作用.结果 对75组配对标本分析,癌组织中miR-126的相对表达量为0.28±0.32,癌旁组织为0.45±0.47,差异有统计学意义(P<0

  13. MicroRNA-126 and epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-an angiogenic couple of importance in metastatic colorectal cancer. Results from the Nordic ACT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Christensen, René dePont; Andersen, R F;

    2013-01-01

    from a randomised phase III study were included. The primary microRNA-126 (pri-miRNA-126) A24G single-nucleotide polymorphism and the mature miRNA-126 were analysed by PCR using genomic DNA (full blood) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections, respectively. The epidermal growth factor...

  14. A new alternative for the decontamination of PWR primary circuits for radioactive cesium and silver by insoluble ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal recovery conditions of radioactive cesium and silver from PWR primary circuits were determined on two types of nickel and zinc ferrocyanides. The studied products have been prepared by a slow growth on solid alkaline ferrocyanide particles placed in a concentrated nickel or zinc salt solution. Columns of these products do not react with water or lithium borate solutions as well as with organic solvents. The decontamination factor for cesium or silver is over 1000 for synthetic solutions. The presence of other alkaline ions does not modify these results. In the case of nuclear liquid wastes, the decontamination remains high for cesium. Silver is retained with a good efficiency if it is not under a complex form. This complex is destroyed by acidification. The setting of concrete is not significantly modified by the presence of ferrocyanides. The drawback of this method is a slight elution of some cations composing the ferrocyanides

  15. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal

  16. Effects of potassium and nitrogen groundwater pollution on the migration of cesium-137 through the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of potassium and nitrogen groundwater pollution on the migration of cesium-137 through the geological environment were studied for the territories of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus. Migration rate of cesium-137 deposited as a result of the Chernobyl accident increases in geologic media (soils, rocks, and groundwater) polluted by potassium and ammonium originating from long-term fertilizers use. This effect manifests itself in the fact that radiocesium penetrates deeper into soils of arable lands than it does into virgin soils. Laboratory experiments show the sorption capacity of sandy soils with respect to cesium-137 is 2.5-9.2 times lower in the presence of solutions of chlorides and nitrates of potassium and ammonium and is 1.3-2.0 times lower in the presence of sodium nitrate solution. 26 refs.; 2 figs

  17. Simulation of cesium nitrate extraction by a calixarene. Application to supported liquid membranes transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work fits into the general pattern of the CEA studies on the decontamination of liquid effluents containing long-lived radioactive isotopes. Some calixarenes have proved to be very effective to selectively extract the cesium of aqueous solutions whose composition simulates those of the effluents to be reprocessed. On account of the difficulty of the studied extraction mechanisms, a physical and chemical simulation has been necessary. The system takes into account: 1)a concentrated nitric acid aqueous phase and/or sodium nitrate 2)an organic phase constituted by the diluent 1,2-nitro-phenyl-octyl-ether and 1,3-diisopropoxy-calix(4)arene-couronne-6. The use of concentrated aqueous solutions requires to take into account variations to ideality by the mean of activity coefficients reckoning. The different theories on the reckoning of variations to ideality in aqueous or organic phases are described in the first part. The determination of cesium and sodium nitrates activity coefficients in very concentrated matrices has required an important theoretical and experimental study which is given in the second part. The aim of this study was indeed to complete the thermodynamic data of cesium and sodium nitrates aqueous solutions. The computerized tools required for the modeling are reviewed. The stoichiometry of the extracted species in the organic phase has been determined in the third part. The supported membrane technique is an original method of separation by liquid-liquid extraction. A membrane transport model has been developed and is given in the last part of this work. (O.M.)

  18. Al-free active region laser diodes at 894 nm for compact Cesium atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bandel, N.; Bébé Manga Lobé, J.; Garcia, M.; Larrue, A.; Robert, Y.; Vinet, E.; Lecomte, M.; Drisse, O.; Parillaud, O.; Krakowski, M.

    2015-03-01

    Time-frequency applications are in need of high accuracy and high stability clocks. Compact industrial Cesium atomic clocks optically pumped is a promising area that could satisfy these demands. However, the stability of these clocks relies, among others, on the performances of laser diodes that are used for atomic pumping. This issue has led the III-V Lab to commit to the European Euripides-LAMA project that aims to provide competitive compact optical Cesium clocks for earth applications. This work will provide key experience for further space technology qualification. We are in charge of the design, fabrication and reliability of Distributed-Feedback diodes (DFB) at 894nm (D1 line of Cesium) and 852nm (D2 line). The use of D1 line for pumping will provide simplified clock architecture compared to D2 line pumping thanks to simpler atomic transitions and larger spectral separation between lines in the 894nm case. Also, D1 line pumping overcomes the issue of unpumped "dark states" that occur with D2 line. The modules should provide narrow linewidth (<1MHz), very good reliability in time and, crucially, be insensitive to optical feedback. The development of the 894nm wavelength is grounded on our previous results for 852nm DFB. Thus, we show our first results from Al-free active region with InGaAsP quantum well broad-area lasers (100μm width, with lengths ranging from 2mm to 4mm), for further DFB operation at 894nm. We obtained low internal losses below 2cm-1, the external differential efficiency is 0.49W/A with uncoated facets and a low threshold current density of 190A/cm², for 2mm lasers at 20°C.

  19. Use of cesium-137 methodology in the evaluation of superficial erosive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avacir Casanova Andrello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Superficial erosion is one of the main soil degradation agents and erosion rates estimations for different edaphicclimate conditions for the conventional models, as USLE and RUSLE, are expensive and time-consuming. The use of cesium-137 antrophogenic radionuclide is a new methodology that has been much studied and its application in the erosion soil evaluation has grown in countries as USA, UK, Australia and others. A brief narration of this methodology is being presented, as the development of the equations utilized for the erosion rates quantification through the cesium-137 measurements. Two watersheds studied in Brazil have shown that the cesium-137 methodology was practicable and coherent with the survey in field for applications in erosion studies.A erosão superficial é um dos principais agentes de degradação dos solos e estimativas das taxas de erosão para diferentes condições edafoclimáticas pelos modelos tradicionais como USLE, RUSLE, são onerosos e demorados. Uma metodologia que tem sido muito estudada e sua aplicação no estudo da erosão vem crescendo em países como EUA, Reino Unido, Austrália, e outros, é a do uso do radionuclídeo antropogênico césio-137. Um resumo da história desta metodologia é apresentado, assim como a evolução das equações utilizadas para quantificar as taxas de erosão através da medida do césio-137. Duas bacias estudadas no Brasil mostraram que a metodologia do césio-137 é viável e coerente com as observações em campo para aplicação no estudo da erosão.

  20. Distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 in taiga and tundra catenae at the Ob River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The classification of soil catenae at the Ob River basin is developed and applied. This classification reflects the diverse geochemical conditions that led to the formation of certain soil bodies, their combinations and the migration fields of chemical elements. The soil and geochemical diversity of the Ob River basin catenae was analyzed. The vertical and lateral distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 was studied using the example of the four most common catenae types in Western Siberia tundra and taiga. In landscapes of dwarf birches and dark coniferous forests on gleysols, cryosols, podzols, and cryic-stagnosols, the highest 137Cs activity density and specific activity are characteristic of the upper soil layer of over 30% ash, while the moss-grass-shrub cover is characterized by low 137Cs activity density and specific activity. In landscapes of dwarf birches and pine woods on podzols, the maximum specific activity of cesium-137 is typical for moss-grass-shrub cover, while the maximum reserves are concentrated in the upper soil layer of over 30% ash. Bog landscapes and moss-grass-shrub cover are characterized by a minimum activity of 137Cs, and its reserves in soil generally decrease exponentially with depth. The cesium-137 penetration depth increases in oligotrophic histosols from northern to middle taiga landscapes from 10-15 to 40 cm. 137Cs is accumulated in oligotrophic histosols for increases in pH from 3.3 to 4.0 and in concretionary interlayers of pisoplinthic-cryic-histic-stagnosols. Cryogenic movement, on the one hand, leads to burying organic layers enriched in 137Cs and, on the other hand, to deducing specific activity when mixed with low-active material from lower soil layers.

  1. The prognostic value of microRNA-126 and microvessel density in patients with stage II colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Kjær-Frifeldt, Sanne; Morgenthaler, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in malignant tumour growth and the metastatic process. We analysed the prognostic value of two angiogenesis parameters, microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) and microvessel density (MVD), in a population based cohort of patients operated for stage II colon cancer...... = 0.051. The MVD estimate was not associated with either RF-CSS, p = 0.49, or OS, p = 0.94. CONCLUSION: The current population based study of patients operated for stage II colon cancer demonstrated correlations between several prognostic unfavourable characteristics and miRNA-126 and argues...... were correlated with recurrence-free cancer specific survival (RF-CSS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Low miRNA-126 expression was significantly correlated to T4, high malignancy grade, tumour perforation, fixation, and the presence of microsatellite instability. A prognostic impact on OS...

  2. A major technological accident: the dispersion of a radioactive cesium - 137 pellet in Goiania, Brazil (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns the accidental dispersion of cesium 137 chloride via an abandoned radiotherapy device in Brazil, in september 1987. Since the accident occurred recently in a confined area and concerned a single radiochemical agent, it was possible to delimit the study parameters in each discipline: post-accident management, physics, medicine, environment, law, psychology, socio-economics and communication. Costs are difficult to evaluate but obviously very important. It is difficult to analyze all consequences. No official has been accused, there were no sentence. The results demonstrate the critical importance of the human factor in technological accidents. (A.L.B.)

  3. High-Pressure Low-Symmetry Phases of Cesium Halides from First Principle Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Nardelli, M. Buongiorno; Baroni, S.; Giannozzi, P.

    1994-01-01

    The relative stability of different high-pressure phases of various Cesium Halides is studied from first principles and analyzed using the Landau theory of phase transitions. We present results for CsI, CsBr, and CsCl up to pressures of about 100 GPa. A cubic-to-orthorhombic transition, driven by the softening of an acoustic phonon at the M point of the Brillouin zone, is competing with the cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transition typical of these compounds. The phonon softening takes place...

  4. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.;

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year......(s). The elevated 129I and 134,137Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134Cs/137Cs and 129I/137Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic...

  5. Dynamic modeling of the cesium, strontium, and ruthenium transfer to grass and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, P.; Real, J.; Maubert, H.; Roussel-Debet, S. (CE de Cadarache, Saint-Paul lez Durance (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1999-05-01

    From 1988 to 1993, the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire -- IPSN) conducted experimental programs focused on transfers to vegetation following accidental localized deposits of radioactive aerosols. In relation to vegetable crops (fruit, leaves, and root vegetables) and meadow grass these experiments have enabled a determination of the factors involved in the transfer of cesium, strontium, and ruthenium at successive harvests, or cuttings, in respect of various time lags after contamination. The dynamic modeling given by these results allows an evaluation of changes in the mass activity of vegetables and grass during the months following deposit. It constitutes part of the ASTRAL post-accident radioecology model.

  6. Cesium Enhances Long-Term Stability of Lead Bromide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbak, Michael; Gupta, Satyajit; Kedem, Nir; Levine, Igal; Bendikov, Tatyana; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    Direct comparison between perovskite-structured hybrid organic-inorganic - methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) and all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), allows identifying possible fundamental differences in their structural, thermal and electronic characteristics. Both materials possess a similar direct optical band-gap, but CsPbBr3 demonstrates a higher thermal stability than MAPbBr3. In order to compare device properties we fabricated solar cells, with similarly synthesized MAPbB...

