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Sample records for cervus elaphus nelsoni

  1. Movement and Activity Patterns of Translocated Elk (Cervus elaphus Nelsoni on an Active Coal Mine in Kentucky

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    Widén, P.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring activity and movements of newly translocated wildlife is necessary for identifying factors that may hinder population establishment. We documented movements and activity of 6 radio-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni translocated to Kentucky from the 4th of March 1999 until the 17th of July 1999. Seventy three percent of daily activity occurred during crepuscular hours, a period that accounted for only 33% of the day. Elk tended to be more active at dawn (39% than dusk (32%. Elk spent most of their time feeding (49.4% and resting-ruminating (44.6%, with little time spent walking or standing (6.0%. Elk were disturbed 9 times by humans and once by dogs during 702 hours of monitoring. Eight of these disturbance events occurred in reclaimed grassland. During each disturbance, elk moved farther (892 m than during the same hours when undisturbed (282 m. Disturbances altered elk movement and activity patterns, and fragmented social groups. Wildlife managers should identify sources of disturbance at release sites and implement plans that minimize their impacts on reintroduced animals.

  2. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  3. Genetic structure of the Danish red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, ELSEMARIE KRAGH; OLESEN, CARSTEN RIIS; PERTOLDI, CINO;

    2008-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in Denmark became almost extinct in recent historical times due to over-hunting. The species has subsequently recovered within remote areas, but non-Danish individuals have been introduced at several localities. To assess genetic structure, past demographi...

  4. Lactation curves in captive Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    OpenAIRE

    García Díaz, Andrés; Landete Castillejos, Tomás; Molina Casanova, Ana María; Albiñana, Bernardo; Fernández, Carlos; Garde López-Brea, José Julián; Gallego Martínez, Laureano

    1999-01-01

    This study examines milk production and the effect of milk production and sex of calf on body weights and gains of red deer calves and hinds of the Iberian subspecies (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Milk production was assessed in 14 hinds by weighing calves before and after suckling and by adjusting these values to the Gamma function. Gamma estimates of total milk production up to d 105 were similar to the amounts computed directly from double weighing. Hinds showed two types of lactation cu...

  5. Hybridisation and introgression of exotic Cervus (nippon and canadensis) with red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Stephanie Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Europe’s largest population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) resides in the British Isles and has been present since the end of the last ice age, c. 11,000BP. Since the mid-19th century, multiple introductions of Japanese sika (Cervus nippon) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) have taken place across the British Isles. While wapiti introductions have generally gone extinct, sika have thrived and expanded and now often live in sympatry with red deer. Hybridisation between these spe...

  6. Oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against Brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Ficht, Thomas A; Davis, Donald S; Elzer, Philip H; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Rice-Ficht, Allison C

    2009-10-01

    Bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), USA, are infected with Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. Bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. An efficacious Brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool in a disease prevention and control program. We evaluated Strain 19 (S19) in a sustained release vehicle consisting of alginate microspheres containing live vaccine. In a challenge study using red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) as a model for elk, alginate, a naturally occurring polymer combined with a protein of Fasciola hepatica vitelline protein B was used to microencapsulate S19. Red deer were orally or subcutaneously immunized with 1.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units (CFUs) using microencapsulated S19. Humoral and cellular profiles were analyzed bimonthly throughout the study. The vaccinated red deer and nonvaccinated controls were challenged 1 yr postimmunization conjunctivally with 1 x 10(9) CFUs of B. abortus strain 2308. Red deer vaccinated with oral microencapsulated S19 had a statistically significant lower bacterial tissue load compared with controls. These data indicate for the first time that protection against Brucella-challenge can be achieved by combining a commonly used vaccine with a novel oral delivery system such as alginate-vitelline protein B microencapsulation. This system is a potential improvement for efficacious Brucella-vaccine delivery to wildlife in the GYA. PMID:19901378

  7. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland

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    Zintl Annetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

  8. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

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    Mark P Dagleish

    Full Text Available European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6% weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of

  9. Sarcocystosis in Cervus elaphus: Comparison of diagnostic methods

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    Mónica Luzón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red deer (Cervus elaphus from a National Wildlife Reserve near Toledo in central Spain were surveyed for Sarcocystis infection. A total of 61 deer were examined. Tissue compression and histology were used to examine samples from diaphragm and heart from each animal included in the study, and results from the two techniques and the two tissues were compared to determine the tissue and technique that provide the most accurate measure of prevalence and intensity. Prevalence and intensity were then compared between calves, yearlings and adults. Sarcocystis was detected in 59 (97% of the 61 deer. Comparison between tissues showed that (a prevalence based on histology was similar for heart and diaphragm, (b prevalence based on compression was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm and (c intensity was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm, regardless of the technique used. Comparison between techniques showed that (a both techniques rendered similar prevalences and intensities of Sarcocystis infection with heart samples and (b both techniques were not comparable with diaphragm samples (compression rendered lower prevalence but higher intensity than histology. Together these data suggest that heart is the preferable tissue for estimating prevalence and intensity, regardless of the technique used. A preliminary species identification of isolated cysts from three animals showed two morph types, corresponding to Sarcocystis cervicanis (syn. S. cf. grueneri; S. wapiti in the heart and diaphragm of three animals and S. hjorti, only in the diaphragm of two animals. Given the different location of those morph types, both heart and diaphragm should be sampled and preferably assessed using histology to most reliably detect infection. Based on histology of heart, prevalence and intensity of Sarcocystis were significantly lower in calves than in yearlings or adults.

  10. Sarcocystosis in Cervus elaphus: Comparison of diagnostic methods.

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    Luzón, Mónica; Domínguez-González, Julia; Soto-Carrión, Ana María; Alunda, José María; Fuente, Concepción de la

    2015-12-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) from a National Wildlife Reserve near Toledo in central Spain were surveyed for Sarcocystis infection. A total of 61 deer were examined. Tissue compression and histology were used to examine samples from diaphragm and heart from each animal included in the study, and results from the two techniques and the two tissues were compared to determine the tissue and technique that provide the most accurate measure of prevalence and intensity. Prevalence and intensity were then compared between calves, yearlings and adults. Sarcocystis was detected in 59 (97%) of the 61 deer. Comparison between tissues showed that (a) prevalence based on histology was similar for heart and diaphragm, (b) prevalence based on compression was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm and (c) intensity was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm, regardless of the technique used. Comparison between techniques showed that (a) both techniques rendered similar prevalences and intensities of Sarcocystis infection with heart samples and (b) both techniques were not comparable with diaphragm samples (compression rendered lower prevalence but higher intensity than histology). Together these data suggest that heart is the preferable tissue for estimating prevalence and intensity, regardless of the technique used. A preliminary species identification of isolated cysts from three animals showed two morph types, corresponding to Sarcocystis cervicanis (syn. S. cf. grueneri; S. wapiti) in the heart and diaphragm of three animals and S. hjorti, only in the diaphragm of two animals. Given the different location of those morph types, both heart and diaphragm should be sampled and preferably assessed using histology to most reliably detect infection. Based on histology of heart, prevalence and intensity of Sarcocystis were significantly lower in calves than in yearlings or adults. PMID:26767167

  11. Effect of lunar phase on summer activity budgets of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii)

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    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) exist in a complex biological and social environment that is marked by necessary diurnal activities such as foraging, ruminating, and resting. It has long been understood that elk demonstrate circadian rhythms. One of the most predictable variables that could af...

  12. Effect of lunar phase on diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) are important components in many ecosystems across the western US and are integral with both Native American and contemporary western culture. They are prized by hunters and are the object of countless works of art. These magnificent creatures are studi...

  13. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

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    Reid Hugh W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM. In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD, also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations. Results Here we show that European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to intra-cerebral (i/c challenge with BSE positive cattle brain pool material resulting in clinical neurological disease and weight loss by 794–1290 days and the clinical signs are indistinguishable to those reported in deer with CWD. Spongiform changes typical of TSE infections were present in brain and accumulation of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPd was present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in lymphoid or other tissues. Western immunoblot analysis of brain material showed a similar glycosylation pattern to that of BSE derived from infected cattle and experimentally infected sheep with respect to protease-resistant PrP isoforms. However, the di-, mono- and unglycosylated bands migrated significantly (p Conclusion This study shows that deer are susceptible to BSE by intra-cerebral inoculation and display clinical signs and vacuolar pathology that are similar to those

  14. Sedici anni di censimenti del cervo sardo (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) nella riserva naturale WWF di Monte Arcosu

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Carlo; Murgia, Andrea; Deiana, Anna Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes data collected about consistence, density and social structure of Sardinian deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus Erxleben, 1777) subspecies of European deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) from 1989 to 2004. The study area is located in the WWF Faunal Park of Monte Arcosu (south-western of Sardinia). The flora of the Reserve is typical Mediterranean vegetation. The data have been collected with two different methods, using both roaring census and direct observations. Results s...

  15. Successful low dose insemination of flow cytometrically sorted Sika (Cervus nippon) sperm in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus).

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    Gao, Q H; Wei, H J; Han, C M; Du, H Z; Zhang, Z G; Zhao, W G; Zhang, Y; Li, S

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a practical method in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) of using predetermined sexed Sika (Cervus nippon) semen. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation from one stag of proven fertility and transported to the laboratory where it was retained as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a modified high-speed cell sorter. Wapiti hinds (n=81) were inseminated into the uterus by rectum manipulation with 1 x 10(6) (X1 and Y1 group, respectively) or 2 x 10(6) (X2 and Y2 group, respectively) of sorted frozen-thawed and 1 x 10(7) non-sorted frozen-thawed (a commercial dose control) Sika motile sperm 60-66h after removal of intra-vaginal progesterone-impregnated CIDR devices and administration of 700IU of PMSG at the time of CIDR removal. The percentage of hinds calving after insemination was similar for X1 (38.5%), X2 (41.7%), Y1 (44.4%), Y2 (38.9%) groups (P>0.05), but higher for control (75%) treatment (PSika and Wapiti-hybrid calves produced by Wapiti hinds inseminated with Y-sorted sperm were male (93.7%) and 10/10 (100%) Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves from hinds inseminated with X-sorted sperm were female. The sex ratio of the Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves born to hinds inseminated with sex-sorted sperm deviated significantly (PSika and Wapiti-hybrid calves were born between 237 and 250d of gestation. Male and female calves in the control group had similar birth weights and weaning weights as calves from hinds inseminated with X- or Y-sorted sperm. In conclusion it can be said that normal Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves of predicted sex can be produced after artificial insemination of Wapiti does with low numbers of sex-sorted cryopreserved Sika sperm. PMID:19619965

  16. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China

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    Mingming Zhang; Zhensheng Liu; Liwei Teng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied sea...

  17. Differential Immune Responses of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis▿

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    Robinson, Mark; O'Brien, Rory; Mackintosh, Colin; Griffin, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) that presented with different levels of paucibacillary pathology were profiled to detail immune changes during the progression of Johne's disease. Immune responses were monitored using an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISA, and flow cytometry. Animals in the study were divided into outcome groups postmortem according to disease severity. All animals mounted IgG1 antibody an...

  18. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

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    Mingming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  19. Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe

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    Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.

    2008-04-01

    Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (<40.0 ka 14C BP). The species persisted throughout the LGM on the Iberian Peninsula, in adjacent regions of South-Western France (Gascony, Dordogne, Languedoc), on the Italian Peninsula, in the Balkans and Greece, and east of the Carpathians in Moldavia. We suggest that genetic exchange between the populations of the Balkans and the East of the Carpathians remained uninterrupted during the LGM. The expansion of red deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis).

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    Shao, Yuanchen; Xing, Xiumei; Zha, Daiming; Yang, Fuhe

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome was 16,351 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which were arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeast sika deer's mitochondrial genome was 33.3% of A, 24.4% of C, 28.9% of T and 13.4% of G. A termination-associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region. PMID:24438284

  1. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)

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    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a cand...

  2. Sarcocystosis in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Patagonia, Argentina.

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    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Moré, Gastón; Massone, Adriana; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle, which produce cysts in the muscle of herbivorous animals. In these animal species, sarcocystosis is frequently asymptomatic, although it may occur with high prevalence. Seven Sarcocystis spp. have been described in red deer (Cervus elephus). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystosis, and to perform the morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. found in wild red deer of the Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP), Patagonia, Argentina. Full necropsies of 62 red deer killed by hunters in the NHNP and neighboring areas were performed. Samples of heart and skeletal muscle were examined histologically and selected samples were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), PCR and sequencing. Sarcocystis spp. thin walled cysts were detected in 62 % (38/62) of heart, and in 22 % (3/14) of skeletal muscle samples examined histologically. TEM revealed a smooth and thin cyst wall (≤1 μm), with scarce and separated ribbon-like protrusions. A total of three partial and one full 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences were obtained, and showed the highest identity (≥99 %) with Sarcocystis taeniata, a species described in moose (Alces alces). The morphological and molecular results indicate that red deer in Argentina are frequently infected with S. taeniata, a species for which the definitive host is unknown. The present results also confirm that Sarcocystis spp. using cervids as intermediate host are not host-specific. Further studies are needed to improve the epidemiological knowledge of Sarcocystosis in red deer. PMID:26779923

  3. Cervus elaphus Foraging Impacts on Plants and Soils at an Ungrazed Desert Grass/Shrubland in Northwestern New Mexico, USA

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    Louis C. Bender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated Cervus elaphus herbivory and trampling impacts on plants and soils on Chaco Culture National Historical Park (Chaco, a desert grass/shrubland in northwestern New Mexico, USA, most (63% of which has been protected from grazing by domestic livestock since 1948. We conducted grazing, browse, and water infiltration surveys in areas which received different amounts of C. elaphus use (use and control, 2004–2007. Browse utilization was <32% on monitored species and Odocoileus hemionus use accounted for the majority of browsing. Live plant cover was greater on areas receiving more C. elaphus use, and no grass species were used above recommended levels. Stubble heights of Bouteloua spp. were positively related to relative C. elaphus use on some areas, suggesting possible stimulation of grassland productivity by C. elaphus grazing. Water infiltration rates either did not differ among use or control sites or were faster in use sites, indicating no impacts of C. elaphus use on soil compaction. At current C. elaphus densities (0.2–0.4/km2, negative impacts to plants and soils were not seen on Chaco, and some evidence suggests that light grazing is optimizing desert grasslands of Chaco.

  4. Diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India

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    G.M. Shah

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu in Dachigam National Park (DNP were determined by analyzing 95 freshly collected pellet samples. The pellets were collected along well defined transects during a two year study from January 2005 to December 2006. The diets showed marked seasonal variations. The spring diet was constituted by forbs (45.2%, shrubs (24%, grasses (20% and climbers (10.7%. In summer forbs accounted for 42.7% of the diet, trees 38%, grasses 14.3% and shrubs 4.8%. Except the lone representation of forb species (5.6% the autumn diet was mainly represented by shrubs (75% and trees (19.4%. The winter diet was constituted by trees (35.6%, shrubs (28.6%, forbs (21.3%, grasses (8.6% and climbers (5.8%.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of the lipid fraction of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) tenderloin.

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    Quaresma, M A G; Trigo-Rodrigues, I; Alves, S P; Martins, S I V; Barreto, A S; Bessa, R J B

    2012-12-01

    The meat lipid fraction of psoas major muscle from 20 adult (10 males and 10 females) feral Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) was characterized by quantification of total fat, total cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acid (FA) composition, including detailed trans octadecenoate isomers and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomeric profile. The total lipid content revealed a very lean meat (0.99 g/100g of meat), with total cholesterol content averaging 55.6 mg/100g of muscle. The FA profile displayed a very high PUFA level for ruminant meat (30.2g/100g FA). The 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content was fairly low (0.26% of total FA) compared with other ruminant meats. The comparison of stags and hinds showed more similarities than differences. Nevertheless, hinds displayed superior contents of α-tocopherol and trans MUFA and a better n-6/n-3 ratio than stags. PMID:22695295

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cervus elaphus songaricus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

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    Li, Yiqing; Ba, Hengxing; Yang, Fuhe

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of Tianshan wapiti, Cervus elaphus songaricus, is 16,419 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed an identical tree topology. The monopoly of red deer, wapiti and sika deer was well supported, and wapiti was found to share a closer relationship with sika deer. Tianshan wapiti shared a closer relationship with xanthopygus than yarkandensis. Rusa unicolor and Rucervus eldi were given a basal phylogenetic position. Our phylogenetic analysis provided a robust phylogenetic resolution spanning the entire evolutionary relationship of the subfamily Cervinae. PMID:24725059

  7. Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

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    Dagleish Mark P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

  8. Spatial Ecology and Population Dynamics of Tule Elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) at Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, McCrea Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) was reintroduced to Point Reyes National Seashore, California in 1978. After exhibiting irruptive growth for 20 years, elk abundances have fluctuated. Three subpopulations of elk currently inhabit Pt. Reyes: a fenced subpopulation at high density; a free-ranging subpopulation in designated wilderness at low density; and a free-ranging subpopulation on active ranchland at low density. Little is known about the spatial ecology and population dynamics of...

  9. Haematological and serum biochemical reference values in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Rosef

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of haematological and biochemical constituents were carried out on the Norwegian subspecies of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. All animals were captured from January to March by using a mixture of xylazine and tiletamin-zolazepam. Immobilisation was performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Fourteen haematological parameters were analysed. There were no differences in the values between hinds and stags and between adults and calves (P > 0.01. Of the 22 biochemical compounds investigated there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 between calves and adults for lactate dehydrogenase (LD, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin, and the minerals Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca, and P. Differences (P < 0.01 between hinds and stags were found in cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin and Cu. The blood values determined in this study can be used as reference values for this red deer subspecies immobilised with a mixture of xylazine-tiletamin-zolazepam for health control and diagnosis of diseases.Abstract in Norwegian /Sammendrag:Hematologiske og biokjemiske parametere er analysert på norsk frittlevende hjort (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. Hjorten ble immobilisert i tidsrommet januar til mars ved hjelp av et spesialgevær ladet med plast kanyler som inneholdt en blanding av xylazin og tiletamin-zolazepam. Det var ingen forskjeller i de14 undersøkte hematologiske verdiene mellom hinder, kalver og bukker (P>0,01. Av de 22 biokjemiske parametrene som ble undersøkt var det en signifikant forskjell mellom kalver og voksne (P<0,01 når det gjelder laktat dehydrogenase, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin og mineralene Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca og P. Det var en signifikant forskjell mellom hinder og bukker (P<0.01 på parametrene kolesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, alfa-1 globulin, alfa-2 globulin og Cu. Blodverdiene som ble målt i dette studiet kan bli brukt som referanseverdier

  10. Prevalence of Dermatophytes in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus in The Stelvio National Park, Italy

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    Roberta Perego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis has been described in wildlife, but the literature reporting dermatophyte prevalence in deer is incomplete. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and to evaluate the hypothetical role of asymptomatic carriers hair samples were collected from 30 legally hunted wild red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Stelvio National Park, Italy. All deer were visually examined for dermatologic lesions and the coat was brushed using a modified Mackenzie collection method. A small sample of hair was used for direct microscopical examination and subsequently fungal culture was performed on the hair samples. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were used to identify dermatophytes, saprophytic fungi and yeasts. None of the deer had visible cutaneous lesions. No dermatophyte spores or hyphae were found on direct microscopical examination and, when hair samples were cultured, dermatophytes were not demonstrated in any sample. Only saprophytic fungi were grown, predominantly Alternaria spp., Mucor spp., Cladosporium spp. These results did not reveal the presence of asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes in the deer sample population of Stelvio National Park and suggest that it is unlikely that, at least in the investigated geographical area, the red deer act a reservoir for transmission of dermatophytes to other wild animals, livestock or people living locally

  11. Do red deer stags (Cervus elaphus use roar fundamental frequency (F0 to assess rivals?

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    Maxime Garcia

    Full Text Available It is well established that in humans, male voices are disproportionately lower pitched than female voices, and recent studies suggest that this dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0 results from both intrasexual (male competition and intersexual (female mate choice selection for lower pitched voices in men. However, comparative investigations indicate that sexual dimorphism in F0 is not universal in terrestrial mammals. In the highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic Scottish red deer Cervus elaphus scoticus, more successful males give sexually-selected calls (roars with higher minimum F0s, suggesting that high, rather than low F0s advertise quality in this subspecies. While playback experiments demonstrated that oestrous females prefer higher pitched roars, the potential role of roar F0 in male competition remains untested. Here we examined the response of rutting red deer stags to playbacks of re-synthesized male roars with different median F0s. Our results show that stags' responses (latencies and durations of attention, vocal and approach responses were not affected by the F0 of the roar. This suggests that intrasexual selection is unlikely to strongly influence the evolution of roar F0 in Scottish red deer stags, and illustrates how the F0 of terrestrial mammal vocal sexual signals may be subject to different selection pressures across species. Further investigations on species characterized by different F0 profiles are needed to provide a comparative background for evolutionary interpretations of sex differences in mammalian vocalizations.

  12. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany. PMID:27617204

  13. Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

    2014-10-01

    Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

  14. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  15. Chemical capture of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus with medetomidine-ketamine

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    J.M. Arnemo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus (12 calves and 5 yearling hinds were immobilized with a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (MED and ketamine hydrochloride (KET in winter (January-March. Immobilizations were performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Mean (SD doses of 0.147 (0.024 mg MED/kg and 2.5 (0.4 mg KET/kg induced recumbency in 5.0 (2.0 minutes in the calves and all of them were completely immobilized. The initial doses in the yearling hinds were 0.099 (0.016 mg MED/kg and 1.9 (0.2 mg KET/kg but three of them required addirional dosing for induction of reliable restraint. The distance covered by the animals between darting and recumbency ranged from 40-250 m for calves and 100-300 m for yearling hinds. The animals were translocated to deer farms for breeding purposes and were given 12.5-25.0 mg of atipamezole hydrochloride before transportation. All animals recovered completely. Haematological and serum biochemical comparisons between free-ranging calves immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine (n=3 and captive unmedicated calves (n=4 showed that chemical capture induce very little stress in red deer.

  16. Antlers of Cervus elaphus as biomonitors of {sup 90}Sr in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Vallejo, I. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.e [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Salas, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Adequate radioprotection of the environment requires the identification of biomonitors sensitive to the variation of its radionuclide content. Due to the chemical similarities between calcium and strontium, calcified tissues of mammals are considered to be good {sup 90}Sr biomonitors. This work considered Cervus elaphus antlers which, being shed annually, can give information about the importance of radiostrontium contamination in an ecosystem in the time period required for the growth of the antler. The samples were collected at various points of W and SW Spain. The mean value of their {sup 90}Sr content was (70 {+-} 43 (S.D.)) Bq/kg d.w., range (16-218) Bq/kg d.w., and the radionuclide was evenly distributed in the different parts of the antler. There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. The antlers' content of {sup 226}Ra (from the natural uranium series) and the contents of some stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, and K) were also determined. The values for these stable elements were practically constant in the analyzed samples, and the concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr > {sup 90}Sr > {sup 226}Ra - Research highlights: {yields} There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. {yields} The content of stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, K) in the analyzed antlers were practically constant. {yields} The concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr >{sup 90}Sr >{sup 226}Ra.

  17. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  18. Natural diet and food habitat use of the Tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Jianfang; YANG Weikang; GAO Xingyi

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the natural diet and food habitat use of Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), a study was carried out in Qiemo, Xinjiang, China from October 2000 to June 2001. Direct observation combined with faecal analysis method was used to determine the natural diet of red deer. 15 different species of plant were identified as food items. Among them, 13 species of plants were identified in winter diet and 9 species in summer. Red deer consumed a wider range of species in winter because of their nutrient requirement as well as the shortage of food and the scarcity of high-quality forage in the study area. Phragmites communis, Glycyrrhiza inflata and populus diversifolia were frequently present in the deer's diet whenever in winter and summer. Among them, Phragmites communis was the most abundant plant in the area and was included in the deer's diet. Observation on food selection frequency of captive Tarim red deer showed that Populus diversifolia was the first preferred species. However, this food was limited in the study area. Five food habitat types were found in the study area according to plant association: (1)Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association, (2) Tamarix ramosissima-Halostachys caspica association, (3) Tamarix ramosissima-Phragmites communis association, (4) Populus diversifoliaPhragmites communis association, (5) Burned area.Among them, Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association (reed meadow and reed marsh)was preferred to other types within the study area whenever in summer and winter. Dense reed cover could reduce the chance of detection from predator and obstruct attack from predator. Furthermore, under the cover of the reed, Tarim red deer was protected from direct solar radiation during the hours of www. scichina.com www.springerlink.com hot day in summer. The reed meadow and marsh was preferred, presumably because the red deer could minimize their movements while searching for food, water and cover.

  19. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R

    2013-11-01

    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  20. Relations between nutritional condition and survival of North American elk Cervus elaphus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.; Cook, R.C.; Hall, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    We related annual and seasonal survival of four populations of elk Cervus elaphus in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to measures and indices of individual nutritional condition. Among populations, for all mortality (human and non-human causes) sources inclusive, annual survival of adult females was correlated with a rump body condition score (rs = 0.627, P = 0.071), and survival over spring-summer-autumn (SSA) was correlated with mean ingesta-free body fat (IFBF; rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rump body condition score (rBCS; rs = 0.615, P = 0.050). For non-human mortality sources only, survival through SSA was correlated with IFBF (rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rBCS (rs = 0.615, P = 0.050), and survival over winter was correlated with withers body condition score (rs = 0.677, P = 0.045). For human-caused mortality sources only, survival over SSA was correlated with rBCS (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036) and IFBF (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036). For individuals, logistic analysis found that individual likelihood of dying from all mortality sources inclusive was best predicted (??2 = 8.3, P = 0.004, ?? = -1.24) by longissimus dorsi (loin) muscle thickness, a measure of protein catabolism. For only non-human mortality sources, a model (??2 = 16.1, P = 0.0003) containing both loin muscle thickness (??2 = 5.7, P = 0.017, ??= -1.02) and percent ingesta-free body fat (??2 = 4.9, P = 0.027, ?? = -0.35) best predicted individual susceptibility to mortality. Odds ratios indicated that odds of dying increased approximately 3X for each centimeter of loin muscle catabolized and 1.4X for each percent less body fat. No condition indices at the individual level were related to survival from human-caused mortality sources. Our study populations were characterized by low-marginal condition (i.e. mean ingesta-free body fat levels of 5.9-12.3% for lactating cows in late autumn); this likely increased the prominence of measures of muscle catabolism relative to fat accretion in influencing individual elk survival

  1. Observations on rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Bhat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations on seasonal rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu were recorded in Dachigam National Park (DNP during the years 2005 to 2007. A total of 24 breeding herds were seen. The size of the herd varied from 2-5, and usually comprised of one large stag and one or more hinds. The rutting season commenced in the main valley of lower Dachigam by late September and extended up to the first week of November. The peak was from October 9 to 20. The stags in rut became intolerant of each other and separated. The most conspicuous feature of the rut was the reverberating resonant roars by stags. The courtship behaviour was observed on six occasions and only mature stags (8-tined and above were involved in courtship. Various anthropogenic activities in the habitat were found to impair the rutting behaviour of deer.

  2. Predisposition assessment of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) as a strategy in preventive forest habitat management

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich Reimoser; Ursula Nopp-Mayr; Friedrich Voelk

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to assess the predisposition of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus), which illustrates options in preventive forest habitat management. We developed an expert system, based on expert interviews and literature analyses. We selected the most important site- and stand-related predisposing factors for bark peeling of red deer, considering the relation of food dependent and food independent settling stimuli. Within the mechanistic expert sy...

  3. Hybridisation between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Japanese sika (C. nippon) on the Kintyre Peninsula, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Helen V.

    2009-01-01

    Hybridisation between introduced and endemic species causes conservation concerns, but also provides us with an opportunity to study the dynamics of gene flow between two species as they first meet. Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) were introduced to the British Isles at a number of locations at the beginning of the 20th century. In the intervening time, sika have spread and their range now extends across approximately 40% of Scotland, where they overlap with that of native red ...

  4. Molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Rocchigiani, Guido; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Nardoni, Simona; Leoni, Alessandro; Nicoloso, Sandro; Mancianti, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (Cervus elaphus) living in Italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by PCR for A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. Thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. In particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for Babesia divergens, 6 (10%) for C. burnetii, 2 (3.33%) for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reaction was observed for F. tularensis. Thirteen (21.67%) animals resulted co-infected by two or three pathogens. Red deer is confirmed as competent reservoir of A. phagocytophilum and B. divergens, but not of B. burgdorferi. This is the first report of C. burnetii-positive red deer in central Italy. Hunters may be at risk of infection both through infected ticks and during the infected cervids carcasses dressing. PMID:27477510

  5. Genetic Structure and Effective Population Sizes in European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) at a Continental Scale: Insights from Microsatellite DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, Frank E; Frantz, Alain C; Kuehn, Ralph; Bertouille, Sabine; Colyn, Marc; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pérez-González, Javier; Skog, Anna; Sprĕm, Nikica; Flamand, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall F ST = 0.166, Jost's D est = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only 3 genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously found in mtDNA phylogeographic studies: a western group from Iberia to central and parts of Eastern Europe, an eastern group from the Balkans to Eastern Europe, and a third group including the threatened relict populations from Sardinia and Mesola in Italy. This result was also confirmed by a multivariate approach to analyzing our data set, a discriminant analysis of principal components. Calculations of genetic diversity and effective population sizes (linkage disequilibrium approach) yielded the lowest results for Italian (Sardinia, Mesola; N e between 2 and 8) and Scandinavian red deer, in line with known bottlenecks in these populations. Our study is the first to present comparative nuclear genetic data in red deer across Europe and may serve as a baseline for future analyses of genetic diversity and structuring in this widespread ungulate. PMID:26912909

  6. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

  7. Characteristics of Antioxidant Systems of Yellow Fraction of Red Deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) Semen During the Rutting Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Szurnicka, M; Dziekonska, A; Kordan, W; Giżejewski, Z; Filipowicz, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to make the preliminary characterization of the antioxidant defence systems of the yellow fraction (YF) of red deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) semen during the rutting period. The semen was collected using artificial vagina (AV). The studies included spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also analysed the contents of low-molecular antioxidants such as L-glutathione (GSH + GSSG), L-ascorbate (ASC) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Additionally, the samples were subjected to PAGE and stained for SOD and GPx activities. It was demonstrated that the yellow fraction exhibited activities of SOD and GPx, with the highest activities in September and October. CAT activity was not detected. Staining for the SOD and GPx activities confirmed three protein bands with SOD activity and one protein band with GPx activity. The content of GSH + GSSG was similar in trials dating from October to December contrary to the content of ASC which was high in samples from September and October. The stable rate of TAS was observed during the whole rutting period. The results of this study showed that the YF of red deer semen is equipped with basic battery of antioxidant enzymes comprising SOD and GPx, with the supporting role of GSH + GSSG and ASC. Moreover, the samples obtained at the peak of the rutting period occurring from September to October had the highest enzymatic activity in comparison with remaining months of the rutting period, which contributed to the high quality of the semen by preventing it from the formation of oxidative stress during the short period of intense sexual activity of male red deer. The better understanding of the mechanisms of antioxidant defence systems in the YF of deer's semen may contribute to the potential use of this fraction in technology of wild ruminant semen preservation. PMID:26854018

  8. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  9. ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO EPSILON TOXIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN CAPTIVE RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) OVER A 13-MONTH PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Christopher; Duffard, Nicolas; Beauchamp, Guy; Boullier, Séverine; Locatelli, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (Cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. Antibody production to the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Animals from group 1 (9 mo old; n = 6) were naïve and received an initial vaccination with a booster vaccine 4 wk apart and one annual booster. Animals from group 2 (21 mo old; n = 10) had been previously vaccinated 12 mo prior and received a first annual booster at the beginning of this study and a second annual booster 12 mo later. The multivalent clostridial vaccine induced a high antibody response that peaked after each injection and then slowly decreased with time. In group 1, a booster vaccine was required to obtain an initial high humoral response. The annual booster injection induced a strong, rapid, and consistent anamnestic response in both groups. The serologic responses persisted significantly over the baseline value for 9-12 mo in group 1, but more than 12 mo in group 2. It is unknown whether the measured humoral immune responses would have been protective as no challenge studies were performed. Further investigation is needed to determine the protective antibody titers to challenge and how long this immunity might persist after vaccination. PMID:27010263

  10. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  11. Acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems: wolf(Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) as model species

    OpenAIRE

    Passilongo, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The high variability of vocalization is due to their function, the habitat where they evolved and the physical constraints of the emitters. The aim of this study were to analyse the acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals, wolf (Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus), in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems. Firstly, I analysed the Italian wolf howl. I found two forms of howl; both types are uttered within the lowest frequencies of the wolf’s vocal range,...

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS) AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    B. Cenci Goga; A. Vizzani; C. Monticelli; I. Nicchiarelli; P. Sechi; I. Pisano

    2009-01-01

    A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008) sampling period. Samples of water (n=12) and feces (n=59), collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and En...

  13. Antemortem detection of PrP-CWD in preclinical, ranch-raised Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. The abnormal isoform of the normal cellular prion prot...

  14. Composición y calidad de la dieta del ciervo (Cervus elaphus L. en el norte de la península ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garin, I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant composition and quality of the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. diet in the northern Iberian peninsula The feeding pattern of red deer varies greatly among the different European populations. The aim of our study was to elucidate the plant composition and the quality of the red deer diet in the Pyrenees (Northern Iberian peninsula. Over a one-year period, the red deer fed mainly on browse, pines being the main food. However, unlike other populations on the Iberian peninsula, consumption of herbaceous plants was higher than browse in the spring-summer period. Nevertheless, the diet of Pyrenean red deer shared some features with the Mediterranean populations such as browsing on woody legumes. Fecal nitrogen content, as an index of diet quality, showed low annual values with a marked decrease in winter. The overall feeding pattern was similar to that of other Central European populations. The large size of the surveyed population probably affected its high level of browse consumption and poor quality diet.