  7. Optical and evaporative cooling of cesium atoms in the gravito-optical surface trap

    CERN Document Server

    Hammes, M; Druzhinina, V; Moslener, U; Manek-Hönninger, I; Grimm, R

    2000-01-01

    We report on cooling of an atomic cesium gas closely above an evanescent-wave atom mirror. At high densitities, optical cooling based on inelastic reflections is found to be limited by a density-dependent excess temperature and trap loss due to ultracold collisions involving repulsive molecular states. Nevertheless, very good starting conditions for subsequent evaporative cooling are obtained. Our first evaporation experiments show a temperature reduction from 10muK down to 300nK along with a gain in phase-space density of almost two orders of magnitude.

  8. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137Cs and 226Ra from existing waste solutions

  9. Systematically investigating the polarization gradient cooling in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2014-11-01

    We systematically investigate the polarization gradient cooling (PGC) process in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms. The SR mode for changing the cooling laser, which means that the cooling laser frequency is stepped to the setting value while its intensity is ramped, is found to be the best for the PGC, compared with other modes studied. We verify that the heating effect of the cold atoms, which appears when the cooling laser intensity is lower than the saturation intensity, arises from insufficient polarization gradient cooling. Finally, an exponential decay function with a statistical explanation is introduced to explain the dependence of the cold atom temperature on the PGC interaction time.

  10. Digital Square-Wave Frequency Modulated Microwave Sources for a Miniature Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; ZHU Chengjin; LIU Ge; WANG Fengzhi; WANG Yiqiu; YANG Donghai

    2001-01-01

    Three different digital frequencymodulated microwave sources have been designed andapplied to our miniature optically pumped cesiumbeam clock.The main features and their influenceon clock accuracy have been experimentally tested.Itis proved that a digital square-wave frequency modu-lated microwave source using a microprocessor con-trolled direct-digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS)for our miniature optically pumped cesium beamclock works well,the frequency short term stability2 × 10 11/x r and the long term stability 3.5 x 10-13 forone day sample time have been obtained.

  11. Viscosity of aqueous-glyceric solutions of potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of viscometric investigation of the solutions of rubidium and cesium chlorides (also potassium chloride for comparison) in mixtures water-glycerine at 15, 25, 35 and 45 deg C are presented. Glycerine content constituted 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07; 0.11 molar fractions. It is shown that the range of viscosity values lower as compared to the ones for pure solvent are the wider the lower the temperature and glycerine content are (in the range of 0.01-0.11 molar fractions). The composition-viscosity, temperature-viscosity diagrams are presented

  12. Study of ferroelectric properties of spray pyrolysis deposited cesium nitrate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Arvind, E-mail: nautyphysics@gmail.co [Ferroelectric Materials and Devices Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (Uttrakhand) (India); Sekhar, K.C. [Ferroelectric Materials and Devices Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (Uttrakhand) (India); Pathak, N.P. [Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (Uttrakhand) (India); Nath, R., E-mail: rnathfph@iitr.ernet.i [Ferroelectric Materials and Devices Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (Uttrakhand) (India)

    2010-10-01

    Cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}) films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) and their ferroelectric and switching properties were examined. The morphology of the deposited films was studied using FESEM. The ferroelectric properties were optimized based on remanent polarization as a function of substrate temperature. The switching response was studied using pulse width technique. The switching parameters such as effective dimensionality, switching time, and nucleation rate were extracted using finite grain model (FGM). The width of reading pulse shows significant effect on switching transients.

  13. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and, along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small r...

  14. Observation of X-ray-induced phase transition phenomenon of cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiji, K [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan); Deguchi, M; Nakajima, N [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Matsuda, T; Tokoro, H; Ohkoshi, S [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwazumi, T, E-mail: ishiji@saga-ls.j [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Cesium manganese hexacyanoferrate is an interesting material which exhibits the phase transition with the magnetic susceptibility variation under the effect of external stimuli; such as temperature and visible light irradiation. This phase transition attributes the charge transfer between ions in the Fe-CN-Mn bond. Recently, we observed the phase transition by X-ray irradiation below 80 K. The X-ray absorption spectrum of the low-temperature (LT) phase approached toward that of the high-temperature (HT) phase. The spectrum variation by X-ray irradiation attributes the charge transfer from Fe{sup II} to Mn{sup III}.

  15. Open-path atmospheric transmission for a diode-pumped cesium laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Christopher A; Lott, Gordon E; Perram, Glen P

    2012-12-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy device was developed to study atmospheric propagation for emerging high-energy laser weapons. The cesium diode-pumped alkali laser operates near 895 nm in the vicinity of several water-vapor absorption lines. Temperature, pressure, and water vapor concentration were determined for 150 m and 1 km open paths with statistical errors of ∼0.2%. Comparison with meteorological instruments yields agreement for the 1 km path to within 0.6% for temperature, 3.7% for pressure, and 2.4% for concentration. PMID:23207380

  16. The transfer of fallout cesium-137 from browse to moose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating the transfer of fallout cesium-137 from soil to browse to moose (Alces alces) to wolf (Canis lupis) to promote our understanding of the movement of radionuclides through natural food chains. The first part of this study is concerned with moose food habits. Early winter food habits of moose from Hecla Island and Manitoba Game Hunting Area 26 in south central and south eastern Manitoba were studied. In 86 rumen samples, 25 food types were identified. Three methods of food habit determination were used: (1) percentage occurrence of food types, (2) subjective abundance scores and (3) percentage dry weight. All three methods yielded very similar results

  17. Research on the treatment of liquid waste containing cesium by an adsorption-microfiltration process with potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changping, E-mail: melindazhang@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Gu Ping, E-mail: guping@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhao Jun; Zhang Dong; Deng Yue [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The removal of cesium from an aqueous solution by an adsorption-microfiltration (AMF) process was investigated in jar tests and lab-scale tests. The adsorbent was K{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}. The obtained cesium data in the jar test fit a Freundlich-type isotherm well. In the lab-scale test, the mean cesium concentration of the raw water and the effluent were 106.87 {mu}g/L and 0.59 {mu}g/L, respectively, the mean removal of cesium was 99.44%, and the mean decontamination factors (DF) and concentration factors (CF) were 208 and 539, respectively. The removal of cesium in the lab-scale test was better than that in the jar test because the old adsorbents remaining in the reactor still had adsorption capacity with the premise of no significant desorption being observed, and the continuous renewal of the adsorbent surface improved the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. Some of the suspended solids were deposited on the bottom of the reactor, which would affect the mixing of adsorbents with the raw water and the renewing of the adsorbent surface. Membrane fouling was the main physical fouling mechanism, and the cake layer was the main filtration resistance. Specific flux (SF) decreased step by step during the whole period of operation due to membrane fouling and concentration polarization. The quality of the effluent was good and the turbidity remained lower than 0.1 NTU, and the toxic anion, CN{sup -}, could not be detected because of its low concentration, this indicated that the effluent was safe. The AMF process was feasible for practical application in the treatment of liquid waste containing cesium.

  18. 对合成电路优化的126 W Doherty功率放大器%Optimized combining circuit for 126 W Doherty power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯富诚; 宋贺伦; 曾大杰; 顾滕锋; 张耀辉

    2016-01-01

    Based on the RF LDMOS transistor and flange from the independent research, a power amplifier was developed for wireless communication as well as L band and S band radar system with high power and efficiency. On the basis of electric grounding and heat sinking, the input and output internal matching circuits were designed to increase the impedance of the transistor. Using the characteristics of the Doherty power amplifier for the backed off efficiency enhancement and internal matching for the invertion of impedance, a power amplifier with the performance of 398 W, 52% at peaking point and 126 W, 43% at 8 dB backed-off power average point was achieved. The optimized technique enhances the backoff efficiency of Doherty power amplifier, 16% relative increasment to common structure, and improves the radio frequency performance of the wireless communication system further.%基于自主研发的RF LDMOS功率晶体管以及散热法兰,设计了一款用于无线通讯以及L波段和S波段雷达系统的大功率高效率的功率放大器.在保证了器件的射频接地以及散热的前提下,在封装内部设计了输入内匹配和输出内匹配电路,提高了管芯的阻抗点以便于电路板匹配.利用Doherty功率放大器结构可以提高功率回退处效率的特点,结合输出内匹配对负载阻抗点的翻转作用,得到了一种结构优化的Doherty实现方案,在峰值功率处达到398 W的输出功率,52%的漏极效率;以及功率8 dB回退的平均功率处126 W的输出功率,43%的漏极效率.这种改进技术进一步提高了功率回退处的效率,相对普通Doherty功率放大器结构,性能提升了16%,改善了无线通信系统的射频性能.

  19. Clinical Analyses of Senile Retrogressive Cardiovalvulopathy-Report of 126 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Cibin; Lu Xiong; Huang Peilan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical characteristics and the diagnostic methods of senile retrogressive cardiovalvulopathy(SRC). Methods Total 126 cases had heart murmurs or complicated with congestive heart failure were selected into study. The diagnosis of SRC was detected by Echocardiography (UCG), chest X-ray, electrocardiography(ECG)and clinical data. The characteristics of clinical data included symptoms, signs, heart function and the prognosis, the features of UCG included quantify and positions of valvulae in pathosis, index of heart function, and the special findings of chest X-ray and ECG were analysed. Results The murmurs were found in total 126 cases complicated with different heart sounds and in different intensity in auscultate, 119patients were complicated with acute or chronic heart failure in different levels of heart function from Ⅱ -Ⅳ(NYHA). All the patients were received UCG examination, 126 cases had different calcifications with different extent and single or mixed valves were involved. The left ventricle heart function of systole and diastole were impaired. The mean LVEF was (35 ±0.7)%, In chest X-ray test: The ratio between heart and chest in larger than 50% were found in 122 cases.The ECG examination in total 84 patients shown that atrial premature beats were in 65 patients, atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in 75 patients, ventricle premature beats 41 patients. Conclusions The results suggest that elder patients with heart murmurs,congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmias should be advised to received a UCG examination, SRC should be considerd, and other heart disease should be distinguished by UCG.

  20. Microscopic description of quadrupole collectivity in neutron-rich nuclei across the N = 126 shell closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sharma, M.M. [Kuwait University, Physics Department, Kuwait (Kuwait); Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The quadrupole collectivity in Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf and W nuclei with neutron numbers 122 ≤ N ≤ 156 is studied, both at the mean field level and beyond, using the Gogny energy density functional. Besides the robustness of the N = 126 neutron shell closure, it is shown that the onset of static deformations in those isotopic chains with increasing neutron number leads to an enhanced stability and further extends the corresponding two-neutron drip lines far beyond what could be expected from spherical calculations. Independence of the mean-field predictions with respect to the particular version of the Gogny energy density functional employed is demonstrated by comparing results based on the D1S and D1M parameter sets. Correlations beyond mean field are taken into account in the framework of the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method calculation. It is shown that N = 126 remains a robust neutron magic number when dynamical effects are included. The analysis of the collective wave functions, average deformations and excitation energies indicate that, with increasing neutron number, the zero-point quantum corrections lead to dominant prolate configurations in the 0{sub 1} {sup +}, 0{sub 2} {sup +}, 2{sub 1} {sup +} and 2{sub 2} {sup +} states of the studied nuclei. Moreover, those dynamical deformation effects provide an enhanced stability that further supports the mean-field predictions, corroborating a shift of the r-process path to higher neutron numbers. Beyond mean-field calculations provide a smaller shell gap at N = 126 than the mean-field one in good agreement with previous theoretical studies. However, the shell gap still remains strong enough in the two-neutron drip lines. (orig.)