  15. X- and Y-chromosome specific variants of the amelogenin gene allow sex determination in sheep (Ovis aries and European red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenig B

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple and precise methods for sex determination in animals are a pre-requisite for a number of applications in animal production and forensics. However, some of the existing methods depend only on the detection of Y-chromosome specific sequences. Therefore, the abscence of a signal does not necessarily mean that the sample is of female origin, because experimental errors can also lead to negative results. Thus, the detection of Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences is advantageous. Results A novel method for sex identification in mammals (sheep, Ovis aries and European red deer, Cervus elaphus is described, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of a part of the amelogenin gene. A partial sequence of the amelogenin gene of sheep and red deer was obtained, which exists on both X and Y chromosomes with a deletion region on the Y chromosome. With a specific pair of primers a DNA fragment of different length between the male and female mammal was amplified. Conclusion PCR amplification using the amelogenin gene primers is useful in sex identification of samples from sheep and red deer and can be applied to DNA analysis of micro samples with small amounts of DNA such as hair roots as well as bones or embryo biopsies.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Hungarian red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) from high-throughput sequencing data and its phylogenetic position within the family Cervidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Krisztián; Barta, Endre; Bana, Nóra Á; Nagy, János; Horn, Péter; Orosz, László; Stéger, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is mitochondrial DNA analysis, which can be used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and for molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the development of sequencing technology, more and more mitochondrial sequences have been made available in public databases, including whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. These data have been used for phylogenetic analysis of animal species, and for studies of evolutionary processes. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a Central European red deer, Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, from Hungary by a next generation sequencing technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16 354 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region, all of which are arranged similar as in other vertebrates. We made phylogenetic analyses with the new sequence and 76 available mitochondrial sequences of Cervidae, using Bos taurus mitochondrial sequence as outgroup. We used 'neighbor joining' and 'maximum likelihood' methods on whole mitochondrial genome sequences; the consensus phylogenetic trees supported monophyly of the family Cervidae; it was divided into two subfamilies, Cervinae and Capreolinae, and five tribes, Cervini, Muntiacini, Alceini, Odocoileini, and Capreolini. The evolutionary structure of the family Cervidae can be reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genomes; which method could be used broadly in phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of animal taxa. PMID:27165525

  17. Predisposition assessment of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L. as a strategy in preventive forest habitat management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Reimoser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to assess the predisposition of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus, which illustrates options in preventive forest habitat management. We developed an expert system, based on expert interviews and literature analyses. We selected the most important site- and stand-related predisposing factors for bark peeling of red deer, considering the relation of food dependent and food independent settling stimuli. Within the mechanistic expert system, knowledge on predisposing effects of certain site and stand features is represented in the form of an award-penalty point system. In the current paper, we present the predisposition assessment system for bark peeling and the verification of the system with data of the inventory of natural resources of the Limestone Alps National Park (Upper Austria. Three site-related indicators, i.e. terrain features, roughness/smoothness of relief, and local climate, and six stand-related indicator, i.e. tree age, canopy cover, proportion of conifers, cover of herb layer, method of final cutting, and harassment, were included in the system. Both the chosen indicators and the overall assessment clearly reflected the predisposition in terms of relative frequencies of peeled and unpeeled sample plots. A supplemental logistic regression run with the occurrence/absence of bark peeling as response variable and the assessed predisposition scores from the PAS as explanatory variable proved the discriminatory value of the PAS.

  18. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida

    2016-09-01

    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park. PMID:27605778

  19. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  20. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p advantages of cELISA over FE: i) the ability to store samples long term (frozen) without apparent loss in diagnostic power; and ii) reduced labour and the ability to process large batches. Further evaluation of cELISA sensitivity in red deer, where a range of fluke burdens can be obtained, is desirable. In the interim, the cELISA is a practicable diagnostic for F. hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  1. The population size, demography and the harvest strategy for the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. in the Polish eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merta, D.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of red deer (Cervus elaphusL. in 8 Forest Districts (Baligród, Cisna, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komacza, Stuposiany, Rymanów and Wetlina were estimated during February 2000. The total number of red deer inhabiting the study area (134.0 thousand hectares of forest was 4,081 individuals. The average population density was 30.4 red deer/1000 ha and it ranged from 10.1 animals/1000 ha in Wetlina Forest District to 39.3 individuals/1000 ha in Dukla Forest District. In September 2000, observation records of 952 red deer indicated that male/female ratio was 1:1.6, and the calf/female index was 31 calves per 100 females. Using a population dynamics model, an annual population recruitment rate was calculated. It ranged from 10.5% to 18.1% of the population size in March and it was negatively correlated with the population density of wolves. A computer simulation of various harvest strategies showed that the low percentage of old stags in the present red deer population was caused by over-harvest of 2-5-year-old stags. Therefore, it is suggested that the percentage of young males in the hunting bag should not be higher than 30% of the total harvested males.

    [fr]
    En février 2000 nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de cerfs (Cervus elaphusL. dans 8 Districts Forestiers (Baligrod, Cisn, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komancza, Stuposiany, Rymanow et Wetlina. Pour cela un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne a été utilisé. Le nombre total de cerfs habitant dans la zone d'étude -134.000 ha de forêt- s'élevait à 4 081 animais. La densité moyenne de la population était de 30,4 cerfs par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 10,1 animais par 1000 ha dans le District Forestier de Wetlina et 39,3 individus par 1000 ha dans le District Forestier de Dukla. En Septembre 2000, les observations enregistrées pour 952 cerfs ont montré que le

  2. Analysis of Nutritional Components and Active Components in Cervus elaphus kansuensis Meat%甘肃马鹿肉营养成分及活性物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍; 谢宗平; 李君兰; 郭兆斌; 余群力

    2013-01-01

    以甘肃马鹿肉为实验材料,检测分析了甘肃马鹿肉的营养成分及活性物质.结果表明:甘肃马鹿水分含量为72.88g/100g,蛋白质27.49g/100g,脂肪2.13g/100g,灰分1.09g/100g;铁14.96mg/100g,锌0.84mg/100g,铜0.199mg/100g,硒1.22μg/100g,磷15.72mg/100g;总氨基酸含量为81.08g/100g,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的38.87%;过氧化物歧化酶63.42U/mg,雌二醇157.88pg/mL,睾酮0.78ng/mL.生长激素0.76ng/mL.甘肃马鹿肉具有高蛋白、低脂肪、丰富的矿物质、氨基酸含量全面等特点,并含有一定量的活性物质,对人体有较高的营养和滋补价值,是优质的动物性食品资源.%Healthy,adult,pasture-raised Cervus elaphus kansuensis ere slaughtered and Longissimus dorsi samples were taken for the measurement of nutritional components and active components by routine methods.The results showed that the Longissimus dorsi of Cervus elaphus kansuensis contained 72.88 g of water,27.49 g of protein,2.13 g of fat,1.09 g of ash,14.96 mg of Fe,0.84 mg of Zn,0.199 mg of Cu,1.22 μg of Se,and 15.72 mg of P per 100 g.The total amino acid content was 81.08% with the essential amino acids together accounting for 38.87% of the total amino acids.Additionally,the levels of SOD,estradiol,testosterone and growth hormone were detected to be 63.42 U/mg,157.88 pg/mL,0.78 ng/mL and 0.76 ng/mL,respectively.These data demonstrate that the meat of Cervus elaphus kansuensis has good quality characteristics such as high protein,low fat,abundant minerals and a full range of amino acids in large quantities,and also contain some active substances,indicating high nutritional and nourishing value for the human body as an excellent source of animal-derived food.

  3. Induction of Sperm Acrosome Reaction wti h Calcium Ionophore A23187 in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus)%钙离子载体诱发马鹿精子顶体反应效果1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平; 邹琦; 商兰; 刘伟石

    2014-01-01

    Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sperm was capacitated in vitro by swimming-up and the acrosome reaction (AR) was in-duced by Calcium ionophore A23187 to choose an optimal A23187 system during AR.A23187 of 0.01-100 μmol/L can enhance the ratio of AR on the capacitated sperm and 0.1μmol/L A23187 can obtain the highest ratio of AR (74.00%± 2.62%) for 5-min treatment time.AR of capacitated sperm can, but the uncapacitated sperm cannot, be induced by A23187 in wapiti.%以马鹿( Cervus elaphus)为试验动物,采用上浮法诱导马鹿精子体外获能,以钙离子载体( A23187)诱导马鹿精子顶体反应,进而摸索钙离子载体( A23187)诱发其顶体反应的适宜体系。结果表明:0.01~100.00μmol/L的A23187可提高获能马鹿精子的顶体反应率;其中适宜的A23187浓度为0.10μmol/L,反应的时间为5 min,顶体反应率为(74.00±2.62)%。 A23187能促进获能马鹿精子的顶体反应,但不能显著(P>0.05)促进未获能马鹿精子的顶体反应。

  4. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cenci Goga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  5. På vej mod en dansk krondyrforvaltning (Cervus elaphus): Hvad mangler vi at vide, og hvad mangler vi at gøre?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Haugaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    bestanden og jagtudbyttet på, vil være at frede de unge hjorte mod at have fri jagt på dem, som har nået ”høstklar” alder. Ud over at sikre jægerne et bedre udbytte vil en sådan ”mindstemålsmodel” modvirke selektion for tidligere kønsmodenhed og mindre kropstørrelse for hjorte. In Denmark, red deer (Cervus....... We compared the harvest outcome and demographic composition of these theoretical models with two Danish red deer populations with contrasting land owner structure and hunting regimes (Djursland and Oksbøl). Djursland (hunting seasons 2008/9-2012/13) represents a ‘typical’ Danish landscape, comprising...... of maintaining a stable red deer population with a high proportion of mature stags. We demonstrate that the harvest pattern on Djursland (with an annual mortality of 50% of 2-7 year old stags wherefore less than 1 % of male calves survive until 8 years of age) result in far fewer mature stags in the...

  6. Migrations and management of the Jackson elk herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From April 1978 to April 1982, 85 adult (~2. 7 years-old) elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were captured and radio-collared on the National Elk Refuge in northwestern...

  7. Introgression through rare hybridization: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus) in Argyll, Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, S. J.; Barton, N. H.; Swanson, G.; Abernethy, K; Pemberton, J M

    1999-01-01

    In this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in Argyll, Scotland, between native red deer (Cervus elaphus) and introduced Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA. In contrast to the findings of a previous study of the same population, we conclude that the deer fall into two distinct genetic classes, corresponding to either a sika-like or red-like phenotype. Introgression is rare at any one locus...

  8. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Soler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de ataxia enzoótica (AE en ciervos rojos en cautiverio ocurrido en Argentina. La AE es una patología de los ciervos que causa parálisis lenta y progresiva de las extremidades posteriores y ha sido asociada a la deficiencia de cobre. Su presentación suele ser a partir de los 9 meses de edad. El problema afectó a dos ciervas rojas con debilidad de los miembros posteriores. Se realizó necropsia a una hembra preñada. Se tomaron muestras de órganos en formol al 10%, de suero y sangre entera. Al feto también se le realizó necropsia y se le tomó una muestra de hígado. A partir de muestras de pasto se determinaron los niveles de Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo y SO4. En el agua se analizaron los valores de sales totales, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na y Cl. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad en el establecimiento fue del 0,14%. Los valores de Cu hepático hallados en la hembra y su feto fueron 14,6 ppm y 337 ppm MS, respectivamente. El nivel de Cu en sangre de la cierva fue de 0,5 μg/ml y el hematocrito de 46%. En mιdula espinal se encontró degeneración mielínica generalizada con pérdida de la vaina de mielina, siendo de mayor severidad en las regiones dorsales de la médula. Se observó también vacuolización de la sustancia blanca sin respuesta inflamatoria. Los niveles hepáticos de Cu en la hembra necropsiada se encontraban por debajo del valor considerado como límite, pero a pesar de esto la cupremia se hallaba dentro del rango de referencia siendo ésta una característica comúnmente observada en los casos de deficiencia de Cu. Los valores de Cu hepático fetal también estaban por debajo del rango considerado como normal. A pesar de que los parámetros medidos en pasto y agua al momento del problema estaban dentro de valores de referencia, es probable que los ciervos hayan estado expuestos previamente a bajos valores de Cu dietario durante un tiempo prolongado, lo cual pudo verse agravado por la gran demanda de Cu que ejerce el crecimiento fetal. Considerando que esta enfermedad se presenta usualmente en forma estacional, es de gran importancia realizar muestreos de sangre en la época de mayor riesgo (principios de primavera con el fin de hacer un diagnóstico temprano. De acuerdo a los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y epidemiológicos, se concluye que el diagnóstico corresponde a "ataxia enzoótica por deficiencia de Cu".Enzootic ataxia is a pathology that causes slow and progressive paralysis of the hind limbs in red deer and has been related to copper (Cu deficiency. This condition is not seen until deer are about 9 months old. The objective of this paper is to describe a clinical case of enzootic ataxia in red deer kept in captivity in Argentina. The problem started with two pregnant female deer that showed hind limb weakness. One was slaughtered for necropsy. Blood and organ samples were taken, and the latter were kept in formaldehyde at 10%. A necropsy of the foetus was also carried out and a liver sample was taken. Grass and water were analyzed. Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo and SO4 levels were measured in grass, while total salt, SO4 , Ca, Mg, Na and Cl levels were measured in water. Disease prevalence was 0.14%. Liver Cu values were 14.6 ppm and 337 ppm DM in the female and foetus respectively. Blood Cu level in the female was 0.5 μg/ml and haematocrit was 46%. In spinal cord a general medullar myelin sheath loss was found, but it was more severe in dorsal regions of the medulla. Vacuolization of white substance with no inflammatory response was also observed. Although liver Cu levels in the slaughtered female were lower than those considered as limiting, cupraemia was within the normal range. This is a commonly observed characteristic in Cu deficiency. Cu liver values in the foetus were also below the normal range. As this is a cronic disease, it is probable that the animals were exposed to a low Cu level diet for a long time. This condition could have been worsened by the high Cu demand during foetal growth in the last third of the gestation period. Since this disease is usually found in certain geographical areas and appears seasonally, it is important to take blood samples at the time of higher risk (beginning of spring in order to carry out an early diagnosis. Therefore, according to the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data, it is concluded that the diagnosis corresponds to enzootic ataxia due to Cu deficiency.

  9. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus) en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    J P Soler; S B Cseh

    2007-01-01

    Se describe un caso de ataxia enzoótica (AE) en ciervos rojos en cautiverio ocurrido en Argentina. La AE es una patología de los ciervos que causa parálisis lenta y progresiva de las extremidades posteriores y ha sido asociada a la deficiencia de cobre. Su presentación suele ser a partir de los 9 meses de edad. El problema afectó a dos ciervas rojas con debilidad de los miembros posteriores. Se realizó necropsia a una hembra preñada. Se tomaron muestras de órganos en formol al 10%, de suero y...

  10. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-11-01

    As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n = 20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n = 5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25185666

  11. Antibody Responses of Cervids (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection and the Implications for Immunodiagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current ante-mortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, has seri...

  12. Roe (Capreolus capreolus) and red (Cervus elaphus) deer foraging habits under snow conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Homolka, Miloslav

    Hamburg: DSV-Verlag, 2005 - (Pohlmeyer, K.), s. 447-449 ISBN 3-88412-431-5. [IUGB Congress /27./. Hannover (DE), 28.08.2005-03.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : deer * winter diet * browsing impact Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  13. Long-term dynamics of Coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGonzález-Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q-fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity and the age of first exposure - were analysed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season - at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated to herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based upon humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months.

  14. The content of selected metals in muscles of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewski, Michał; Skibniewska, Ewa M; Kośla, Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba in the muscles of red deer that were hunted in two regions of Poland (south-western and north-eastern). The data obtained were evaluated with regards to benefits and potential risk to consumers' health. Samples for the investigations were collected in 2008 and 2009 from 50 female red deer, and the metal concentrations were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) method. The mean concentrations of Pb did not differ statistically between regions and were equal to that permitted for farm animals. The results of this study support the conclusion that the meat of the analysed animals does not pose a risk of lead intoxication. Statistically higher mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were found in the muscles of red deer from the south-western region (namely, 2.99 and 25.78 mg kg(-1)) than those in animals from north-eastern Poland (namely, 2.61 and 23.39 mg kg(-1) wet weight). In terms of human nutritional needs, the meat of red deer can be considered as a good source of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations did not differ statistically between regions. Their mean concentrations were 4.50, 0.09, 0.16 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Although high Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations were found, the meat of red deer does not pose a risk for adult consumers. Only high Ba content may potentially result in negative health effects for children. PMID:25548020

  15. Seasonal and age related changes in size of reproductive structures of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Langvatn

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric studies of uteri, ovary weights, and follicle diameters were carried out to investigate possible methodological applications. Size and anatomical appearance of the uterus varied with age and phase in the estrous cycle, both in parous and nulliparous females. The uterus thus may provide valuable information on reproductive status for known-aged animals. Weight of ovaries increased in young, but declined in old females, showing significant covariance with body weight in young and prime ages. Ovary weights increased from low levels shortly after parturition to a maximum towards the end of the gestation period. Ovaries containing a corpus luteum were heavier than those without. Compared to ovary weights, mean diameter of largest ovarian follicle varied in an opposite pattern during the yearly cycle. Maximum follicle diameter was largest in non-ovulated females. Weight of ovaries and follicle size appear to be of limited value as criteria in analysis of reproductive status and performance.

  16. Tuberculosis, genetic diversity and fitness in the red deer, Cervus elaphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Alves, Paulo C; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity, infections and fitness interact in wild populations is a major challenge in ecology and management. These interactions were addressed through heterozygosity-fitness correlation analyses, by assessing the genetic diversity, tuberculosis (TB) and body size in adult red deer. Heterozygosity-fitness correlation models provided a better understanding of the link between genetic diversity and TB at individual and population levels. A single local effect was found for Ceh45 locus at individual level, enhancing the importance of its close functional genes in determining TB presence. At population level, the ability of the red deer to control TB progression correlated positively with population genetic diversity, indicating that inbred populations might represent more risk of deer TB severity. Statistical models also gained insights into the dynamics of multi-host interaction in natural environments. TB prevalence in neighbouring wild boar populations was positively associated with deer TB at both individual and population levels. Additionally, TB presence correlated positively with red deer body size, for which "general and local effect" hypotheses were found. Although body size might be correlated with age, an indirect genetic effect on TB presence could be implied. This study provides new insights towards understanding host-pathogen interactions in wild populations and their relation to fitness traits. PMID:27245150

  17. Elk (Cervus elaphus) Seasonal Habitat Selection in a Heterogeneous Forest Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, Jesse N.; McGeachy, David N. C.; Josef Hamr

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal habitat selection by the reintroduced Burwash elk population, approximately 30 km south of Sudbury, Ontario, has been analysed in order to assist in the development of future management. Twenty-five adult females were radio-collared and tracked 1–3 times a week for 3 years. The most prominent patterns included selection of intolerant hardwood forests (trembling aspen, white birch, and balsam poplar) during all seasons, while Great Lakes-St. Lawrence pines (white and red pine dominate...

  18. Spent Mushroom Substrate Influences Elk (Cervus Elaphus Canadensis) Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Sang Woo; DO, YOON JUNG; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Yeoung Gyu; Yang, Boh Suk; Shin, Daekeun; Cho, Young Moo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived from Pleurotus eryngii on the hematological and biochemical blood properties of elk. A total of 18, two and three-year-old elk were fed three different levels of SMS (0, 15 and 20%) in a corn-wheat bran diet for 80 days. The results indicated significantly high levels of blood monocytes, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT) in elk fed 15% or 20% SMS (p

  19. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    OpenAIRE

    Spraker Terry R; White Stephen N; Reynolds James O; O'Rourke Katherine I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP h...

  20. Immune Responses of Elk to Initial and Booster Vaccinations with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or 19

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Olsen; Fach, S. J.; Palmer, M. V.; Sacco, R. E.; Stoffregen, W. C.; Waters, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). In this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strains RB51 (SRB51) and 19 (S19). Elk were vaccinated with saline or 1010 CFU of SRB51 or S19 (n = seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. Compared to nonvaccinate...

  1. Longitudinal Pathogenesis Study of Young Red Deer (Cervus elaphus after Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mackintosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis progresses more quickly in young red deer than in sheep or cattle. This study describes the clinical, immunological and pathological changes over a 50-week period in fourteen 4-month-old red deer that received heavy oral challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. At 4 and 12 weeks post challenge they were anaesthetized and a section of jejunal lymph node was surgically removed for culture, histopathology, and genetic studies. All 14 deer became infected, none were clinically affected, and they had varying degrees of subclinical disease when killed at week 50. Week 4 biopsies showed no paratuberculosis lesions, but MAP was cultured from all animals. At weeks 12 and 50 histopathological lesions ranged from mild to severe with corresponding low-to-high antibody titres, which peaked at 12–24 weeks. IFN-γ responses peaked at 8–15 weeks and were higher in mildly affected animals than in those with severe lesions.

  2. Damage caused by red deer (Cervus elaphus & wild boar (Sus scrofa in forest hunting grounds in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study and assessment of the damage by big game in forest hunting grounds in Serbia was infrequent, although the damage was evident. The objective of this paper is to identify the rates and types of damage by red deer and wild boar at three localities: (1 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Crni Lug' (Srem, (2 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Podunavsko Lovište Plavna' (Southwestern Bačka, and (3 fenced rearing centre 'Lomnička Reka' (Mt. Veliki Jastrebac. The damage was not recorded on locality (1. The damage on locality (2 (new polar plantations and locality (3 (beech forests was caused by red deer. The main causes of the damage were excessive density and disturbed population structure (sex and age, nonharmonised forest and hunting management, shortage of natural food, especially of pasture areas.

  3. Steroid hormones profile during an ovarian synchronization procedure in different age categories of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šperanda Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals, mature (10 animals and old (7 animals hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI. The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland. Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein using a Venoject® vacutainer without an anticoagulant for hormonal tests on the same experimental day (0, 11th and 13th day. A statistically (p<0.01 higher progesterone level was found in young hinds on the 11th day after controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device insertion. A significantly higher (p<0.01 estrogen level was observed in the young in regard to mature and old hinds on the expected day of estrus (13th day. Estradiol/progesterone ratios showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01 on insemination day (13th day between old and young hinds (98.67 : 46.59 and between old and mature hinds (98.67 : 51.79. Out of a total of 38 hinds only 9 had their offspring, 6 of the young and 3 of the mature hinds.

  4. Contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Walter; Beiglböck, Christoph; Burmester, Marion; Guschlbauer, Maria; Lengauer, Astrid; Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. We investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. Our results support the latter hypothesis. We found in a feeding experiment that total energy intake was considerably lower during winter despite ad libitum feeding. Together with reduced food intake, mass of visceral organs was significantly lower and body fat reserves were used as metabolic fuel in addition to food. However, efficacy of nutrient absorption seemed to be increased simultaneously. Extraction of crude protein from forage was higher in winter animals, at any level of crude protein intake, as indicated by the lower concentration of crude protein in feces. In line with these in vivo results, Ussing chamber experiments revealed greater electrogenic responses to both peptides and glucose in the small intestines of winter-acclimatized animals, and peptide uptake into jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles was increased. We conclude that reduced appetite of red deer during winter avoids energy expenditure for unproductive search of scarcely available food and further renders the energetically costly maintenance of a large gut and visceral organs unnecessary. Nevertheless, extraction of nutrients from forage is more efficient in the winter to attenuate an inevitably negative energy balance. PMID:26017492

  5. Effects of highways on elk (Cervus elaphus) habitat in the Western United States and proposed mitigation approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ruediger, William Bill C.; Wall, Ken; Wall, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Why Elk? Elk are an excellent species to use as a “terrestrial wildlife indicator” for highway impacts. First, they are widespread and exist in all western states as well as several midwestern and eastern states. They are prevalent on many National Forest lands, Bureau of Land Management lands, USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service lands. Much elk habitat is on public lands in the western United States (Flathers and Hoekstra 1989, Peek undated, Thomas and Toweill 1982). Elk...

  6. Antibody Responses of Cervids (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection and the Implications for Immunodiagnosis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Noel P.; Surujballi, Om P.; Prescott, John F.; Duncan, J. Robert; Waters, W. Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-01-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. T...

  7. Environ: E00332 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00332 Cervus male sex organ Crude drug Cervus elaphus [TAX:9860], Cervus nippon [T...AX:9863] Cervidae Cervus male sex organ Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00332 Cervus male sex organ ...

  8. Transmission of the haplosporidian parasite MSX Haplosporidium nelsoni to the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in an upweller system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunila, I; Karolus, J; Lang, E P; Mroczka, M E; Volk, J

    2000-08-31

    The haplosporidian oyster parasite MSX (Multinucleated Sphere X) Haplosporidium nelsoni was transmitted to eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Hatchery-raised, MSX-free juvenile oysters were placed in upweller tanks. Water to the tanks was filtered through a screen with 1 mm2 openings and originated from the water column overlaying naturally infected oysters beds (MSX prevalence 17 to 57%). MSX was diagnosed by histopathological analysis. MSX-disease (57% prevalence) with increased mortality (19%) was observed 11 wk after the beginning of the exposure and mortality of 80% after 16 wk. The study demonstrates transmission of MSX via water-borne infectious agents capable of passing through a 1 mm filter. PMID:11023255

  9. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  10. Risk assessment of Sika deer Cervus nippon in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lammertsma, D.R.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Griffioen, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) is considered an invasive alien species in Europe. They were introduced in the 19th and 20th century in Europe and have established self-sustaining populations in various countries. Main concerns for Sika, without preventive measures taken and without population control, are about damage to forestry (silviculture, timber production), agriculture, Natura 2000 areas, competition with native ungulates and hybridization and introgression with native Red Deer. Risk assess...

  11. An Assessment of Agricultural Damage Caused by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.and Fallow Deer (Dama dama L. in Southwest England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles John Wilson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second site by cutting samples on 31 May 1990 and on 6 June 1995. In addition, impact of fallow deer on cereal crops was assessed at this site by measuring sample grain yields from areas of the crop used or unused by deer in 1995 (winter wheat, 1996 (winter barley and 1997 (winter wheat. Significant dry matter yield losses were recorded for red deer impact on spring grazing in 1989 (14.5% and for fallow deer impact on first-cut silage (15.9% in 1995 but not in 1990. In 1995 a small but significant yield loss (7.1% was recorded for winter wheat at the fallow deer site but no loss in cereal yield was recorded in 1996 or 1997. These assessments, carried out in response to complaints about deer damage, suggest that the impacts of deer in this area, where they occur at relatively high density, are only moderate. This highlights the need for careful assessment of cost-benefits when considering deer management strategies to reduce perceived agricultural damage.

  12. Application of a hybrid model to reduce bias and improve precision in population estimates for elk (Cervus elaphus) inhabiting a cold desert ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn A. Schoenecker; Bruce C. Lubow

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating the size of wildlife populations is critical to wildlife management and conservation of species. Raw counts or “minimum counts” are still used as a basis for wildlife management decisions. Uncorrected raw counts are not only negatively biased due to failure to account for undetected animals, but also provide no estimate of precision on which to judge the utility of counts. We applied a hybrid population estimation technique that combined sightability modeling, radio coll...

  13. Application of a hybrid model to reduce bias and improve precision in population estimates for elk (Cervus elaphus inhabiting a cold desert ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Schoenecker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating the size of wildlife populations is critical to wildlife management and conservation of species. Raw counts or “minimum counts” are still used as a basis for wildlife management decisions. Uncorrected raw counts are not only negatively biased due to failure to account for undetected animals, but also provide no estimate of precision on which to judge the utility of counts. We applied a hybrid population estimation technique that combined sightability modeling, radio collar-based mark-resight, and simultaneous double count (double-observer modeling to estimate the population size of elk in a high elevation desert ecosystem. Combining several models maximizes the strengths of each individual model while minimizing their singular weaknesses. We collected data with aerial helicopter surveys of the elk population in the San Luis Valley and adjacent mountains in Colorado State, USA in 2005 and 2007. We present estimates from 7 alternative analyses: 3 based on different methods for obtaining a raw count and 4 based on different statistical models to correct for sighting probability bias. The most reliable of these approaches is a hybrid double-observer sightability model (model MH, which uses detection patterns of 2 independent observers in a helicopter plus telemetry-based detections of radio collared elk groups. Data were fit to customized mark-resight models with individual sighting covariates. Error estimates were obtained by a bootstrapping procedure. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to double-observer modeling. The resulting population estimate corrected for multiple sources of undercount bias that, if left uncorrected, would have underestimated the true population size by as much as 22.9%. Our comparison of these alternative methods demonstrates how various components of our method contribute to improving the final estimate and demonstrates why each is necessary.

  14. Structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic). As was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. In all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently less fluorotic than the other permanent teeth. This was related to the fact that crown formation in the M1 takes place prenatally and during the lactation period. Fluorosed teeth exhibited opaque and posteruptively stained enamel, reduction or loss of enamel ridges, moderately to grossly increased wear and, in more severe cases, also enamel surface lesions of partly posteruptive, partly developmental origin. Microradiographically, fluorosed enamel was characterised by subsurface hypomineralisation, interpreted as a result of fluoride interference with the process of enamel maturation. In addition, an accentuation of the incremental pattern due to the occurrence of alternating bands with highly varying mineral content was observed in severely fluorosed teeth, denoting fluoride disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. A corresponding enhancement of the incremental pattern was also seen in the dentine. The enamel along the more pronounced hypoplasias consisted of stacked, thin layers of crystals arranged in parallel, indicating that the ameloblasts in these locations had lost the distal (prism-forming) portions of their Tomes processes. The findings of the present study indicate that red deer are highly sensitive bioindicators of environmental pollution by fluorides

  15. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  16. Uzgoj običnoga jelena (Cervus elaphus L.) u kontroliranim uvjetima u ograđenom prostoru Šeprešhat

    OpenAIRE

    Grubešić, Marijan; Urošević, Branko; Mihaljević, Zlatan; Tomljanović, Kristijan

    2011-01-01

    Ograđeni prostor Šeprešhat namijenjen je intenzivnomu uzgoju običnoga jelena u kontroliranim uvjetima. Svrha je takva uzgoja proizvodnja visokovrijednoga baranjskoga jelena s mogućnošću distribucije kvalitetnoga rasplodnoga materijala u druga lovišta Republike Hrvatske. Uzgoj je jelena započeo još 2002. godine s prvim hvatanjima i ispuštanjima teladi u ograđeni prostor. Ograđeni prostor Šeprešhat u međuvremenu se postupno širio te od početnih 53 ha danas ima 380 ha. Prostor je razdijeljen na ...

  17. The Influence of Snow Cover Changes on Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L. Migrations in the Western Part of Gorski Kotar Region in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Malnar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Animal migrations are a direct result of reproduction, behaviour characteristics, predators, population density, disturbance, loss of habitat, climatic, vegetational and nutritional factors. The availability and accessibility of natural food in winter months is dependent on snow cover. The main objective of this study was to determine the migrational activities of red deer and to examine the dependency between migrations and climatic factors. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the northwest Dinarid mountains, i.e. in the western part of Gorski Kotar region, which represents a large integral forest complex, distinctive due to its significant vertical drops, diverse relief characteristics and habitat conditions. Data on red deer migrations was collected over a 12 year period from hunting records, gamekeeper logs and records from game counting and monitoring. Results and Conclusions: The results of the macroclimatic analysis show a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the monitored weather stations in the study area. The Klana site stood out as the most appropriate red deer winter habitat, based on climatic conditions. Climatic conditions play a key role in seasonal red deer migrations or non-migrations. The Crni Lug site was assessed to be the least favourable due to macroclimatic conditions (snow depth.

  18. Reprodukce siky (Cervus nippon) na Plzeňsku

    OpenAIRE

    Husinec, Václav

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the age of female sika deer on the weight of embryos of sika deer Cervus nippon nippon in the North Pilsen Region. From 2011 to the start of 2013 hunted down female sika deer were examined to establish the presence of embryos. Embryos were subsequently taken out of the hunted deer and analysed. The location of Košetice was selected to collate the data necessary. The location and the method of collation of data has been described in one of the chapters of thi...

  19. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Louis J. La Grange; Björn Reininghaus; Samson Mukaratirwa

    2014-01-01

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) app...

  20. Field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, E; Dorny, P; Vercammen, F; Vercruysse, J

    2005-11-01

    The efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (Gazella leptoceros), eight Soay sheep (Ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex), six red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. The efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count reduction (fecr) tests and in vitro egg hatch assays. Fenbendazole was highly effective against nematodes in five of the seven species, consistently reducing egg shedding by more than 90 per cent. In the egg hatch assays of the five herds, 50 per cent inhibition of hatching (ld50) was observed at a concentration of thiabendazole below 0.1 microg/ml. In the Arabian oryx and alpine ibex the efficacy of fenbendazole was less than 90 per cent, and the ld50 in the egg hatch assays was between 0.1 and 0.2 microg/ml thiabendazole. PMID:16272545

  1. Sequence Length Polymorphisms within Cervid AmelogeninX and AmelogeninY Genes: Use in Sex Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson H. Morrill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence length polymorphisms between the amelogeninX and amelogeninY genes have been utilized for the design of rapid PCR sex determination assays for various mammalian species, including four cervid species (Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, and Dama dama. Several of these assays have been shown to be able to determine sex from non-invasively collected samples such as hair roots, feces, or skeletal remains. Such assays can be helpful for both zoo and wildlife biologists for sex determination, and could possibly be further developed to aid in species identification and SNP analyses if sequence information is also available. In order to further study the amelogeninX and amelogeninY gene polymorphisms that exist within cervids, partial sequences from these genes were generated and analyzed in multiple amelogeninX and amelogeninY samples of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni; and single amelogeninX and amelogeninY samples of sika deer (Cervus nippon, fallow deer (Dama dama and axis deer (Axis axis. Within these five species, three sequence length polymorphism regions (two or more nucleotides inserted or deleted between samples were found. The lengths of these polymorphisms were 45, 9, and 9 nucleotides. In addition, a SNP was found in the amelogeninY sequences of the mule deer samples that were analyzed. Lastly, the primers used to amplify the regions of the amelogeninX and amelogeninY sequences were able to determine sex in all five species that were studied.

  2. Kajian kualitas daging rusa sambar (cervus unicolor) buru dan dipeliharaan secara intensif

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Juli Mutiara

    2012-01-01

    JULI MUTIARA SIHOMBING: The Meat Quality Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor) Hunting and Intensive maintained deer, guided by RISTIKA HANDARINI and HERLA RUSMARILIN. Information about sambar meat quality is still lacking, especially the comparison between Sambar deer hunting and intensively maintained. The purpose of this study to examine differences in the quality of game and deer venison reared intensively given feed with crude protein 16%. The research was conducted in deer captivity at Univ...

  3. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica DNA from peripheral blood of Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Seino, Nobutaka; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Kaji, Koichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Inoue, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Partial nucleotide sequences of the citrate synthase and 17-kDa genes of Rickettsia helvetica were detected from peripheral blood samples of Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan. Results suggest the presence of a rickettsiemia associated with R. helvetica. This is the first evidence of R. helvetica infection in Sika deer and indicates that this species may represent a potential reservoir host of R. helvetica in Japan. PMID:18263833

  4. Určování domovského okrsku siky (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis deals with available methods of research leads to monitoring of sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) home range, with preference for telelmetric research. The knowledges that are key for better understanding and approach to the sika deer behavior and life strategy – species that population is rising to the essential quantity. Quantity that is vital not only for management of this species but also for his influence to the forestry – harms on forest vegetation. In this th...

  5. Telemetrické sledování siky (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis, I focused on the research of the spatial orientation of sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Hradiste hunting using GPS devices. Research has been and still is carried on the forest Lomnica forest area. The first part is devoted to the description, morphology, biology, habitat and expansion of the sika deer, describe a device that is used to monitor and narcotization. The second part focuses on the experience I gained and assessed by telemetric monitoring and observation of this ...

  6. Haematological values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot, to define their mean haematological values (red cell count, white cell count, differential leucocyte count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration). Male deer had a significantly higher red cell count and haemoglobin concentration, and a lower mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin content, than did female deer. PMID:1288471

  7. PENDUGAAN DAYA TAMPUNG RUSA LIAR (Cervus timorensis) DI PADANG RUMPUT MAR TAMAN NASIONAL WASUR MERAUKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi; Thimotius Sraun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi) at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  8. Validación y uso de Espectrocopía de Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS) para el estudio de alimentación de ciervo (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) y gamo (Dama dama) en ecosistemas mediterráneos

    OpenAIRE

    Tellado-Ruiz, María-Sierra

    2016-01-01

    [ES]En este estudio desarrollamos y validamos un método de Espectroscopía de Reflectancia en la región del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) para determinar, de forma indirecta a partir de heces, la calidad de la dieta de dos especies de cérvidos en ambiente mediterráneo. Se estudió el contenido de fibra ácido detergente (ADF) y fibra neutro detergente (NDF), el contenido de lignina, el índice de carbono/nitrógeno (C:N), la digestibilidad enzimática (EDOM) y de la pared celular (CWD), la cantidad de ...

  9. Modelli di valutazione ambientale per i Bovidi (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra e i Cervidi (Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oppio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La conservazione delle popolazioni di stambecco ha grande rilevanza a livello italiano ed europeo, a causa della distribuzione concentrata in poche aree, mentre le consistenti popolazioni di camoscio hanno importanza economica e gestionale. L?espansione dell?areale di distribuzione dei cervidi in territorio alpino, è un fenomeno ormai consolidato e legato all?abbandono dei territori collinari e montani ma anche alle reintroduzioni e alle azioni di tutela nei confronti delle specie. I modelli d?idoneità ambientale rappresentano un efficace strumento per il confronto a livello qualitativo (numero di specie e quantitativo (abbondanza delle popolazioni tra l?attuale popolamento faunistico dei territori alpini e la loro situazione potenziale. Il Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso si estende per oltre 700 km² sul territorio di Piemonte e di Valle d?Aosta; gli affioramenti rocciosi ne occupano il 37.0%, la vegetazione rada il 20.1% e le praterie sommitali e le brughiere il 17.3%. L?analisi ambientale del Parco è stata effettuata mediante Arcview 3.2 per Windows misurando il valore di 20 variabili ambientali (Corine Land Cover III Liv., 27 fisiche (DTM e 17 di complessità paesaggistica in 2925 Unità Campione di 0,5 km di lato. Per la formulazione dei modelli relativi alla distribuzione (presenza/assenza dello stambecco sono stati utilizzati i dati dei censimenti (1999 effettuati nel Parco; per il camoscio ed il capriolo sono stati utilizzati i dati rilevati nelle province di Vercelli e Biella (1997 e in quella di Verbania (1999, mentre per il cervo sono stati utilizzati quelli relativi alla sola provincia di Verbania (1999. I modelli sono stati formulati mediante Analisi di Funzione Discriminante (Magnusson, 1983; Massolo & Meriggi, 1995 e Analisi di Regressione Logistica (Norusis, 1994. Per lo stambecco i dati sono stati suddivisi in due sets, di cui uno utilizzato per la formulazione del modello e l?altro per la sua validazione. Mediante un test del chi-quadrato sono state confrontate le percentuali di casi classificati nei due sets. Per le altre specie i modelli formulati sono stati applicati al territorio del parco e la validità dei modelli è stata valutata dalla percentuale di casi originali riclassificati correttamente. Per i bovidi il modello a maggior capacità predittiva è stato quello discriminante (classificazioni corrette: 73.0% per stambecco e 82.8% per camoscio. La non significatività del test Χ² (P=0.470 indica che non esistono differenze significative tra la distribuzione reale dello stambecco e quella ottenuta dal modello. L'81.1% del territorio del Parco è idoneo al camoscio alpino e l'area vocata include il 93.6% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Per il capriolo il modello logistico è stato quello a maggior capacità predittiva (88.1% dei casi originali classificati correttamente, individuando il 50.7% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Anche per il cervo quello logistico è preferibile per la maggiore percentuale di casi totali classificati correttamente (AFD: 74.9%; ARL: 76.0%.

  10. Podiel drevín v potrave jeleňa lesného (Cervus elaphus) a srnca hôrneho (Capreolus capreolus) v lužnom lese

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava

    Zvolen: Technická univerzita, 2003, s. 161-166. [Nové trendy v ochrane lesa. Zvolen (SK), 23.01.2003-24.01.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : deer * floodplain forest * food Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Selezione invernale dell'habitat e densità del cervo (Cervus elaphus e del capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Latini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo è stata studiata la selezione dell'habitat invernale di cervo e capriolo da aprile a maggio del 2000 e del 2002, in un'area caratterizzata da boschi di faggio, rimboschimenti a pino nero e pascoli. È stata utilizzata la tecnica del pellet group count, su transetti lineari larghi 2 metri, individuati ogni 100 m di quota, lungo le isoipse da 1350 a 1950 m s.l.m. Sono stati percorsi 61 km ed è stata campionata un'area di 12 ha. Per ogni gruppo di escrementi (1583 per il cervo e 946 per il capriolo sono state rilevate l'altitudine, la pendenza, l'esposizione e il tipo di vegetazione. È stato assunto che tutti gli habitat fossero ugualmente disponibili ed accessibili e che le disponibilita fossero conosciute (Alldredge et al., 1998. I dati raccolti sono stati elaborati applicando il test del Χ², la statistica di Bonferroni (Neu et al., 1974 e l'indice Jacobs (Jacobs, 1974. Il cervo ha selezionato aree comprese tra 1300 e 1500 m s.l.m. (p<0.01, un range altimetrico più ristretto rispetto al capriolo che seleziona anche le quote piu elevate, comprese cioè tra 1300 e 1700 m s.l.m. (p<0.01. Entrambi i cervidi selezionano le zone più scoscese (21°-60° (p<0.01: Il cervo seleziona le classi d'esposizione comprese tra sud-est ed ovest (p<0.01, mentre il capriolo i versanti sud-ovest e ovest (p<0.01. Entrambe le specie preferiscono ambienti di transizione ed evitano le zone di bosco maturo ed i pascoli d'alta quota (p<0.01. Utilizzando il tasso di defecazione è stata calcolata la densità delle due specie (Mayle, 1999 che è risultata di 2.7 cervi/100 ha e 1.0 caprioli/100 ha. Le due specie selezionano le stesse risorse, suggerendo, così come riscontrato da altri autori (Welch, 1989, una convergenza per quanto riguarda l'uso invernale dell'habitat. La scelta d'aree poste a quote medio-basse, di zone scoscese e di versanti meridionali potrebbe essere legata alla minore altezza e persistenza del manto nevoso (Mysterud et al., 1997. La scelta di aree ecotonali e zone di bosco con soprassuolo forestale articolato potrebbe essere messo in relazione sia al più elevato valore trofico di questi habitat, sia alla maggiore disponibilità di siti di riparo. I risultati trovano riscontro in uno studio analogo condotto nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Pedrotti & Mustoni, 1994 e rappresentano il primo contributo alla conoscenza di queste due popolazioni all'interno del Parco a 30 anni dalla loro reintroduzione.

  12. 马鹿生长激素(GH)基因生物信息学预测及分析%Bioinformatics Prediction and Analysis on GH Gene of Cervus elaphus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兴超; 杨福合; 刘汇涛; 徐超; 魏海军; 邢秀梅

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the structure and function of GH gene of wapiti, coding sequences(CDS) of GH gene in wapiti, sika deer, chevrotain, cattle, goat, sheep, pig, human, chimpanzee, Norway rat, house mouse, arctic fox, dog, chicken and zebrafish were downloaded from GenBank as experimental ma- terials. Bioinformaties analysis was made on basic information and encoding protein structure, physic- chemical property, signal peptide, transmembrane structure, generic phosphorylation sites, secondary structure and subcellular localization were predicted by means of biologic software and online tools. In ad- dition, the similarity of GH gene CDS sequence and amino acid between those of wapiti and other 14 species were also analyzed. Phylogentic tree of the homologous gene based on the amino acid of GH gene was constructed. The results showed that the length of wapiti GH gene was 2 100 bp, which included 5 exons, 4 introns, partial 5'UTR and 3'UTR, and it contained an open reading frame of 654 bp, which encoded 217 amino acids. The estimated molecular weight of GH protein was 24.588 4 ku, with a iso- electric point of 7.62 and 31.04 in stability index, belonging to the stable alkalinous protein with hy- drophobicity. The GH protein had two obvious strong transmembrane region, eight phosphorylation sites. The secondary structure of GH protein was mainly α-helix and irregular curly. The extracellular protein contained one signal peptide was probably being secreting type. The similarity comparison and phyloge- netic tree indicated that the evolution distance of wapiti GH gene was the most homogeneous to sika deer, chevrotain, cattle, goat and sheep. The research provided detailed bioinformatics information for further study on GH gene of wapiti.%为研究马鹿生长激素(GH)基因的结构和功能,从GenBank中下载马鹿、梅花鹿、鼷鹿、牛、山羊、绵羊、猪、人、黑猩猩、挪威大鼠、小家鼠、北极狐、狗、鸡和斑马鱼的GH基因完整编码区(CDS)及氨基酸序列,利用DNAStar 7.0、BioEdit 7.0生物软件与相关在线工具对马鹿GH基因核苷酸序列的基本信息及其编码蛋白的理化特性和结构特征进行了生物信息学预测及分析,对马鹿与其他14个物种GH基因的CDS序列及其编码氨基酸序列进行相似性分析,并基于氨基酸序列构建了15个物种的系统进化树。结果表明:马鹿GH基因DNA序列长度为2 100 bp,包括完整的5个外显子和4个内含子,部分5′UTR和3′UTR,CDS全长654 bp,编码217个氨基酸;其编码的蛋白是一种分子质量为24.588 4 ku,等电点为7.62的疏水性稳定碱性蛋白;存在2个强跨膜区、8个广泛磷酸化位点,二级结构元件以α-螺旋和无规则卷曲为主;该蛋白位于细胞外,含有1个信号肽,属一种分泌型蛋白;马鹿与梅花鹿、牛、绵羊、山羊和鼷鹿等动物的GH基因氨基酸序列相似性较高,亲缘关系最近。该研究结果可为马鹿GH基因的进一步分析提供详细的生物学基础信息。

  13. Složení potravy jelena lesního (Cervus elaphus) a srnce lesního (Capreolus capreolus) v NP a CHKO Šumava a Bavorský les

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barančeková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2009 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 27-28 ISBN 978-80-87189-03-0. [Zoologické dny. 12.02.2009-13.02.2009, Brno] Institutional research pla n: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : analyses * deer browse * faeces Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  14. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated meningoencephalitis in a sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin; Arnold, Kim; Hotton, Doug; Beckstead, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    An adult, female, free-ranging, sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) from Wicomico County, Maryland, USA, was found circling and having no fear of humans. The animal was euthanized and submitted for a postmortem exam. There were no gross lesions and the deer was negative for rabies. Microscopic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with intralesional adult nematodes, larvae, and eggs consistent with nematodes in the family Protostrongylidae. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. tenuis-associated encephalitis in a sika deer. PMID:20090046

  15. Surveillance of chronic wasting disease in sika deer, Cervus nippon, from Tokachi district in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Natsumi; Nishimura, Masakazu; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2005-03-01

    Surveillance of chronic wasting disease (CWD) was conducted by performing Western blot analysis of tissue samples from 136 sika deer (Cervus nippon) killed by hunters in the Tokachi district of Hokkaido Island. No prion protein (PrPSc) associated with CWD was detected in any of the samples. To assess amino acid polymorphisms of the sika deer PrP gene, nucleotide sequencing of the PrP gene was performed. The only amino acid polymorphisms detected were 3 silent mutations at nucleotide positions 63, 225 and 408. These results suggest that sika deer in the Tokachi district are genetically homogeneous, and are not infected with CWD. PMID:15805745

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of northeastern sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuanchen; Zha, Daiming; Xing, Xiumei; Su, Weilin; Liu, Huamiao; Zhang, Ranran

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the northeastern sika deer, Cervus nippon hortulorum, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome is 16,434 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeastern sika deer's mitochondrial genome is 33.3% of A, 24.5% of C, 28.7% of T and 13.5% of G. A termination associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region. PMID:24660928

  17. PENDUGAAN DAYA TAMPUNG RUSA LIAR (Cervus timorensis DI PADANG RUMPUT MAR TAMAN NASIONAL WASUR MERAUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  18. Adrenal response to ACTH stimulation in Rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T

    1984-01-01

    Resting cortisol values in immobilized mature Rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the response to synthetic ACTH were investigated. The mean level of cortisol in mature Rusa stags was found to be 3.80 ng/ml (SD = 0.87, N = 18). Over the range 0.37-6.0 i.u. the adrenal response to ACTH challenge was linearly related to the log dose ACTH administered (r = 0.998). More than 6 i.u. of ACTH caused maximal stimulation of the adrenal gland. Rusa deer appear to be much more sensitive to ACTH administration than other species. PMID:6150796

  19. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  20. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

  1. Molecular diversity of rumen bacterial communities from tannin-rich and fiber-rich forage fed domestic Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi Peng; Liu, Han Lu; Li, Guang Yu; Bao, Kun; Wang, Kai Ying; Xu, Chao; Yang, Yi Feng; Yang, Fu He; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sika deer (Cervus nippon) have different dietary preferences to other ruminants and are tolerant to tannin-rich plants. Because the rumen bacteria in domestic Sika deer have not been comprehensively studied, it is important to investigate its rumen bacterial population in order to understand its gut health and to improve the productivity of domestic Sika deer. Results The rumen bacterial diversity in domestic Sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed oak leaves- (OL group) and corn stalks-base...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of sika deer Cervus nippon (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) South Anhui population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Fang, Hong-Yan; Jin, Can; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of sika deer (Cervus nippon) South Anhui population is a circular molecule of 16,429 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 62% (T: 28.7%; C: 24.6%; A: 33.3%; G: 13.4%). ND2, ND3 and ND5 genes begin with ATA as start codon, ND4L gene begins with GTG as start codon, while other nine protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG initiation codon. ND1, COI, COII, ATP8, ATP6, ND4L, ND5 and ND6 genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ND2 ends with TAG, COIII, ND3 and ND4 ends with T, Cyt b ends with AGA. PMID:23570529

  3. Two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus desmarest, 1822 in Leyte Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvie Potot Portugaliza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the necropsy findings of two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting the Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus in Leyte Island, Philippines. A female deer aging approximately 5-year was presented for necropsy to the Diagnostic Laboratory at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Visayas State University. Gross pathology was recorded and the selected organs having lesion were collected for histopathological studies. Results showed severe necrotizing lesions in the nasal and palatal areas, infestation of calliphorid maggots, hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, lung atelectasis and duodenitis. Heavy ruminal fluke infection was also observed. Two potentially zoonotic parasites namely Fasciola gigantica and Sarcocystis spp. were identified. The Philippine brown deer appears to have a role in transmission and amplification of zoonotic parasites, and can also be threatened by diseases caused by the parasites.

  4. Malignant catarrhal fever in farmed Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). 2. Animal transmission and virological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, H A; Denholm, L J

    1982-03-01

    A disease with clinical signs and histological lesions similar to malignant catarrhal fever in cattle was transmitted from Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) to rabbits. This was accomplished on 3 separate occasions, and the disease was serially passaged in rabbits up to 11 times. The clinical signs in affected rabbits were pyrexia, depression, anorexia, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. These signs were seen in 27 of 38 inoculated rabbits with the mean incubation period being 12 days (range 8 to 20 days). Histologically, affected rabbits exhibited mononuclear perivascular cuffing and vasculitis in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Lymph nodes and spleen showed destruction and loss of mature lymphocytes and lymphoid follicles and an increased number of large lymphoblastoid cells. These clinical signs and lesions were not detected in control rabbits. The disease was not transmitted to cattle, sheep, guinea pigs or mice, nor was an agent isolated in cattle, deer or rabbit tissue cultures, or in chicken embryos. PMID:7115234

  5. Serum biochemical values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot. Serum mean biochemical values from shot deer are presented for blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus. Mean total protein and albumin increased with age. There was an age-associated increase of gamma globulins. Mean creatine kinase activity and creatinine, albumin and phosphorus concentrations were higher in stags than in hinds. Pregnant hinds had lower mean creatine kinase activity and phosphorus and higher mean alanine aminotransferase and total protein than non-pregnant hinds. Mean calcium concentration increased when deer were agitated before bleeding. PMID:1288472

  6. An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in young rusa deer (Cervus timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, N W; Jonsson, N N; Young, M P; Gordon, A N; McColl, K A

    1997-10-01

    On the basis of clinical signs and histological findings eight 9-month-old male rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) were diagnosed with sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. Following a variable course involving rectal temperatures around 40.5 degrees C, depression, inappetence, diarrhoea, corneal opacity and hypopyon all animals died or were euthanased over a 5-week period. Severe multifocal vasculitis, mainly periglomerular and in the arcuate vessels were consistent histological findings which in the past have been adequate to confirm clinical diagnosis of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. A nested polymerase chain reaction test has been used to detect a sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever PRC product, 238 base-pairs in size, in DNA extracted from lymphocyte preparations. The result supported the diagnosis of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever in these deer. PMID:9406629

  7. Observations on the eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M; Hurlin, J C; Lebel, S; Chardonnet, P

    1997-08-01

    The eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of 14 farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) of known birth date and their live weights were observed about every 2 weeks from 12 to 30 months of age. The permanent incisor pattern was 11, 14-17 months; 12, 18-23 months; 13, 20-26 months; and 14, 22-27 months. There was no significant relationship between body weight and timing of permanent incisor eruption. PMID:16031978

  8. Welfare pro velké cervidy - zohlednění potřeb jelenovitých (Cervidae) a možnosti jejich naplnění v expozicích zoo Brno

    OpenAIRE

    Přichystalová, Michala

    2010-01-01

    Many species of deer family (Cervidae) are common among the inmates zoos and similar livestock farms. Center of radiation biungulates deer family was Asia, deer now inhabit all continents except Antarctica. The zoo in Brno kepts following species: Siberian deer (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) inhabit the forested areas of Southeast Asia. In the older literature is cited as subspecies of deer (Cervus elaphus), modern science provides evidence of a greater relationship with wapiti (Cervus canadensis...

  9. Detachment of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from hunted sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from 13 sika deer, Cervus n.nippon, shot in the Boso Peninsula in central Japan from late February to early March 1999. Haemaphysalis megaspinosa was the most abundant species of the adults collected, although Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, H. cornigera, Ixodes ovatus, and Amblyomma testudinarium were also collected. Males were more abundant than females for H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, H. flava, and H. kitaokai. Ticks that had inserted their hypostome into its host skin (designated attached) were distinguished from those that were detached and on the host's surface. A greater fraction of males than females of all four species were detached. Females were classified in three feeding stages (engorged, partially engorged, and unfed). More H. longicornis and H. megaspinosa unfed female ticks than engorged and partially-engorged female ticks were collected detached. Our results indicated that H. megaspinosa, H. longicornis, H. flava, and H. kitaokai male ticks detached sooner than female ticks after their host died. PMID:24659518

  10. Sperm membrane proteome in wild Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and Sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Osamu; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-01-01

    Whereas recent advances in proteome-related techniques have accumulated a lot of information about sperm proteins in model animals, the information in non-model wildlife species is absolutely deficient, although this knowledge would be valuable to regulate wildlife overabundance. To characterize the repertoires of sperm membrane proteins in Japanese overpopulated wildlife, our study focuses on the following two species: Macaca fuscata and Cervus nippon. We enriched sperm membrane proteins by the phase partitioning with Triton X-114, and then separated them by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and, finally, they were comprehensively identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Sperm membrane proteins were successfully enriched. They included some proteins with unknown function and fertility-related proteins that work in sperm development, motility, capacitation, transport, protection, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. Additionally, beta-defensin 126 and epithelial chloride channel were strongly detected in M. fuscata but not in C. nippon, whereas lactadherin and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 1 were strongly detected in C. nippon alone. This study is an initiative case showing that the sperm of wildlife conserve major fertility-related proteins, but express some proteins in a species-specific manner. In the development of a practical method for fertility control, this aspect may be taken into consideration. PMID:25277530

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sika deer Cervus nippon hortulorum (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ming-Hai

    2016-07-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck 1836) are classified in the order Artiodactyla, family Cervidae, subfamily Cervinae. At present, the phylogenetic studies of C. nippon are problematic. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitochondrial sequence of the wild C. nippon hortulorum. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16 566 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition was 33.4% A, 28.6% T, 24.5% C, 13.5% G, with a 62.0% AT bias. The 13 protein-coding genes encode 3782 amino acids in total. To further validate the new determined sequences and phylogeny of Sika deer, phylogenetic trees involving 15 most closely related species available in GenBank database were constructed. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for deer species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Artiodactyla. PMID:26258510

  12. Isolation and characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 from antler base of sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yin, Yongguang; Zhou, Yajun; He, Guidan; Qi, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. In this study, a new peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 named cnPGRP1 was isolated from an antler base of sika deer Cervus nippon. The antler base antimicrobial proteins (AAP) were subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods connected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (CM) anion-exchange column, and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight of cnPGRP1 was 17.2 kDa under SDS-PAGE, and peptide mass fingerprint analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS as peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 matched to Dasypus novemcinctus. The matched amino acids sequences were RLYEIIQKWPHYRA. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be killed by cnPGRP1 in the 50-250 μg/mL range through in vitro. Furthermore, cnPGRP1 has been found to bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and even fungus. PMID:24360898

  13. Malignant catarrhal fever in farmed Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). 1. Clinico-pathological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, L J; Westbury, H A

    1982-03-01

    A sporadic fatal disease is described in 7 Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) from 5 deer farms in Victoria. Bilateral ophthalmia and wasting were the most significant signs in a clinical course varying from 4 to 34 days. Bilateral hypopyon, peripheral corneal opacities and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration of the renal cortex with pronounced mural thickening and dilatation of vessels at the cortico-medullary junction were the only consistent lesions. Haemorrhagic ileitis, colitis and typhlitis were the major lesions in two deer that died 4 and 6 days after onset of clinical disease. Ecchymotic haemorrhages and sub-serosal haematomas on the intestines and mesentery were the main finding in cases with a longer clinical course. Other gross lesions varied between cases. The most significant histological lesion was fibrinoid necrotising vasculitis with adventitial lymphoid cell infiltration characteristic of bovine malignant catarrhal fever. Mucosal erosions seen in protracted cases of this disease were associated with lymphoid cell infiltration into foci of degenerating epithelial cells. In many lymph nodes there was severe follicular necroses. In chronic cases extensive proliferation of lymphoblastoid cells was seen in the parafollicular cortex and medullary sinuses of nodes which also showed discrete follicular necrosis. PMID:6981408

  14. Evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Els; Vercruysse, Jozef; Vercammen, Francis; Dorny, Pierre

    2006-03-01

    Parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. In the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. The next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. In the third year, an early-season treatment program with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg p.o. for 3 days), applied three times at 5-wk intervals, was evaluated. Effectiveness of these control programs was assessed by fecal egg counts and by scores of body condition and fecal consistency at weekly intervals. Involved animal species were Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros), Soay sheep (Ovis aries soay), ibex (Capra ibex), red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus), and Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). With the spring-summer regime, fecal egg counts remained low during the first 5 mo, but from September onward, they slowly increased to significant levels in all seven herds. The early-season program with fenbendazole resulted in fecal egg counts near zero during the entire year in four herds but a significant egg shedding from August onward was noted in Arabian oryx, scimitar-horned oryx, and Soay sheep. The early-season program with ivermectin resulted in very low to zero egg shedding in gazelle, adult Soay sheep, ibex, red deer, and Nelson's elk during the entire grazing season, but failed to prevent high shedding in October in Arabian oryx and scimitar-horned oryx. High contamination of grassy pastures with infective larvae/eggs in the previous year or before the first treatment may explain failure of the treatment regimes in some herds. PMID:17312807

  15. Genetic variability of sika and red deer populations in the Czech Republic based on mitochondrial DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Vallo, Peter; Barančeková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    Primiero : Parco Naturale Paneveggio, 2007. s. 98. [International conference on genus Cervus 2007 /1./. 14.09.2007-17.09.2007, Primiero] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cervus nippon * Cervus elaphus * control region * cytochrome b gene * genetic variability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the prion protein gene in sika deer (Cervus nippon laiouanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Bo-Sook; Rho, Jung-Rae; Yoo, Mi-Hyun; Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, In-Soo

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been detected in several cervid species. In order to confirm the genetic variations, this study examined the DNA sequences of the PRNP obtained from 33 captive sika deer (Cervus nippon laiouanus) in Korea. A total of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at codons 100, 136 and 226 in the PRNP of the sika deer were identified. The polymorphic site located at codon 100 has not been reported. The SNPs detected at codons 100 and 226 induc...

  17. Effects of ovarian storage condition on in vitro maturation of Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulake, Kuerban; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Higaki, Shogo; Koyama, Keisuke; Wang, Xuguang; Li, Heping

    2014-11-01

    The effects of different preservation conditions (temperature 20-25 or 10-15 degrees C; duration 12 or 24 h) for ovaries of Cervus nippon yesoensis on in vitro maturation of oocytes were examined. When ovaries were kept for 12 h at 20-25 degrees C, maturation rate of oocytes was highest (71%); however, it declined when the preservation time was extended to 24 h (31%). When the preservation temperature decreased to 10-15 degrees C, the maturation rate after 12 h preservation decreased (51%) but it remained in same level even though preservation time is prolonged to 24 h (55%). PMID:25597189

  18. Artificial insemination, hybridization and pregnancy detection in sika deer (Cervus nippon ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, S T; Hughes, D M; Bringans, M; Sasser, R G; White, D R; Jaques, J T; Godfrey, R W; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    1996-10-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed on sika hinds (Cervus nippon ) receiving various dosages of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; Year 1: 0, 50 and 100 IU; Year 2: 100 and 150 IU) and using semen collected from elk and 1 2 elk x 1 2 sika stags. The time from synchronization device removal (CIDR vs norgestomet) to estrus was determined through observations of mounting activity. Methods for pregnancy detection, serum progesterone (P4), estrone sulfate (E1S), pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) and ultrasonography, following AI (Year 1: AI, Days 28 and 48 after AI; Year 2: AI, Days 42, 53 and 100 after AI) and a 90-d natural breeding season were investigated. From available production data, body weights were compared among sika and 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika hybrids relative to age. Pregnancy rates tended (P treatment and sire; administration of 0 IU PMSG resulted in fewer hinds becoming pregnant to AI than 50 or 100 IU of PMSG. Hinds receiving 100 IU of PMSG had higher (P 0.10) between the CIDR and norgestomet groups. Pregnancy rates 50 d after a 90-d breeding season were similar (P > 0.10) between ultrasound (70.9%) and PSPB (61.6%). Serum P4 after 90 d in breeding groups and 50 d after stag removal were higher (P 0.10) between ultrasound (49.0%) and PSPB (37.3%). Serum P4 28 and 48 d after AI were higher (P 0.10) between ultrasound and PSPB (66.7%). Serum P4 was higher (P sika males tended (P sika males, while 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika females were heavier (P sika females at all ages. In summary, this study documents the use of AI and methods for pregnancy detection in sika hinds as well as preliminary information regarding the production of elk-x-sika hybrids. PMID:16727942

  19. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

  20. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  1. Serological survey for Lyme disease in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, E; Isogai, H; Masuzawa, T; Yanagihara, Y; Sato, N; Hayashi, S; Maki, T; Mori, M

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-six wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) from areas endemic for Borrelia burgdorferi during 1988 to 1989 had the IgG antibody to the bacteria in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of seropositive deer was 25.0% to strain HO14 and 22.4% to strain HP3, respectively. Specific IgG antibody titers were high in summer but low in winter. In summer, seropositive deer were 75.0%. Similar results were obtained in serum specimens obtained monthly from 4 farmed deer. It was suggested that the sika deer could be one of the wild reservoirs for B. burgdorferi in Hokkaido, Japan. The transmission risk of B. burgdorferi is considered to be greatest during late spring to early summer. PMID:1808467

  2. Changes in plasma levels of cortisol and corticosterone after acute ACTH stimulation in rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1985-01-01

    Resting cortisol and corticosterone levels in immobilized mature rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the influence of synthetic ACTH on the cortisol/corticosterone ratio (F/B ratio) were investigated. The basal concentration of cortisol was found to be 14.07 nmol/l (SD = 9.3, N = 15) and corticosterone was 3.79 nmol/l (SD = 2.3, N = 15). The cortisol/corticosterone ratio for the basal level was 5.31 (SD = 3.9, N = 15). After ACTH administration the cortisol/corticosterone ratio increased to 11.41 (SD = 5.4, N = 147) regardless of doses of ACTH administered to individual stags. The adrenal response to ACTH administration has a potential application for selection of deer most suitable for deer farming. PMID:2863041

  3. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    1977-04-01

    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  4. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health o...

  5. Vegetation Recovery in Response to the Exclusion of Grazing by Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) in Seminatural Grassland on Mt. Kushigata, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaike, Takuo; Ohkubo, Eiji; Hirose, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined the recovery of vegetation in seminatural grassland in central Japan after eliminating grazing by sika deer (Cervus nippon) by fencing. By 2012, after 5 years of fencing for exclusion of sika deer, the species composition of quadrats within the enclosure reverted to the original species composition in 1981, not browsed by sika deer. Conversely, outside the fence was different from the baseline quadrats in 1981. Iris sanguinea, a prominent flower in the area, recovered within the e...

  6. The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wan-Hong; Guo Jun; Yang Yan; Lv Shen-Jin

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon). About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers) and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers), Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Dat...

  7. Seed contents of sika deer (Cervus nippon) dung and the fate of seeds in a temperate short grassland in an urban park in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Haruna Ishikawa

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the positive effects of grazing by large herbivorous mammals on seed dispersal, but little isknown about how herbivores could affect the fate of ingested seeds. This study examined the effects of seed ingestion bysika deer (Cervus nippon) on seed fate in a temperate grassland established in an urban park long resided by high densitiesof sika deer. I compared species composition and seasonal traits of seed abundance and maturity in the grasslandcommunity with those ...

  8. CONTROLLING ANTLER GROWTH IN A CASTRATED INDOCHINESE SIKA DEER CERVUS NIPPON PSEUDAXIS USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TRENBOLONE ACETATE AND ESTRADIOL IMPLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Janis A; Storms, Timothy

    2015-12-01

    A captive Indochinese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) was castrated at the age of 5 yr. The resultant abnormal antler growth over the next few years became difficult to manage from both the veterinary and husbandry standpoints. Using a commercially available trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant marketed for domestic cattle heifers, normal mineralization of the abnormal antlers was achieved along with the expected normal casting. The deer was then maintained for 6 yr using an annual implant regimen. PMID:26667563

  9. 梅花鹿耶尔森氏菌感染的诊断和治疗%THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CERVUS NIPPON INFECTED WITH YERSINIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蕾; 张再蓉; 王成东; 余星明; 赵波

    2001-01-01

    Four sika deers (Cervus nippon) (3 males, and 1 female) with depression, loss of appetite, high body temperature and hematochezia were dead in June, 1999 and Yersinia was cultured from their pathological materials. In addition, the susceptibility of Yersinia to antibiotics and the toxicity to mice were detected. All the other sika deers contacted with the died animals were treated with amikacin sulfate and protected from the disease.

  10. Population genetic structure of wild and farmed rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia inferred from polymorphic microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    Garine-Wichatitsky de, M.; De Meeûs, Thierry; Chevillon, Christine; BERTHIER, D.; Barre, N.; Thevenon, S.; Maillard, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Historical records indicate that 12 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) were introduced in New-Caledonia during the 1870s. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci to assess the genetic differentiation and diversity of farmed and wild deer populations. Past genetic bottlenecks were detected in both sub-populations, although higher genetic diversity was maintained in farmed populations, probably due to the regular introduction of reproducers from wild populations and from other farms....

  11. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were m...

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-18

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

  13. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  14. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  15. Genetic diversity among Chinese sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations and relationships between Chinese and Japanese sika deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a cervid endemic to mainland and insular Asia and endangered. We analyzed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region for four subspecies to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and evolutionary history in China. 335 bp were sequenced and eight haplotypes were identified based on 25 variable sites among the populations. Sika deer in China showed lower genetic diversity, suggesting a small effective population size due to habitat fragmentation, a low number of founder individuals, or the narrow breeding program. AMOVA analysis indicated that there was significant genetic subdivision among the four populations, but no correlation between the genetic and geographic distance. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that Chinese sika deer may be divided into three genetic clades, but the genetic structure among Chinese populations was inconsistent with subspecies designations and present geographic distribution. Including the sequence data of Japanese sika deer, the results indicated that Chinese populations were more closely related to Southern Japanese populations than to the Northern Japanese one, and the Taiwan population was closer to populations of Northeastern China and Sichuan than to those of Southern China.