  1. Orbital parameters for the two young binaries VSB 111 and VSB 126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnath, N.; Prato, L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Skiff, B. A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mathieu, R. D., E-mail: nicole@lowell.edu, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu, E-mail: lhw@lowell.edu, E-mail: bas@lowell.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mathieu@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We report orbital parameters for two low-mass, pre-main-sequence, double-lined spectroscopic binaries: VSB 111 and VSB 126. These systems were originally identified as single-lined on the basis of visible-light observations. We obtained high-resolution infrared spectra with the 10 m Keck II telescope, detected absorption lines of the secondary stars, and measured radial velocities of both components in the systems. The visible-light spectra were obtained with the 1.5 m Wyeth reflector at the Oak Ridge Observatory, the 1.5 m Tillinghast reflector at the F. L. Whipple Observatory, and the 4.5 m equivalent Multiple Mirror Telescope. The combination of our visible and infrared observations of VSB 111 leads to a period of 902.1 ± 0.9 days, an eccentricity of 0.788 ± 0.008, and a mass ratio of 0.52 ± 0.05. VSB 126 has a period of 12.9244 ± 0.0002 days, an eccentricity of 0.18 ± 0.02, and a mass ratio of 0.29 ± 0.02. Visible-light photometry, using the 0.8 m telescope at Lowell Observatory, provided rotation periods for the primary stars in both systems: 3.74 ± 0.02 days for VSB 111 and 5.71 ± 0.07 days for VSB 126. Both binaries are located in the young, active star-forming cluster NGC 2264 at a distance of ∼800 pc. The difference in the center-of-mass velocities of the two systems is consistent with the radial velocity gradient seen across NGC 2264. To test the evolutionary models for accuracy and consistency, we compare the stellar properties derived from several sets of theoretical calculations for pre-main-sequence evolution with our dynamical results.

  2. 腔内激光治疗下肢静脉曲张126

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 惠震; 王耕

    2008-01-01

    下肢慢性静脉功能不全(chronic venous insufficiency,CVI)是常见的血管外科疾病,临床症状主要表现为下肢静脉曲张。我院于2003年7月-2005年8月采用英国DIOMED激光治疗系统结合手术方法治疗下肢静脉曲张126例(178条患肢),近期疗效显著,现报告如下。

  3. First Measurement of Several β-Delayed Neutron Emitting Isotopes Beyond N=126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Folch, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ameil, F; Arcones, A; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Borzov, I N; Bowry, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cortés, G; Davinson, T; Dillmann, I; Estrade, A; Evdokimov, A; Faestermann, T; Farinon, F; Galaviz, D; García, A R; Geissel, H; Gelletly, W; Gernhäuser, R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Guerrero, C; Heil, M; Hinke, C; Knöbel, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Yu A; Maier, L; Marganiec, J; Marketin, T; Marta, M; Martínez, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Montes, F; Mukha, I; Napoli, D R; Nociforo, C; Paradela, C; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Prochazka, A; Rice, S; Riego, A; Rubio, B; Schaffner, H; Scheidenberger, Ch; Smith, K; Sokol, E; Steiger, K; Sun, B; Taín, J L; Takechi, M; Testov, D; Weick, H; Wilson, E; Winfield, J S; Wood, R; Woods, P; Yeremin, A

    2016-07-01

    The β-delayed neutron emission probabilities of neutron rich Hg and Tl nuclei have been measured together with β-decay half-lives for 20 isotopes of Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi in the mass region N≳126. These are the heaviest species where neutron emission has been observed so far. These measurements provide key information to evaluate the performance of nuclear microscopic and phenomenological models in reproducing the high-energy part of the β-decay strength distribution. This provides important constraints on global theoretical models currently used in r-process nucleosynthesis.

  4. Time history solution program, L225 (TEV126). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, R. I.; Tornallyay, A.; Clemmons, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 1 of a two volume document is presented. The usage of the convolution program L225 (TEV 126) is described. The program calculates the time response of a linear system by convoluting the impulsive response function with the time-dependent excitation function. The convolution is performed as a multiplication in the frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform techniques are used to transform the product back into the time domain to obtain response time histories. A brief description of the analysis used is presented.

  5. Genetic factors influencing ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W;

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain...... with iron deficiency in women. Results for all other genetic variants were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants associated with hemochromatosis may protect donors against depleted iron stores. In addition, we showed that presence of the T-allele at rs855791 in TMPRSS6 was associated with lower iron...

  6. No influence of a N=126 Neutron Shell Closure in Fission Fragment Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, A; Banerjee, K; Bhattacharya, S; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Kundu, S; Bhattacharya, C; Meena, J K; Mukherjee, G; Saha, A K; Asgar, Md A; Dey, A; Manna, S; Pandey, R; Rana, T K; Roy, P; Roy, T; Srivastava, V; Bhattacharya, P; Biswas, D C; Joshi, B N; Mahata, K; Shrivastava, A; Vind, R P; Pal, S; Behera, B R; Singh, Varinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Mass distributions of the fragments in the fission of $^{206}$Po and the N=126 neutron shell closed nucleus $^{210}$Po have been measured. No significant deviation of mass distributions has been found between $^{206}$Po and $^{210}$Po, indicating the absence of shell correction at the saddle point in both the nuclei, contrary to the reported angular anisotropy and pre-scission neutron multiplicity results. This new result provides benchmark data to test the new fission dynamical models to study the effect of shell correction on the potential energy surface at saddle point.

  7. The Constrained NMSSM with a 126 GeV Higgs boson: A global analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalska, Kamila; Munir, Shoaib; Roszkowski, Leszek; Sessolo, Enrico Maria; Trojanowski, Sebastian; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming

    2012-01-01

    We present the first global analysis of the Constrained NMSSM that investigates the impact of the recent discovery of a 126 GeV Higgs-like boson, of the observation of a signal for BR(B_s->\\mu^+\\mu^-), and of constraints on supersymmetry from ~5/fb of data accumulated at the LHC, as well as of other relevant constraints from colliders, flavor physics and dark matter. We consider three possible cases, assuming in turn that the discovered Higgs boson is: i) the lightest Higgs boson of the model...

  8. Beta Decays of Isotones with Neutron Magic Number of N=126 and R-process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Toshio; Kajino, Toshitaka; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2011-01-01

    Beta decays of the isotones with N=126 are studied by shell model calculations taking into account both the Gamow-Teller (GT) and first-forbidden (FF) transitions. The FF transitions are found to be important to reduce the half-lives, by nearly twice to several times, from those by the GT contributions only. Possible implications of the short half-lives of the waiting point nuclei on the r-process nucleosynthesis during the supernova explosions are discussed. A slight shift of the third peak of the element abundances in the r-process toward higher mass region is found.

  9. First measurement of several $\\beta$-delayed neutron emitting isotopes beyond N=126

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Folch, R; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ameil, F; Arcones, A; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Borzov, I N; Bowry, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cortés, G; Davinson, T; Dillmann, I; Estrade, A; Evdokimov, A; Faestermann, T; Farinon, F; Galaviz, D; García, A R; Geissel, H; Gelletly, W; Gernhäuser, R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Guerrero, C; Heil, M; Hinke, C; Knöbel, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Y; Maier, L; Marganiec, J; Marketin, T; Marta, M; Martínez, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Montes, F; Mukha, I; Napoli, D R; Nociforo, C; Paradela, C; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Prochazka, A; Rice, S; Riego, A; Rubio, B; Schaffner, H; Scheidenberger, Ch; Smith, K; Sokol, E; Steiger, K; Sun, B; Taín, J L; Takechi, M; Testov, D; Weick, H; Wilson, E; Winfield, J S; Wood, R; Woods, P; Yeremin, A

    2015-01-01

    The $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities of neutron rich Hg and Tl nuclei have been measured together with $\\beta$-decay half-lives for 20 isotopes of Au, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi in the mass region N$\\gtrsim$126. These are the heaviest species where neutron emission has been observed so far. These measurements provide key information to evaluate the performance of nuclear microscopic and phenomenological models in reproducing the high-energy part of the $\\beta$-decay strength distribution. In doing so, it provides important constraints to global theoretical models currently used in $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  10. Absorption of PCB126 by upper airways impairs G protein-coupled receptor-mediated immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ana Lúcia B.; Cruz, Wesley S.; Loiola, Rodrigo A.; Drewes, Carine C.; Dörr, Fabiane; Figueiredo, Natália G.; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2015-10-01

    PCB126 is a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) environmental pollutant with a significant impact on human health, as it bioaccumulates and causes severe toxicity. PCB126-induced immune toxicity has been described, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an in vivo protocol of PCB126 intoxication into male Wistar rats by intranasal route was used, which has not yet been described. The intoxication was characterised by PCB126 accumulation in the lungs and liver, and enhanced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and adipose tissues. Moreover, an innate immune deficiency was characterised by impairment of adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes and by reduced blood neutrophil locomotion and oxidative burst activation elicited by ex vivo G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Specificity of PCB126 actions on the GPCR pathway was shown by normal burst oxidative activation evoked by Toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C direct activation. Moreover, in vivo PCB180 intoxication did not alter adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes either blood neutrophil locomotion, and only partially reduced the GPCR-induced burst oxidative activation on neutrophils. Therefore, a novel mechanism of in vivo PCB126 toxicity is described which impairs a pivotal inflammatory pathway to the host defence against infections.

  11. The ERK signaling target RNF126 regulates anoikis resistance in cancer cells by changing the mitochondrial metabolic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Seiko; Hara, Toshiro; Nakaoka, Hiroki J; Kanamori, Akane; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2016-01-01

    Loss of anchorage to the extracellular matrix leads to apoptosis (anoikis) in normal cells, but cancerous cells are usually resistant to such stress. Here we report the pivotal role of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ring-finger protein 126 (RNF126), in the resistance of cancer cells to the stress associated with non-adherent conditions. Non-adherent cancer cells exhibited increased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle via increased conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. RNF126 was found to act as a ubiquitin ligase for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), resulting in their proteasomal degradation. This decrease in PDK levels allowed pyruvate dehydrogenases to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, depletion of RNF126 or increased expression of PDK1 in cancer cells suppressed colony formation in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in mice. RNF126 expression in cancer cells was found to be under the control of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway, which is essential for anoikis resistance. Thus, RNF126 is an attractive molecule for treating cancer by selectively targeting anchorage-independent growth. PMID:27462466

  12. The Effect of Carbonate, Oxalate and Peroxide on the Cesium Loading of Ionsiv IE-910 and IE-911

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-12-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) continues to examine three processes for the removal of radiocesium from high-level waste. One option involves the use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as a non-elutable ion exchange medium. The process uses CST in its engineered form - IONSIV IE-911 made by UOP, LLC. - in a column to contact the liquid waste. Cesium exchanges with sodium ions residing inside the CST particles. The design disposes of the cesium-loaded CST by vitrification within the Defense Waste Processing Facility.