  16. Molecular identification of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype in the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Satomi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuyama, Ryota; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-04-01

    The protozoan Cryptosporidium occurs in a wide range of animal species including many Cervidae species. Fecal samples collected from the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), a native deer of Hokkaido, in the central, western, and eastern areas of Hokkaido were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect infections with Cryptosporidium and for sequence analyses to reveal the molecular characteristics of the amplified DNA. DNA was extracted from 319 fecal samples and examined with PCR using primers for small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA), actin, and 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) gene loci. PCR-amplified fragments were sequenced and phylogenetic trees were created. In 319 fecal samples, 25 samples (7.8 %) were positive with SSU-rRNA PCR that were identified as the Cryptosporidium deer genotype. Among Cryptosporidium-positive samples, fawns showed higher prevalence (16.1 %) than yearlings (6.4 %) and adults (4.7 %). The result of Fisher's exact test showed a statistical significance in the prevalence of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype between fawn and other age groups. Sequence analyses with actin and HSP70 gene fragments confirmed the SSU-rRNA result, and there were no sequence diversities observed. The Cryptosporidium deer genotype appears to be the prevalent Cryptosporidium species in the wild sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:26687968

  17. Bacterial community composition and fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed three different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G; Liu, Hanlu; Bao, Kun; Zhang, Tietao; Wang, Kaiying; Cui, Xuezhe; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-02-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) rely on microorganisms living in the rumen to convert plant materials into chemical compounds, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), but how the rumen bacterial community is affected by different forages and adapt to altered diets remains poorly understood. The present study used 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to examine the relationship between rumen bacterial diversity and metabolic phenotypes using three sika deer in a 3 × 3 latin square design. Three sika deer were fed oak leaves (OL), corn stover (CS), or corn silage (CI), respectively. After a 7-day feeding period, when compared to the CS and CI groups, the OL group had a lower proportion of Prevotella spp. and a higher proportion of unclassified bacteria belonging to the families Succinivibrionaceae and Paraprevotellaceae (Psika deer. However, the differences in interplay patterns between rumen bacterial community composition and metabolic phenotypes were altered in the native and domesticated diets indicating the changed fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer. PMID:25252928

  18. 半圈养条件下白唇鹿行为时间分配及活动规律的研究%Time Budget and Behaviour Pattern of Cervus Albirostris in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何利军; 丁由中; 王小明; 夏述忠

    2001-01-01

    From March to April,1998,the authors studied the time budget andbehaviour patterns of Cervus albirostris in Shanghai Wild Animal Park.We analyzed the results from 23 days′observation for different sex and weather were analyzed.Cervus albirostris spent about 50% daytime in resting,and 40% daytime in feeding.Resting behaviour was presented from 8∶00 to 17∶00.The female spent more resting time than the male(p<0.05)in fine days.The female spent less standing time than the male in rainy days(p<0.01).Cervus albirostris spent more standing time in fine days than in rainy days(p<0.05 for the male,p<0.01 for the female).

  19. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone concentrations and LH-RH responsiveness in mature, male rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1986-01-01

    Plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in immobilized or yarded rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) were investigated over a two-year period. Testosterone concentrations showed a minor elevation in autumn (May) and reached maximal levels in late winter-early spring (August) coinciding with the rut. Luteinizing hormone in plasma was only detectable from January to May. Maximal responsiveness of the pituitary-gonadal axis to LH-RH stimulation was recorded in August. The combination of Fentaz (fentanylcitrate and azaperone) and Rompun (xylazine hydrochloride) for immobilizing deer influences hypothalamic function. PMID:2869876

  20. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  1. Guía para la determinación de la edad del ciervo ibérico (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) a través de su dentición: revisión metodológica y técnicas de elección

    OpenAIRE

    Azorit Casas, Concepción E.

    2011-01-01

    La determinación de la edad de los ciervos cazados es fundamental e imprescindible para valorar tanto la calidad individual como la calidad de la población en su conjunto y pone en perspectiva cuestiones sobre gestión y manejo. La determinación de la edad es la mejor fuente de información para evaluar los resultados de la gestión desarrollada, monitorizar el cumplimiento de los objetivos marcados a medio y largo plazo, y valorar las consecuencias de prácticas de manejo anteriores. También con...

  2. 梅花鹿 LHβ基因的克隆及序列分析%The Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Cervus nippon LHβ Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竭航; 陈彬龙; 吴楠; 李地艳; 雷美艳; 张承露; 曾德军

    2015-01-01

    【目的】克隆梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区并进行序列分析。【方法】采用 PCR 克隆测序的方法获得梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区全序列,采用 ProtParam tool 等分子生物学工具对梅花鹿 LHβ蛋白的分子量、等电点、二级结构、蛋白功能等进行预测,并采用 MEGA 6.0软件构建进化树以确定其系统发育地位。【结果】梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区全长462 bp (GenBank 序列号为 KT199365),包含了 ATG 起始密码子和 TAA 终止密码子,共编码141个氨基酸,蛋白质分子量为15.17 kDa,等电点为8.00。梅花鹿 LHβ蛋白均位于膜外,无跨膜结构,平均疏水性(GRAVY)为0.391,蛋白功能预测显示,该蛋白最有可能为激素,这与本研究的目的基因相符。进化树分析结果表明,梅花鹿LHβ基因与山羊、绵羊和牛等反刍动物较近,其中与绵羊最近。【结论】梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区序列与绵羊 LHβ基因最近。%Objective]The aim of this study is to clone the LHβ gene CDS of Cervus nippon and analyze the structure and features of LHβprotein.[Method]The LHβ gene CDS of Cervus nip-pon was obtained by PCR,cloning and sequencing.Then,the structure and features of LHβpro-tein,including molecular weight,isoelectric point,secondary structure,function were predicted by online molecular biological tool,such as ProtParam tool.Meanwhile,we constructed a phylo-genetic tree by MEGA 6.0 software to further explain the genetic basis for this gene.[Results]The full CDS sequence of Cervus nippon LHβ gene was 462 bp (GenBank Accession No. KT199365),encoding 141 amino acids,which contained ATG start codon,and TGA stop codon, with a calculated molecular weight of 15.17 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.00.No conserved transmembrane region was detected and all of the amino acids were located outside the membrane. The average of hydrophobicity (GRAVY)was 0.391.Function predicted results showed that the function of

  3. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  4. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. PMID:26888899

  5. An increase in herbivory of cottonwood in yellowstone national park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined an effect of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) on narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) in northern Yellowstone National Park, where stands consist of old trees and younger, densely-branched bushes. The elk herd increased from a census of 3,172 in 1968 to a census of 18,913 in 1988. The purposes of this study were to: 1) document the height-growth of cottonwood bushes, 2) determine if the height of browsing corresponded with snow depth, and 3) determine if there has been a recent increase in cottonwood herbivory. In 5 stands of different age (ranging ca. 9-45 y old), I measured the height of live previous-year-growth and the height of the oldest stems killed by browsing. The tallest previous-year-growth was 80 cm; all stems taller than 29 cm had been browsed. Stems were killed by browsing closer to the ground in younger stands (respectively, 87, 62, 28, 14, and 9 cm; P herbivory since respective stand creation. The large variances in the height of browse-killed stems in older stands (745, 399, and 291 cm2) were likely caused by an initial period of light-to-moderate herbivory followed by an increase in herbivory that killed the stem tips at the heights existing at the time. The bush growth-form apparently results from an increase in herbivory that occurred between 1968 and 1977, a period in which the elk winter census increased from 3,172 to 8,981. The weight of evidence suggests that EuroAmerican influences have caused the northern elk herd to increase in number since the establishment of the park. If herbivory does not decrease, cottonwood may be eliminated from Yellowstone's northern range.

  6. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  7. Immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Fach, S J; Palmer, M V; Sacco, R E; Stoffregen, W C; Waters, W R

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). In this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strains RB51 (SRB51) and 19 (S19). Elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) CFU of SRB51 or S19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. Compared to nonvaccinates, elk vaccinated with SRB51 or S19 had greater (PS19 after initial vaccination and after booster vaccination. Compared to nonvaccinated elk, greater (PS19 (22 weeks) treatment groups. In general, proliferative responses of vaccinates to nonautologous antigens did not differ (P>0.05) from the responses of nonvaccinated elk. Gamma interferon production in response to autologous or nonautologous Brucella antigens did not differ (P>0.05) between controls and vaccinates after booster vaccination. Flow cytometric techniques suggested that proliferation occurred more frequently in immunoglobulin M-positive cells, with differences between vaccination and control treatments in CD4+ and CD8+ subset proliferation detected only at 22 weeks after initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, one technique ([3H]thymidine incorporation) suggested that proliferative responses to SRB51 antigen, but not S19 antigen, were greater (PBrucella antigens in S19 or SRB51 vaccinates after booster vaccination. Although some cellular immune responses were detected after initial or booster vaccination of elk with SRB51 or S19, our data suggest that responses tend to be transient and much less robust than previously reported in SRB51-vaccinated cattle (Bos taurus) or bison (Bison bison). These data may explain why the vaccination of elk with S19 and SRB51 induces poor protection against brucellosis. PMID:17028213

  8. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Pnutritionally stressed condition, which may be limiting population performance. Using the logistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  9. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunglee; Takano, Ai; Taylor, Kyle; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Konnai, Satoru; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks. PMID:25108784

  10. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood. PMID:25971318

  11. Mismatch repair mRNA and protein expression in intestinal adenocarcinoma in sika deer (Cervus nippon) resembling heritable non-polyposis colorectal cancer in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, H; Browne, J A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas seen in an inbred herd of farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) morphologically resembled human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Features common to both included multiple de novo sites of tumourigenesis in the proximal colon, sessile and non-polyposis mucosal changes, the frequent finding of mucinous type adenocarcinoma, lymphocyte infiltration into the neoplastic tubules and Crohn's-like lymphoid follicles at the deep margin of the tumour. HNPCC is defined by a germline mutation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes resulting in their inactivation and loss of expression. To test the hypothesis that similar MMR gene inactivation occurs in the deer tumours, the expression of the four most important MMR genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, was examined at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (n = 12) and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (n = 40) in tumour and control tissues. All four genes were expressed equally in normal and neoplastic tissues, so MMR gene inactivation could not be implicated in the carcinogenesis of this tumour in sika deer. PMID:25678423

  12. Effect of the Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei on the Prevention of an Allergic Airway Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yun Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1, regulatory T (Treg, and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05 when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  13. Population genetic structure of wild and farmed rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia inferred from polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; de Meeûs, T; Chevillon, C; Berthier, D; Barré, N; Thévenon, S; Maillard, J-C

    2009-12-01

    Historical records indicate that 12 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) were introduced in New-Caledonia during the 1870s. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci to assess the genetic differentiation and diversity of farmed and wild deer populations. Past genetic bottlenecks were detected in both sub-populations, although higher genetic diversity was maintained in farmed populations, probably due to the regular introduction of reproducers from wild populations and from other farms. The genetic structure of farmed and wild populations differed significantly. There was a significant isolation by distance for wild populations, whereas farmed populations were significantly differentiated between farms independently from their geographical proximity. Wild rusa deer consisted of small populations (with effective population sizes ranging between 7 and 19 individuals depending on the methods used), with a low parent-offspring dispersion range (0.20-2.02 km). Genetic tools and direct observations provided congruent estimates of dispersion and population sizes. We discuss the relevance of our results for management purposes. PMID:19680748

  14. Habitat acoustics of Rocky Mountain elk in Colorado and European Red deer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Tobias; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye;

      Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We investig......  Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We...

  15. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Robert B Allen; Forsyth, David M.; Allen, Roy K. J.; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand’s temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult m...

  16. Is there any evidence of their crossbreeding in captive and/or in free-living populations?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Voloshina, I. V.; Kawata, Y.; Oshida, T.; Igota, H.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr

    Huilo Huilo: Fundacion Huilo Huilo, 2010 - (Werner-Flueck, J.; Charrier, A.). s. 38-39 [International Deer Biology Congress /7./. 02.08.2010-07.08.2010, Huilo Huilo] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cervus nippon * Cervus elaphus * hybridization * microsatellite loci * conservation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.travelsolutions.cl/idbc/media/idbc_abstracts.pdf

  17. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Reid

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  18. A possible role for rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs in spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S; Husein, A; Hutchinson, G; Copeman, D

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs. PMID:10224527

  19. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  20. Eurasian lynx hunting red deer: is there an influence of a winter enclosure system?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belotti, E.; Kreisinger, Jakub; Romportl, D.; Heurich, M.; Bufka, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2014), s. 441-457. ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cervus elaphus * Habitat heterogeneity * Lynx lynx * Predation probability * Prey density * Supplementary feeding Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  1. Native red deer and introduced chamois: foraging habits and competition in a subalpine meadow-spruce forest area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2001), s. 89-98. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0172; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cervus elaphus * Rupicapra rupicapra * foraging strategy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.287, year: 2001

  2. Time Budget and Behavior Pattern of Semi-free Cervus nippon in spring%散放条件下春季梅花鹿行为时间分配的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振生; 吴建平; 滕丽微

    2002-01-01

    From April to May in 1998, time budget and behavior patterns of semi-free Cervus nippon were studied in Pingshan Wildlife Experimental Farm. The results showed that grazing behavior accounts the most for activity time in spring, next for ruminating and bedding behaviors, and the least for alerting and moving behaviors. In a day, there are three grazing peaks (namely, 7:00~10:00, 12:00~14:00 and 16:00~17:00). The female spend more moving time than the male do. The male spend more alert and bedding time than the female. C. nippong spend more grazing time in cloudy days than in fine and rainy days, whileC. nippon spends less alert and moving time in cloudy days. Sex and weather influence activity time budget of C. nippon. More significant differences exist between male and female's moving behaviors (F = 10.09,P < 0.01 ), while significant differences exist between bedding ( F = 5.96, P < 0.05) and alert ( F = 4.52, P < 0.05) be haviors. More significant differences exist between grazing ( F = 8.39, P < 0.01) and alert ( F = 6.11, P < 0.01 ) behav iors due to weather factor, while significant differences exist between bedding ( F = 4.27, P < 0.05) and moving ( F =5.32, P<0.05) behaviors.

  3. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyun; Jeon, Byongtae; Kang, Sungki; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Myonghwa; Jang, Seyoung; Park, Pyojam; Kim, Sangwoo; Moon, Sangho

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001), and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth. PMID:26194228

  4. 海南坡鹿栖息地的外来植物调查%Field Survey of Alien Plants in Habitats of Hainan Eld's Deer ( Cervus eldi hainanus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符明利; 吴琳琳; 侯荣; 林思亮

    2012-01-01

    Hainan Eld's deer ( Cervus eldi hainanus ) is a national - level protected species and endemic to China. The stability and development of Eld's deer habitats play a significant role in population growth. Alien invasive plants can affect habitats ir- reversibly over long time periods. We surveyed the alien plants in Hainan Datian National Nature Reserve, where Hainan Eld's deer occur, using line transects and quadrats from 2009 to 2011. We recorded 115 alien plant species of 40 families and 95 genera. Among these, 80 herbs accounted for 70% and most are tropical species, 50% were introduced from the Americas and were mainly distributed in grasslands. The widely distributed alien plants impact the abundance and distribution of native spe- cies and may have a negative effect on Eld's deer food resource in future. We make several recommendations for effective man- agement and conservation. Our survey results can provide a basis for maintaining the stability of Hainan Eld's deer habitat.%海南坡鹿是中国特有的国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物,其栖息地的稳定和发展对该物种种群有重要意义。潜在的外来入侵植物会对栖息地产生长期不可恢复的影响。因此,我们于2009—2011年采用样方调查和线路调查相结合的方法对海南坡鹿的栖息地海南大田国家级自然保护区内的外来植物进行了调查,共记录外来植物40科95属115种。其中,草本植物80种,占总物种数的69.6%;不论从科区系还是属区系上看,外来植物的区系分布都具有热带性;50.4%的外来植物产自美洲,在草地中分布最多。保护区内分布广泛的外来植物已对乡土物种产生一定的影响,也将可能对坡鹿的食物资源产生不利影响。根据调查结果,我们提出了一些保护管理建议。

  5. Reproductive biotechnologies: a new approach for Cervids conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Uccheddu, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnologies have great potential as a tool for the conservation of endangered mammal species. We tried to apply some assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in the sardinian regional context, widely considered for its peculiar biodiversity. Our research had been driven in particular at cervids, Fallow deer (Dama dama, Linneus 1758) and Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus, Exrleben 1777). This subspecies is strictly protected and is included as a Near Threatened on th...

  6. Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Ament; Anthony P. Clevenger; John W. Duffield; Huijser, Marcel P.; Pat T. McGowen

    2009-01-01

    Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal kil...

  7. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers, C C; Crabtree, R L; Smith, D. W.; Murphy, K M; Getz, Wayne M.

    2003-01-01

    1. The reintroduction of grey wolves Canis lupus (L.) to Yellowstone National Park provides a natural experiment in which to study the effects of a keystone predator on ecosystem function. 2. Grey wolves often provision scavengers with carrion by partially consuming their prey. 3. In order to examine how grey wolf foraging behaviour influences the availability of carrion to scavengers, we observed consumption of 57 wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (L.) and determined the percentage of edible bi...

  8. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by P...

  9. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by P...

  10. Fire behaviour and impact on heather moorland

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gwilym Matthew

    2006-01-01

    For roughly the past 200 years land-managers have used the practice of “muirburning” to manipulate the structure of heather (Calluna vulgaris) to create a patchwork of habitat structures able to provide forage and nesting sites for red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) as well as grazing for sheep (Ovis aries) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). This thesis investigates both the behaviour and impact of management fires in recognition of the need to develop multi-aim land management practices ...

  11. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis. PMID:26309015

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Shank, K L; Kaneene, J B

    1997-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in Michigan. This is the first description of cervid farming in the United States. Data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from March 3 through June 28, 1993. Completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. Study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 766 (12.5%) elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), 284 (4.6%) fallow deer (Dama dama), 114 (1.9%) sika deer (Cervus nippon), 6 (0.1%) red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 (treatment of injuries (27.7% [44/159]), anthelmintic administration (25.2% [40/159]), issuance of health certificates (19.5% [31/159]), diagnosis and treatment of illnesses (17.6% [28/159]), vaccination (13.8% [22/159]), disease diagnosis (treatment provided by farmer) (8.8% [14/159]), foot care (3.8% [6/159]), and other purposes (ie, necropsy, dystocia, antler removal) (11.3% [18/159]). PMID:9208449

  13. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E; Miracle, Preston T; Stevens, Rhiannon E; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  14. Niche relationships within a guild of ungulate species in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, following release from artificial controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.; Norland, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Niche relationships and diet overlaps were compared among elk (Cervus elaphus), bison (Bison bison), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) between 1967–1970 and 1986–1988, a period when total ungulate numbers nearly tripled on Yellowstone's northern range. Ungulate species ratios on Yellowstone's northern winter range during the latter period were 100 elk : 10 mule deer : 3 bison : 2 pronghorns : 1 bighorns. Elk numbers were positively correlated to bison, mule deer, and pronghorn numbers (r2 = 0.76, 0.97, and 0.48, respectively, P niche relationships during a period of near tripling in density of the ungulate guild.

  15. Stime di consistenza del cervo sardo nell'oasi di Monte Arcosu mediante la tecnica del pellets-group count

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Andrea; Cocco, Francesca; Murgia, Carlo; Deiana, Anna Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during a research carried out from 2002 to 2003 in the Monte Arcosu Natural Park. The aim of this work has been to estimate the density values and the amount of population of Sardinian deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus). Pellets-group count was the method used. Data obtained show the average density values in the study area (29.9 SE = 5.8 deer/Km2). A higher value has been obtained in the inner part of the Park. Data show that population is constant duri...

  16. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E.; Miracle, Preston T.; Stevens, Rhiannon E.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  17. Etologie jelení zvěře v přezimovacích obůrkách

    OpenAIRE

    Kocán, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Abstrakt The main part of the Bachelor degree thesis “The ethology of red deer in the winter enclosures”, is an effort to compare the differences between the behavior of deer in the winter enclosure with the ecological demands and the way of life in the wild. The work is mainly focused on Red deer (Cervus elaphus) ethology. The focus is primarily on deer´s ethology during the winter season, for which there is a period of emergency. Game changes their food habits and home area claims during...

  18. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  19. La espátula de Boppard (Boppard, Renania-Palatinado, Alemania y sus paralelos en Europa a finales del Paleolítico superior y en el Mesolítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan WENZEL

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el Paleolítico superior final del yacimiento de Boppard se ha documentado una espátula realizada a partir de la cara posterior de un metatarso de Cervus elaphus. La pieza posee decoración en ambos bordes que consiste en incisiones paralelas horizontales orientadas en el sentido longitudinal del hueso. Estas incisiones están dispuestas en grupos, separadas por zonas del hueso sin decoración. Se estudian piezas de similares características procedentes principalmente de la región cantábrica, pero también de Francia, de Italia, de Alemania, de la República Checa y de Suecia. En lo referente a su posición cronológica los mejores paralelos de la espátula de Boppard proceden de finales del Paleolítico superior.ABSTRACT: A spatula recovered from the Late Palaeolithic site of Boppard is manufactured on a fragment of the plantar face of a metatarsal bone of red deer (Cervus elaphus. Along its narrow side, the tool exhibits numerous parallel notches at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the bone. These are arranged in groups separated by notch-free areas of bone. Comparable bone tools are described, mainly from Cantabrian Spain, but also from France, Italy, Germany, the Czech Republik and Sweden. The best paralells for the Boppard specimen are, insofar as they are dated, known from the Later Upper Palaeolithic.

  20. Faunal migration in late-glacial central Italy: implications for human resource exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Donahue, Randolph E; Chenery, Carolyn; Evans, Jane; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Montgomery, Janet; Mussi, Margherita

    2008-06-01

    The hunter-gatherer transhumance model presents foragers as specialised hunters of migratory ungulates, which moved seasonally between coastal lowlands and interior uplands. We studied six animal teeth of horse (Equus hydruntinus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from four different archaeological sites: the Grotta di Vado all'Arancio, Grotta di Settecannelle, Grotta Polesini and Grotta di Pozzo, in central Italy to test whether the migratory patterns and seasonal variations recorded in their teeth were consistent with expectations of the transhumance model for this region during the late Upper Palaeolithic. Sequential sub-samples of enamel were analysed from each tooth for oxygen, carbon and strontium isotope ratios to reconstruct mobility and yearly seasonal variations. The results show little evidence that these animals were moving over different geological terrains throughout the year, although small variations in Sr isotope ratios and concentrations were detected that corresponded to probable seasonal variations as shown by variability in oxygen isotope sequences. The results do, however, demonstrate that Cervus elaphus and Equus hydruntinus had different ranging behaviours, with the former moving over wider areas than the latter. This methodology produces results appropriate to assess animal migratory behaviour and, in turn, to test the consistency of proposed models of hunter-gatherer subsistence and mobility strategies. PMID:18537188

  1. Genetic analysis of evolutionary relationships among deer (subfamily Cervinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, B C; Tate, M L

    1993-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships among 10 taxa of deer from the four genera of the subfamily Cervinae (Cervus, Elaphurus, Axis, and Dama) were examined by a comparison of their electrophoretic types for 22 proteins. We analyzed the data using both phenetic and cladistic methods and found that the genera of the Cervinae were not monophyletic. The genus Cervus was split into two distinct groups with red deer, wapiti (C. elaphus ssp.), and sika (C. nippon) in one clade and sambar (C. unicolor) and rusa (C. timorensis) in another. There was a close genetic relationship between the genus Elaphurus and the red deer, wapiti, sika group, whereas sambar and rusa were more similar to members of the genera Dama and Axis than to the other members of their own genus. These findings contrast with the taxonomy of the species that is based largely on studies of comparative morphology. Our samples (n = 5) showed fixed allelic differences between wapiti and red, wapiti and sika, and red and sika samples at 3, 6, and 7 loci, respectively. Analysis of these protein loci in a wider range of C. elaphus and C. nippon subspecies could resolve debate over the evolutionary relationships of these taxa. PMID:8340615

  2. Fauna de mamiferos del pleistoceno superior del yacimiento de las Majolicas (Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, Mª T.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the fossils of macromarnmals provided by Las Majolicas site (Granada, Spain. This site was excavated in the 50's by E. Aguirre. The high frecuency of cervids with 469 fossils identified out of 558 is remarkable. We have compared Cervus elaphus from Las Majolicas with others that belong to the Cantabrian Range and we can conclude that they have smaller sizes, a fact which can be related to the more meridional situation of the site. According to the fauna that appears in Las Majolicas this site might be located in the Upper Pleistocene.En este trabajo se describen los fósiles de macromamíferos del yacimiento de Las Majolicas (Granada, España, excavado en la década de los cincuenta por E. Aguirre. En él predominan los cérvidos, con 469 restos identificados de un total de 558. Los restos de Cervus elaphus al compararlos con otros ejemplares del Pleistoceno superior de la Cordillera Cantábrica presentan un menor tamaño, lo cual podría indicar una reducción de la talla en relación al nivel más meridional de esta localidad. La fauna presente en Las Majolicas indica su posible asignación al Pleistoceno Superior

  3. Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

  4. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Wang; Zhi-Yong Zhuo; Wen-Qing Shi; Dun-Xian Tan; Chao Gao; Xiu-Zhi Tian; Lu Zhang; Guang-Bin Zhou; Shi-En Zhu; Peng Yun; Guo-Shi Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation...

  5. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  6. Serosurvey for antibodies to malignant catarrhal fever-associated viruses in free-living and captive cervids in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, K; Li, H; Müller-Doblies, U

    1998-10-01

    A total of 486 serum samples collected from several species of both free-living and captive cervids in Germany was examined for antibodies against malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-associated viruses (MCFV) by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). Eleven (2%) of these samples were positive for antibodies against MCFV. Among 157 serum samples collected from 16 different species of captive deer including four (7%) of 54 fallow deer and one (7%) of 14 sika deer (Cervus nippon) were seropositive. Among 329 samples from three species of free-ranging deer, including 253 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 22 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 54 fallow deer (Cervus dama), only fallow deer were antibody-positive. Of the 25 fallow deer samples collected between 1990 and 1993, four (16%) were seropositive. Among 29 free-ranging fallow deer samples collected in the hunting period 1996-1997, antibodies to MCFV were detected in two (7%) of these sera. All of these fallow deer samples were collected from a circumscribed area in northern Germany. In the same area a high seroprevalence (72%) to MCFV was observed in domestic sheep (n = 50). Among 20 sheep samples (buffy coat) and 15 fallow deer samples (spleen or lymph nodes) examined for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) by PCR, all 20 sheep samples examined were OvHV-2 positive, but all of the 15 fallow deer samples, including seven seropositive deer, were OvHV-2 negative. PMID:9813848

  7. An ecological perspective on the changing face of Brucella abortus in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Maichak, Eric J.; Brennan, Angela; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Henningsen, John C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    After a hiatus during the 1990s, outbreaks of Brucella abortus in cattle are occurring more frequently in some of the western states of the United States, namely, Montana, Wyoming and Idaho. This increase is coincident with increasing brucellosis seroprevalence in elk (Cervus elaphus), which is correlated with elk density. Vaccines are a seductive solution, but their use in wildlife systems remains limited by logistical, financial, and scientific constraints. Cattle vaccination is ongoing in the region. Livestock regulations, however, tend to be based on serological tests that test for previous exposure and available vaccines do not protect against seroconversion. The authors review recent ecological studies of brucellosis, with particular emphasis on the Greater Yellowstone Area, and highlight the management options and implications of this work, including the potential utility of habitat modifications and targeted hunts, as well as scavengers and predators. Finally, the authors discuss future research directions that will help us to understand and manage brucellosis in wildlife.

  8. Climatic and density influences on recruitment in an irruptive population of Roosevelt elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Heath D.; Ricca, Mark A.; Duarte, Adam; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigms of ungulate population ecology recognize that density-dependent and independent mechanisms are not always mutually exclusive. Long-term data sets are necessary to assess the relative strength of each mechanism, especially when populations display irruptive dynamics. Using an 18-year time series of population abundances of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) inhabiting Redwood National Park in northwestern California we assessed the influence of population size and climatic variation on elk recruitment and whether irruptive dynamics occurred. An information-theoretic model selection analysis indicated that abundance lagged 2 years and neither climatic factors nor a mix of abundance and climatic factors influenced elk recruitment. However, density-dependent recruitment differed between when the population was declining and when the population increased and then stabilized at an abundance lower than at the start of the decline. The population displayed irruptive dynamics.

  9. Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - bark beetles; Impact of abiotic factors on forest growths; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - leaf-eating insect; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - game; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - fungal diseases; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On these maps the impact of different biotic and abiotic factors on forest growth on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. The data on damage to forest growth in the years 1996 - 1999 are based on source material of 'Lesnicka ochranarska sluzba' and the reports on occurrence of the bark beetles from the entities managing the forests. The most important species of bark beetles are: Ips typographus, Pityogenes chalcographus, and Xyloterus lineatus for spruce trees; Tomicus minor, Tomicus piniperda, and Ips acuminatus for pine trees; Scolytus intricatus for beech trees. The most important abiotic damage-causing factors are wind, snow, and rime. The most important leafeating species are: Lymantria dispar, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, Tortricidae, and Geometridae. Red deer Cervus elaphus L. causes the most important damage to forest growths. The most important species of fungal pathogens are tracheomycosis, cankers, bark necrosis and wood destroying fungi such as Armillaria mellea, Hypoxylon deustum and the like. (authors)

  10. Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Rands

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

  11. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination. PMID:26886253

  12. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  13. Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 - a novel deltapapillomavirus inducing endemic papillomatosis in the endangered Visayan spotted deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Jörgens, Dirk; Schubert, Christina; Heckel, Jens-Ove; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel papillomavirus - Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 (RalPV1) - which causes endemic fibropapillomatosis in the European conservation breeding population of the highly endangered Visayan spotted deer (Rusa alfredi). Degenerated papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral DNA. Subsequently, the complete genomic DNA was cloned and the sequence was determined. The RalPV1 genome has a length of 8029 bp, encodes the early proteins E6, E7, E1, E2 and E5, the two late proteins L1 and L2 and contains an upstream regulatory region. Highest sequence identities were observed with two deltapapillomaviruses, the Capreolus capreolus PV1 and Cervus elaphus PV1. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF L1 suggested that RalPV1 is a putative new type of the papillomavirus species Deltapapillomavirus 5. PMID:26555294

  14. Effects of bull elk demographics on age categories of harem bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Many management strategies for elk (Cervus elaphus) emphasize increasing numbers of mature bulls in the population. These strategies are usually assumed to enhance productivity via increased breeding by mature bulls. I compared age classes of harem bulls during the peak of the rut under 4 bull harvest strategies that resulted in different bull:cow ratios, mature bull:cow ratios, bull mortality rates, and proportions of mature bulls in the autumn (pre-hunting season) population. Proportions of harems held by differing age classes of bulls [mature (P84% of harems only in populations where mature bull:cow ratios exceeded 21:100 in the autumn population. Interaction of mature bull ratios in the autumn population, harem size, and bull selectivity in the harvest strategy must be considered if increased breeding by mature harem bulls is a management goal.

  15. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04539-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.006 ( P27476 ) RecName: Full=Nuclear localization sequence-binding pro... 33 0.007 ( O35698 ) RecName: Full=RNA-binding moti...e Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value (Q54WM4) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation... factor ... 68 3e-18 AF291712_1( AF291712 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana initiation f...e) Arabidopsis thaliana eukaryotic tr... 65 4e-15 (A5DNX9) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation initiation...1 EF619483_1( EF619483 |pid:none) Cervus elaphus eukaryotic translat... 71 4e-11 (A8WLV5) RecName: Full=Probable eukaryotic translati

  17. 贺兰山野生有蹄类动物的经济价值及种群动态变化%Value and Population Dynamics of Wild Ungulates in Helan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 胡天华

    2012-01-01

    记述了贺兰山的4种野生有蹄类动物——马麝、马鹿、岩羊、鹅喉羚的经济价值及目前的种群动态变化,对贺兰山野生有蹄类动物的种群致危原因进行了分析,并据此提出了相应的保护管理建议。%The economic value and present population dynamics of four wild ungulates like Moschus chrysogaster, Cervus elaphus, Pseudois nayaur and Gazella subgutturosa in Helan Mountains were recorded. Endangered reasons of the wild ungulates were analyzed, meanwhile the management suggestions were put forward.

  18. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Elaphostrongylus spp. from Scandinavian cervidae - a scanning electron microscope study (SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Stéen

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Elaphostrongylus collected from moose (Alces alces L., reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., and red deer (Cervus elaphus L., respectively, were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Morphological differences in the ribs of the genital bursa were demonstrated. The Elaphostrongylus species from reindeer and red deer differed from each other in four ribs of the genital bursa. These results agree with the morphological characters of E. cervi and E. rangiferi described by Cameron (1931 and Mitskevitch (1960. The genital bursa of Elaphostrongylus sp. from moose, in accordance with the description of E. alces by Steen et al. (1989 showed characteristics differing from those found in Elaphostrongylus spp. from reindeer and red deer respectively. These results support the hypothesis that there are three separate species of Elaphostrongylus present in Scandinavian Cervidae. Svep-elektroniska studier på Elaphostrongylus spp. hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Rundmaskar inom slaktet Elaphostrongylus funna hos alg (Alces alces L., ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. och kronhjort(Cervus elaphus L. studerades med hjalp av svepelelektronmikroskop. De hanliga bursorna med sin a stodjeribbor uppvisade variationer i utseende, langd och placering mellan dessa rundmaskar. De arter av Elaphostrongylus funna hos ren och kronhjort skilde sig åt avseende fyra stodjeribbor på de hanliga bursorna. Dessa resultat stammer val overens med de karaktarer som tidigare ar beskrivna av Cameron(1931 och av Mitskevich (1960. Den hanliga bursan hos arten Elaphostrongylus funnen hos alg, vilken tidigare ar beskriven av Steen et al. (1989, visade upp ett utseende som skilde sig från bursorna hos de Elaphostrongylus-arter funna hos ren och kronhjort. Dessa resultat stoder hypotesen om tre skilda arter av Elaphostrongylus hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.

  20. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  1. Affinities between Cutifilaria (Nematoda: Filarioidea, parasites of deer, and Mansonella as seen in a new onchocercid, M. (C. perforata n. sp., from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni S.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dermal filarioid nematode, collected from Cervus nippon nippon (sika deer on Kyushu Island, Japan, showed close affinities between the genera Cutifilaria and Mansonello (Onchocercidae : Onchocercinae : no buccal capsule, esophagus reduced to a thin fibrous tube, and female tail with four lappets. We propose Cutifilaria as a subgenus of Mansonella. Cutifilaria was distinguished from the five other subgenera, Mansonella, Tetrapetalonema, Esslingeria, Sandnema, and Tupainema, in having an area rugosa composed of transverse bands with tiny points, 14-16 papillae around the cloacal aperture, two prominent rhomboidal subterminal papillae, and a thick right spicule with spoon-shaped distal extremity. The host range of Mansonella was extended to ungulates by the addition of Cutifilaria, which appears to be derived from Tupainema, parasitic in Tupaioidea (insectivores, because of the similarity in their right spicules ; Cutifilaria seems to have an Asiatic origin. M. (C. perforata n. sp. was distinct from the sole other related species, M. (C. wenki, a parasite of Cervus elaphus (red deer in Europe, having a more complex right spicule with a sturdy terminal point and microfilariae with a bifid posterior end. In addition, almost all females had cuticular pores near the vulva, on the ventral line. The prevalence of microfilariae and adults of M. (C. perforata in the skin of sika deer was 38 % and 21 %, respectively.

  2. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus. PMID:24655475

  3. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote. PMID:10941751

  4. [Molecular identification of hairy antler by analysis of high resolution melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Jin, Yan

    2015-02-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) , an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authenticity of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper selected universal CO I primers and used HRM to establish a new method for authenticity of Hairy Antler. PCR was conducted at the annealing temperature of 60 °C and 45 cycles. The range of the DNA template concentration, the primer concentration and the Mg2+ ion concentration were further optimized. The results showed that the Tm values of Cervus nippon were (81.96 ± 0.07), (84.51 ± 0.03) °C and Cervus elaphus was(82.58 ± 0.13), (85.95 ± 0.05) °C with 10-100 mg · L(-1) DNA template, 0.2 µLmol · L(-1) primer, 2.0 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+. This method can authenticate of hairy antler and is simple, fast, high-throughput, visualization. PMID:26137679

  5. Middle Pleistocene climate and habitat change at Zhoukoudian, China, from the carbon and oxygen isotopic record from herbivore tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboardi, Mabry; Deng, Tao; Wang, Yang

    2005-05-01

    The Pleistocene deposits at Zhoukoudian, often referred to as the "Peking Man" site, contain dental remains from a diverse group of herbivores, including Equus sanmeniensis, Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, Megaloceros pachyosteus, Sus lydekkeri, and Dicerorhinus choukoutienensis. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of structural carbonate within the enamel of these teeth are used to reconstruct the paleodiet and paleoenvironment of the mammals. The δ13C values of enamel from Zhoukoudian range from -2.3‰ to -13.0‰, indicating that these mammals consumed between ˜25% and 100% C 3 plants. The presence of significant amounts of C 4 plants in the diets of some herbivore species indicates that at the onset of the Middle Pleistocene local habitats included mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation. By approximately 470,000 yr ago, C 3 plants dominated the diets of herbivores studied, suggesting that the abundance of C 4 flora had decreased in the area. For all deer analyzed in this study, the values of δ13C and δ18O decrease substantially from about 720,000 to 470,000 yr ago. This trend may be due to a strengthening of the winter monsoon during the Middle Pleistocene.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: wapiti [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cervus_canadensis_L.png Cervus_canadensis_NL.png Cervus_canadensis_S.png Cervus_canadensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+...canadensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NS ...

  7. Yersiniosis in farmed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrett, I V; Slee, K J; Robertson, B I

    1990-06-01

    Samples from 77 chital (Axis axis), 42 fallow (Dama dama), 26 red (Cervus elaphus), 7 rusa (Cervus timorensis) and 1 sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) were examined. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed as the cause of death in 6 (23%) of the red and 23 (30%) of the chital deer. Yersiniosis was the most common infectious cause of death diagnosed. Affected deer were usually found moribund or dead, often with faecal staining of the perineum. Gross pathology in chital included a fibrinous enterocolitis, enlarged congested mesenteric lymph nodes and multiple pale foci through the liver. Gross changes in red deer were limited to intense congestion of the intestinal mucosa and enlargement and congestion of mesenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic intestinal changes in both species consisted of microabscessation or diffuse suppurative inflammation of the intestinal mucosa with numerous bacterial colonies in the lamina propria. Multifocal suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis was a common finding. Multifocal suppurative or non-suppurative hepatitis was frequently present in the liver of chital but was uncommon in the red deer. Yersiniosis occurred during the cooler months from June to November, with younger age classes most commonly affected. Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I, II and III were isolated in the ratio 17:3:0 in the chital deer and 1:1:2 in red deer. The clinical, epidemiological and bacteriological features are similar to those documented previously by New Zealand workers. The increased susceptibility to disease of red deer and chital compared to fallow deer and perhaps other species has not previously been documented. PMID:2222364

  8. The construction of cloned Sika deer embryos (Cervus nippon hortulorum) by demecolcine auxiliary enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Mei, M; Zhang, D; Zhang, S; Fan, A; Zhou, H; Li, Z

    2014-02-01

    The objective of our study was to establish the feasibility of experimental protocols for cloning sika deer. We performed auxiliary enucleation to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer operation by optimizing the demecolcine concentration to induce cytoplasmic protrusions in the sika deer oocytes. In the present study,we had studied the impact of different demecolcine concentrations on cytoplasmic protrusions and enucleation rates. We determined that 95.9% of the sika deer oocytes formed cytoplasmic protrusions when treated for 1 h with 0.8 μg/ml demecolcine. The lowest observed rate of protrusion was 19.3% after overnight treatment with demecolcine. When the oocytes aged or had a poor cumulus expansion, they exhibited a significant decrease in the ability to form cytoplasmic protrusions. The rates of enucleation (94.9% vs 85.8%, p sika deer oocytes could be enucleated quickly and effectively using demecolcine auxiliary enucleation, which could enhance the enucleation rate, cell fusion rate and blastocyst rate of cloned embryos in vitro. PMID:24138424

  9. Maintenance Crude Protein Requirement of Penned Female Korean Spotted Deer (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, S Y; Oh, Y. K.; Ahn, H. S.; Kwak, W. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein requirement for maintenance of 2-year-old female Korean spotted deer. In the course of the experiment, each of three hand-reared female spotted deer was fed three diets that were iso-calorically formulated to contain low (approximately 7%), medium (12%), and high (17%) levels of crude protein (CP). Each of six trials included a 5-day transition, a 10-day preliminary, and a 7-day collection period. Dietary protein levels affected the apparent di...

  10. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among wild sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Y; Suzuki, M; Yoshimatsu, K; Arikawa, J; Takashima, I; Yokoyama, M; Igota, H; Yamauchi, K; Ishida, S; Fukui, D; Bando, G; Kosuge, M; Tsunemitsu, H; Koshimoto, C; Sakae, K; Chikahira, M; Ogawa, S; Miyamura, T; Takeda, N; Li, T C

    2007-01-01

    We examined 976 sika deer serum samples, 159 liver tissue samples and 88 stool samples collected from 16 prefectures in Japan, and performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays to detect antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA, respectively. Although 25 (2.6%) of 976 samples were positive for anti-HEV IgG, the antibody titers were very low. The OD values ranged between 0.018 and 0.486, forming a single distribution rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that the antibody detected in this study was not induced by HEV infection, or that deer have low sensitivity to HEV. HEV RNA was not detected in these samples, also suggesting that deer may not play a role as an HEV reservoir. PMID:17431737

  11. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Bai, Ya-Duo; Wang, Wei-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-07-30

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide protozoan that can induce neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in farmed sika deer in China as little is known of this host-parasite relationship. A total of 1800 serum samples were collected during 2013 and 2014 from farmed sika deer in the major production areas of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces.Assay by ELISA for N. caninum antibodies indicated a seroprevalence of 13.6% in 2013 and 15.8% in 2014, varying in different regions from 9.5% to 27.5%. Statistical analysis revealed that prevalence in animals aged >4 years (20.4%) was significantly higher than in the age ranges sika deer in herds with a history of miscarriage (41.9%) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than in those without (12.6%) (Psika deer in China and provides base-line data for the design and evaluation of measures for its control and prevention in this host. PMID:26073107

  12. Molecular detection and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Qin, Si-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zou, Feng-Cai; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sika deer in China. During August 2014 to November 2014, a total of 450 tissue samples coming from 150 sika deer were collected to detect the T. gondii B1 gene using a nested PCR, and the positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Seventeen of 150 sika deer (11.33%) were tested positive by nested PCR. Six DNA samples from the 17 positive samples were completely typed, in which 4 samples from lung tissues, and 2 from muscular tissues, were identified as ToxoDB Genotype #9 (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). The results of the present study revealed the existence of T. gondii infection in sika deer in China, which provided the information of T. gondii genetic diversity in this host species. This study also indicated that ToxoDB Genotype #9 has a wide distribution in sika deer that could be potential reservoirs for T. gondii transmission, which may pose a threat to human health. PMID:26772153

  13. Intestinal adenocarcinoma in a herd of farmed Sika deer (Cervus nippon): a novel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P A; Toolan, D; Jahns, H

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas were identified in 76 adult deer from a closed herd of 193 breeding animals grazing pasture heavily infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Tumors were observed postmortem in 32 animals with rapid weight loss, and similar neoplasms were detected in a further 44 clinically normal deer at "cull." Tumors were located in distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon and presented as single (26%) or multiple (74%), variably sized, pale-gray, firm, poorly circumscribed neoplasms with associated intestinal strictures. Histopathologically tumors were well-differentiated, locally infiltrative, low-grade adenocarcinomas of tubular (51%), mucinous (33.5%), or mixed (15.5%) types. Extraintestinal metastases were not observed. The high incidence of intestinal adenocarcinoma within this herd suggests a specific and novel syndrome, and genetic and/or environmental factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. PMID:24503440

  14. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers from the sika deer (Cervus nippon) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y M; Bai, C Y; Niu, W P; Yu, H; Yang, R J; Yan, S Q; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, M J; Zhao, Z H

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are widely and evenly distributed, and are highly polymorphic. Rapid and convenient detection through automated analysis means that microsatellite markers are widely used in the construction of plant and animal genetic maps, in quantitative trait loci localization, marker-assisted selection, identification of genetic relationships, and genetic diversity and phylogenetic tree construction. However, few microsatellite markers remain to be isolated. We used streptavidin magnetic beads to affinity-capture and construct a (CA)n microsatellite DNA-enriched library from sika deer. We selected sequences containing more than six repeats to design primers. Clear bands were selected, which were amplified using non-specific primers following PCR amplification to screen polymorphisms in a group of 65 unrelated sika deer. The positive clone rate reached 82.9% by constructing the enriched library, and we then selected positive clones for sequencing. There were 395 sequences with CA repeats, and the CA repeat number was 4-105. We selected sequences containing more than six repeats to design primers, of which 297 pairs were designed. We next selected clear bands and used non-specific primers to amplify following PCR amplification. In total, 245 pairs of primers were screened. We then selected 50 pairs of primers to randomly screen for polymorphisms. We detected 47 polymorphic and 3 monomorphic loci in 65 unrelated sika deer. These newly isolated and characterized microsatellite loci can be used to construct genetic maps and for lineage testing in deer. In addition, they can be used for comparative genomics between Cervidae species. PMID:26436393

  15. Molecular Cloning and Gene Expression Analysis of Ercc6l in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum)

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yupeng; Tang, Lina; Zhang, Jiabao; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2011-01-01

    Background One important protein family that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors is the SNF2 family. A newly identified mouse ERCC6-like gene, Ercc6l (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6-like), has been shown to be another developmentally related member of the SNF2 family. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, Sika deer Ercc6l cDNA was first cloned and then sequenced. The full-length cDNA of the Sika deer Ercc6l gene ...

  16. Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the livers of Japanese sika deer (cervus Nippon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x1014 n·cm-2·sec-1. In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author)

  17. Dybowski's sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum): genetic diversity of native Primorian and introduced Czech populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Vallo, Peter; Voloshina, I. V.; Koubek, Petr

    Moscow : IUGB, 2009, s. 1-5. ISBN 978-5-7035-2118-2. [IUGB Congress /29./. Moscow (RU), 17.08.2009-22.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Dybowski's sika deer * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.iugb-moscow2009.ru/cd/docs/ps/Krojerova_poster_1_report_eng.pdf

  18. Grazing Habitat of the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis) in the Upland Kebar, Manokwari

    OpenAIRE

    AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA; FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2009-01-01

    The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that...

  19. CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raising were considered and monitored with a purpose to maximize commercial Timor deer by using Multiple Objective Goal Programming (MOGP to find the Optimistic Rate Estimation. The result of this study showed to get the optimum benefit, it had to be applied together with conservation and commercial effort at the same time. Results of study showed that profit was taken from selling velvet was 164.46%. Profits taken from selling antler was 350.56%, from selling alive deer was 394.28%, from selling recreation tickets was 259.08%, from selling venison1 was 135.98%, and from selling deer leather was 141.24%. Operational cost spent were 168.46% for feeding cost, 213.23% for maintenance cost, and 232.04% for labors’ salaries. The amount of operational cost required in MOGP model, with lower expenses and commercial priority were 185.54% for feeding cost, 253.13% for maintenance cost, and 246.95% for paying labors’ salaries. The MOGP model result with commercial priority reached 335.21%, while in MOGP model with lower costs and commercial priority gave profit for breeders up to 381.26%.

  20. CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis) AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Hanani; B. A. Nugroho; Z. Fanani; S.I. Santoso

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raisi...

  1. Grazing Habitat of the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis in the Upland Kebar, Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that Kebar was the only grazing area of deer varies in low layer vegetation composition that comprised of eleven grass species and five legume species. Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda arguens, Melinis minutiflora and Cyperus rotundus were identified as food plant of deer in Kebar. Among these species T. arguens, M. minutiflora, C. rotundus and I. cylindrica were the most preferred species consumed by deer. The biomass harvest (species productivity was 30.36 kg/ha fresh weight, while deer food productivity in the grassland was slightly lower (26.70 kg/ha than total productivity of the grassland. The major drainage area is Kasi River, but two other rivers across this valley (Api River, Apriri River are also supply water to the swampy area.

  2. Campylobacter hyointestinalis-associated enteritis in Moluccan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis subsp. Moluccensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B D; Thomas, R J; Mackenzie, A R

    1987-11-01

    A morphological and bacteriological study on a Campylobacter hyointestinalis-associated enteritis in adult Moluccan rusa deer is described. Necropsied deer were 2 to 2.5 years of age and had been scouring for 1 to 2 months. There was distension of the ileum and excessive corrugation of the mucosa. Microscopic lesions in the small intestine were confined to the ileum. Stunting and fusion of villi, patchy erosion of epithelium and a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate were features. The inflammatory reaction in caecum and colon was much less severe. Light and scanning electron-microscopical examination of small and large intestine showed large numbers of Gram-negative curved rods colonizing surface mucus and moderate numbers in close association with gland epithelium. No salmonellae or other enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated on aerobically-incubated media. C. hyointestinalis was isolated from the faeces, ileum, caecum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes from 2 cases and one farm-collected faecal sample. PMID:3443691

  3. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Allen

    Full Text Available Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species. Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut, we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011 to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  4. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert B; Forsyth, David M; Allen, Roy K J; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut), we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011) to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat. PMID:26061426

  5. Game species: extinction hidden by census numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of game species may involve a risk of alteration of their genetic properties. Local adaptations may be disrupted if artificially selected individuals from farms or those belonging to distant geographical areas are introduced to increase population density or trophy ‘quality’. In Spain, red deer (Cervus elaphus from different European subspecies have been introduced to increase the size of trophies (antlers of local populations. Legislation against these introductions is not effective for various reasons, and once the individuals are in the Iberian peninsula it is virtually impossible to prevent their spreading throughout the whole territory without a genetic tool to distinguish between autochthonous and foreign specimens. We have developed such a genetic test and propose a strategy to dissuade land-owners from importing foreign deer. Since deer are bred mainly for their antlers, our strategy is based on an agreement with the National Trophy Body in Spain which rejects trophies from foreign populations. Rejection decreases the value of the trophy so that it becomes more profitable to produce autochthonous deer. Using such a strategy at some critical step in the production or commercialisation process may be a good model to apply in protecting genetic properties of exploited species.

  6. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  7. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  8. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  9. Comparison of Mexican wolf and coyote diets in Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Ballard, W.; Gipson, P.; Kelly, B.T.; Krausman, P.R.; Wallace, M.C.; Villalobos, C.; Wester, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) can have significant impacts on their distribution and abundance. We compared diets of recently translocated Mexican wolves (C. l. baileyi) with diets of resident coyotes in Arizona and New Mexico, USA. We systematically collected scats during 2000 and 2001. Coyote diet was composed mostly of mammalian species, followed by vegetation and insects. Elk (Cervus elaphus) was the most common item in coyote scats. Mexican wolf diet had a higher proportion of large mammals and fewer small mammals than coyote diet; however, elk was also the most common food item in Mexican wolf scats. Our results suggest that Mexican wolf diet was more similar to coyote diet than previously reported, but coyotes had more seasonal variation. Considering results in other areas, we expect that Mexican wolves will have a negative impact on coyotes through direct mortality and possibly competition. Reintroduction of Mexican wolves may have great impacts on communities by changing relationships among other predators and their prey.

  10. Changes in interacting species with disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Glen F.

    1987-03-01

    Human-influenced changes in the diversity and abundance of native wildlife in a southern boreal forest area, which became a national park in 1975, are used to develop working hypotheses for predicting and subsequently measuring the effects of disturbance or restoration programs on groups of interacting species. Changes from presettlement conditions began with early 1900 hunting, which eliminated woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and elk ( Cervus elaphus), and reduced moose ( Alces alces) to the low numbers which still persist. Increases in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), as these other cervid species became less abundant or absent, provided enough alternative food to sustain the system's carnivores until plant succession on previously burned or logged areas also caused deer to decline. With increased competition for reduced food, carnivore species also became less abundant or absent and overexploited some prey populations. The abilities of interacting species to maintain dynamically stable populations or persist varied with their different capacities to compensate for increased exploitation or competition. These relationships suggested a possible solution to the problem of predicting the stability of populations in disturbed systems. For the 1976 1985 period, a hypothesis that the increased protection of wildlife from exploitation in a national park would restore a more diverse, abundant, and productive fauna had to be rejected.

  11. Parasitofauna in the gastrointestinal tract of the Cervids (Cervidae in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlinski P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine parasite species and their prevalence in the gastrointestinal tract of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L., red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama from selected areas of northern Poland. A total of 1668 fecal samples, obtained from animals living in three various regions, were analyzed. The samples were examined by coproscopic techniques, including flotation (according to Fülleborn, decantation (according to Zarnowski and Josztowa and flotation in the McMaster chamber. The experimental materials were collected from January 2008 to January 2009, in the hunting districts belonging to two hunting associations, "Bór" in Wipsowo and "Gwardia Slupsk" in Lupawa. In order to compare the health status of cervids kept under farm-like conditions, fecal samples were also collected in the paddocks of the Municipal Zoological Garden "Wybrzeza" in Gdansk. Parasites (eggs and oocysts were found in 42.09% of the analyzed samples. The most frequently observed roundworm was Chabertia sp. (13.79% in roe deer, 12.07% in red deer, 11.36% in fallow deer. High counts of Ostertagia sp. eggs (11.55% in roe deer, 6.03% in red deer, 13.18% in fallow deer and Trichostrongylus sp. eggs (10.69% in roe deer, 2.93% in red deer, 10.68% in fallow deer were also noted. The highest infestation rates (51.17% were determined in the studied areas of the Zoological Garden in Gdansk.

  12. Monitoring fish, wildlife, radionuclides and chemicals at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish, wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits. 35 refs., 4 figs

  13. Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits

  14. Hanford, Washington: Monitoring to assess the state of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site for almost 5 years. Concentrations of airborne radionuclides at the Site perimeter, and concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River are in compliance with applicable standards. Radionuclide levels in food stuffs irrigated with river water taken downstream of the Site, most onsite wildlife samples, and soils and vegetation from both on- and off-site locations are typical of those attributable to worldwide fallout. The calculated dose potentially received by a maximally exposed individual, using worst-case assumptions for all routes of exposure, was 0.05 mrem/yr in 1989. The average per capita whole-body effective dose to people, based on a population of 340,000 living within 80 km (50 mi) of the Site, was <0.01 to 0.03 mrem annually from 1985 through 1989. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in Hanford Reach of the Columbia River has increased in recent years with a con-comitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), various plants and other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common

  15. Long-term environmental monitoring at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for over 45 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations (nuclear and nonnuclear) on air, surface and ground water, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils and vegetation. Data from monitoring efforts are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1988, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is increasing. The Hanford Site also serves as a refuge for Canada good (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyote (Canis latrans). 32 refs., 4 figs

  16. Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp., white-tailed deer (WTD (Odocoileus virginianus, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT, comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT, and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak, and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP. Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3% were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

  17. Temporal stability in the genetic structure of Sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived Sarcoptes mite in Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Luca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicitly, parasite molecular studies assume temporal genetic stability. In this study we tested, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of changes in genetic diversity and structure of Sarcoptes mite populations from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica in Asturias (Spain, using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and Sarcoptes samples from sympatric Pyrenean chamois, red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Results The analysis of an 11-years interval period found little change in the genetic diversity (allelic diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity. The temporal stability in the genetic diversity was confirmed by population structure analysis, which was not significantly variable over time. Population structure analysis revealed temporal stability in the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite under the host-taxon law (herbivore derived- and carnivore derived-Sarcoptes mite among the sympatric wild animals from Asturias. Conclusions The confirmation of parasite temporal genetic stability is of vital interest to allow generalizations to be made, which have further implications regarding the genetic structure, epidemiology and monitoring protocols of the ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite. This could eventually be applied to other parasite species.

  18. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R MacNulty

    Full Text Available An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison, to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus, a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  19. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  20. Aboriginal overkill in the intermountain west of North America : Zooarchaeological tests and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, R Lee

    2004-06-01

    Zooarchaeological evidence has often been called on to help researchers determine prehistoric relative abundances of elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Some interpret that evidence as indicating elk were abundant; others interpret it as indicating elk were rare. Wildlife biologist Charles Kay argues that prehistoric faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites support his contention that aboriginal hunters depleted elk populations throughout the Intermountain West, including the Yellowstone area. To support his contention Kay cites differences between modern and prehistoric relative abundances of artiodactyls, age and sex demographics of ungulates in the prehistoric record indicating selective predation of prime-age females, and a high degree of fragmentation of artiodactyl bones indicating humans were under nutritional stress. Kay's data on taxonomic abundances are time and space averaged and thus mask much variation in elk abundances. When these data are not lumped they suggest that elk were at some times, in some places, as abundant as they are today. Data on the age-sex demography of artiodactyl prey are ambiguous or contradict Kay's predictions. Bone fragmentation data are variously nonexistent or ambiguous. The zooarchaeological implications of Kay's aboriginal overkill hypothesis have not yet undergone rigorous testing. PMID:26190412

  1. Accumulation of polonium 210Po, uranium (234U and 238U and plutonium (238Pu and 239+240Pu in tissues and organs of deer Carvidae from northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, collected in northern Poland, were the subject of the investigation. Polonium, uranium and plutonium activities were measured using alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The average concentrations of 210Po ranged between 0.02±0.01 Bq kg−1 ww in muscles and 7.15±0.12 Bq kg−1 ww in kidneys. The concentration of 238U ranged widely between 2.49±0.18 and 69.37±5.45 mBq kg−1 ww. The average concentrations of 239+240Pu ranged between 0.18±0.04 mBq kg−1 ww in muscle and 2.77±0.60 mBq kg−1 ww in kidneys. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling location, sex, age and species did not influence on the radioisotope activities in the analyzed samples.

  2. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  3. Concentration of 137Cs and 40K in meat of omnivore and herbivore game species in mountain forest ecosystems of Gorski Kotar, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate 137Cs and 40K load in large mammal game species in the mountain forest region of Gorski Kotar in Croatia approximately a quarter of century after the Chernobyl accident. 137Cs and 40K activity were determined by the gamma-spectrometric method in 49 meat samples of five large game species: brown bear (Ursus arctos), wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). The results indicated that herbivore game species (roe deer, red deer and chamois) show significantly lower 137Cs concentrations than omnivore species (brown bear, wild boar), thereby confirming the hypothesis that different dietary strategy impact caesium concentrations in meat. The measured caesium load in brown bear meat was in the range of two orders of magnitude, while caesium load in wild boar meat was found in the range of one order of magnitude. The estimated effective equivalent dose showed that uptake of the highest caesium doses would be from consumption of omnivore species meat, while much lower doses could be taken in with the consumption of meat from herbivore species. (author)

  4. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  5. Stable isotope ratio analysis to differentiate temporal diets of a free-ranging herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W D; Leslie, D M

    2009-07-01

    Stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) in tissue samples of herbivores can identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants consumed. We present results from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that highlight the ability to differentiate diets using tissue delta13C and delta15N. The signatures of delta13C and delta15N differed in tissues of varying metabolic activity: muscle, a short-term dietary indicator (i.e., 1-2 months) and hoof, a long-term dietary indicator (i.e., 3-12 months). We also documented that delta13C and delta15N values along elk hooves (proximal, middle, distal sections) elucidated temporal shifts in dietary selection. The carbon isotopes of the composite hoof were similar to those of the middle section, but the composite hoof differed in delta(13)C from the distal and proximal sections. The delta13C and delta15N signatures also differed among elk populations, indicating temporal dietary shifts of individuals occupying disparate native range and human-derived agricultural landscapes. Analyses of stable isotopes in various tissues highlighted carbon and nitrogen assimilation through time and differences in the foraging ecology of a rangeland herbivore. PMID:19530151

  6. Application of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the detection of antibodies for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wild boar and red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For detecting antibodies towards foot and mouth (FMD virus in sera collected from red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus and wild boars (Sus scrofa, three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used. Two ELISA kits (PrioCHECK FMDV NS and CHEKIT FMD-3ABC were used for the detection of antibodies towards non-structural proteins of FMD virus and one assay was based on the detection of antibodies for serotype O (PrioCHECK FMDV type O. All of the sera tested in our study were negative for antibodies against FMD virus. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of commercially available ELISA kits given for marketing authorization in Croatia in testing the prevalence of FMD antibodies in wild boar and red deer populations. Since the producers of ELISA kits used in our study did not declare wild animals as a target species, we hypothesised that the same kits could be used for serological diagnosis of FMD in red deer and wild boars. Our study confirmed that the kits used are acceptable for detecting antibodies in both species tested, however, the investigation highlighted the problem of validating the kits due to the absence of available positive sera originating from red deer, as well as other susceptible species, especially artiodactyls.

  7. Les indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêt feuillue tempérée (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehaire, F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of red deer pressure on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. A review. During recent decades, populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and, in some forests, has reached levels that have reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L. on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to the herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.. As the choice of indicator plants affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, such decisions must be carried out with caution, taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help us to understand the relationship between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended for use by forest managers who would like to monitor red deer pressure in relation to forest management goals and forest sustainability.

  8. Native prey distribution and migration mediates wolf (Canis lupus) predation on domestic livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail A.; Kauffman, Matthew; Middleton, A.D.; Jimenez, M.D.; McWhirter, D. E.; Gerow, K.

    2016-01-01

    Little research has evaluated how the migration and distribution of native prey influence patterns of livestock depredation by large carnivores. Previous research suggests that the presence of native prey can increase depredation rates by attracting predators (prey tracking hypothesis). Alternatively, the absence of native prey may facilitate predation on livestock (prey scarcity hypothesis). In this study, we evaluated support for these competing hypotheses through analysis of 4 years of cattle (Bos taurus L., 1758) depredation data (n = 39 kills), 2 years of summer and fall wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) predation and tracking data (n = 4 wolves), and 3 years of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) movement data (n = 70 elk). We used logistic regression to compare the relative influence of landscape features and elk distribution on the risk of livestock depredation in areas with migratory and resident elk. Cattle depredations occurred in habitats with increased encounter rates between wolves and livestock. In resident elk areas, depredation sites were associated with elk distribution and open roads. In migratory elk areas, depredation sites were associated with wolf dens, streams, and open habitat. Patterns of carnivore–livestock conflicts are complex, and using ungulate distribution data can predict and minimize such instances.

  9. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

  10. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  11. Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, P.M.; Gude, J.A.; Russell, R.E.; Ackerman, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Northwest Montana Wildlife Habitat Enhancement: Hungry Horse Elk Mitigation Project: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-12-01

    Portions of two important elk (Cervus elaphus) winter ranges totalling 8749 acres were lost due to the construction of the Hungry Horse Dam hydroelectric facility. This habitat loss decreased the carrying capacity of the both the elk and the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In 1985, using funds from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as authorized by the Northwest Power Act, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) completed a wildlife mitigation plan for Hungry Horse Reservoir. This plan identified habitat enhancement of currently-occupied winter range as the most cost-efficient, easily implemented mitigation alternative available to address these large-scale losses of winter range. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, as amended in 1987, authorized BPA to fund winter range enhancement to meet an adjusted goal of 133 additional elk. A 28-month advance design phase of the BPA-funded project was initiated in September 1987. Primary goals of this phase of the project included detailed literature review, identification of enhancement areas, baseline (elk population and habitat) data collection, and preparation of 3-year and 10-year implementation plans. This document will serve as a site-specific habitat and population monitoring plan which outlines our recommendations for evaluating the results of enhancement efforts against mitigation goals. 25 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Demographics of an experimentally released population of elk in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Jennifer L.; Clark, Joseph D.; Delozier, E. Kim

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the potential for reestablishing elk (Cervus elaphus) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), USA, by estimating vital rates of experimentally released animals from 2001 to 2006. Annual survival rates for calves ranged from 0.333 to 1.0 and averaged 0.592. Annual survival for subadult and adult elk (i.e., ≥1 yr of age) ranged from 0.690 to 0.933, depending on age and sex. We used those and other vital rates to model projected population growth and viability using a stochastic individual-based model. The annual growth rate (λ) of the modeled population over a 25-year period averaged 0.996 and declined from 1.059 the first year to 0.990 at year 25. The modeled population failed to attain a positive 25-year mean growth rate in 46.0% of the projections. Poor calf recruitment was an important determinant of low population growth. Predation by black bears (Ursus americanus) was the dominant calf mortality factor. Most of the variance of growth projections was due to demographic variation resulting from the small population size (n  =  61). Management actions such as predator control may help increase calf recruitment, but our projections suggest that the GSMNP elk population may be at risk for some time because of high demographic variation.

  14. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  15. Inferences about ungulate population dynamics derived from age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N.C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Mills, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Age ratios (e.g., calf:cow for elk and fawn:doe for deer) are used regularly to monitor ungulate populations. However, it remains unclear what inferences are appropriate from this index because multiple vital rate changes can influence the observed ratio. We used modeling based on elk (Cervus elaphus) life-history to evaluate both how age ratios are influenced by stage-specific fecundity and survival and how well age ratios track population dynamics. Although all vital rates have the potential to influence calf:adult female ratios (i.e., calf:xow ratios), calf survival explained the vast majority of variation in calf:adult female ratios due to its temporal variation compared to other vital rates. Calf:adult female ratios were positively correlated with population growth rate (??) and often successfully indicated population trajectories. However, calf:adult female ratios performed poorly at detecting imposed declines in calf survival, suggesting that only the most severe declines would be rapidly detected. Our analyses clarify that managers can use accurate, unbiased age ratios to monitor arguably the most important components contributing to sustainable ungulate populations, survival rate of young and ??. However, age ratios are not useful for detecting gradual declines in survival of young or making inferences about fecundity or adult survival in ungulate populations. Therefore, age ratios coupled with independent estimates of population growth or population size are necessary to monitor ungulate population demography and dynamics closely through time.

  16. Using Pellet Groups To Assess Response Of Elk and Deer to Roads and Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Dzialak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and extraction of resources such as oil and gas has directly and indirectly reduced available habitat to wildlife through changes in behavior and resource use. To assess how elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus spp. were spatially distributed relative to roads and coal-bed natural gas well pads, we collected pellet group data during 2 summers in south-central Colorado. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the relative probability of use of elk and deer in relation to roads and well pads. We found relative probability of use was positively associated with distance from roads, indicating greater use of areas farther away from roads. Relative probability of use was negatively associated with distance to well pads, potentially as a result of plant phenology and reseeding in disturbed areas around well pads. Other factors such as elevation, slope and vegetative security cover also influenced elk and deer spatial distributions. Based on these data, it appears resource use may be driven by forage and security cover more than disturbance features. Pellet group surveys appear to be an appropriate technique for evaluating resource use of populations across large spatial extents when logistical and financial constraints limit the use of more advanced technology such as very high frequency and global positioning system collars.

  17. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044

  18. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  19. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Hubalek, Jaromir; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observed in samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used, well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very low signal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reaching over 20 µM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowest values of about 1-3 µM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  20. Climate-mediated shifts in Neandertal subsistence behaviors at Pech de l'Azé IV and Roc de Marsal (Dordogne Valley, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W; Turq, Alain; Sandgathe, Dennis; McPherron, Shannon J P; Dibble, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Neandertals disappeared from Europe just after 40,000 years ago. Some hypotheses ascribe this to numerous population crashes associated with glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene. The goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis that glacial periods stressed Neandertal populations. If cold climates stressed Neandertals, their subsistence behaviors may have changed-requiring intensified use of prey through more extensive nutrient extraction from faunal carcasses. To test this, an analysis of Neandertal butchering was conducted on medium sized bovid/cervid remains composed of predominately red deer (Cervus elaphus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), and roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) deposited during global warm and cold phases from two French sites: Pech de l'Azé IV (Pech IV, Bordes' excavation) and Roc de Marsal (RDM). Analysis of surface modification on high survival long bones and proximal and middle phalanges demonstrates that skeletal elements excavated from the cold levels (RDM Level 4, Pech IV Level I2) at each cave have more cut marks and percussion marks than elements from the warm levels (RDM Level 9, Pech IV Level Y-Z) after controlling for fragment size. At both sites, epiphyseal fragments are rare, and although this pattern can result from carnivore consumption, carnivore tooth marks are almost nonexistent (support for the hypothesis that Neandertals were processing faunal remains more heavily during glacial periods, suggesting a response to increased nutritional stress during colder time periods. PMID:27343769

  1. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  2. Estimation of Correlation between the Number of Individuals and Biogenic Capacity of the Hunting Terrain 56, Forest District Lunca Timişului, for 13 Hunting Species in 2006-2010 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the UE, is imposing a special attention to hunting animals populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13th species, in the period 2006-2010, in the hunting terrain 56 Chevereş, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of 9109ha. After the observations were performed, the present paper is stating that on this hunting ground had no good correlation between the number of individuals and the biogenic capacity of the hunting fond at the following species: Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L., Fallow Deer (Dama dama L, Roe Deer (Caproleus Caproleus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L., European hare (Lepus europaeus P., in turn at the rest of the studied species the correlation is good. For the species in regress the observations are recommending the following with attention of the natural selection and the improvement of the artificial selection.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

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    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  4. Estimation of Correlation between the Number of Individuals and Biogenic Capacity of the Hunting Terrain 54 Padureni, Forest District Lunca Timişului, for 13 Hunting Species in 2007-2011 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the EU is imposing a special attention to hunting animals populations. The aim of thepresent paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13th species, in the period2007-2011, in the hunting terrain 54 Padureni, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of11,963ha. The paper shows that form the 13th species studied 5 were not identified on this hunting terrain Red Deer(Cervus elaphus L., Wildcat (Felis silvestres L, European Pine Marten (Martes martes L., Least Weasel (Mustelanivolis L. Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica L.. For the other species identified the individuals number evolutiondemonstrated that there is a god correlation between the number of individuals and it-s biogenic capacity. Also thepaper recommends a special attention to natural selection and the efficient use of artificial selection, especially forthe following 3 species: Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L. and Common Pheasant(Phasianus colchicus L..