  13. Volume reduction of lake sediment and decrease of its cesium content in decontamination process by wet oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet oxidation method was applied aiming to decrease cesium contents in lake sediment. In this research, “reactive oxygen water”, that is prepared from hypochlorous acid by contact with metal ceramics, was reacted with three kinds of samples, that is, lake sediment, mixture of lake sediment and fallen leaves, and incineration ash of fallen leaves. Experimental results revealed that sample volume was reduced by means of wet oxidation of organic components in samples and that a large amount of cesium contents were transferred from sample to water phase. (author)

  14. Relationship between arterial atheromatous plaque morphology and platelet-associated miR-126 and miR-223 expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Song Tian; Qing-Guo Zhou; Fang Shao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of miR-126 and miR-223 in platelet of rabbit arterial plaque models, and explore its correlation with plaque morphology. Methods: Rabbit arterial plaque models were established, peripheral blood of models and control animals was collected. Plaque morphologies were divided into type Ⅰ, type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ based on angiography plaque morphology and Ambrose method. Platelet isolation kit was applied to isolate and purify peripheral blood platelets, CD45 immunomagnetic beads were used to remove the residual white blood cells. The miRNAs of platelets was extracted by miRNA Isolation Kit, and expressions of miR-126 and miR-223 of the platelets samples were detected by Real-time PCR. The correlation between plaque morphology and platelet-associated miR-126 and miR-223 expressions were analyzed. Expressions of target gene VCAM-1 and P2Y12 receptors of miR-126 and miR-223 in the atherosclerosis plaque of rabbit model were detected by Western blot. Results: Relative expression levels of miR-126 and miR-223 in the model group were 0.27±0.10 and 0.71±0.14, respectively. Plaque morphology was divided into types Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ;and miR-126 and miR-223 expression levels were detected in each type. Expression levels of miR-126 in each type were 0.42±0.07, 0.17±0.11 and 0.22±0.15, respectively; and expression levels of miR-223 in each type are 0.68±0.02, 0.57±0.06 and 0.88±0.10, respectively. Relative to the control group, miR-126 and miR-223 known target genes in VCAM-1 and P2Y12 receptors increased platelets in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque models (P<0.05). Conclusions:Relative to normal control animals, miR-126 and miR-223 platelets were reduced in the rabbit atherosclerotic plaque model group (P<0.05). In the type Ⅱ plaque morphology group, miR-126 was greatly reduced; and there is no significant correlation between miR-223 and plaque morphology.

  15. Heavy nuclei far from stability in the N < 126, Z > 82 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    There are long-standing calculations suggesting that nuclei in the N < 126, Z > 82 region far from stability exhibit deformation effects. Away from stability an observable permanent quadrupole deformation should be achieved but, as yet, there is no experimental evidence for such an effect. A series of experiments was performed to assess the production of nuclei in this region and to study their structure. These experiments were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy to investigate the low-lying level schemes and alpha-particle spectroscopy in order to isolate fine structure in the decay. The low-lying level structure of the neutron-deficient isotope {sup 202}Rn was studied, for the first time, using the {sup 181}Ta({sup 27}Al,6n) and {sup 192}Pt({sup 16}O,6n) reactions. Gamma-ray transitions between excited states in {sup 202}Rn were identified by mass tagging the Fragment Mass Analyzer and by observation of coincident X rays. Transitions in {sup 203}Rn were also identified. The level scheme deduced from these data is consistent with the systematics of light radon isotopes below the N = 126 shell closure and with theoretical calculations indicating that the ground-state shape should not be strongly deformed at N = 116.

  16. Proton-neutron structure of low lying collective quadrupole excitations in 126Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low spin states of the nucleus 126Xe were studied by means of γ-spectroscopy using the fusion evaporation reaction 123Te(α,n)126Xe performed at the Cologne FN TANDEM accelerator. The γγ coincidence and singles spectra were measured with the OSIRIS-cube spectrometer. Beside the ground and quasi-gamma bands many other low lying states were observed. γγ directional correlations from oriented states (DCO) were analyzed to determine the multipolarities of the γ-transitions. We observed dominant E2-transitions in the quasi-gamma band and from the gamma- to the ground band but also a large M1-fraction in the 6+2→61+ transition. We additionally found a strong M1-decay depopulating the 2+4-state at 2064 keV. The lifetime of this state was measured using the Doppler shift attenuation technique. The experimental data are compared with a calculation using the Proton-Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2). Good agreement is reached in the vicinity of the O(6)-limit. The observed M1-transition of the 2+4 state is interpreted as due to a fragment of the lowest 2+ mixed-symmetry state predicted by the IBM-2

  17. Microscopic description of quadrupole collectivity in neutron-rich nuclei across the N=126 shell closure

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Sharma, M M

    2014-01-01

    The quadrupole collectivity in Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf and W nuclei with neutron numbers 122 $\\le$ N $\\le$ 156 is studied, both at the mean field level and beyond, using the Gogny energy density functional. Besides the robustness of the N=126 neutron shell closure, it is shown that the onset of static deformations in those isotopic chains with increasing neutron number leads to an enhanced stability and further extends the corresponding two-neutron driplines far beyond what could be expected from spherical calculations. Independence of the mean field predictions with respect to the particular version of the Gogny energy density functional employed is demonstrated by comparing results based on the D1S and D1M parameter sets. Correlations beyond mean field are taken into account in the framework of the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method calculation. It is shown that N=126 remains a robust neutron magic number when dynamical effects are included. The analysis of the collective wave functio...

  18. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the decontamination of water polluted with cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Helal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are attracting considerable interest because of their potential applications in practically all fields of science and technology, including the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters. It is, therefore, of great importance to adapt the surfaces of these nanoparticles according to the application. In this work advanced nanoparticles (NPs with well-tailored surface functionalities were synthesized using the polyol method. The efficiency of a chelating agent, succinyl-β-cyclodextrin (SBCD, was first investigated spectrophotometrically and by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC. SBCD was then grafted onto nanoparticles previously functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxsilane (NP-APTES. The resulting NP-SBCD system was then incubated with a solution of cesium. After magnetic separation, the solid residue was removed from the supernatant and characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron spectrometry (XPS, X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometry. These characterizations show the presence of cesium in the solid residue, which indicates Cs uptake by the NP-SBCD system. This nanohybrid system constitutes a promising model for heavy metal decontamination.

  19. Production of negative D- ions by double charge exchange using cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental results on the source of D- negative ions developed at SIG confirm a certain number of essential points: (1) the use of a positive ion source obtained by a resonance electronic cyclotron permits the production of D+ ion beams with a very small gas output, therefore it has a very good gas efficiency; (2) the supersonic cesium target obtained after the release of a high temperature cesium vapor functions perfectly with the desired characteristics; (3) the conversion efficiency measured in D- ions is close to those which were deduced from experimental cross sections; and (4) the mean density of D- ion currents is on the order of 10 mA/cm2 at 1 keV. They could be 15 at 25 mA/cm2 at 300 eV. This presupposes that we modify the extraction optic for the D+ ions to extract 60 at 70 mA/cm2 of D+ at 300 eV with a maximum electric field of 30 DV/cm and a greater perveance of the optic

  20. Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.)

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from May 1985 to Jul. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is aimed at listing measurements of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil made at eight places across Japan during the period from May to July in 1985. Collection and pretreatment methods are described for samples of rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water, sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, as well as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The methods for the preparation of these samples for analysis are also outlined. Sample solutions were neutralized with sodium hydroxide, and the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated after sodium carbonate was added. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After being precipitated as oxalates, strontium and calcium were separated by successive fuming nitric acid separations. For the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, soil and sediment were treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid for extraction while other samples were ashed and digested. Calcium, separated as oxalate, was determined by titration while stable strontium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy, respectively. Couting for activity was carried out using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Research on ultracold cesium molecule long-range states by high-resolution photoassociative spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiRong; MA Jie; JI WeiBang; WANG GuiPing; XIAO LianTuan; JIA SuoTang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy study on photoassociation of cesium atoms is reported. The cold cesium gas in the mag-neto-optical trap is illuminated by a photoassociation laser with red-tuning as large as 40 cm-1 below the 6S1/2 + 6P3/2 dissociation limit, and the photoassoclation to the excited state ultracold molecule is detected. High signal-to-noise ratio is obtained by using the lock-in detection of the fluorescence from the modulated cold Cs at-oms. The O-g, and O+u, long-range states which correspond to 6S1/2 + 6P3/2 diSsocia-tion limit are present in the photoassociation spectrum. The effective coefficients of leading long-range interactions and the corresponding vibrational quantum num-ber are obtained using LeRoy-Bernstein Law. It is found that photoassociation process creates rotating molecules and the high J value is a hint that higher partial waves participate in the PA process in the presence of trapping laser.

  3. The behavior of cesium iodide radioaerosols during CsI sublimation from metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the biologically most dangerous volatile fission products getting into the environment during hypothetical severe accidents at NPPs are CsI radioaerosols. This is the reason why great attention is now being devoted to a study of the behavior of CsI radioaerosols in the steam-gas phase. We studied the behavior of CsI aerosols using a setup made of a steam generator, a reaction chamber with a Pt heater, a condenser, bubblers with a Na2S2O3 solution, and a Petryanov filter. The method of radionuclide diagnostic was used for study of the CsI behavior during sublimation from the metal surface. The theoretical mass ratio between cesium and iodine in the CsI molecule is equal to 1.04. So, an upward deviation from this theoretical value will show an increase in the amount of cesium, and, respectively, a downward deviation will indicate an increase in the amount of iodine. Thus, change in the Cs/I ratio was a parameter with the help of which we considered estimating the extent of the oxidation hydrolysis of CsI aerosols. (orig.)

  4. Uncertainty of cesium-beam time standards due to beam asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.

    1980-12-01

    As a consequence of the spatial phase distribution in the resonators of cesium-beam time and frequency standards, the generated frequency depends on the specific path of the atomic beam. A change of the position of the atomic beam source may result in a beam displacement normal to the beam direction. For a deflection system consisting of a combination of quadrupole and hexapole magnets for two-dimensional beam deflection, the displacement of the center of mass of the beam resulting from a misalignment of the beam source is computed. To this end, the distribution of the beam intensity on the collector is first determined. It is shown that for the cesium-beam time and frequency standard CS1 of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the uncertainty of the position of the center of mass of the beam entails a contribution to the uncertainty of the standard of less than 1 x 10 to the -15th. The amount of the displacement of the center of mass of the beam can be determined from the decrease of the beam flux on the collector caused by an adjustment of the beam source.

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water from December, 1981, to July, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Service water, 100 liters each, was collected at an intake of a water-treatment plant and at a tap after water was left running for five minutes. Water, to which the carriers of strontium and cesium were added immediately after sampling, was vigorously stirred and filtered. The sample was then passed through a cation exchange column. After radiochemical separation, the precipitates were counted for the activity using a low-background beta counter, normally for 60 min. The measuring techniques are first described; i.e. the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting. The measured results are given in a table for the following locations: source water - Tokyo, Osaka, Hokkaido, Kyoto, Kanagawa, Aichi, Fukuoka; tap water - Hokkaido, Akita, Fukushima, Tokyo, Fukui, Shizuoka, Shimane, Okayama, Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Wakayama, Okinawa, Hiroshima, Aomori, Yamagata, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Niigata, Ishikawa, Nagano, Aichi, Osaka, Hyogo, Tottori, Yamaguchi, Ehime, Kochi, Kagoshima. (Mori, K.)