  5. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  6. Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidbauer, S-M; Wohlsein, P; Kirpal, G; Beineke, A; Müller, G; Müller, H; Moser, I; Baumgartner, W

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. Three pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), one buffalo (Bison bonasus) and two European lynxes (Lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. Postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central nervous system. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated in various organs histologically and bacteriologically. Spoligotyping of 17 isolates from various organs of the affected animals confirmed an infection by M bovis and revealed an identical pattern indicating a common origin. The spoligotype was different from the pattern of M bovis recorded in the cattle population in Germany between 2000 and 2006. Investigations of sentinel animals such as an aged silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a badger (Meles meles), a ferret (Mustela putorius) and rodents, and tuberculin skin tests of the animal attendants and randomly collected faecal samples from the enclosures were all negative for M bovis. PMID:17766809

  7. Iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtDNA but nuclear markers support its genetic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Salinas, María; de Andrés, Damián; Pérez-González, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Red deer populations in the Iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western Europe. However, the phylogenetic history of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern European populations remain uncertain. Here, we study DNA sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with STR markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in Spain and other west European areas. Our results from mitochondrial and genomic DNA show contrasting patterns, likely related to the nature of these types of DNA markers and their specific processes of change over time. The results, taken together, bring support to two distinct, cryptic maternal lineages for Iberian red deer that predated the last glacial maximum and that have maintained geographically well differentiated until present. Haplotype relationships show that only one of them contributed to the northern postglacial recolonization. However, allele frequencies of nuclear markers evidenced one main differentiation between Iberian and northern European subspecies although also supported the structure of both matrilines within Iberia. Thus, our findings reveal a paraphyletic nature for Iberian red deer but also its genetic identity and differentiation with respect to northern subspecies. Finally, we suggest that maintaining the singularity of Iberian red deer requires preventing not only restocking practices with red deer specimens belonging to other European populations but also translocations between both Iberian lineages. PMID:26843924

  8. Wild ungulates as sentinel of BTV-8 infection in piedmont areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, E; Sossella, M; Bisanzio, D; Stella, M C; Giordana, G; Pignata, L; Tomassone, L

    2014-11-01

    Bluetongue caused by the genotype 8 virus (BTV-8) appeared for the first time in BTV free areas in northern Italy in 2008. The presence of domestic animals outbreaks, abundant wild ungulates populations, and ongoing regional BTV control plans, made this area interesting to evaluate the role of wild ruminants in BTV-8 epidemiology. We analyzed spleen samples from hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) by quantitative RT-PCR. Samples were collected from 2008 to 2011 in two provinces of Piedmont region. BTV-8 was detected in all ungulate species, confirming their receptivity to the infection. However, the viral load in the positive specimens was low, and decreased from 2008 to 2011. These results, together with the extinction of the epidemic following a regional livestock vaccination campaign, lead to hypothesize that wild ungulates were an epiphenomenon and they had not an important role in the domestic transmission cycle of BTV-8 in this area. In spite of this, wild ruminants appear to be good sentinels of BTV circulation and their monitoring could be useful for surveillance in piedmont areas. PMID:25306211

  9. A simple solar radiation index for wildlife habitat studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Kim A.; Gogan, Peter J.; Vore, John N.; Irby, Lynn R.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a potentially important covariate in many wildlife habitat studies, but it is typically addressed only indirectly, using problematic surrogates like aspect or hillshade. We devised a simple solar radiation index (SRI) that combines readily available information about aspect, slope, and latitude. Our SRI is proportional to the amount of extraterrestrial solar radiation theoretically striking an arbitrarily oriented surface during the hour surrounding solar noon on the equinox. Because it derives from first geometric principles and is linearly distributed, SRI offers clear advantages over aspect-based surrogates. The SRI also is superior to hillshade, which we found to be sometimes imprecise and ill-behaved. To illustrate application of our SRI, we assessed niche separation among 3 ungulate species along a single environmental axis, solar radiation, on the northern Yellowstone winter range. We detected no difference between the niches occupied by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and elk (Cervus elaphus; P = 0.104), but found that mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) tended to use areas receiving more solar radiation than either of the other species (P solar radiation component.

  10. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. William

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

  11. Optimizing the conditions for in vitro maturation and artificial activation of sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Tang, L; Zhang, P; Kong, D; Wang, Z; Guan, J; Song, G; Tang, B; Li, Z

    2013-02-01

    With the goal of establishing experimental protocols for cloning sika deer, various conditions for in vitro maturation (IVM) and artificial activation of sika deer oocytes were examined. In vitro maturation was evaluated in seven different culture media. The highest rate of oocyte maturation was 75.4% in 10 μg/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 1 μg/ml LH, 0.2 mm cysteamine and 50 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) after 24 h of IVM. The efficiency after 24 h of IVM did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from that observed after 20 h. Cysteamine (0.2 mm) significantly increased the maturation rates after 20 h (from 59.1% to 67.2%, p sika deer oocytes to the blastocyst stage (32.4%). Our results indicate that in vitro matured sika deer oocytes are good candidates for parthenogenetic activation and that chemical treatment is needed for relatively efficient activation of the oocytes. These optimized conditions for IVM and parthenogenetic activation may be useful for efforts to restore populations of the endangered sika deer using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. PMID:22458270

  12. Serum hormone concentrations and ovarian follicular wave emergence in Jilin sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum) after synchronization of estrous cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X M; Wei, H J; Yang, Y F; Xue, H L; Zhao, W G; Zhao, M

    2015-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the serum hormone concentrations and follicular dynamics present after synchronous treatment (CIDR) in female Jilin sika deer (n = 15) of estrous cycles. Blood samples were collected to analyze the FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone during the estrous cycles. Manual transrectal ultrasonography examination was conducted at least thrice weekly to monitor the follicular wave. Ultrasonography showed that follicle development occurred in waves, and most estrous cycles in Jilin sika deer consist of one, two, or three waves. The largest follicles of the interwaves of two- and three-wave cycles were different (P sika deer is characterized by one, two, or three waves of follicular development after synchronization. PMID:25563157

  13. Detection of Lyme disease spirochetes in the skin of naturally infected wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Isogai, E; Isogai, H; Kamewaka, Y; Nishikawa, T; Ishii, N; Fujii, N

    1995-04-01

    We demonstrated the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in the skin tissues of naturally infected wild sika deer, using PCR. The risk of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato is recognized in sika deer. PMID:7747979

  14. Caprine herpesvirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, M Kevin; Patterson, J Gage; Noon, Ted H; Bradley, Gregory A; Collins, James K

    2003-03-01

    Three female sika deer from a single captive herd were submitted for postmortem examination over a 139-day period. The first 2 deer submitted were reported to have lost body mass for 20 days to 1 month before euthanasia. One of these deer had diarrhea, the other had a crusting dermatitis on the nasal planum and inner aspects of both pinnae. The third hind did not have any signs of disease before it was found seizuring and was immediately euthanatized. Microscopically, all 3 animals had a lymphocytic vasculitis typical of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), with the most severe lesions in the brain. All 3 deer were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) and were negative for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). Two healthy goats that were housed adjacent to the deer were also PCR positive for CpHV-2 and PCR negative for OHV-2. The CpHV-2, PCR amplicons from the hinds, and the 2 healthy goats had an identical single base polymorphism. A male sika deer that was housed with the hinds and a fawn from 1 of the hinds remained asymptomatic and were PCR negative for CpHV-2. This represents the first report of mortality with MCF-like lesions in association with CpHV-2. PMID:12661731

  15. Prevalence and molecular analyses of hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas) detected in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are cell-wall deficient, epierythrocytic bacteria that cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species. The prevalence of hemoplasma species was examined by screening and species-specific PCR using blood samples collected from 51 sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. Molecular analyses were performed for the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and RNase P RNA (rnpB) gene sequences. A total of 23/51 (45%) deer DNA samples were positive for hemoplasmas in the screening PCR. Using species-specific PCR, 12 and 17 samples were positive for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemocervae' and 'Candidatus M. erythrocervae', respectively. Sequencing and phylogenetic trees of those three genes indicate that the 'Candidatus M. haemocervae' and 'Candidatus M. erythrocervae' detected in Japanese deer are potentially different species from the cervine hemoplasma found in deer from America and Brazil. PMID:24270803

  16. Prevalence and Molecular Analyses of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. (Hemoplasmas) Detected in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    TAGAWA, Michihito; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are cell-wall deficient, epierythrocytic bacteria that cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species. The prevalence of hemoplasma species was examined by screening and species-specific PCR using blood samples collected from 51 sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. Molecular analyses were performed for the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and RNase P RNA (rnpB) gene sequences. A total of 23/51 (45%) deer DNA samples were positive for hemoplasmas in the screening...

  17. Response of the Rumen Microbiota of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Fed Different Concentrations of Tannin Rich Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    High throughput sequencing was used to examine the rumen microbiota of sika deer fed high (OLH) and low concentration (OLL) of tannin rich oak leaves. The results showed that Prevotella spp. were the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant methanogens were the members of the order Methanoplasmatales. The dominant rumen protozoa were Entodinium longinucleatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, and Epidinium caudatum, and the fungal communities were mostly represented by Piromyces spp. Moreover, the relative abundance of Pseudobutyrivibrio spp. (P=0.026), unidentified bacteria (P=0.028), and Prevotella spp. (P=0.022) was lower in the OLH group than in the OLL group. The concentration of propionate in the OLH group was greater than in the OLL group (P=0.006). Patterns of relationships showed that methanogens belonging to the order Methanoplasmatales were negatively correlated with Treponema spp., Ent. Longinucleatum, and acetate. Methanosphaera stadtmanae was positively correlated to propionate, while Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was negatively associated with Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae. Tannins altered the rumen microbes and fermentation patterns. However, the response of the entire rumen microbiota and the relationship between rumen microorganisms and the fermentation parameters were not fully understood. PMID:25955033

  18. Collagen from Tendon of Yezo Sika Deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) as By-Product

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Nagai; Nobutaka Suzuki; Yasuhiro Tanoue; Norihisa Kai

    2012-01-01

    Collagen from tendon of Yezo sika deer was prepared by limited pepsin digestion. The yield of collagen was very high; 35.7% on the basis of lyophilized dry weight. The secondary structure of this collagen was different from that of porcine skin by ATR-FTIR analysis, although it was the same characteristics, e.g. SDS-PAGE, subunit composition, ther-mal behavior, as porcine collagen. Since taking up a problem of bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in land animals such as calf or bovine, ...

  19. First Evidence that Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Velvet Antler Extract Suppresses Migration of Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, YuJiao; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Wang, Yanmei; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Park, Pyo-Jam; Moon, Sang Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Deer velvet antler (DVA) is one of the most popular medicines in China. Numerous studies have demonstrated that velvet antler possess biological effects. However, data regarding its anti-migration activity on prostate cancer is scarce. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of top DVA (T-DVA) on the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and migration-related genes in the human prostate cancer cell, LNCaP. The T-DVA down-regulated the expression of PSA. In addition, the Radius(TM) assay revealed that T-DVA inhibited the migration behavior of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also decreased with T-DVA. On the contrary, T-DVA increased the tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and (TIMP)-2. Taken together, our findings indicate that the T-DVA possesses anti-migration activity on prostate cancer cells. This is the first study of DVA to report the anti-migration activity on prostate cancer. PMID:26761873

  20. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP) in the Uteroplacenta of the Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Junpei Kimura; JoonHyuk Sohn

    2012-01-01

    The localization of GRP in the uterus and/or placenta of non-pregnant or pregnant Sika deer was studied immunohistochemically. The strong immunoreactions were identified in the supra-nuclear region of the epithelial cells of the uterine glands of the placenta, however, no reaction was observed in the uterus of non-pregnant or immature animals. GRP may play an important role as the critical signals or nutrients for the growth of fetus in the synepitheliochorial placenta.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sika deer (Cervus nippon) in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Jin-Lei; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals and humans. A serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in sika deer in northeastern China. 114 (13.46%, 95% CI 11.16-15.76) out of 847 serum samples were positive to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a 1:25 cut-off, with titers of 1:25 in 44, 1:50 in 32, 1:100 in 17, 1:500 in 11, 1:1500 or higher in 10. These samples were collected between November 2012 and October 2013 from Inner Mongolia, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China. However, statistically significant differences were not observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and genders or regions of sika deer in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in male sika deer was 14.07% (95% CI 11.14-17.01), slightly higher than that in the female (12.38%) (95% CI 8.69-16.06) and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Harbin, Changchun city, Jilin city and Chifeng city were 12.02% (95% CI 7.60-16.44), 15.51% (95% CI 11.52-19.50), 12.27% (95% CI 7.23-17.31) and 12.50% (95% CI 7.38-17.63), respectively. Seasons of sampling were considered as main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, autumn (15.32%) were more than two times (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.18-3.33, P=0.01) at risk of acquiring T. gondii infection compared to winter (8.37%). Our results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among sika deer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in sika deer in China. PMID:25201489

  2. Detection of Lyme disease spirochetes in the skin of naturally infected wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, K.; Isogai, E; Isogai, H; Kamewaka, Y; Nishikawa, T.; Ishii, N; Fujii, N

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrated the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in the skin tissues of naturally infected wild sika deer, using PCR. The risk of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato is recognized in sika deer.

  3. Response of the Rumen Microbiota of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Fed Different Concentrations of Tannin Rich Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G.; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    High throughput sequencing was used to examine the rumen microbiota of sika deer fed high (OLH) and low concentration (OLL) of tannin rich oak leaves. The results showed that Prevotella spp. were the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant methanogens were the members of the order Methanoplasmatales. The dominant rumen protozoa were Entodinium longinucleatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, and Epidinium caudatum, and the fungal communities were mostly represented by Piromyces spp. Moreover, the r...

  4. Body dimensions and coloration of the winter pelage of a Moravian population of sika deer, Cervus nippon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Zejda, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2002), s. 253-256. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : sika deer * body dimensions * coloration Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2002 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/51/3/253-256.pdf

  5. Co-phylogeography and morphological evolution of sika deer lice (Damalinia sika) with their hosts (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Johnson, Kevin P.; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Lice are obligate parasites of mammals and birds and have become an important model for studies of host-parasite co-evolution and co-phylogenetics. Population genetic and phylogeographic studies represent an important bridge between microevolution and co-phylogenetic patterns. We examine co-phylogeographic patterns in sika deer and their parasitic lice. Co-phylogeographic patterns in deer and lice were evaluated using homologous regions of mitochondrial COI sequences. The phylogeographic brea...

  6. Co-phylogeography and morphological evolution of sika deer lice (Damalinia sika) with their hosts (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2012-10-01

    Lice are obligate parasites of mammals and birds and have become an important model for studies of host-parasite co-evolution and co-phylogenetics. Population genetic and phylogeographic studies represent an important bridge between microevolution and co-phylogenetic patterns. We examine co-phylogeographic patterns in sika deer and their parasitic lice. Co-phylogeographic patterns in deer and lice were evaluated using homologous regions of mitochondrial COI sequences. The phylogeographic breaks recovered for deer populations matched those of previous studies. Comparisons of the phylogeographic tree topology for deer lice with that of their hosts revealed a significant level of congruence. However, comparisons of genetic distances between deer and lice suggested that one of the estimated co-divergence events is more likely a recent host switch. Taking into account genetic divergence, there is not strong evidence for complete phylogeographic co-divergence between deer and their parasitic lice. However, mitochondrial phylogenies only track genetic structure of female lineages, and the incongruence between deer and louse phylogeography may be explained by louse migration mediated by male deer. Morphological analysis of head shape variation based on an elliptic Fourier descriptor showed that overall morphological variation contained phylogenetic signal, suggesting that in general morphology of these lice evolves congruent to population history. PMID:22835817

  7. [Blood biological constants in the deer Rusa (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia. I. Hematologic constants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1990-01-01

    Since the beginning of year 1987, the deer "Rusa" breeding has been developing in New Caledonia. In 1988, during a slaughter operation amidst the herds, nearly ninety blood samples were collected in order to define the blood biological parameters (or constants) of this species. Regarding haematology, the study concerns the following parameters: erythrocyte count (9.32 x 10(12)/l), leucocyte count (4.51 x 10(9)/l), various leucocyte lines and their formula, i.e. (neutrophile polymorphonuclear: 2.08 x 10(9)/l [46.6 p. 100]; lymphocytes: 1.75 x 10(9)/l [38.4 p. 100]; monocytes: 0.33 x 10(9)/l [7.5 p. 100]; eosinophiles polymorphonuclear leucocytes: 0.4 x 10(9)/l [7.46 p. 100]; basophile polymorphonuclear leucocytes: 0.01 x 10(9)/l [0.28 p. 100]), hematocrite (36.8 l/l), hemoglobin ratio (14.1 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (40.3 dl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin rate (15.3 pg/cell), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (38.7 g/dl). In the course of the study, variations of these parameters were detected according to various physiological criteria and to the sampling conditions as deer is a stress sensitive animal. PMID:2218039

  8. [Blood biological constants in the deer Rusa (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia. II. Biological constants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1990-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year 1987, the deer "Rusa" breeding has been developing in New Caledonia. In 1988, during a slaughter operation in the herds, nearly 90 blood samples were collected in order to define the blood biological parameters (or constants) of this species. As for biochemistry, the following parameters have been search for: urea (6.8 mmol/l), creatinin rate (151.7 mmol/l), the activity of the creatin kinase (295.2 U/l), transaminase (ALAT: 60.1 UI/l; ASAT: 22.3 UI/l) and alcalin phosphatases (115.1 U/l), total bilirubin rate (2.76 mumol/l), total proteins rate (61.4 g/l) and albumin (32.6 g/l), calcium (2.42 mmol/l) and phosphorus (3.08 mmol/l). In course of the study, fluctuations of these parameters were detected, according to various criteria and to sampling conditions. PMID:2218040

  9. Role of Rusa deer Cervus timorensis russa in the cycle of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, N; Bianchi, M; Chardonnet, L

    2001-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Rusa deer in the development of the cattle tick Boaphilus microplus in comparison with that of steers in the same pastures and under the same conditions of infestation. No difference was noted between a mixed steer/deer herd and a pure steer or pure deer herd in the infestation pattern of each host, suggesting that attachment to the alternative host is mechanical and not affected by the simultaneous presence of the primary host on the pasture. Deer are capable of producing engorged viable females, with weight and reproductive performances similar to or even better than females fed on steers. For moderate levels (1 million larvae per hectare) and high levels (32 million larvae per hectare) of pasture infestation, tick burdens on steers were not very different (e.g. average 1,911 and 2,681 ticks per m2 skin, respectively, on day 24). This may be because of saturation of steer skin sites at the moderate larval dose. Deer harboured 2.7-33 times fewer ticks than steers and produce no engorged females at the moderate larval level and 32 times fewer engorged females than steers at the high larval level. Infestation of deer was dose-dependent with averages of 12 and 399 ticks per m2 skin on day 25 at the moderate and high larval levels, respectively. At a high infestation level of the environment, Rusa deer may contribute, but to a limited extent, to infestation of pastures and, consequently, of cattle. However, their role in sustaining a viable tick population requires further investigation. PMID:11508531

  10. Dybowski’s sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum): genetic divergence between natural Primorian and introduced Czech populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Voloshina, I.; Myslenkov, A.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 3 (2013), s. 312-326. ISSN 0022-1503 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bottleneck * founder effect * genetic diversity * inbreeding * microsatellites * mtDNA Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2013

  11. Current and simulated structure, growth parameters and regeneration of beech forests with different game management in the Lány Game Enclosure / Struktura, růstové parametry, obnova a modelový vývoj bukových porostů s odlišným způsobem mysliveckého hospodaření v podmínkách Lánské obory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrož Robin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V příspěvku jsou prezentovány výsledky studia struktury a dynamiky vývoje bukových porostů v Lánské oboře, která se nachází v Chráněné krajinné oblasti Křivoklátsko v České republice. Výzkum se uskutečnil v dospělém bukovém porostu na dvou trvalých výzkumných plochách (TVP, každá o velikosti 0,25 ha s použitím technologie FieldMap. Typologické, půdní, fytocenologické i porostní charakteristiky obou porovnávaných TVP jsou srovnatelné, odlišují se pouze způsobem ochrany proti zvěři. Výsledky ukázaly, že limitujícím faktorem zdárného vývoje přirozené obnovy buku (Fagus sylvatica L. je vysoká zvěř, a to jelen evropský (Cervus elaphus L. - 300 ks, jelen sika (Cervus nippon nippon Temm. - 300 ks, muflon (Ovis musimon Pallas - 250 ks a daněk skvrnitý (Dama dama L. - 300 ks. Přirozená obnova na TVP 1 s černou zvěří (Sus scrofa L. - 150 ks je dostatečná vzhledem ke stanovištním a porostním poměrům. Naproti tomu na TVP 2 s ostatními druhy zvěře se obnova nevyskytuje. Z výsledků biometrických měření a následných vizualizací pomocí simulátoru biodynamiky lesa Sibyla vyplývá, že se jedná o nevýrazně strukturované, dospělé, produktivní bukové porosty s absencí jedinců spodního stromového patra.

  12. Effects of supplemental feeding and aggregation on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristal, Victoria E.; Creel, Scott; Taper, Mark L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modifications and supplemental feeding artificially aggregate some wildlife populations, with potential impacts upon contact and parasite transmission rates. Less well recognized, however, is how increased aggregation may affect wildlife physiology. Crowding has been shown to induce stress responses, and increased glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations can reduce immune function and increase disease susceptibility. We investigated the effects of supplemental feeding and the aggregation that it induces on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGCM) in elk (Cervus elaphus) using observational and experimental approaches. We first compared fGCM levels of elk on supplemental feedgrounds to neighboring elk populations wintering in native habitats using data from 2003 to 2008. We then experimentally manipulated the distribution of supplemental food on feedgrounds to investigate whether more widely distributed food would result in lower rates of aggression and stress hormone levels. Contrary to some expectations that fed elk may be less stressed than unfed elk during the winter, we found that elk on feedgrounds had fecal GC levels at least 31% higher than non-feedground populations. Within feedgrounds, fGCM levels were strongly correlated with local measures of elk density (r2 = 0.81). Dispersing feed more broadly, however, did not have a detectable effect on fGCM levels or aggression rates. Our results suggest that increases in aggregation associated with winter feedgrounds affects elk physiology, and the resulting increases in fGCM levels are not likely to be mitigated by management efforts that distribute the feed more widely. Additional research is needed to assess whether these increases in fGCMs directly alter parasite transmission and disease dynamics.

  13. A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2011-08-01

    Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible. PMID:21142957

  14. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

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    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  15. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; Nelson, Abigail A.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in their pregnancy rate largely caused by infrequent reproduction of females that were young or lactating. In contrast, among resident elk, we have recently observed increasing recruitment and a high rate of pregnancy. Landscape-level changes in habitat quality and predation appear to be responsible for the declining productivity of Yellowstone migrants. From 1989 to 2009, migratory elk experienced an increasing rate and shorter duration of green-up coincident with warmer spring–summer temperatures and reduced spring precipitation, also consistent with observations of an unusually severe drought in the region. Migrants are also now exposed to four times as many grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) as resident elk. Both of these restored predators consume migratory elk calves at high rates in the Yellowstone wilderness but are maintained at low densities via lethal management and human disturbance in the year-round habitats of resident elk. Our findings suggest that large-carnivore recovery and drought, operating simultaneously along an elevation gradient, have disproportionately influenced the demography of migratory elk. Many migratory animals travel large geographic distances between their seasonal ranges. Changes in land use and climate that disparately influence

  16. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  17. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ryan A; Bowyer, R T; Porter, Warren P; Mathewson, Paul; Monteith, Kevin L; Findholt, Scott L; Dick, Brian L; Kie, John G

    2016-07-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North American elk (Cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-quality forage, would influence four energetically mediated traits related to fitness: birth mass of young, nutritional condition of adult females at the onset of winter, change in nutritional condition of females between spring and winter, and neonatal survival. We used a biophysical model to map spatiotemporally explicit costs of thermoregulation and activity experienced by elk in a heterogeneous landscape. We then combined model predictions with data on forage characteristics, animal locations, nutritional condition, and mass and survival of young to evaluate behaviorally mediated effects of the energy landscape on fitness-related traits. During spring, when high-quality forage was abundant, female elk that consistently selected low-cost areas before parturition gave birth to larger young than less-selective individuals, and birth mass had a strong, positive influence on probability of survival. As forage quality declined during autumn, however, lactating females that consistently selected the highest quality forage available accrued more fat and entered winter in better condition than less-selective individuals. Results of our study highlight the importance of understanding the dynamic nature of energy landscapes experienced by free-ranging animals. PMID:27003702

  18. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

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    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus and moose (Alces alces than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, 3 distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4 steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3 distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.

  19. Tall Grass Invasion After Grassland Abandonment Influences the Availability of Palatable Plants for Wild Herbivores: Insight into the Conservation of the Apennine Chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Marcello; Tardella, Federico Maria; Ferrari, Carlo; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Invasion of the tall grass Brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central Apennines (Italy) where the population size of Apennine chamois ( Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. Since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that B. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. Our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to investigate the plant community level and fine-scale interactions. We analyzed data using correlation, generalized linear models, and redundancy analyses. We found that B. genuense can reach high abundance values on the deepest soils. Its high cover value influences plant community composition by competitive exclusion of subordinate species and suppression of functional features because of temporal or spatial niche overlap. This leads to low cover of palatable species at a fine scale, and to poor pasture quality for chamois at a wider scale. Therefore, we postulated that B. genuense invasion, enhanced by long-term grazing cessation, may reduce the availability of palatable plants for Apennine chamois, especially below the potential timberline (1900-2000 m a.s.l.). The high abundance of B. genuense may amplify the effect of other negative factors, such as competition with red deer ( Cervus elaphus) and climate change, in restricting the suitable habitat of the Apennine chamois to the higher sectors of the central Apennines. Thus, we suggested that B. genuense spread should be monitored carefully and plans to control its invasion should be implemented.

  20. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J.; Brodie, Jedediah F.; Jules, Erik S.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  1. Using NDVI and EVI to Map Spatiotemporal Variation in the Biomass and Quality of Forage for Migratory Elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

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    Erica L. Garroutte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI have gained considerable attention in ecological research and management as proxies for landscape-scale vegetation quantity and quality. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, these indices are especially important for mapping spatiotemporal variation in the forage available to migratory elk (Cervus elaphus. Here, we examined how the accuracy of using MODIS-derived NDVI and EVI as proxies for forage biomass and quality differed across elevation-related phenology and land use gradients, determined if polynomial NDVI/EVI, site, and season effects improved these models, and then mapped spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of high quality forage available to elk across the Upper Yellowstone River Basin (UYRB of the GYE. Models with a polynomial NDVI effect explained 19%–55% more variation in biomass than the linear NDVI and EVI models. Models with linear season effect explained 14%–20% more variation in chlorophyll, 37%–69% more variation in crude protein, and 26%–50% more variation in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD than the linear NDVI and EVI models. Linear NDVI models explained more variation in biomass and quality across the UYRB than the linear EVI models. The accuracy of these models was lowest in grasslands with late onset of growth, in irrigated agriculture, and after the peak in biomass. Forage biomass and quality varied across the elevation-related phenology and land use gradients in the UYRB throughout the season. At their seasonal peak, the abundance of high quality forage for elk was 50% greater in grasslands with late onset of growth and 200% greater in irrigated agriculture than in all other grasslands, suggesting that these grasslands play an especially important role in the movement and fitness of migratory elk. These results provide novel information on the utility of NDVI and EVI for mapping spatiotemporal patterns of

  2. Oral administration of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vladimir; González-Barrio, David; Lima-Barbero, José Francisco; Ortiz, José Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. As the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (TB) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). Immunized hinds were dosed orally with 2ml of PBS containing 6×10(6) heat-inactivated M. bovis. The mean skin test response of immunized deer to both avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) and bovine PPD (bPPD) was consistently lower in immunized than in control hinds. One year after immunization, immunized hinds had a significant reduction in the skin test response to aPPD and in the ELISA antibody levels against both aPPD and bPPD (24-36% reduction; Ptest response to phytohaemagglutinin, or in the ELISA antibody levels against the M. bovis specific antigen MPB70. The mRNA levels for C3, IFN-γ and IL-1β and serum protein levels for IFN-γ and IL-1β did not vary between immunized and control deer. However, serum C3 protein levels were significantly higher (P=0.001) in immunized than in control deer six months after immunization. These results confirm that oral heat-inactivated M. bovis does not sensitize farmed red deer and therefore does not cause false-positive responses in the tuberculin skin test. The absence of sensitization in orally immunized deer opens the possibility of testing the vaccine in deer and possibly other ruminants without the risk of causing false-positive reactions in TB-tests. This study also provided the first evidence that orally-delivered inactivated mycobacterial antigens elicit some kind of immune response in a ruminant. PMID:27032499

  3. Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eRuiz-Fons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer − 182 males and 124 females − were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 potential predictors. Three models were developed: one for red deer males, another for hinds, and one combining data for males and females and including "sex" as factor. Our rationale was that if tick burdens on males and hinds relate to the explanatory factors in a differential way, it is not possible to precisely and accurately predict the tick burden on one sex using the model fitted on the other sex, or with the model that combines data from both sexes. Our results showed that deer males were the primary target for ticks, the weight of each factor differed between sexes, and each sex specific model was not able to accurately predict burdens on the animals of the other sex. That is, results support for sex-biased differences. The higher weight of host individual and population factors in the model for males show that intrinsic deer factors more strongly explain tick burden than environmental host-seeking tick abundance. In contrast, environmental variables predominated in the models explaining tick burdens in hinds.

  4. Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

    2006-03-31

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

  5. Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in wild animals in Spain: a first approach to risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, A; Larrasa, J; García, A; Alonso, J M; de Mendoza, J Hermoso

    2005-10-31

    In human tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), molecular epidemiology has accurately indicated the risk factors involved in active transmission of the disease, by comparing individuals whose isolates belong to a cluster with patients whose strains are considered unique. Nevertheless, this application has not been used in bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis). Our study describes the integration of epidemiological data into molecular classification data on M. bovis isolates. These were isolated from wild ungulates in Extremadura (western Spain) with the objective of detecting the risk factors linked to the association of strains in clades, which are indicators of the active spread of the disease. The molecular markers used were spoligotyping + VNTR typing (loci: VNTR 2165, VNTR 2461, VNTR 0577, VNTR 0580, VNTR 3192 VNTR 2163a and VNTR 2163b) on a population of 59 M. bovis strains isolated from deer (Cervus elaphus), 112 from wild boar (Sus scrofa), six from bovines, 28 from pigs and 2 from goats (n=207). Epidemiological variables included the animal species from which the strain was isolated, pathological condition of the host (incipient lesion, early and late generalisation), date of sampling (during or after the reproductive period) and hunting season. Bivariant analysis was used to establish the risk factors connected to the association of strains and later, the variables were evaluated by means of logistic regression. Molecular typing grouped a total of 131 strains (64.21%) in 28 clusters and 76 isolates shows unique profiles. The association of strains was connected to the appearance of macroscopic lesions during the reproductive period (O.R. 4.80; 95% CI 1.09-22.99, PActive spread was not connected to any species in particular, or to any concrete pathological condition. PMID:16143470

  6. Ecosystem scale declines in elk recruitment and population growth with wolf colonization: a before-after-control-impact approach.

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    David Christianson

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus to Yellowstone provided the unusual opportunity for a quasi-experimental test of the effects of wolf predation on their primary prey (elk--Cervus elaphus in a system where top-down, bottom-up, and abiotic forces on prey population dynamics were closely and consistently monitored before and after reintroduction. Here, we examined data from 33 years for 12 elk population segments spread across southwestern Montana and northwestern Wyoming in a large scale before-after-control-impact analysis of the effects of wolves on elk recruitment and population dynamics. Recruitment, as measured by the midwinter juvenile∶female ratio, was a strong determinant of elk dynamics, and declined by 35% in elk herds colonized by wolves as annual population growth shifted from increasing to decreasing. Negative effects of population density and winter severity on recruitment, long recognized as important for elk dynamics, were detected in uncolonized elk herds and in wolf-colonized elk herds prior to wolf colonization, but not after wolf colonization. Growing season precipitation and harvest had no detectable effect on recruitment in either wolf treatment or colonization period, although harvest rates of juveniles∶females declined by 37% in wolf-colonized herds. Even if it is assumed that mortality due to predation is completely additive, liberal estimates of wolf predation rates on juvenile elk could explain no more than 52% of the total decline in juvenile∶female ratios in wolf-colonized herds, after accounting for the effects of other limiting factors. Collectively, these long-term, large-scale patterns align well with prior studies that have reported substantial decrease in elk numbers immediately after wolf recolonization, relatively weak additive effects of direct wolf predation on elk survival, and decreased reproduction and recruitment with exposure to predation risk from wolves.

  7. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

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    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  8. What cues do ungulates use to assess predation risk in dense temperate forests?

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    Dries P J Kuijper

    Full Text Available Anti-predator responses by ungulates can be based on habitat features or on the near-imminent threat of predators. In dense forest, cues that ungulates use to assess predation risk likely differ from half-open landscapes, as scent relative to sight is predicted to be more important. We studied, in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland, whether perceived predation risk in red deer (Cervus elaphus and wild boar (Sus scrofa is related to habitat visibility or olfactory cues of a predator. We used camera traps in two different set-ups to record undisturbed ungulate behavior and fresh wolf (Canis lupus scats as olfactory cue. Habitat visibility at fixed locations in deciduous old growth forest affected neither vigilance levels nor visitation rate and cumulative visitation time of both ungulate species. However, red deer showed a more than two-fold increase of vigilance level from 22% of the time present on control plots to 46% on experimental plots containing one wolf scat. Higher vigilance came at the expense of time spent foraging, which decreased from 32% to 12% while exposed to the wolf scat. These behavioral changes were most pronounced during the first week of the experiment but continuous monitoring of the plots suggested that they might last for several weeks. Wild boar did not show behavioral responses indicating higher perceived predation risk. Visitation rate and cumulative visitation time were not affected by the presence of a wolf scat in both ungulate species. The current study showed that perceived predation risk in red deer and wild boar is not related to habitat visibility in a dense forest ecosystem. However, olfactory cues of wolves affected foraging behavior of their preferred prey species red deer. We showed that odor of wolves in an ecologically equivalent dose is sufficient to create fine-scale risk factors for red deer.

  9. Time-dependence of 137Cs activity concentration in wild game meat in Knyszyn Primeval Forest (Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild game meat samples were analysed from the region of the Podlasie province (Knyszyn Primeval Forest). 137Cs content in meat was determined by gamma spectrometry in 2003 (33 samples), 2009 (22 samples) and 2012 (26 samples). The samples were collected in the autumn of 2003, 2009 and 2012 and were compared with data from 1996. Mean concentrations of 137Cs in the respective years were as follow: 42.2 Bq kg−1, 33.7 Bq kg−1 and 30.5 Bq kg−1, respectively. On the basis of mean values of 137Cs in the meat samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) between 1996/2012, the effective half-life of 137Cs was determined for specific species. For red deer equaled 8.9 years, for roe deer 11.6 years while for wild boar it exceeded the physical half-life and equaled 38.5 years. Mean value CR obtained for all three species equaled 1.7 ± 1.5 out of 102 measurements in animals muscles. - Highlights: • 137Cs activity concentrations in wild game meat from North-east Poland are presented. • The determined T1/2eff for 137Cs for red deer, wild boar and roe deer. • The results of 16 years of observation are presented. • Significant scattering of results for wild boars was observed. • Concentration ratio (CR) values were calculated out of the results for three species

  10. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

  11. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  12. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg-1 in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg-1 for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were ∼4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  13. Chronic effects of lead (Pb) on bone properties in red deer and wild boar: Relationship with vitamins A and D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we study the occurrence of abnormalities on bone tissue composition and turnover mechanisms through the Pb-mediated disruption of vitamins A and D in wild ungulates living in a lead (Pb)-polluted mining area. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the mining area had significantly higher liver and bone Pb levels than controls, which were associated with the depletion of liver retinyl esters and the corresponding increase of free retinol levels both in deer and boar from the mining area. Pb-exposed adult deer had lower carbonate content in bone mineral than controls, which was associated with the increased free retinol percentage. In wild boar, the degree of bone mineralization was also positively associated with higher burdens of retinyl esters. These results suggest that Pb-associated changes in bone composition and mineralization is likely influenced by the depletion of vitamin A in wildlife exposed to environmental Pb pollution. Highlights: ► We studied the effects of Pb pollution on bone and vitamins in wild ungulates from a mining area. ► Pb decreased the carbonate content in bone mineral in adult red deer. ► Pb increased the ratio of free retinol:retinyl esters in red deer and wild boar. ► Changes in vitamin A status were associated with changes in the carbonate content in bone mineral. ► Adverse effect of Pb on vitamin A status may be involved with toxic effects of Pb in bone tissue. -- The effect of Pb on vitamin A status could be involved in disturbances on bone biomeralization in red deer and wild boar living in Pb-polluted mining areas

  14. Sporormiella as a proxy for non-mammalian herbivores in island ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Cooper, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Spores of the dung-fungi Sporormiella are routinely used as a proxy for past megaherbivore biomass and to pinpoint the timing of extinctions. Further ecological insight can also be gained into the impacts that followed initial human arrival in a region through correlation of spore abundance with other proxies (e.g. pollen, charcoal). Currently, the use of Sporormiella as a palaeoecological proxy has been restricted to landmasses where large-herbivore guilds are dominated by mammals. Here, we use New Zealand as a case study to show that the method can also be applied effectively to islands dominated by large avian herbivores. We examine 44 dung samples from 7 localities to show that Sporormiella spores were widely distributed in the dung of endemic avian herbivores (South Island takahe ( Porphyrio hochstetteri), kakapo ( Strigops habroptilus), and several species of extinct moa, identified by ancient DNA analysis). In addition, we show that Sporormiella spores in a forest soil core from the Murchison Mountains, South Island, accurately trace the post-settlement decline of native avian herbivores, and combined with high-resolution radiocarbon dating reveal severely reduced local herbivore populations by the late 17th Century AD. The spores also trace the subsequent spread of Red deer ( Cervus elaphus) introduced to the area in the early 20th Century AD. Our results suggest Sporormiella spores may provide a useful new tool for examining extinctions on numerous islands where terrestrial herbivore guilds were dominated by birds or reptiles. Our findings also highlight the need to consider entire herbivore communities (including birds and reptiles) when examining Late Pleistocene continental Sporormiella records, where the focus has often been tracing the decline of populations of large mammals.

  15. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  16. Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Ament

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp., elk (Cervus elaphus, and moose (Alces alces are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal killed in the collision, and cost of disposal of the animal carcass. In addition, we reviewed the effectiveness and costs of 13 mitigation measures considered effective in reducing collisions with large ungulates. We conducted cost–benefit analyses over a 75-year period using discount rates of 1%, 3%, and 7% to identify the threshold values (in 2007 U.S. dollars above which individual mitigation measures start generating benefits in excess of costs. These threshold values were translated into the number of deer–, elk–, or moose–vehicle collisions that need to occur per kilometer per year for a mitigation measure to start generating economic benefits in excess of costs. In addition, we calculated the costs associated with large ungulate–vehicle collisions on 10 road sections throughout the United States and Canada and compared these to the threshold values. Finally, we conducted a more detailed cost analysis for one of these road sections to illustrate that even though the average costs for large ungulate–vehicle collisions per kilometer per year may not meet the thresholds of many of the mitigation measures, specific locations on a road section can still exceed thresholds. We believe the cost–benefit model presented in this paper can be a valuable decision support tool for determining mitigation measures to reduce ungulate–vehicle collisions.

  17. The effect of human activities and their associated noise on ungulate behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife is a relatively new area of study with broad ranging management implications. Noise has been identified as a disturbance that has the potential to induce behavioral responses in animals similar to those associated with predation risk. This study investigated potential impacts of a variety of human activities and their associated noise on the behavior of elk (Cervus elaphus and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana along a transportation corridor in Grand Teton National Park. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted roadside scan surveys and focal observations of ungulate behavior while concurrently recording human activity and anthropogenic noise. Although we expected ungulates to be more responsive with greater human activity and noise, as predicted by the risk disturbance hypothesis, they were actually less responsive (less likely to perform vigilant, flight, traveling and defensive behaviors with increasing levels of vehicle traffic, the human activity most closely associated with noise. Noise levels themselves had relatively little effect on ungulate behavior, although there was a weak negative relationship between noise and responsiveness in our scan samples. In contrast, ungulates did increase their responsiveness with other forms of anthropogenic disturbance; they reacted to the presence of pedestrians (in our scan samples and to passing motorcycles (in our focal observations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ungulates did not consistently associate noise and human activity with an increase in predation risk or that they could not afford to maintain responsiveness to the most frequent human stimuli. Although reduced responsiveness to certain disturbances may allow for greater investment in fitness-enhancing activities, it may also decrease detections of predators and other environmental cues and increase conflict with humans.

  18. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia López-Alfaro

    Full Text Available Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki, whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis, and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus, in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  19. Carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2007-08-01

    The continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. I used variation in the distribution of four Holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. By simulating the presence of wolves (Canis lupus), tigers (Panthera tigris), and brown bears (Ursus arctos) at 19 transcontinental sites, I assayed three metrics of prey performance in areas with no large terrestrial carnivores (the polar islands of Greenland and Svalbard), extant native carnivores (Eastern Siberian Shield, boreal Canada, and Alaska); and repatriated carnivores (the Yellowstone region and Rocky Mountains). The loss and reestablishment of large carnivores changed the ecological effectiveness of systems by (1) dampening immediate group benefits, diminishing awareness, and diminishing flight reaction in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) where predation was eliminated and (2) reinstituting sensitivity to carnivores by elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) in the Yellowstone region to levels observed in Asian elk when sympatric with Siberian tigers and wolves or in Alaskan moose sympatric with wolves. Behavioral compensation to reintroduced carnivores occurred within a single generation, but only the vigilance reaction of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone exceeded that of their wolf-exposed conspecifics from boreal Canada. Beyond these overt responses by prey, snow depth and distance to suitably vegetated habitat was related to heightened vigilance in moose and elk, respectively, but only at sites with carnivores. These findings are insufficient to determine whether similar patterns might apply to other species or in areas with alien predators, and they suggest that the presumed excessive vulnerability of naïve prey to repatriated carnivores may be ill-founded. Although

  20. Tall Grass Invasion After Grassland Abandonment Influences the Availability of Palatable Plants for Wild Herbivores: Insight into the Conservation of the Apennine Chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Marcello; Tardella, Federico Maria; Ferrari, Carlo; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Invasion of the tall grass Brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central Apennines (Italy) where the population size of Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. Since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that B. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. Our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to investigate the plant community level and fine-scale interactions. We analyzed data using correlation, generalized linear models, and redundancy analyses. We found that B. genuense can reach high abundance values on the deepest soils. Its high cover value influences plant community composition by competitive exclusion of subordinate species and suppression of functional features because of temporal or spatial niche overlap. This leads to low cover of palatable species at a fine scale, and to poor pasture quality for chamois at a wider scale. Therefore, we postulated that B. genuense invasion, enhanced by long-term grazing cessation, may reduce the availability of palatable plants for Apennine chamois, especially below the potential timberline (1900-2000 m a.s.l.). The high abundance of B. genuense may amplify the effect of other negative factors, such as competition with red deer (Cervus elaphus) and climate change, in restricting the suitable habitat of the Apennine chamois to the higher sectors of the central Apennines. Thus, we suggested that B. genuense spread should be monitored carefully and plans to control its invasion should be implemented. PMID:26899738

  1. A hybrid double-observer sightability model for aerial surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Reid, Mason; Happe, Patricia J.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Tirhi, Michelle J.; Schaberi, Jim P.; Beirne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Raw counts from aerial surveys make no correction for undetected animals and provide no estimate of precision with which to judge the utility of the counts. Sightability modeling and double-observer (DO) modeling are 2 commonly used approaches to account for detection bias and to estimate precision in aerial surveys. We developed a hybrid DO sightability model (model MH) that uses the strength of each approach to overcome the weakness in the other, for aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus). The hybrid approach uses detection patterns of 2 independent observer pairs in a helicopter and telemetry-based detections of collared elk groups. Candidate MH models reflected hypotheses about effects of recorded covariates and unmodeled heterogeneity on the separate front-seat observer pair and back-seat observer pair detection probabilities. Group size and concealing vegetation cover strongly influenced detection probabilities. The pilot's previous experience participating in aerial surveys influenced detection by the front pair of observers if the elk group was on the pilot's side of the helicopter flight path. In 9 surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, the raw number of elk counted was approximately 80–93% of the abundance estimated by model MH. Uncorrected ratios of bulls per 100 cows generally were low compared to estimates adjusted for detection bias, but ratios of calves per 100 cows were comparable whether based on raw survey counts or adjusted estimates. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to DO modeling.

  2. Listeria monocytogenes in Different Specimens from Healthy Red Deer and Wild Boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Lucia; Frank, Elisabeth; Ullrich, Ulrike; Heurich, Marco; Kleta, Sylvia; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Gareis, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    In the past, Listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from game feces and meat. However, less information is available on the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in other specimens originating from game animals. Hence, the aim of this study was to get an overview of the occurrence and distribution of L. monocytogenes in game animals by characterization of isolates from different matrices. For that purpose, samples were collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and feed during the hunting season 2011-2012 in three different regions of Germany and Austria. Six samples from each animal were examined: tonsils, content of the rumen or the stomach, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, cecum content, and feces. Nineteen of 45 red deer and 12 of 49 wild boars were found to be positive for L. monocytogenes as well as 4 of 22 pooled feed samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated most frequently from the rumen of red deer (14 of 19) and the tonsils of wild boars (7 of 12). Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 4a, and 4b were detected in samples of game animals and feed, and serotypes 1/2a and 4b were the most prevalent serotypes. The presence of L. monocytogenes serotype 4a had not yet been described in red deer. This might be due to the fact that it was only isolated from the content of rumen and that no other study has yet examined ruminal content. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a wide variety of strains. Some strains occurred in both species and feed samples, but one strain was dominant in one region. The results show that red deer and wild boars can be carriers of L. monocytogenes in different matrices, although the feces samples can be negative. PMID:27159352

  3. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN WILD RUMINANTS IN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, José M; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; González-Zotes, Elena; Pereira-Bueno, Juana; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Rubio, Pedro; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Álvarez-García, Gema

    2016-04-28

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. Numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. However, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. We studied the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four national wildlife reserves: three open space reserves in northwest Spain (Ancares, Mampodre, and Riaño) and a fenced reserve in central Spain (Quintos de Mora). Sera from roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) and chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ) were collected in Ancares (roe deer), Mampodre (both species), and Riaño (both species), whereas red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) sera were collected only in Quintos de Mora. The results of immunofluorescence antibody tests showed a T. gondii antibody prevalence significantly higher in red deer (13%; 17/131) than in roe deer (2%; 5/228) and chamois (4%; 6/149) (Panimals (2/131 red deer, 2/228 roe deer, and 2/149 chamois). Management measures were implemented in the Quintos de Mora reserve and T. gondii antibody prevalence in red deer decreased from 13% to 2% after 5 yr. In contrast, N. caninum antibody prevalences were very low (hunting reservations studied, so interconnection between sylvatic and domestic life cycles is unlikely. Regardless, a sustainable exploitation of natural resources in wildlife reserves may help to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii infection. PMID:26967135

  4. Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans. PMID:26365428

  5. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates. PMID:22403707

  6. The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Buhrs, Elfi; Verheijen, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    The locality Schöningen (Germany) is an important source of knowledge about Lower Paleolithic hominin subsistence. The locality includes a series of sites dated to the late Middle Pleistocene with a Holsteinian (MIS 11) and Reinsdorf Interglacial (MIS 9) age. One of the youngest sites is Schöningen 13 II-4, the Spear Horizon site also known as the Horse Butchery site. The organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in an area where the groundwater is rich in calcium carbonate. The fossil assemblage is ideal for the study of patterns in hominin interference with the mammalian species encountered at the site. The vertebrate record is extensive and very diverse. The fossil larger carnivore guild of the Spear Horizon faunal assemblage includes saber-toothed cat, fox, and wolf. Herbivores are represented by an elephant species, two equid species, two rhinoceros species, two cervid species, and two large bovid species. Evidence of hominin interference presents itself as either marks on skeletal remains related to the use of bones as knapping tools or hammers, or as marks that indicate butchering activities such as skinning, dismembering, defleshing, filleting, and marrow extraction. The humerus of the saber-toothed cat clearly shows that the bone has been used as a knapping tool. The fossil remains of the other larger carnivores do not show any signs of hominin interference or exploitation. This also applies to the limited number of elephant and rhinoceros remains found at the site. The large horse Equus mosbachensis dominates the larger mammal record and played a major role in hominin subsistence. Marks on the horse bones indicate that a large number of carcasses have been butchered. Traces on the fossil remains of both red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the large bovids also indicate exploitation by Lower Paleolithic hominins. PMID:26607346

  7. Evolution of habitat and environment of deer during the Late-glacial and early Holocene: the case of red deer in French Jura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Dorothée.; Bridault, Anne; Hujic, Alisa; Bocherens, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The Late-glacial and early Holocene transition is a key period of environmental changes in a context of to a global warming. In northwestern Europe, extensive studies have documented the vegetation and faunal recomposition with the replacement of the cold steppe-tundra ecosystem by the forested temperate ecosystem we can still observe. Paleoecological interest focused on the extinct large mammals species like the Mammoth. In comparison, little has been done to decipher the ecological adaptation of the surviving species, especially those that are still present in the very same region than in the past. A better knowledge of the impact of changing environmental conditions on the ecology would be useful to define the degree of selective pressure. Thus, we have studied the habitat and environment evolution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the Late-glacial and early Holocene using stable isotopes and radiocarbon investigations. The analyzed bone material was selected from archaeological sites in French Jura. Performing direct radiocarbon dating on the bone collagen of the selected remains solved the problem of possible chronological uncertainties of the stratigraphical record of the sites. The same bone collagen samples were used for stable isotope measurements. We investigated the relative abundances in 13C to examine changes in habitat closure (canopy effect), in 15N to decipher changes in pedogenic activities (soil maturation) of the animals dwelling, and in 18O to track changes in altitude and/or local temperatures of the occupied territories. The results demonstrate that the stable isotopic composition of red deer bone collagen can be a valuable and sensitive indicator of habitat use and environmental conditions. The associated direct dating allows us to reconstruct the chronology of ecological changes. The combined chronological and ecological results evidence local differences in red deer adaptation at a small geographical scale.

  8. Sarcoptic mange in red deer from Spain: improved surveillance or disease emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, A; Casais, R; González-Quirós, P; Prieto, M; Gortázar, C

    2008-06-14

    Concern about emerging diseases has risen in recent years, and multihost situations have become increasingly relevant for wildlife management and conservation. We present data on Asturias, northern Spain, where 80 mangy red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been found since the beginning of the epizootic in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva) in 1993. We combine field and necropsy data with the results of a serosurvey using an in-house ELISA test to evaluate if deer mange due to Sarcoptes scabiei is an emerging disease in this area. The mean number of deer mange cases per year was 5, with a maximum of 16. No significant relationship was detected between monthly temperatures, rainfall or number of days with snow cover and the annual number of sarcoptic mange cases in red deer. Only 4 mangy red deer (5%) were detected outside the limits of scabietic chamois distribution during the same year, and all were less than 2500 m away from that limit. The longest distance reported between two consecutive mangy deer locations was 18 km. Mange cases were significantly more frequent in stags than in hinds and in adults than in juvenile deer. The time of the first mange detection in chamois in each sector, year with minimum number of chamois recorded, year with maximum chamois population decline rate and chamois density offered no significant correlation with red deer mange cases appearance moment and frequency. In the mange affected area, ELISA testing of 327 blood samples from hunter-harvested deer without obvious mange-compatible lesions revealed only 4 seropositive animals. All 83 sera from hunting preserves without clinical cases yielded negative ELISA results. According to these epidemiological data mange does not seem to threaten red deer populations in Asturias. However, continued monitoring of deer health and ELISA testing for sarcoptic mange is advisable. PMID:18430519

  9. Comparison and overlap of sympatric wild ungulate diet in Cazorla, segura and las Villas Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Martínez, T.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trophic relationships and the degree of overlap between the diet of Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica, red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon in the Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas National Park (Southeastern of Spain. Stomach content was used as the basis for diet evaluation. The most heavily consumed plant species by the four herbivores were Quercus rotundifolia, Phillyrea latifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Oryzopsis paradoxa and Festuca arundinacea. Spanish ibex and red deer were the ungulates with the most similar diet (53.7% overlap, both were browsers and consumed large amounts of woody matter. Fallow deer and mouflon had similar feeding habits, both are grazers and have a high intake of grasses. There were very low levels of overlap between the ibex and red deer diet with that of fallow deer and mouflon, respectively. Mouflon was the largest forbs consumer, fallow deer consumed most camephytes and red deer consumed most trees and shrubs. None of the four ungulates had absolutely definitive diets that could class them strictly as browsers or grazers, however certain trends suggested that ibex and red deer primarily behave as browsers while fallow deer and mouflon are grazers, although this was not a strict division.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié le degré de superposition entre la diète du bouquetin (Capra pyrenaica, cerf (Cervus elaphus, daim (Dama dama et mouflon (Ovis musimon dans le Parc National de Cazorla, Segura et Las Villas (SE de l'Espagne. Pour l'évaluation de la diète, nous nous sommes basés sur les contenus stomachaux. Les espèces les plus consommées par les quatre herbivores étaient Quercus rotundifolia, Phillyrea latifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Oryzopsis paradoxa et Festuca arundinacea. Le bouquetin et le cerf montraient la diète la plus semblable (53,77o de

  10. FAUNA POLIPARAZITARĂ A MAMIFERELOR SĂLBATICE DIN REZERVAŢIA NATURALĂ „CODRII” DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan RUSU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studiul parazitofaunei la mamiferele sălbatice din Rezervaţia Naturală „Codrii”, Republica Moldova, a pus în evi­denţă un nivel înalt de infestare a lor cu fasciole, dicrocelii, strongiloizi, protişti. Cerbul-nobil (Cervus elaphus Linaeus, 1758 era infestat cu Dicrocoelium lanceolatum (12,8%, Fasciola hepatica (9,5%, larve de strongiloizi (88,0% şi oochişti de Eimeria spp. (28,2%; cerbul-cu-pete (Cervus nippon Temminsk, 1838 – cu D. lanceolatum (14,9%, F. hepatica (10,2%, larve de strongiloizi (79,8%, oochişti de Eimeria spp. (22,4%; căpriorul (Capreolus capreolus Linaeus, 1758 – cu D. lanceolatum (20,1%, F. hepatica (3,2%, larve de strongiloizi (89,4% şi oochişti de Eimeria spp. (38,1%. La mistreţ s-a constatat un nivel de infestare cu Dicrocoelium lanceolatum în 3,6% cazuri, larve de Stron­gy­loides ransomi – în 72,3% cazuri, Metastrongylus elongatus – în 87,5% cazuri şi cu Eimeria spp. – în 46,3% cazuri. La Iepurele-de-câmp s-a constatat un nivel de infestare cu D. lanceolatum în 28,2% cazuri şi cu Strongyloides papillosus – în 59,4% cazuri. Nivelul înalt de infestare a mamiferelor sălbatice cu diverşi agenţi parazitari demonstrează încă o dată că ele participă la menţinerea lanţului epizootic al acestor maladii şi au un rol important la infestarea omului şi a anima­lelor domestice. Prin urmare, este strict necesar ca maladiile parazitare la animalele sălbatice să fie anual monitorizate, stabilind în acest mod evoluţia lor, apariţia unor noi agenţi parazitari şi elaborarea măsurilor de combatere a acestora. POLIPARASITIC FAUNA OF WILD MAMMALS INHABITING NATURAL RESERVATION “COdrii” in THE Republic OF MOldovaThe study on parasitic fauna in wild mammals from natural reservation “Codrii” in Republic of Moldova has revealed the high level of their infestation with fascicles, dicrocelium, strongiles and protista. The red deer (Cervus elaphus Linaeus, 1758 have been infested

  11. Reducing Reliance on Supplemental Winter Feeding in Elk (Cervus canadensis): An Applied Management Experiment at Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mangus, Dax L

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers have fed elk in North America for nearly 100 years. Giving winter feed to elk can compensate for a shortage of natural winter range and may boost elk populations while also helping prevent commingling with livestock and depredation of winter feed intended for livestock. In contrast to these benefits of supplemental feeding, there are economic and environmental costs associated with feeding, and elk herds that winter on feeding grounds have a higher risk of contracting and ...

  12. Influence of human activities on the activity patterns of Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, van N.; Ohashi, H.; Koike, S.; Kaji, K.

    2015-01-01

    Human ageing and population decline in Japan are causing agricultural field abandonment and providing new habitats for Japanese sika deer and wild boar. These species have expanded their distribution and increased in abundance across Japan and are causing increased agricultural damage. Effective cou

  13. Dexamethasone-induced recrudescence of malignant catarrhal fever and associated lymphosarcoma and granulomatous disease in a Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschele, W P; Nielsen, N O; Oosterhuis, J E; Castro, A E

    1985-07-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in a 2-week-old Formosan sika deer. The fawn had been previously exposed to a clinically normal neonatal wildebeest calf from which alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 was isolated. Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 was isolated from buffy coat leukocytes and nasal and ocular secretions of the fawn during the acute illness. The fawn clinically recovered after 3 weeks. Virus was not recovered from blood at this time. Dexamethasone, given 4 months after clinical recovery, resulted in reisolation of MCF virus from blood and recrudescence of clinical MCF. The deer was euthanatized. At necropsy, pathognomonic lesions of MCF, granulomatous disease, and malignant lymphoma were observed. Antibodies to bovine leukosis viral antigens were not detected in the serum. The epidemiologic and pathogenetic importance of the findings are discussed. PMID:3839641

  14. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuura, Yukiko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Saga, Shin-Ichi; Okuyama, Hideto; Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation. PMID:25482110

  15. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    YANAGAWA, Yojiro; Matsuura, Yukiko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; SAGA, Shin-ichi; OKUYAMA, Hideto; FUKUI, Daisuke; BANDO, Gen; NAGANO, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed ...

  16. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon) fed protein deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Huang; Tie-Tao Zhang; Bao Kun; Guang-Yu Li; Kai-Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP) deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4): i) CP-adequate (16.63%) diet; ii) CP-deficient (13.77%) diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii) CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv) CP-deficient diet w...

  17. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture. PMID:25186458

  18. Classification and phylogeny of sika deer (Cervus nippon) subspecies based on the mitochondrial control region DNA sequence using an extended sample set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei; Li, Chunyi

    2015-06-01

    To further refine the classification and phylogeny of sika deer subspecies, the well-annotated sequences of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 13 sika deer subspecies from GenBank were downloaded, aligned and analyzed in this study. By reconstructing the phylogenetic tree with an extended sample set, the results revealed a split between Northern and Southern Mainland Asia/Taiwan lineages, and moreover, two subspecies, C.n.mantchuricus and C.n.hortulorum, were existed in Northern Mainland Asia. Unexpectedly, Dybowskii's sika deer that was thought to originate from Northern Mainland Asia joins the Southern Mainland Asia/Taiwan lineage. The genetic divergences were ranged from 2.1% to 4.7% between Dybowskii's sika deer and all the other established subspecies at the mtDNA sequence level, which suggests that the maternal lineage of uncertain sika subspecies in Europe had been maintained until today. This study also provides a better understanding for the classification, phylogeny and phylogeographic history of sika deer subspecies. PMID:24063645

  19. An examination of the origin and evolution of additional tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Japanese sika deer (Cervus Nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Wu, Lang; Liu, Zongyue; Li, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Tandem repeat units are only detected in the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA control region in sika deer. Previous studies showed that Japanese sika deer have more tandem repeat units than its cousins from the Asian continent and Taiwan, which often have only three repeat units. To determine the origin and evolution of these additional repeat units in Japanese sika deer, we obtained the sequence of repeat units from an expanded dataset of the control region from all sika deer lineages. The functional constraint is inferred to act on the first repeat unit because this repeat has the least sequence divergence in comparison to the other units. Based on slipped-strand mispairing mechanisms, the illegitimate elongation model could account for the addition or deletion of these additional repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population. We also report that these additional repeat units could be occurring in the internal positions of tandem repeat regions, possibly via coupling with a homogenization mechanism within and among these lineages. Moreover, the increased number of repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population could reflect a balance between mutation and selection, as well as genetic drift. PMID:24621225

  20. Bioimformatic Analysis on GHR Gene of Cervus nippon%梅花鹿GHR基因完整编码区序列生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兴超; 杨福合; 巴恒星; 邢秀梅; 魏海军

    2012-01-01

    为了研究梅花鹿生长激素受体基因的结构和功能,从GenBank中下载梅花鹿、牛、山羊、猪、北极狐、大熊猫、人、猕猴、小鼠、大鼠、鸡、家鹅、绿头野鸭及金鱼的生长激素受体基因完整编码区及氨基酸序列,对梅花鹿与其他13个物种生长激素受体基因的完整编码区及其编码氨基酸序列进行相似性比对,并基于氨基酸序列构建系统进化树,利用BioEdit 7.0等软件对梅花鹿生长激素受体基因的碱基组成及其编码蛋白的理化性质和结构特征进行生物信息学分析.结果表明,梅花鹿与山羊、牛的生长激素受体基因氨基酸序列相似性较高,亲缘关系最近;梅花鹿生长激素受体基因完整编码区长度为1 905bp,编码634个氨基酸,A+T含量高于G+C;其编码的蛋白是一种分子质量为70.927 8ku、等电点为4.56的疏水性不稳定酸性蛋白;该蛋白含有1个信号肽,属于一种分泌型蛋白;存在1个强跨膜区、36个广泛磷酸化位点,二级结构元件以无规则卷曲为主.研究结果可为梅花鹿生长激素受体基因的进一步分析提供详细的生物信息学基础资料.%In order to study the structure and function of GHR gene of sika deer, coding sequences(CDS)of GHR gene in sika deer, cattle, goat, pig,arctic fox,giant panda,human,macaque, house mouse,norway rat,chicken,goose,mallard and goldfish were downloaded from GenBank as experimental materials. The similarity of GHR gene CDS and amino acid sequence between sika deer and other 13 species were analyzed. Phylo-genetic tree of the homologous gene based on the amino acid of GHR gene was constructed. In addition, we made bioinformatic analysis on basic information and encoding protein structure and physic - chemical property were predicted by means of biological software and online took.The results showed that the similarity comparison and phylogeneb'c tree indicated that the evolution distance of sika deer GHR gene was the most homogeneous to goat and cattle.The length of GHR gene coding sequence in sika deer is 1 905 bp, which encodes 634 amino acids.The estimated molecular weight of GHR protein is 70.927 8 ku.with an isoelectric point of 4.56 and 52.79 in instability index, belonging to the unstable acid protein with hydrophobieity. The GHR protein contained one signal peptide was probably being secreting type.The GHR protein had 1 obvious strong transmembrane region,36 phosphorylation sites.The secondary structure of GHR protein was mainly random coil.The research provides detailed bioinformatic informations for further study on GHR gene of sika deer.

  1. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  2. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  3. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis) spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY) extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, ...

  4. Mercury on national wildlife refuges as a threat to long-term viability of saltmarsh and Nelson’s sparrows in the face of climate induced sea level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions...

  5. "Surmaeelsed kogemused" võivad olla vaid uni / Alo Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Alo

    2006-01-01

    Surmasuust tagasi pöördunud inimeste kogetud valgusaistingud ja kehast lahkumise illusioonid võivad olle põhjustatud unelaadsest seisundist. Lexingtoni Kentucky ülikooli neuropsühholoogi Kevin Nelsoni uuringutest

  6. Estimating the phenology of elk brucellosis transmission with hierarchical models of cause-specific and baseline hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Jones, Jennifer D; Heisey, Dennis M.; Edwards, William H.; Scurlock, Brandon M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal timing of disease transmission can lead to more effective control strategies, but the seasonality of transmission is often unknown for pathogens transmitted directly. We inserted vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) in 575 elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) from 2006 to 2014 to assess when reproductive failures (i.e., abortions or still births) occur, which is the primary transmission route of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Using a survival analysis framework, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical model that simultaneously estimated the total baseline hazard of a reproductive event as well as its 2 mutually exclusive parts (abortions or live births). Approximately, 16% (95% CI = 0.10, 0.23) of the pregnant seropositive elk had reproductive failures, whereas 2% (95% CI = 0.01, 0.04) of the seronegative elk had probable abortions. Reproductive failures could have occurred as early as 13 February and as late as 10 July, peaking from March through May. Model results suggest that less than 5% of likely abortions occurred after 6 June each year and abortions were approximately 5 times more likely in March, April, or May compared to February or June. In western Wyoming, supplemental feeding of elk begins in December and ends during the peak of elk abortions and brucellosis transmission (i.e., Mar and Apr). Years with more snow may enhance elk-to-elk transmission on supplemental feeding areas because elk are artificially aggregated for the majority of the transmission season. Elk-to-cattle transmission will depend on the transmission period relative to the end of the supplemental feeding season, elk seroprevalence, population size, and the amount of commingling. Our statistical approach allowed us to estimate the probability density function of different event types over time, which may be applicable to other cause-specific survival analyses. It is often challenging to assess the

  7. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  8. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barbería, F J; Carranza, J; Sánchez-Prieto, C

    2015-01-01

    Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These results

  9. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Pérez-Barbería

    Full Text Available Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These

  10. Assessing Wildlife Habitat And Range Utilization in Arizona Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, C. F.; Marsh, S. E.; Krausman, P. R.; Enns, R. M.; Howery, L. D.; Trobia, E.; Wallace, C. S.; Walker, J. J.; Mauz, K.; Boyd, H.; Salazar, H.