  6. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the decontamination of water polluted with cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed S.; Decorse, Philippe; Perruchot, Christian; Novak, Sophie; Lion, Claude; Ammar, Souad; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel; Hémadi, Miryana

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are attracting considerable interest because of their potential applications in practically all fields of science and technology, including the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters. It is, therefore, of great importance to adapt the surfaces of these nanoparticles according to the application. In this work advanced nanoparticles (NPs) with well-tailored surface functionalities were synthesized using the polyol method. The efficiency of a chelating agent, succinyl-β-cyclodextrin (SBCD), was first investigated spectrophotometrically and by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). SBCD was then grafted onto nanoparticles previously functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxsilane (NP-APTES). The resulting NP-SBCD system was then incubated with a solution of cesium. After magnetic separation, the solid residue was removed from the supernatant and characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. These characterizations show the presence of cesium in the solid residue, which indicates Cs uptake by the NP-SBCD system. This nanohybrid system constitutes a promising model for heavy metal decontamination.

  7. Nanophotonic hybridization of narrow atomic cesium resonances and photonic stop gaps of opaline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Philip J; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L

    2014-01-01

    We study a hybrid system consisting of a narrowband atomic optical resonance and the long-range periodic order of an opaline photonic nanostructure. To this end, we have infiltrated atomic cesium vapor in a thin silica opal photonic crystal. With increasing temperature, the frequencies of the opal's reflectivity peaks shift down by >20% due to chemical reduction of the silica. Simultaneously, the photonic bands and gaps shift relative to the fixed near-infrared cesium D1 transitions. As a result the narrow atomic resonances with high finesse (f/df=8E5) dramatically change shape from a usual dispersive shape at the blue edge of a stop gap, to an inverted dispersion lineshape at the red edge of a stop gap. The lineshape, amplitude, and off-resonance reflectivity are well modeled with a transfer-matrix model that includes the dispersion and absorption of Cs hyperfine transitions and the chemically-reduced opal. An ensemble of atoms in a photonic crystal is an intriguing hybrid system that features narrow defect-...

  8. Transfer data for radio-cesium in the food chain feed/meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to have some knowledge of the behaviour of radioactive material in the food chain to be able to assess the radiation exposure of humans via the ingestion path way. The transfer factor has to be defined precisely because there is a linear dependence of the radiation dose on the transfer factor in the mathematical models for calculating the annual radiation doses. Knowledge of the animal-specific cesium retention, of the biological half-life as well as of the distribution system is required for an accurate calculation of the transfer-data of the particularly important radionuclide cesium 137. After having studied the original literature thoroughly the following transfer factors have been found as an average: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02, calf 0.43 +- 0.06, goat 0.20, sheep 0.11 +- 0.02, swine 0.26 +- 0.01, chicken 3.23 +- 1.41, reindeer 0.31 +- 0.07. (MG)

  9. Nanophotonic hybridization of narrow atomic cesium resonances and photonic stop gaps of opaline nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Philip J.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Vos, Willem L.

    2015-01-01

    We study a hybrid system consisting of a narrow-band atomic optical resonance and the long-range periodic order of an opaline photonic nanostructure. To this end, we have infiltrated atomic cesium vapor in a thin silica opal photonic crystal. With increasing temperature, the frequencies of the opal's reflectivity peaks shift down by >20 % due to chemical reduction of the silica. Simultaneously, the photonic bands and gaps shift relative to the fixed near-infrared cesium D1 transitions. As a result the narrow atomic resonances with high finesse (ω /Δ ω =8 ×105 ) dramatically change shape from a usual dispersive shape at the blue edge of a stop gap, to an inverted dispersion line shape at the red edge of a stop gap. The line shape, amplitude, and off-resonance reflectivity are well modeled with a transfer-matrix model that includes the dispersion and absorption of Cs hyperfine transitions and the chemically reduced opal. An ensemble of atoms in a photonic crystal is an intriguing hybrid system that features narrow defectlike resonances with a strong dispersion, with potential applications in slow light, sensing, and optical memory.

  10. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  11. Physical properties of a new flat panel detector with cesium-iodide technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Penchev, Petar; Fiebich, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Flat panel detectors have become the standard technology in projection radiography. Further progress in detector technology will result in an improvement of MTF and DQE. The new detector (DX-D45C; Agfa; Mortsel/Belgium) is based on cesium-iodine crystals and has a change in the detector material and the readout electronics. The detector has a size of 30 cm x 24 cm and a pixel matrix of 2560 x 2048 with a pixel pitch of 124 μm. The system includes an automatic exposure detector, which enables the use of the detector without a connection to the x-ray generator. The physical properties of the detector were determined following IEC 62220-1-1 in a laboratory setting. The MTF showed an improvement compared to the previous version of cesium-iodine based flat-panel detectors. Thereby the DQE is also improved especially for the higher frequencies. The new detector showed an improvement in the physical properties compared to the previous versions. This enables a potential for further dose reductions in clinical imaging.

  12. Executive strategy plan for beneficial uses program: cesium-137 sewage sludge irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-efficient disinfection of sewage sludge, permitting its use as a fertilizer and soil conditioner in areas open to public access or on certain food chain crops, is possible using the process technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories under DOE and EPA joint support. This process accomplishes disinfection by gamma ray irradiation with cesium-137, a by-product isotope recovered from reprocessing of defense production waste. Disinfection with cesium-137 gamma irradiation provides an energy-efficient option for the Nation's cities to beneficially utilize sewage sludge, while at the same time conserving energy by utilizing a radioisotope, traditionally considered waste, in a beneficial manner. While the Sandia sludge irradiation technology has successfully completed its research and development phase, a major consideration remains: the introduction of a new technology into a marketplace which traditionally is skeptical of new products or process technologies until their performance is well proven. This document analyzes the factors important to market introduction of this new technology, develops options, and recommends a program strategy for transfer of the Sandia sludge irradiation technology to the marketplace by developing public awareness and acceptance, and by stimulating private sector commercialization interest

  13. The stability under irradiation of hollandite ceramics, specific radioactive cesium-host waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations are currently performed on matrices for the specific immobilization of long-lived radionuclides such as fission products resulting from an enhanced reprocessing of spent fuel. Hollandite (nominally BaA2Ti6O16), one of the phases constituting SYNROC, receives renewed interest as specific Cs host wasteform. The radioactive cesium isotopes decay involves the emission of β particles, γ rays and the transmutation of Cs to stable Ba ions. This study deals with the synthesis of hollandite ceramics by oxide route and single crystals by a flux method having the BaxCsy(Al,Fe)2x+yTi8-2x-yO16 composition type (l≤x≤1.28; 0≤y≤0.28). The influence of the hollandite chemical composition on the hollandite structure and microstructure is studied. To estimate the hollandite radiation resistance, external electron irradiation experiments, simulating the β particles emitted by radioactive cesium, were carried on single phase materials. The radiation effects were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (authors)

  14. Modeling Cesium Partitioning in the Rhizosphere: A Focus on the Role of Root Exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Melinda Ann; Siegel, L. S.; Alshawabkeh, A. N.; Carl D. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual model is being developed for prediction of cesium (Cs) partitioning between bound (Csb), aqueous (Csa), and phytoextracted (Csp) phases in the rhizosphere. The model categorizes the processes that impact cesium partitioning into six sub-models: geochemistry, physical factors, root density, microorganisms, nutrients, and root exudates. A seventh sub-model (Cs fate) describes Cs movement between the three phases. Functional relationships and parametric values within and between the submodels are being developed based on literature, field characterization, and laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of root density, microbial population, potassium requirement and concentration, and moisture content on the concentration of root exudates ([E]) and consequently on Cs partitioning. In summary, the model provides a framework for better understanding the fundamental processes that control Cs fate in the rhizosphere. The ability to better understand, predict, and control Cs solubilization could be applied to other metals in the future. Ultimately, the model will be used as a tool for enhancing field implementation of in situ solubilization of metals for a variety of remedial activities.

  15. Incorporation of cesium into phosphates of apatitic and rhabdophane lattices. Application to the conditioning of separated radionuclides; Incorporation du cesium dans des phosphates de structure apatitique et rhabdophane. Application au conditionnement des radionucleides separes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, L

    2003-04-01

    Two phosphate-based materials were investigated for cesium immobilization after its partitioning from spent nuclear fuel: apatites and rhabdophanes. The incorporation of cesium into the apatitic lattice creates steric stresses. These stresses induce the formation of secondary phases which are rapidly leached. The effectiveness of the cesium immobilization in this material is not therefore validated. A second phosphate CsCaNd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was consistently found at the end of the leach test and its properties were further characterized. The structure of CsCaNd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which is rhabdophane-like, is made of large channels which enable the incorporation of the largest alkaline cations. The synthesis involves two intermediates: the monazite, NdPO{sub 4}, and a soluble phosphate, CsCaPO{sub 4}. The study of a rhabdophane with 10 wt.% of cesium reveals satisfactory intrinsic properties: a thermal stability up to 1100 C and a leach rate of 10{sup -2} g/(m{sup 2}.d). The next step will be to improve the reaction yield. (author)

  16. Transporting dynamics of radioactive cesium in a forest ecosystem and its discharge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseda, Kohei; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tanoi, Keitaro; Endo, Izuki; Oda, Tomoki; Kato, Hiroyu [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A lot of radioactive substance including {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs fell out to Tohoku and Kanto region in particular Fukushima prefecture after the accident of Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power plant. Generally, cesium tends to attach to clay particle and organic matter. These clay particle and organic matter can potentially flow out from the forest through the river to the downstream not only as particulate matter but also dissolved matter. It is likely that behavior of cesium is similar to sediment locomotion. The objective of this study is to understand transporting dynamics of radioactive cesium inside and outside of the forest. We started investigations on transporting dynamics of cesium in the forest upper stream of Kami-Oguni river in Date city Fukushima prefecture located in about 50 km from the nuclear power plant since July 2012. We conducted river water sampling at 9 points along the river from the uppermost stream to the middle reaches during low flow condition once a month. We also sampled river water during storm event for 5 times in order to capture the change of {sup 137}Cs concentration in a flood stage. Samples were filtered and separated into particulate and dissolved matters using glass micro-fiber filters (GF/F). Samples were analyzed their {sup 137}Cs concentration by Germanium semiconductor detector at University of Tokyo. During low flow condition, {sup 137}Cs was detected only a very small amount both in particulate and dissolved matters. In contrast, during high flow condition, {sup 137}Cs was detected about 10-100 times higher than that of during low flow condition in particulate matter. We estimated discharge flux of {sup 137}Cs from the forest using the relations between water discharge and {sup 137}Cs concentration. It was 0.977 Bq/(m2 day ) (2012/8/31-2013/4/19). In the forest, we set 2 deciduous tree plots (Quercus serrata, Zelkova serrata and so on) and 1 evergreen confer plot (Cyptomeria japonica). Atmospheric depositions of {sup 137

  17. miR-126 is downregulated in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells and regulates TOM1 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oglesby, Irene K

    2010-02-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases in which the role of microRNAs has yet to be explored. Predicted to be regulated by miR-126, TOM1 (target of Myb1) has been shown to interact with Toll-interacting protein, forming a complex to regulate endosomal trafficking of ubiquitinated proteins. TOM1 has also been proposed as a negative regulator of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-induced signaling pathways. MiR-126 is highly expressed in the lung, and we now show for the first time differential expression of miR-126 in CF versus non-CF airway epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-126 downregulation in CF bronchial epithelial cells correlated with a significant upregulation of TOM1 mRNA, both in vitro and in vivo when compared with their non-CF counterparts. Introduction of synthetic pre-miR-126 inhibited luciferase activity in a reporter system containing the full length 3\\'-untranslated region of TOM1 and resulted in decreased TOM1 protein production in CF bronchial epithelial cells. Following stimulation with LPS or IL-1beta, overexpression of TOM1 was found to downregulate NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Conversely, TOM1 knockdown resulted in a significant increase in NF-kappaB regulated IL-8 secretion. These data show that miR-126 is differentially regulated in CF versus non-CF airway epithelial cells and that TOM1 is a miR-126 target that may have an important role in regulating innate immune responses in the CF lung. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report of a role for TOM1 in the TLR2\\/4 signaling pathways and the first to describe microRNA involvement in CF.

  18. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  19. Evaluation results of 126 cases of maternal death in Xinjiang%新疆126例孕产妇死亡评审结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玛丽娅·阿不都克里木; 赖巧英; 古力帕丽·麦曼提依明; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out and control the causes in every link of maternal death, so as to propose corresponding interventions and provide basis of policy decision to reduce maternal mortality rate effectively. Methods The clinical data of 126 cases of maternal death which submitted completely in the period from October 2010 to September 2011 were reviewed according to Management of Maternal Death Review of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Dodec-form review method of WHO. Results The first five causes of maternal death were obstetric hemorrhage ( 34. 92% ), hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy ( 27. 78% ), pregnancy complicated with heart disease ( 11. 11% ), venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism ( 5. 56% ), and influenza a ( H1N1 ) ( 3. 17% ). The first five causes of mortality induced 82.54% of total death. The ratio of direct obstetric causes to indirect obstetric causes was 1. 6:1. Among mortality, 92.06% could be avoided and 7. 94% was unavoidable. Conclusion Skillful obstetricians are insufficient in city-, county- and township-level hygiene hospitals, and the skills and quality of present obstetricians are poor. Maternal rescue group should be strengthened and green pathway and first-aid center should be established for high-risk maternal transfer. The hard ware facilities in town-level hygiene hospitals are short, and the quality of prenatal care of pregnant women is low. The guide role of health education should be emphasized. Women s consciousness of self protection needs to be strengthened. The influence of unplanned birth on maternal mortality should not be ignored.%目的 通过孕产妇死亡评审及时发现和掌握各个环节中存在的问题,提出针对性的干预措施,为降低孕产妇死亡率提供决策依据.方法 对自治区2010年10月至2011年9月死亡的上报材料完整的126例孕产妇死亡材料,根据规定,采用WHO"十二格表"评审方法进行评审分析.结果 前5位死因依次为产科出血(34.92%)

  20. Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of 2--18-eV electrons by cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by cesium atoms between 2 and 18 eV have been measured using the atomic-recoil technique in the scattering-out mode. Our results are somewhat lower than those of Visconti, Slevin, and Rubin [Phys. Rev. A 3, 1310 (1971)] above 2 eV

  1. Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of 2--18-eV electrons by cesium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaduszliwer, B.; Chan, Y.C. (Electronics Technology Center, The Aerospace Corporation, P. O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009 (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by cesium atoms between 2 and 18 eV have been measured using the atomic-recoil technique in the scattering-out mode. Our results are somewhat lower than those of Visconti, Slevin, and Rubin (Phys. Rev. A 3, 1310 (1971)) above 2 eV.

  2. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company's (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP

  3. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-08-23

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

  4. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste

  5. Sugar-metal ion interactions: The coordination behavior of cesium ion with lactose, D-arabinose and L-arabinose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Xue, Junhui; Wen, Xiaodong; Zhai, Yanjun; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Kou, Kuan; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2016-04-01

    The novel cesium chloride-lactose complex (CsCl·C12H22O10 (Cs-Lac), cesium chloride-D-arabinose and L-arabinose complexes (CsCl·C5H10O5, Cs-D-Ara and Cs-L-Ara) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Cs+ is 9-coordinated to two chloride ions and seven hydroxyl groups from five lactose molecules in Cs-Lac. In the structures of CsCl-D-arabinose and CsCl-L-arabinose complexes, two kinds of Cs+ ions coexist in the structures. Cs1 is 10-coordinated with two chloride ions and eight hydroxyl groups from five arabinose molecule; Cs2 is 9-coordinated to three chloride ions and six hydroxyl groups from five arabinose molecules. Two coordination modes of arabinose coexist in the structures. α-D-arabinopyranose and α-L-arabinopyranose appear in the structures of Cs-D-Ara and Cs-L-Ara complexes. FTIR and Raman results indicate variations of hydrogen bonds and the conformation of the ligands after complexation. FIR and THz spectra also confirm the formation of Cs-complexes. Crystal structure, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectra provide detailed information on the structure and coordination of hydroxyl groups to metal ions in the cesium chloride-lactose, cesium chloride-D- and L-arabinose complexes.

  6. Documentation associated with the WESF preparation for receiving 25 cesium capsules from the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M.W.

    1996-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to compile all documentation associated with facility preparation of WESF to receive 25 cesium capsules from ARECO. The WESF validated it`s preparedness by completing a facility preparedness review using a performance indicator checklist.

  7. 76 FR 44378 - Policy Statement of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Protection of Cesium-137...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... implemented new regulatory requirements for import/export licensing and for reporting to the National Source... Register on July 31, 2008 (73 FR 44780), and discussed with stakeholders in a public workshop held on... accessible at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/licensing.html#cesium . A study \\1\\ on the use...

  8. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of 137Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg-1 at the current 137Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg-1). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of 137Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of 137Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers (130 - 150 Bq*km-1) to sedge-sphagnum and shrub

  9. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  10. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  11. The determination of Fukushima-derived cesium-134 and cesium-137 in Japanese green tea samples and their distribution subsequent to simulated beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew C; Stukel, Matthew J; Zhang, Weihua; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Cooke, Michael W

    2016-03-01

    Health Canada's Radiation Protection Bureau has identified trace quantities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in commercially available green tea products of Japanese origin. Referenced to March 11, 2011, the activity ratio ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) has been determined to be 1:1, which supports an origin from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The upper limits of typical tea beverage preparation conditions were applied to the most contaminated of these green tea samples to determine the proportion of radiocesium contamination that would be available for human consumption. The distribution of radiocesium among the components of the extraction experiments (water, residual tea solid, and filter media) was determined by both conventional and Compton-suppressed gamma spectroscopy. The latter aided tremendously in providing a more complete radiocesium distribution profile, particularly for the shorter-lived (134)Cs. Cesium extraction efficiencies of 64 ± 7% and 64 ± 5% were determined based on (134)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively. Annual, effective dose estimates from ingestion of (137)Cs and (134)Cs (1.8-3.7 μSv), arising from the consumption of tea beverages prepared from the most contaminated of these samples, are insignificant relative to both total (∼ 2.4 mSv) and ingested (∼ 0.28 mSv) annual effective doses received from naturally occurring radioactive sources. As such, there is no health concern arising from the consumption of green tea beverages contaminated with radiocesium at the levels encountered in this study. PMID:26714059

  12. Extractant compositions for co-extracting cesium and strontium, a method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed, and calixarene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman,Dean R.; Meikrantz,David H.; Law,Jack D.; Riddle,Catherine L.; Todd,Terry A.; Greenhalgh,Mitchell R.; Tillotson,Richard D.; Bartsch,Richard A.; Moyer,Bruce A.; Delmau,Laetitia H.; Bonnesen,Peter V.

    2012-04-17

    A mixed extractant solvent that includes at least one dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound, 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclohexano)-18-crown-6, at least one modifier, and, optionally, a diluent. The dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound is 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(decyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(dodecyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(2-ethylhexyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(3,7-dimethyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(4-butyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, or combinations thereof. The modifier is a primary alcohol. A method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed is also disclosed, as are dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compounds and an alcohol modifier.

  13. Mechanisms of potassium and cesium-137 uptake by radish in the field under water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of potassium (K) and cesium (137Cs) uptake by plants were studied using radish as an example. The investigations were performed at three experimental field sites within the 10 km Zone of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2012 and 2013. Radish seeds were sown, and plants and their corresponding soil solutions were sampled, several times during each growing season. The value r = (137Cs/K)p/(137Cs/K)ss was estimated for each paired sample. Here, (137Cs/K)p is the quotient of 137Cs and K concentrations in the plant and (137Cs/K)ss is the same for the corresponding soil solution. It was observed that potassium and cesium entered plant roots, as a rule, through a complement of transporters with low selectivity when the concentration of dissolved potassium (CK) in the soil solution was greater than 2 to 4 μg/cm3. In this case the value of r was near 1. However, when CK was between 0.5 and 2 to 4 μg/cm3, potassium also appeared to enter plant roots through highly-selective potassium transporters, whilst cesium entered roots only through the transporters with low selectivity. In this case the value of r was much less than 1. When CK was less than 0.5 μg/cm3, cesium appeared to enter roots through a complement of transporters with greater selectivity for cesium than potassium. The value of r in this case could exceed 1

  14. Sorption properties of cesium in soil%铯在土壤中的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 倪师军; 张成江; 吴虹霁

    2009-01-01

    The sorption properties of cesium in the soil of a nuclear waste repository were investigated by column method. The effects of pH value, granularity of the soil, concentration of cesium solution on the sorption properties were also studied. The experiment results show that the equilibrium adsorptive quantity increases with the increasing of pH value and the initial concentration of cesium solution and decreases with the increasing of the grain size of the soil. This has no orderliness between equilibrium adsorptive quantity and pH value, the grain size of the soil. The most sorption rate of cesium in the soil of the primary election nuclear waste disposal is 65.9%, and the sorption properties are not well. So, people must use something which can adsorb cesium well as a barrier before the disposition.%用动态法测定了铯在某放射性废物处置预选场址土壤中的平衡吸附量,研究了水相pH值、土壤粒度及铯溶液浓度对土壤吸附铯的影响.pH值、溶液浓度越大,土壤平衡吸附量越大;土壤粒度越小,土壤平衡吸附量越大.用常用的吸附动力学方程对实验数据进行了拟合,并对吸附机理进行了探讨.实验结果表明,该放射性废物处置预选场址土壤对铯的最大吸附率为65.9%,吸附性能较差.

  15. Experimental Investigation of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Molle, Lutz; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-10

    We experimentally generate 28-GBd 6-ary polarization-shift keying quadrature phase-shift keying (6PolSK-QPSK) signals by utilizing a high-speed 4-channel digital-to-analog converter and an integrated dual-polarization I/Q modulator. In WDM transmission experiments over up to 4800 km standard single-mode fiber, we compare the performance of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK and 112-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) QPSK signals. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of applying an inner Reed-Solomon RS(511,455) forward error correction code in order to correct burst errors due to the anti-Gray mapping of 6PolSK-QPSK. PMID:23262856

  16. Analysis of the STS-126 Flow Control Valve Structural-Acoustic Coupling Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trevor M.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    During the Space Transportation System mission STS-126, one of the main engine's flow control valves incurred an unexpected failure. A section of the valve broke off during liftoff. It is theorized that an acoustic mode of the flowing fuel, coupled with a structural mode of the valve, causing a high cycle fatigue failure. This report documents the analysis efforts conducted in an attempt to verify this theory. Hand calculations, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element methods are all implemented and analyses are performed using steady-state methods in addition to transient analysis methods. The conclusion of the analyses is that there is a critical acoustic mode that aligns with a structural mode of the valve

  17. 126 GeV Higgs Boson Associated with D-term Triggered Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Itoyama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuing with our previous work on \\(D\\-term triggered dynamical supersymmetry breaking, , we consider a system in which our generic \\({\\cal N}=1\\ action is minimally extended to include the pair of Higgs doublet superfields charged under the overall \\(U(1\\ together with μ and Bμ terms. The gauge group is taken to be \\(SU(3_C \\times SU(2_L \\times U(1_Y \\times U(1\\. We point out, among other things, that the Higgs mass less than the \\(\\textit{Z}\\-boson mass at tree level can be pushed up to be around 126 GeV by \\(D\\-term contributions of the overall \\(U(1\\. This is readily realized by taking a \\(U(1\\ gauge coupling to be \\({\\cal O}(1\\.

  18. Radar observations at 3.5 and 12.6 cm wavelength of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the asteroid 433 Eros using 3.5 and 12.6 cm radar waves indicates that the surface is very much rougher than any planetary or lunar surface observed by this method. A surface completely covered with sharp edges, pits, subsurface holes, or embedded chunks with scale sizes on the order of our wavelengths seems to be indicated. A model based on a rough rotating triaxial ellipsoid having radii in the rotation equator of 18.6 and 7.9 km agrees well with our data, although a strong wobble in the apparent center frequency of the spectra as rotation progresses indicates that one side may be more reflective than the other, or more likely, that the projected axis of rotation does not equally divide the projected area.

  19. The impact of a 126 GeV Higgs on the neutralino mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Beskidt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We highlight the differences of the dark matter sector between the constrained minimal supersymmetric SM (CMSSM and the next-to-minimal supersymmetric SM (NMSSM including the 126 GeV Higgs boson using GUT scale parameters. In the dark matter sector the two models are quite orthogonal: in the CMSSM the WIMP is largely a bino and requires large masses from the LHC constraints. In the NMSSM the WIMP has a large singlino component and is therefore independent of the LHC SUSY mass limits. The light NMSSM neutralino mass range is of interest for the hints concerning light WIMPs in the Fermi data. Such low mass WIMPs cannot be explained in the CMSSM. Furthermore, prospects for discovery of XENON1T and LHC at 14 TeV are given.

  20. Cause of the charge radius isotope shift at the N=126 shell gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard P.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the mechanism causing the ‘kink’ in the charge radius isotope shift at the N = 126 shell closure. The occupation of the 1i11/2 neutron orbital is the decisive factor for reproducing the experimentally observed kink. We investigate whether this orbital is occupied or not by different Skyrme effective interactions as neutrons are added above the shell closure. Our results demonstrate that several factors can cause an appreciable occupation of the 1i11/2 neutron orbital, including the magnitude of the spin-orbit field, and the isoscalar effective mass of the Skyrme interaction. The symmetry energy of the effective interaction has little influence upon its ability to reproduce the kink.

  1. Final report for tank 241-BX-104 push mode core 126 and 127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final sample analysis report for tank 241-BX-104 (BX-104), cores 126 and 127. Two segments from each core yielded a total of 11 samples which were analyzed. The data quality objectives (DQOs) applicable to this sampling event were the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow et al. 1995) and the Organic Safety DQO (Turner et al. 1995). The samples were received, extruded and analyzed at PNNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL). The analyses were performed in accordance with the Sample Analysis Plan (Gretsinger 1996) and indicated that the tank is safe with respect to the criteria in the Safety Screening and Organic DQO. Detailed analytical results were described in the analytical laboratory 45-day Report (Attachment 1, WHC-SD-WM-DP-171, REV. 0) and final report (Attachment 2, PNL-BX-104 REV.1) prepared by PNNL, 325 Laboratory. Corrections and/or exceptions to the PNNL final report are provided

  2. Production of evaporation residues in the vicinity of the N =126 closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shell structure and fission-barrier heights of nuclei involved in the compound- nucleus (CN) de-excitation chains leading to observable evaporation residues (ER) determine essentially fusion-evaporation cross sections for heavy fissile nuclei produced in the vicinity of the N=126 neutron shell in heavy ion (HI) reactions. The entrance-channel effect of quasifission (QF) lowering the fusion cross section in reactions with massive nuclei and the effect of the collective enhancement in the nuclear level density (CENLD), corresponding to the exit channel, should strongly reduce production cross sections for ER and increase the observed fission cross section in the vicinity of N=126. These effects were not evidently manifested in the analysis of cross sections obtained in different CN reactions leading to Po isotopes produced in a wide region of N. This analysis has been performed in the framework of standard statistical model (SSM) approximations. As a whole, production cross sections for neutron deficient Po nuclei produced in HI reactions can be reproduced in the framework of SSM with the reduced liquid-drop fission barriers [1]. We present a similar analysis of ER and fission cross section data obtained in the reactions induced by 3,4He on Pb and Bi targets, which lead to Po and At compound nuclei [2], which proved to be a good test of the preceding results [1]. Such reactions are characterized by much lower angular momenta transferred to a CN that allows to suggest more pronounced manifestation of CENLD effects in the CN decay. These reactions also do not reveal any indications of QF. This simplifies the data analysis and makes it more unambiguous. The results of the analysis of the 3,4He reactions performed in the present work demonstrate the same changes in the fission barrier heights for Po and At nuclei as obtained earlier with HI reactions data [1

  3. Treatment of acute limb ischemia:a report of 126 cases%急性肢体动脉缺血126例治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑宏飞; 李晓强; 段鹏飞; 于小滨; 姜坤

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨急性肢体动脉缺血(acute limb ischemia,ALI)的治疗方法.方法:采用药物、手术、介入方法治疗ALT 126例,其中动脉栓塞84例,血栓形成42例.按Rutherford分期,Ⅰ期13例,Ⅱ期107例,Ⅲ期6例.Ⅰ期采用药物抗凝溶栓,Ⅱ期采用手术取栓联合术中造影及介入治疗,Ⅲ期截肢.结果:Ⅰ期患者症状均完全缓解,无病死及截肢.Ⅱ、Ⅲ期术后30天病死6例,术后肢体存活109例,截肢(趾)11例.120例均痊愈出院.随访1~72个月,11例截肢(趾)肢体残体血供良好;存活109例肢体运动、感觉功能正常.结论:早期诊断,及时有效治疗和术后对再灌注损伤并发症的纠正,是提高疗效、降低截肢率和病死率的关键.%Objective:To discuss the management of acute limb ischemia. Methods:One hundred and twenty-six cases with acute limb ischemia that including 84 case of arterial embolism and 42 case of arterial thrombosis were analyzed. According to Rutherford criteria, there were 13 cases in category Ⅰ , 107 cases in category Ⅱ and 6 cases in category Ⅲ, respectively. Cases in category Ⅰ were adopted medical treatment,while in category Ⅱ , cases were mainly adopted surgical and/or interventional treatments, and cases in Ⅲ were amputated. Results :There were 6 deaths in category Ⅱ and Ⅲ within 30 days after treatments. Eleven cases were amputated. One hundred and twenty cases were recovered. The follow-up period was from 1 to 72 months. Conclusions: Expeditious diagnosis and immediate effective treatment, combined by alleviating reperfusion injury are key points in improving therapeutic effect of acute limb ischenia and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  4. The Surgical Treatment of Fecal Incon-tinence in 126 Children%126例大便失禁的手术疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荫棠; 张金哲

    1987-01-01

    The Surgical Treatment of Fecal Incontinence in 126 Children Liu Yintang and Zhang Jinshe. Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing The authors emphasizes that surgery for fecal incontinence must be both safe and simple aimed at getting rid of continuous diapers and repeated macerations. Causes of incontinence are mainly the complications of ano-rectal operations, especially abdomino-perineal pull-through, perianal infection or trauma, or spina bifida. In most cases the local pathological sequellae involve anal stenosis or prolapse due to perianalscars with or without damage to perineal body, and a few sphincter destructions with or without the impairment of rectal anteversion angle in addition to a group of primary neuro-genic paralysis of sphincters. Postoperative incontinence is to be prevented by careful protection of sensory-muscular structure of the ano-rectum during the primary operation, and, what is more important, by a long-term bowel training. Postoperatively.Most of the postoperative incontinence could be improved by a revision of the scar and some reinforcement of the perineal body. And proper care should be given to the reconstruction of sphincters. As for neurogenic incontinence, muscle transplantation is considered to be of great use.%大便失禁手术要求安全、简便.治疗目的为摆脱尿布与糜烂.失禁病因为直肠肛门术后(特别是腹会阴术后)、会阴感染、外伤及脊柱裂等.局部病理多为疤痕性狭窄或粘膜外翻,其次为神经障碍,很少为括约肌和直肠前倾角的破坏.肛门手术应注意保护直肠周围肌群等.术后需长期排便训练.一般失禁经皮肤疤痕修整或会阴体加固,多可恢复控制,肌肉移植对神经性失禁更为适宜.

  5. PrP fragment 106-126 is toxic to cerebral endothelial cells expressing PrP(C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, M A; Sakaguchi, S; Nakaoke, R; Abrahám, C S; Takahata, H; Kopacek, J; Shigematsu, K; Katamine, S; Niwa, M

    2000-11-27

    A hydrophobic, fibrillogenic peptide fragment of human prion protein (PrP106-126) had in vitro toxicity to neurons expressing cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). In this study, we proved that primary cultures of mouse cerebral endothelial cells (MCEC) express PrP(C). Incubation of MCEC with PrP106-126 (25-200 microM) caused a dose-dependent toxicity assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase release, bis-benzimide staining for nuclear morphology, and trypan blue exclusion test. Pentosan polysulphate (50-100 microg/ml), a drug effective in scrapie prophylaxis, dose-dependently attenuated the injury. MCEC cultures from mice homogenous for the disrupted PrP gene were resistant to the toxicity of PrP106-126. In conclusion, cerebral endothelium expressing PrP(C) may be directly damaged during spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:11117517

  6. 126 Arguments Concerning the Motion of the Earth, as presented by Giovanni Battista Riccioli in his 1651 Almagestum Novum

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    In 1651 the Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli published within his Almagestum Novum, a massive 1500 page treatise on astronomy, a discussion of 126 arguments for and against the Copernican hypothesis (49 for, 77 against). A synopsis of each argument is presented here, with discussion and analysis. Seen through Riccioli's 126 arguments, the debate over the Copernican hypothesis appears dynamic and indeed similar to more modern scientific debates. Both sides present good arguments as point and counter-point. Religious arguments play a minor role in the debate; careful, reproducible experiments a major role. To Riccioli, the anti-Copernican arguments carry the greater weight, on the basis of a few key arguments against which the Copernicans have no good response. These include arguments based on telescopic observations of stars, and on the apparent absence of what today would be called "Coriolis Effect" phenomena; both have been overlooked by the historical record (which paints a picture of the 126 a...

  7. The interleukin-6 receptor alpha-chain (CD126) is expressed by neoplastic but not normal plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstron, A C; Fenton, J A; Ashcroft, J; English, A; Jones, R A; Richards, S J; Pratt, G; Owen, R; Davies, F E; Child, J A; Jack, A S; Morgan, G

    2000-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is reported to be central to the pathogenesis of myeloma, inducing proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis in neoplastic plasma cells. Therefore, abrogating IL-6 signaling is of therapeutic interest, particularly with the development of humanized anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibodies. The use of such antibodies clinically requires an understanding of IL-6R expression on neoplastic cells, particularly in the cycling fraction. IL-6R expression levels were determined on plasma cells from patients with myeloma (n = 93) and with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or plasmacytoma (n = 66) and compared with the levels found on normal plasma cells (n = 11). In addition, 4-color flow cytometry was used to assess the differential expression by stage of differentiation and cell cycle status of the neoplastic plasma cells. IL-6R alpha chain (CD126) was not detectable in normal plasma cells, but was expressed in approximately 90% of patients with myeloma. In all groups, the expression levels showed a normal distribution. In patients with MGUS or plasmacytoma, neoplastic plasma cells expressed significantly higher levels of CD126 compared with phenotypically normal plasma cells from the same marrow. VLA-5(-) "immature" plasma cells showed the highest levels of CD126 expression, but "mature" VLA-5(+) myeloma plasma cells also overexpressed CD126 when compared with normal subjects. This study demonstrates that CD126 expression is restricted to neoplastic plasma cells, with little or no detectable expression by normal cells. Stromal cells in the bone marrow microenvironment do not induce the overexpression because neoplastic cells express higher levels of CD126 than normal plasma cells from the same bone marrow in individuals with MGUS. (Blood. 2000;96:3880-3886)

  8. Developmental toxicity of PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Rice, C.P.; Eisemann, J.D.; Hines, R.K.; Spann, J.W.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Planar PCB congeners are embryotoxic and teratogenic to birds including American kestrels. The developmental toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was studied in the post-hatching kestrel as a model for the eagle. Nestlings were orally dosed for 10 days with 5 ul/g body weight of corn oil (controls) or the planar PCB 126 at concentrations of 50, 250, or 1000 ng/g body weight. Dosing with 50 ng/g of PCB 126 resulted in a hepatic concentration of 156 ng/g w.w., liver enlargement and mild coagulative necrosis, and over ten-fold increases in hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), and approximately a 5-fold increase in methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MROD). At this dose, mild to moderate lymphoid depletion of the spleen was apparent, and decreased follicle size and content of the thyroid. At 250 ng/g, concentration of PCB 126 in the liver was 380 ng/g with increasing multifocal coagulative necrosis, decreased bone growth, decreased spleen weight with lymphocyte depletion of the spleen and bursa, and degenerative lesions of the thyroid. At 1000 ng/g, the liver concentration was 1098 ng/g, accompanied by decreased bursa weight, decreased hepatic thiol concentration and increased plasma enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and LDH-L) in addition to the previous effects. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between liver concentrations of PCB 126 and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathone. These findings indicate that nestling kestrels are more susceptible to PCB 126 toxicity than adults, but less sensitive than embryos, and that planar PCBs are of potential hazard to nestling birds.

  9. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  10. Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, M T; Rochester, S M; Kerner, K; Wong, C; Budker, D; Alexandrov, E B; Balabas, M V

    2005-01-01

    The relaxation of atomic polarization in buffer-gas-free, paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells is studied using a variation on Franzen's technique of ``relaxation in the dark'' [Franzen, Phys. Rev. {\\bf 115}, 850 (1959)]. In the present experiment, narrow-band, circularly polarized pump light, resonant with the Cs D2 transition, orients atoms along a longitudinal magnetic field, and time-dependent optical rotation of linearly polarized probe light is measured to determine the relaxation rates of the atomic orientation of a particular hyperfine level. The change in relaxation rates during light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) is studied. No significant change in the spin relaxation rate during LIAD is found beyond that expected from the faster rate of spin-exchange collisions due to the increase in Cs density.

  11. Small cluster ions from source of negative ions by cesium sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X M; Shao, L; Liu, J R; Chu, W K

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the delivery of small cluster ions using a source of negative ions by cesium sputtering (SNICS). The negative cluster ions of B sub n , C sub n , Si sub n , Co sub n , Cu sub n , Ge sub n , Au sub n , GeB sub n and SiB sub n have been extracted by SNICS. Adequate beam current of some small clusters was obtained by changing several parameters for cluster ion yield. After a comprehensive study of the operation parameters, such as target material selection, target geometry, sputtering voltage and current, the small cluster ion current can be increased by several orders of magnitude, with little change on the monomer ion yield.

  12. Characterizing passive coherent population trapping resonance in a cesium vapor cell filled with neon buffer gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi; Wang Jie-Ying; Diao Wen-Ting; He Jun; Wang Jun-Min

    2013-01-01

    We present a pair of phase-locked lasers with a 9.2-GHz frequency difference through the injection locking of a master laser to the RF-modulation sideband of a slave diode laser.Using this laser system,a coherent population trapping (CPT)signal with a typical linewidth of ~ 182 Hz is obtained in a cesium vapor cell filled with 30 Torr (4 kPa) of neon as the buffer gas.We investigate the influence of the partial pressure of the neon buffer gas on the CPT linewidth,amplitude,and frequency shift.The results may offer some references for CPT atomic clocks and CPT atomic magnetometers.

  13. Photoemission and optical constant measurements of Cesium Iodide thin film photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Triloki,; Gupta, Nikita; Jammal, Nabeel F A; Singh, B K

    2014-01-01

    Performance of cesium iodide (CsI) as a reflective photocathode is presented. Absolute quantum efficiency (QE) measurement of 500 nm thick CsI film has been carried out in the wavelength range of 150 nm to 200 nm. Optical absorbance of 500 nm thick CsI film in the spectral range of 190 nm to 900 nm is analyzed and optical energy band gap is calculated using Tauc plot. To see the dispersive behavior of CsI film, refractive index has been determined by envelop plot of transmittance data, using Swanepoel method. Additional information on morphological and elemental composition results of CsI film, gained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively are also reported in present work.

  14. Electric field effects on the quantum efficiency of Cesium-iodide photocathodes in gas media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the quantum efficiency (QE) of Cesium iodide photocathodes as a function of the electric field strength in a parallel-plate geometry, in CH4, C2H6 AND i-C4H10 both in charge collection and multiplication modes. It was found that in the collection mode the QE value in gases is lower compared to that of vacuum and is independent on the field; in gas media the QE starts to increase at the transition between collection and multiplication modes and reaches the vacuum value at high gas gain. We explain this effect by a decrease of the electron-molecule elastic backscattering while entering the multiplication mode. We conclude that the electric field effects observed here, would also apply for other photocathodes and gas mixtures. An enhancement of the QE after micro discharges was observed and is discussed in detail. (authors) 30 refs, 10 figs

  15. Mass analysis of cesium ion induced fragmentation of C/sub 60/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of Cs ion induced C/sub 60/ fragmentation in source of negative ions by cesium sputtering (SNICS) from 5 MeV Tandem accelerator are presented. The mass analysis was performed from bending magnet. Mass spectra of C/sub 60/ fragments are compared with that of graphite under similar conditions. Yield of carbon clusters for both cases is plotted for Cs ion energy range of 2-5 keV. It is observed that heavier clusters appear in the case of C/sub 60/. Intensity of C/sub 2/ is much higher in comparison with other clusters for both C/sub 60/ and graphite due to difference in their bond energies. Prominence of C/sub 2/ yield confirms formation mechanism of C/sub 60/ by addition of C/sub 2/ route. (author)

  16. Generation of ultraviolet radiation with wide angular tolerance in cesium lithium borate crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal C Bhar; Pathik Kumbhakar; Anil K Chaudhary

    2000-09-01

    Tangential phase-matching has been realised in cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal for the first time for the generation of fourth harmonic (266 nm) of Nd:YAG and third harmonic (226.7 nm) of a dye laser radiation by second harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing with the angular tolerance as large as 22 mrad and 21 mrad respectively, over one of the interacting beams. An energy conversion efficiency of 15% for fourth harmonic generation is obtained with a 5.5 mm thick crystal and with the average pump powers only 170 and 70 mW. A set of Sellmeier dispersion equations for the CLBO crystal have also been formulated.

  17. Cesium hafnium chloride: A high light yield, non-hygroscopic cubic crystal scintillator for gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Arnold, E-mail: aburger@fisk.edu [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Rowe, Emmanuel; Groza, Michael; Morales Figueroa, Kristle [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Cherepy, Nerine J.; Beck, Patrick R.; Hunter, Steven; Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We report on the scintillation properties of Cs{sub 2}HfCl{sub 6} (cesium hafnium chloride or CHC) as an example of a little-known class of non-hygroscopic compounds having the generic cubic crystal structure of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}. The crystals are easily growable from the melt using the Bridgman method with minimal precursor treatments or purification. CHC scintillation is centered at 400 nm, with a principal decay time of 4.37 μs and a light yield of up to 54 000 photons/MeV when measured using a silicon CCD photodetector. The light yield is the highest ever reported for an undoped crystal, and CHC also exhibits excellent light yield nonproportionality. These desirable properties allowed us to build and test CHC gamma-ray spectrometers providing energy resolution of 3.3% at 662 keV.

  18. Selective removal of cesium and strontium using porous frameworks from high level nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Briana; Banerjee, Debasis; Nie, Zimin; Shin, Yongsoon; Ma, Shengqian; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-05-01

    Efficient and cost-effective removal of radioactive (137)Cs and (90)Sr found in spent fuel is an important step for safe, long-term storage of nuclear waste. Solid-state materials such as resins and titanosilicate zeolites have been assessed for the removal of Cs and Sr from aqueous solutions, but there is room for improvement in terms of capacity and selectivity. Herein, we report the Cs(+) and Sr(2+) exchange potential of an ultra stable MOF, namely, MIL-101-SO3H, as a function of different contact times, concentrations, pH levels, and in the presence of competing ions. Our preliminary results suggest that MOFs with suitable ion exchange groups can be promising alternate materials for cesium and strontium removal. PMID:27055254

  19. Estimation of Physical Properties of AN-107 Cesium and Technetium Eluate Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    2001-06-12

    The objective of this study, as defined in the associated test specifications and task technical and quality assurance plan, was to estimate all the physical properties that are required to design the storage and transport facilities for the concentrated cesium and technetium eluates. Specifically, the scope of this study included: (1) modeling of the aqueous electrolyte chemistry of Tank 241-AN-107 Cs and Tc eluate evaporators, (2) process modeling of semi-batch and continuous evaporation operations, (3) determination of the operating vacuum and target endpoint of each evaporator, (4) calculation of the physical properties of the concentrated Cs and Tc eluate blend, and (5) development of the empirical correlations for the physical properties thus estimated.

  20. Luminescent and thermochromic properties of tellurium(IV) halide complexes with cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedakova, T. V.; Mirochnik, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    The spectral-luminescent and thermochromic properties of complex compounds of the composition Cs2TeHal6 (Hal = Cl, Br, I) are studied. The interrelation between the geometric structure and spectral-luminescent properties is studied using the example on complex compounds of tellurium(IV) halides with cesium. The Stokes shift and the luminescence intensity of Te(IV) ions with island octahedral coordination are found to depend on the position of the A band in the luminescence excitation spectra, the diffuse reflection, and the energy of the luminescent 3 P 1 → 1 S 0 transition of the tellurium(IV) ion. The maximum luminescence intensity and the minimum Stokes shift at 77 and 300 K are observed for Cs2TeCl6. The geometrical and electronic factors responsible for luminescence intensification in Te(IV) complexes under study are analyzed.