    2001-05-01

    Since their reintroduction in 1914, elk (Cervus elaphus) have grown to be a major issue in the western United States. Most land is controlled by federal or state agencies, but individual ranchers have agreements that permit them to graze cattle on much of this land. Elk often compete with cattle for forage, and damage infrastructure (i.e. fences, watering points, and crops). Conversely, environmentalists and hunters also have an interest in the management of elk populations. As a result, consequence of these conflicting interests, there is little agreement about the size of the elk population or the nature, location, and timing of conflicts that elk might cause. This study was intended to provide information that might help managers understand the distribution of elk in Arizona as a consequence of seasonal variation and in response to extreme climatic events (i.e. El Niño and La Niña). The first task involved modeling elk populations over time. There are no long term or large-scale studies of elk movements through continuous observation (i.e. radiocollars). A technique for modeling elk population has been developed that is based on harvest data, gender ratios, and estimates of male mortality. This provided estimates of elk populations for individual game management units (areas for which harvest is reported and within which elk are managed by the Arizona Game and Fish Department). The second task involved the use of satellite data to characterize vegetation responses to seasonal and interannual climate variation among vegetation associations within game management units. This involved the use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) time series data to describe temporal vegetation behavior, Landsat and Ikonos data to describe spatial vegetation distribution in conjunction with U.S. Forest Service vegetation maps. Elk population estimates were correlated with satellite-derived vegetation measures by vegetation association through time. The patterns

  11. The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruvot Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus, bison (Bison bison and caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for

  12. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  13. Effects of wolves on elk and cattle behaviors: implications for livestock production and wolf conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laporte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus, perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest. During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72, individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and used more rugged terrain (Z = -2.856, P = 0.004 and steeper slopes (Z = -3.065, P = 0.002. For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = -2.551, P = 0.011. In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering just the market value of the animal killed

  14. Prioritizing conservation of ungulate calving resources in multiple-use landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Dzialak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conserving animal populations in places where human activity is increasing is an ongoing challenge in many parts of the world. We investigated how human activity interacted with maternal status and individual variation in behavior to affect reliability of spatially-explicit models intended to guide conservation of critical ungulate calving resources. We studied Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus that occupy a region where 2900 natural gas wells have been drilled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present novel applications of generalized additive modeling to predict maternal status based on movement, and of random-effects resource selection models to provide population and individual-based inference on the effects of maternal status and human activity. We used a 2×2 factorial design (treatment vs. control that included elk that were either parturient or non-parturient and in areas either with or without industrial development. Generalized additive models predicted maternal status (parturiency correctly 93% of the time based on movement. Human activity played a larger role than maternal status in shaping resource use; elk showed strong spatiotemporal patterns of selection or avoidance and marked individual variation in developed areas, but no such pattern in undeveloped areas. This difference had direct consequences for landscape-level conservation planning. When relative probability of use was calculated across the study area, there was disparity throughout 72-88% of the landscape in terms of where conservation intervention should be prioritized depending on whether models were based on behavior in developed areas or undeveloped areas. Model validation showed that models based on behavior in developed areas had poor predictive accuracy, whereas the model based on behavior in undeveloped areas had high predictive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By directly testing for differences between developed and undeveloped areas, and by

  15. Application of Landsat 5-TM and GIS data to elk habitat studies in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Stephen Gordon

    1999-12-01

    An extensive geographic information system (GIS) database and a large radiotelemetry sample of elk (n = 153) were used to study habitat use and selection differences between cow and bull elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Coeur d'Alene Mountains of Idaho. Significant sex differences in 40 ha area use, and interactive effects of sex and season on selection of 40 ha areas from home ranges were found. In all seasons, bulls used habitats with more closed canopy forest, more hiding cover, and less shrub and graminoid cover, than cows. Cows selected areas with shrub and graminoid cover in winter and avoided areas with closed canopy forest and hiding cover in winter and summer seasons. Both sexes selected 40 ha areas of unfragmented hiding cover and closed canopy forest during the hunting season. Bulls also avoided areas with high open road densities during the rut and hunting season. These results support present elk management recommendations, but our observations of sexual segregation provide biologists with an opportunity to refine habitat management plans to target bulls and cows specifically. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that hiding cover and canopy closure can be accurately estimated from Landsat 5-TM imagery and GIS soil data at a scale and resolution to which elk respond. As a result, our habitat mapping methods can be applied to large areas of private and public land with consistent, cost-efficient results. Non-Lambertian correction models of Landsat 5-TM imagery were compared to an uncorrected image to determine if topographic normalization increased the accuracy of elk habitat maps of forest structure in northern Idaho. The non-Lambertian models produced elk habitat maps with overall and kappa statistic accuracies as much as 21.3% higher (p < 0.0192) than the uncorrected image. Log-linear models and power analysis were used to study the dependence of commission and omission error rates on topographic normalization, vegetation type, and solar incidence angle

  16. Behavioural flexibility in migratory behaviour in a long-lived large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeman, Scott L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bohm, Holger; Whittington, Jesse; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2016-05-01

    Migratory animals are predicted to enhance lifetime fitness by obtaining higher quality forage and/or reducing predation risk compared to non-migratory conspecifics. Despite evidence for behavioural flexibility in other taxa, previous research on large mammals has often assumed that migratory behaviour is a fixed behavioural trait. Migratory behaviour may be plastic for many species, although few studies have tested for individual-level flexibility using long-term monitoring of marked individuals, especially in large mammals such as ungulates. We tested variability in individual migratory behaviour using a 10-year telemetry data set of 223 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in the partially migratory Ya Ha Tinda population in Alberta, Canada. We used net squared displacement (NSD) to classify migratory strategy for each individual elk-year. Individuals switched between migrant and resident strategies at a mean rate of 15% per year, and migrants were more likely to switch than residents. We then tested how extrinsic (climate, elk/wolf abundance) and intrinsic (age) factors affected the probability of migrating, and, secondly, the decision to switch between migratory strategies. Over 630 individual elk-years, the probability of an individual elk migrating increased following a severe winter, in years of higher wolf abundance, and with increasing age. At an individual elk level, we observed 148 switching events of 430 possible transitions in elk monitored at least 2 years. We found switching was density-dependent, where migrants switched to a resident strategy at low elk abundance, but residents switched more to a migrant strategy at high elk abundance. Precipitation during the previous summer had a weak carryover effect, with migrants switching slightly more following wetter summers, whereas residents showed the opposite pattern. Older migrant elk rarely switched, whereas resident elk switched more frequently to migrate at older ages. Our results show migratory

  17. Use of stable isotopes to identify dietary differences across subpopulations and sex for a free-ranging generalist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W David

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes in tissues can be used to understand plants consumed by various taxa, but can they provide additional information about consumers? Values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were assessed from tissue of free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) occupying disparate habitats of mixed prairie-oak savannah that contained C3 agricultural crops in a C4-dominated landscape and in key plants consumed by elk. Muscle and hoof samples were collected from female and male elk in two subpopulations (forested land and grassland) from private land and one subpopulation from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge (refuge) in 2001-2006. Previous research identified differences between mean muscle δ(13)C and δ(15)N and mean hoof δ(13)C and δ(15)N indicating that isotopes differed between tissues of varying metabolic activity. Mean δ(13)C in hoof of elk on forested land and grassland were lower than hoof δ(13)C from elk in the refuge indicating greater long-term consumption of C3 plants by elk on forested land and grassland subpopulations. The δ(15)N in hoof was greater for elk outside the refuge than that for elk in the refuge. Interaction of sex and subpopulation only occurred for hoof δ(15)N suggesting that factors such as tissue type, sex, and habitat need to be considered to understand free-ranging ecology of generalist herbivores using stable isotopes. Availability of C3 agricultural crops high in percent nitrogen on a nearly annual basis in a C4-dominated landscape was likely driving differences in tissue δ(13)C and δ(15)N among subpopulations of free-ranging elk. An increase in tissue δ(15)N resulted from an increase in the consumption of higher δ(15)N in forage for sexes and subpopulations of a free-ranging ungulate in North America but δ(15)N should be further evaluated as an index of nutrition for subpopulations of generalist herbivores. PMID:24450704

  18. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of 3H, 90Sr, totU, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, and 137Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below guidelines

  19. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail A; Kauffman, Matthew J; Middleton, Arthur D; Jimenez, Michael D; McWhirter, Douglas E; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human-wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. In landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic wolf-livestock conflict in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Using three years of fine-scale wolf (n = 14) and elk (n = 81) movement data, we compared the seasonal habitat use of wolves in an area dominated by migratory elk with that of wolves in an adjacent area dominated by resident elk. Most migratory elk vacate the associated winter wolf territories each summer via a 40-60 km migration, whereas resident elk remain accessible to wolves year-round. We used a generalized linear model to compare the relative probability of wolf use as a function of GIS-based habitat covariates in the migratory and resident elk areas. Although wolves in both areas used elk-rich habitat all year, elk density in summer had a weaker influence on the habitat use of wolves in the migratory elk area than the resident elk area. Wolves employed a number of alternative strategies to cope with the departure of migratory elk. Wolves in the two areas also differed in their disposition toward roads. In winter, wolves in the migratory elk area used habitat close to roads, while wolves in the resident elk area avoided roads. In summer, wolves in the migratory elk area were indifferent to roads, while wolves in resident elk areas strongly avoided roads, presumably due to the location of dens and summering elk combined with different traffic levels. Study results can help wildlife managers to anticipate the movements and establishment of wolf packs as they expand into areas

  20. Survey of selected pathogens and blood parameters of northern yellowstone elk: Wolf sanitation effect implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; White, P.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park [YNP] during 2000-2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus) restoration (WR) in 1995 and to two other herds in Montana to assess this prediction. Blood parameters were generally within two standard deviations of the means observed in other Montana herds (Gravelly-Snowcrest [GS] and Garnet Mountain [GM]), but Yellowstone elk had higher seroprevalences of parainfluenza-3 virus (95% CI YNP = 61.1-78.6, GS = 30.3-46.5) and bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type 1 (95% CI YNP = 15.9-31.9, GM = 0). In comparisons between pre-wolf restoration [pre-WR] (i.e., prior to 1995) seroprevalences with those post-wolf restoration [post-WR] in Yellowstone, we found lower seroprevalences for some disease-causing agents post-wolf restoration (e.g., bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type-1 [95% CI pre-WR = 73.1-86.3, post-WR = 15.9-31.9] and bovine-respiratory syncytial virus [95% CI pre-WR = 70.0-83.8, post-WR = 0]), but similar (e.g., Brucella abortus [95% CI pre-WR = 0-4.45, post-WR = 0-4.74] and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 0]) or higher for others (e.g., Anaplasma marginale [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 18.5-38.7] and Leptospira spp. [95% CI pre-WR = 0.5-6.5, post-WR = 9.5-23.5]). Though we did not detect an overall strong predation effect through reduced disease seroprevalence using retrospective comparisons with sparse data, our reference values will facilitate future assessments of this issue.

  1. Spatially explicit modeling of animal tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in Ciudad Real province, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHue, Nathaniel P; Baños, Joaquín Vicente; Acevedo, Pelayo; Gortázar, Christian; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-06-01

    Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are the most important wildlife reservoirs for animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), in Mediterranean Spain. These species are considered to play an important role in the transmission and persistence of MTC in cattle in some regions; however the factors contributing to the risk of transmission at the wildlife-livestock interface and the areas at highest risk for such transmission are largely unknown. This study sought to identify geographic areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are most likely to occur and to characterize the environmental and management factors at this interface contributing to persistence, incidence, and occurrence of TB on cattle farms, in one of the provinces with higher TB prevalence in Spain, Ciudad Real. We used spatially explicit, ecological niche models to evaluate the importance of factors such as wildlife demographics and hunting management, land use, climatic, and environmental variables as well as TB status in wildlife for TB breakdown (model 1), persistence (model 2) and new infection (model 3) on cattle farms and to generate high resolution maps of predicted TB occurrence to guide risk-based interventions. Models revealed that land use, particularly open area and woodland, high wild boar TB prevalence, and close proximity to fenced hunting estates were the most important factors associated with TB infection on cattle farms. This is the first time that local TB prevalence in wild boar for individual hunting estates has been significantly associated with TB occurrence on cattle farms at a local scale. Prediction maps identified two areas with high likelihood of TB occurrence in the southwest and northwest of the province where wildlife-livestock interactions and TB occurrence are highly likely and where TB preventative and mitigation strategies (e.g. targeted vaccination, increased biosecurity, etc.) should be prioritized

  2. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  3. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  4. The role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Arnal, María C; Martínez-Durán, David; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Revilla, Miguel; L Fernández de Luco, Daniel; Jiménez-Meléndez, Alejandro; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Habela, Miguel Angel; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Álvarez-García, Gema

    2016-06-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis, a parasitic disease caused by Besnoitia besnoiti, has been reported mainly in beef cattle raised under extensive pastoral systems and is considered to be re-emerging in Western Europe. Horizontal transmission probably occurs either by means of blood sucking arthropods or as a consequence of direct contact between infected and non-infected cattle. However, the role that wild ruminants (e.g., red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)) may play in the parasite life cycle as putative reservoirs remains elusive. Thus, we investigated the presence of Besnoitia spp. infection in 2608 wild ruminants located in areas where bovine besnoitiosis is present and identified the Besnoitia species detected. First, a serosurvey was conducted in red deer (n=309), roe deer (n=417), Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica, n=383) and Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica hispanica, n=288) from two areas of Aragon, northeastern Spain, where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic. Second, red deer (n=820), roe deer (n=37), fallow deer (Dama dama, n=166), Iberian wild goat (n=86) and European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon, n=102) from southwestern Spain, where new outbreaks have recently been reported, were also sampled. The presence of Besnoitia spp.-specific antibodies was confirmed by western blot in one red deer and one roe deer from the Pyrenees, and Besnoitia spp. DNA was detected by ITS1-PCR in the seropositive red deer. Besnoitia genotyping based on 6 microsatellite (MS) analyses was carried out in red deer samples and compared with B. besnoiti genotypes from 7 in vitro isolates and 3 infected bovines, B. tarandi (1 isolate) and B. bennetti (from tissues of an infected donkey) for Besnoitia spp. assignation. Multilocus MS analysis of B. besnoiti, B. tarandi and B. bennetti showed specific genotypes for each species. A restricted genetic diversity with two genotypes by variation in a unique MS marker was revealed among the 7 B. besnoiti isolates

  5. Exploration of the taxonomy of some Pleistocene Cervini (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Cervidae) from Java and Sumatra (Indonesia): a geometric- and linear morphometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwier, Ben; de Vos, John; Kovarovic, Kris

    2015-07-01

    Third molars of extant- and fossil Southeast Asian deer were metrically compared using a linear- and geometric morphometric approach and discussed in relation to known taxonomic information from the literature. Our analysis suggests the presence of medium sized deer of the genus Axis and large sized taxa of the genus Cervus s. l. in Java. Axis lydekkeri and Axis javanicus are considered valid taxa, with A. lydekkeri probably related to the subgenus Hyelaphus. The large deer, such as Cervus kendengensis, Cervus stehlini and Cervus problematicus are most likely of the subgenus Rusa, the former two closely related to extant Cervus timorensis. The Sumatran fossils are members of the subgenus Rusa, but not necessarily conspecific with extant Cervus (Rusa) unicolor.

  6. Identification by R-banding and FISH of chromosome arms involved in Robertsonian translocations in several deer species

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet-Garnier, Amelie; Claro, F.; Thevenon, S.; Gautier, Mathieu; Hayes, Hélène

    2003-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed the RBG-banded karyotype of ¢ve deer species: Chital (Axis axis), White-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) and Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi siamensis). Among these ¢ve species, only Eld’s deer had been previously karyotyped using R-banding. In order to identify all the chromosome correspondences with cattle and precisely which chromosome arms are involved in Robertsonian translocations, we compared the ka...

  7. Gli Ungulati in Italia: status, gestione e ricerca scientifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Apollonio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ungulates in Italy: status, management and scientific research Ungulates in Italy have experienced in the last decade a further increase of their distribution and, possibly, consistence. This trend has been very obvious in the central and northern part of Italy, on the contrary, in south Italy the increase of ungulates populations is quite slow if any. A partial exception is Sardinia where Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus has been reintroduced into the four provinces of the island. In this frame the relevance of the increase of ungulates for the increase of wolves (Canis lupus in Italy must be emphasized. Ungulates management has also experienced a general development in the last decade, even if deep differences between south and central-north Italy still persist. Well conducted reintroductions have allowed to fill many gaps in the species distribution. Ungulates hunting bags size, suggest an increased importance of ungulates in the hunting activities in Italy. Selective hunting with rifles on cervids and bovids was established in wide areas of north and central Italy, mainly as consequence of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus widespread presence. Wild boar (Sus scrofa hunting still represents a problem for ungulate management in Italy. Almost 50% of the provinces where wild boar is hunted does not collect hunting bag statistics, and only 35% of them try to roughly estimate the consistence of the populations. The traditional dogs hunting of wild boar has expanded to areas where wild boar was recently and illegally reintroduced, as south Italy and the Alps region, and this is a serious problem for the development of a more rational and correct hunting practices. New possibilities of hunting management of red deer in central Italy, and in the future of alpine ibex (Capra ibex, are to be considered. An increase of the presence of trained wildlife

  8. Výskyt jelena siky (Cervus nippon) v České republice a vyhodnocení orientace škod se zaměřením na Náchodsko

    OpenAIRE

    Regnerová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor degree paper deals with the occurrence of sika deer, damages that causes and magnetism problem of these animals together. It is based on the observation of the damages and the sleeping beds of the deer game. Recently questions concerning magnetism are often discussed. Are animals really sensitive to the earth´s magnetic field ? Are they able to feel and use it for their orientation for example? These and other questions are discussed based on the observations already performed a...

  9. Genetic roots of sika deer in the Czech Republic inferred from mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barančeková, Miroslava; Vallo, Peter; Prokešová, Jarmila; Koubek, Petr

    Primiero : Parco Naturale Paneveggio, 2007. s. 68. [International conference on genus Cervus 2007 /1./. 14.09.2007-17.09.2007, Primiero] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cervus nippon * cytochrome b * genetic origin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Elevation and connectivity define genetic refugia for mountain sheep as climate warms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epps, Clinton W.; Palsboll, Per J.; Wehausen, John D.; Roderick, George K.; McCullough, Dale R.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to affect the evolutionary potential of natural populations. We assessed genetic diversity of 25 populations of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in southeastern California, where temperatures have increased and precipitation has decreased during the 20th cen

  11. DISEASE INCIDENCE AND POTENTIAL MECHANISMS OF DEFENSE FOR MSX-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE EASTERN OYSTERS HELD IN CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A disease of eastern oysters, Crassostreaco virginica(Gmelm, 1791), caused by a protistan, Haplosporidium nelsoni, has caused great losses in the oyster fisheries of the northern Atlantic coast of North America. Certain oyster stocks have been selectively bred to survive infectio...

  12. Uudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Giuseppe Verdi ooperi "Maskiball" uuslavastusest Malmös. Kantrilaulja Willie Nelsoni heliplaadist "Cowboys are Frequently Secretly". Helilooja Gustav Mahleri lapselaps Marina Mahler nõuab Austria Galeriilt tagasi Edvard Munchi maali "Suveöö rannas". Jamaical Kingstonis asuvast reggae-laulja Bob Marley sünnimajast, kus asuvad helistuudio ja muuseum

  13. Status sulle conoscenze dei mammiferi molisani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Norante

    2003-10-01

    reintrodotta. Dubbie le segnalazioni passate, i montanari la ricordano come ?Lupo cerviero? ma si è potuto trattare anche di felini di specie diversa, forse allevati da aristocratici. Sus scrofa (del quale è in programma uno studio sui mantelli per verificarne la variabilità, Cervus elaphus e Capreolus capreolus sono presenti con nuclei alloctoni reintrodotti. Presente anche Dama dama. Rupicapra pyrenaica distribuito in origine sulle Mainarde, risulta abbondante in tutta la fascia di rispetto al PNA e spesso è stato osservato a distanza, nei territori di Scapoli, Montaquila, Rocchetta, Cerro al Volturno. Per quanto riguarda i micromammiferi è in corso un censimento basato su trappolaggi e raccolta borre.

  14. Study on Deer Antler Growth Behavior of Captive Manchurian Wapiti%圈养东北马鹿鹿茸生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝京民; 何绍纯; 由玉岩

    2012-01-01

    2012年3月8日至5月22日,对北京动物园圈养的一只雄性东北马鹿鹿茸生长进行了研究。每间隔8~12d对鹿茸进行拍照,按比例测算鹿茸的相对长度,在锯鹿茸当日测定鹿茸重量。结果表明:圈养条件下,东北马鹿鹿茸主干生长随时间变化呈"S"型生长曲线,即呈缓慢、快速和减速生长3个阶段。第1阶段为第0~29天,平均生长速度为0.17cm/d;第2阶段为第30~56天,平均生长速度为1.30cm/d;第3阶段为第57天后,鹿茸平均生长速度为0.94cm/d。鹿茸3个阶段生长速率差异显著(P〈0.01)。第72天鹿茸锯下时重量4.0kg,平均增重0.05kg/d;右角主干长度54.5cm,平均生长速度0.76cm/d;左角主干长度56.5cm,平均生长速度0.78cm/d。%From March 8th,2012 to May 22nd,2012,the deer antler growth behavior of a male Cervus elaphus xanthopygus was studied in Beijing Zoo using focal animal sampling method. The sampling intervals were 8-12 days. Different stages of deer antler were taken pictures, the data of the deer antler relative lengths were calculated ,and the deer antler was weighted when amputated. The results showed that the growth of the deer antler main branch of the captive manchurian wapiti was in a ' S' shaped growth curve, which composed by three stages, with time going showed slow, fast and deceleration respectively. The first stage was at 0-29 days of the deer antler trunk growth ,with an average growth rate of 0.17 cm/d. The second stage was at 30-56 days, with an average growth rate of 1.30 cm/d. The third stage was after 57 days,with average growth rate of 0.94 cm/d. The growth rate in three stages were significantly different (P〈0.01).The deer antler was 4.0 kg when sawed after 72 days. The weight increased by 0.05kg/d.The right main branch of the deer antler was 54.5 cm in length, and the average growth rate was 0.76 cm/d. The left main branch of the deer antler was 56.5 cm in length, and the average growth rate was 0.78 cm/d.

  15. Lymphoproliferation in captive wild ruminants affected with malignant catarrhal fever: 25 cases (1977-1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J E; Nielsen, N O; Heuschele, W P

    1990-04-01

    The severity of lymphoproliferative disease associated with malignant catarrhal fever was extremely variable among 25 animals at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Severe lymphoproliferative disease was seen in 3 of 10 Formosan Sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus), 3 of 6 Indian Axis deer (Cervus a axis), 3 of 6 Barasingha deer (Cervus d duvauceli), and 1 of 3 Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Two Sika deer and 2 Barasingha deer had lesions morphologically indistinguishable from lymphosarcoma. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 has oncogenic potential. PMID:2329087

  16. Environ: E00319 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00319 Deer velvet Crude drug Collagen, Calcium phosphate, alcium carbonate , Prote...TAX:9865] Cervidae Cervus nippon and Manchurian wapiti velvet Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00319 Deer velvet ...

  17. Food Habits of St. Vincent Island Sambars and Hogs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sambar deer Cervus unicolor and feral hogs Sus scrofs coninhabit St. Vincent Island, Florida. Rumen samples were analyzed to assess the dietary overlap of the two...

  18. Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) from southeastern Brazil: three new species from Rio de Janeiro State, a new species group for Neotropical Rhagovelia Mayr, and notes on distribution and synonymy

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira; Julianna Freires Barbosa; José Ricardo Inacio Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov., and Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. are described. Rhagovelia scitula and R. whitei are transferred from the robusta group to the new whitei group. Rhagovelia denticulata is synonymized under R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae, and Stridulivelia quadrispinosa are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro State. Additional new municipality records in Rio de Janeiro S...

  19. Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) from southeastern Brazil: three new species from Rio de Janeiro State, a new species group for Neotropical Rhagovelia Mayr, and notes on distribution and synonymy Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera Gerromorpha) do Sudeste do Brasil: três novas espécies do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, um novo grupo para espécies neotropicais de Rhagovelia Mayr, e notas sinonímicas e de distribuição

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira; Julianna Freires Barbosa; José Ricardo Inacio Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov., and Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. are described. Rhagovelia scitula and R. whitei are transferred from the robusta group to the new whitei group. Rhagovelia denticulata is synonymized under R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae, and Stridulivelia quadrispinosa are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro State. Additional new municipality records in Rio de Janeiro S...

  20. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental wat...

  1. The detection of encapsulated and non-encapsulated species of Trichinella suggests the existence of two evolutive lines in the genus

    OpenAIRE

    Pozio E.; Zarlenga D.S.; La Rosa G.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the discovery of many non-encapsulated isolates of Trichinella, designated Trichinella pseudospiralis and the identification of a new non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, has revealed that the biomass of the genus Trichinella does not only include the well known encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli, and T. nelsoni) but also includes geographically disseminated, non-encapsulated species that represent important biological entities in t...

  2. Infectivity, persistence and serological response of nine Trichinella genotypes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Malakauskas A.; Kapel C.M.O.; Webster P.

    2001-01-01

    Domestic and sylvatic Trichinella genotypes were evaluated for infectivity, muscle larvae persistence, and host antibody responses in rats. Groups of rats were inoculated with T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, three genotypes of T. pseudospiralis (from USSR, USA, and Australia), T. murrelli, Trichinella T6, and T. nelsoni, respectively. The muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram), total larval burden (Ipg x rat weight), and the antibody levels were determined at necropsy 5, 10, 20, and 40...

  3. Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae) parasite of Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae) parásito de Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae)

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE FALCÓN-ORDAZ; Jesús A. Fernández; LUIS GARCÍA-PRIETO

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the revision of the type material of Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier & Mehra, 1959, and new specimens collected from Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae), in Veracruz, Mexico, we herein to which A. ackerti is transferred as Lamotheoxyuris ackerti This new genus differs from all other genera included in 1) mouth surrounded by six lips; 2) extension of lateral alae describe a new genus (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen.), (Kruidener & Mehra, 1959) n. gen., n. comb. Heteroxyn...

  4. Rapid Evolution of Beta-Keratin Genes Contribute to Phenotypic Differences That Distinguish Turtles and Birds from Other Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang I.; Kong, Lesheng; Ponting, Chris P; Haerty, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of vertebrate genomes permits changes in distinct protein families, including gene gains and losses, to be ascribed to lineage-specific phenotypes. A prominent example of this is the large-scale duplication of beta-keratin genes in the ancestors of birds, which was crucial to the subsequent evolution of their beaks, claws, and feathers. Evidence suggests that the shell of Pseudomys nelsoni contains at least 16 beta-keratins proteins, but it is unknown whether this is a complete set...

  5. Genotype-environment associations support a mosaic hybrid zone between two tidal marsh birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Rowe, Rebecca J; Olsen, Brian J; Shriver, W Gregory; Kovach, Adrienne I

    2016-01-01

    Local environmental features can shape hybrid zone dynamics when hybrids are bounded by ecotones or when patchily distributed habitat types lead to a corresponding mosaic of genotypes. We investigated the role of marsh-level characteristics in shaping a hybrid zone between two recently diverged avian taxa - Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) sparrows. These species occupy different niches where allopatric, with caudacutus restricted to coastal marshes and nelsoni found in a broader array of wetland and grassland habitats and co-occur in tidal marshes in sympatry. We determined the influence of habitat types on the distribution of pure and hybrid sparrows and assessed the degree of overlap in the ecological niche of each taxon. To do this, we sampled and genotyped 305 sparrows from 34 marshes across the hybrid zone and from adjacent regions. We used linear regression to test for associations between marsh characteristics and the distribution of pure and admixed sparrows. We found a positive correlation between genotype and environmental variables with a patchy distribution of genotypes and habitats across the hybrid zone. Ecological niche models suggest that the hybrid niche was more similar to that of A. nelsoni and habitat suitability was influenced strongly by distance from coastline. Our results support a mosaic model of hybrid zone maintenance, suggesting a role for local environmental features in shaping the distribution and frequency of pure species and hybrids across space. PMID:26811792

  6. 鹿瓜多肽注射液对去卵巢大鼠骨密度及松质骨中骨形态发生蛋白表达的影响%Influence of cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection on expression of bone morphogenetic proteins-2 in cancellated bone and bone mineral density of ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永宏; 刘建; 胡蕴玉; 郭飞; 李强; 袁志; 孟国林

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨鹿瓜多肽(松梅乐)注射液肌肉注射对去卵巢大鼠骨密度及松质骨中骨形态发生蛋白(BMP2)表达的影响.方法 将8月龄未经产雌性二级SD大鼠30只,随机分为假手术(SHAM)组、去势(VOX)组、去势+鹿瓜多肽(VOX+SML)组.VOX+SML组大鼠术后第2天开始给药.术后20周处死各组大鼠,对各组大鼠骨密度进行检测.利用免疫组织化学染色及图像分析方法对各组大鼠松质骨切片图像进行灰度分析,观察鹿瓜多肽注射对去势大鼠腰椎松质骨中BMP2表达的影响.结果 ①去势组与SHAM组相比较,灰度值降低,而(VOX+SML)治疗组较VOX组灰度值降低,表明VOX大鼠松质骨中骨小梁周围及髓腔内BMP2表达阳性细胞数明显多于SHAM组;而(VOX+SML)治疗组骨小梁周围及髓腔内BMP2表达阳性细胞数多于VOX组,且染色加深.②与SHAM组相比,VOX组股骨近端、股骨干、腰椎的骨密度明显降低(P<0.01);(VOX+SML)治疗组各部位的骨密度高于VOX组(P<0.05),但未达到SHAM组水平(P>0.05).结论 鹿瓜多肽注射液可抑制和延缓骨质疏松形成,对雌激素缺乏引起的骨质疏松具有预防作用.

  7. Identification by R-banding and FISH of chromosome arms involved in Robertsonian translocations in several deer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Garnier, A; Claro, F; Thévenon, S; Gautier, M; Hayes, H

    2003-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed the RBG-banded karyotype of five deer species: Chital (Axis axis), White-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) and Eld's deer (Cervus eldi siamensis). Among these five species, only Eld's deer had been previously karyotyped using R-banding. In order to identify all the chromosome correspondences with cattle and precisely which chromosome arms are involved in Robertsonian translocations, we compared the karyotypes of these five species with those of the closely related and well-characterized species, cattle (Bos taurus) and Vietnamese Sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis). Among these six deer species (the five above plus the Vietnamese Sika deer), we found thirteen different Robertsonian translocations involving nineteen different chromosome arms. Thirteen chromosome arms were identified by comparison of R-banding patterns only and the remaining six were either confirmed or identified by FISH-mapping of bovine or caprine probes previously localized in cattle. Finally, we observed that five of the thirteen Robertsonian translocations are shared by at least two species and that some chromosome arms are more frequently involved in Robertsonian translocations than others. PMID:14606627

  8. Development of multiplex PCR assay for authentication of Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum in traditional Chinese medicine based on cytochrome b and C oxidase subunit 1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijun; Xia, Wei; Ai, Jinxia; Li, Mingcheng; Yuan, Guanxin; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating the true Cervus antlers from its counterfeits using multiplex PCR. Bioinformatics were carried out to design the specific alleles primers for mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (Cyt b) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (Cox 1) genes. The mt DNA and genomic DNA were extracted from Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum through the modified alkaline and the salt-extracting method in addition to its counterfeits, respectively. Sufficient DNA templates were extracted from all samples used in two methods, and joint fragments of 354 bp and 543 bp that were specifically amplified from both of true Cervus antlers served as a standard control. The data revealed that the multiplex PCR-based assays using two primer sets can be used for forensic and quantitative identification of original Cervus deer products from counterfeit antlers in a single step. PMID:26287950

  9. Zoogeografia storica e attuale dei carnivori e degli ungulati italiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2003-10-01

    L., 1758 Dama dama (L., 1758 Cervus elaphus L., 1758 Capreolus capreolus (L., 1758 Rupicapra pyrenaica Bonaparte, 1845 Rupicapra rupicapra (L., 1758 Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Capra ibex L., 1758 Ovis orientalis Gmelin, 1774

  10. Oxidative, heat and anthelminthic stress responses in four species of Trichinella: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Javier; Perez-Serrano, Jorge; Bernadina, W E; Rodriguez-Caabeiro, Filomena

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare levels of stress proteins in four Trichinella species when exposed to different stressors. Heat shock protein (HSP) 60, 70 and 90 responses were evaluated in infective larvae (L(1)) of four classic Trichinella species following exposure to oxidative, anthelminthic and thermal stress. Larvae of T. nativa, T nelsoni, T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis were exposed to peroxide shock (0.2%, 1%, or 2% H(2)O(2)for 2h), high temperatures (40 degrees C or 45 degrees C for 2h), or 0.1 microg/ml of the benzimidazole anthelminthics: mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ALB) or thiabendazole (TBZ) for 4h. Following exposures, the L(1) were tested for induced morphological changes. Those observed were: (i) no change (in all species exposed to 40 degrees C) (ii) aberrant forms (in all species exposed to anthelminthics, in T. nativa, T. nelsoni and T. spiralis exposed to 45 degrees C, and in T. spiralis and T. nelsoni exposed to 0.2% H(2)O(2)) and (iii) severe degradation or death (in T. nativa and T. pseudospiralis exposed to 0.2% H(2)O(2), and in all species at 1% and 2% H(2)O(2)). In Western blot analyses, L(1) proteins were probed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the three HSPs. Greater changes in HSP levels occurred following H(2)O(2) exposure than with other stresses in all Trichinella species, while accumulation of a 50 kDa HSP was only observed in T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. Anthelminthic stress only caused decreased HSP levels in T. nativa. Thermal stress caused no significant changes in the HSP response of any species. It is suggested that other stress proteins (e.g., glucose-regulated proteins) may be involved in adaptation to thermal stress. PMID:12410594

  11. Characterization of Northern and Southern Isolates of Trichinella in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdavi

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Two isolates of Trichinella were obtained from the jackal, Canis aureus: one from the north Caspian area, the other from the south-west Khuzestan area of Iran. The infectivity of the isolates was tested in laboratory animals, in a wild rodent (Tatera indica and in wild pigs. The isolate from Khuzestan was of low infectivity to albino rats and it was provisionally identified as Trichinella nelsoni. The Caspian isolate was highly infective for albino rats and wild pigs and was identified as Trichinella spiralis.

  12. Characterization of Northern and Southern Isolates of Trichinella in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi, M.; Massoud, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two isolates of Trichinella were obtained from the jackal, Canis aureus: one from the north Caspian area, the other from the south-west Khuzestan area of Iran. The infectivity of the isolates was tested in laboratory animals, in a wild rodent (Tatera indica) and in wild pigs. The isolate from Khuzestan was of low infectivity to albino rats and it was provisionally identified as Trichinella nelsoni. The Caspian isolate was highly infective for albino rats and wild pigs and was identified as Tr...

  13. do parasita ao ecossistema

    OpenAIRE

    Balazeiro, Clementina Furtado

    2011-01-01

    A triquinose é uma zoonose parasitária, cujo agente causal, um nemátode, pertence ao género Trichinella. Foram já identificadas e caracterizadas várias espécies pertencentes a este género, como T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. nelsoni, T. murreli, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae e T. zimbabwensis bem como alguns genótipos, T6, T8, T9, e T12. A triquinose é uma doença transmitida por carnivorismo entre os seus hospedeiros. No Homem, a principal fonte de infecção é o consumo de carne infecta...

  14. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Köller J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced meat were digested and released larvae were inoculated in mice to evaluate the Reproductive Capacity Index (RCI. The RCI decreased with the length of storage, but the larvae from older infections appeared better adapted to tolerate the degradation processes. The African species T. nelsoni had a relative higher tolerance to elevated temperature during storage and the unencysted species T. pseudospiralis was the most vulnerable genotype.

  15. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Borys; Ma F. Soria Alatorre; A. B. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K.) Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé) and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston) was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width) of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season). The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selecti...

  16. Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegge, P.; Shrestha, A.K.; Moe, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on microhistological analyses of faecal material, we compared the early dry season diets of greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, swamp deer Cervus duvauceli and hog deer Axis porcinus, which inhabit the same alluvial grassland habitat complex in lowland Nepal. Their diets were q

  17. Application of mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis in the forensic identification of Chinese sika deer subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, Shu-Yan

    2005-03-10

    As a direct and indirect consequence of human activities, only two subspecies, Cervus nippon sinchuanicus and Cervus nippon kopschi, currently subsist in the wild of China. However, a large population of Cervus nippon hortulorum and Cervus nippon nippon is raised in order to gain deer parts for Chinese traditional medicine. According to Chinese Wild Animal Conservation Law, hunting, capturing and trading of the wild sika deer are strictly banned, however, raising and trading of the domestic individual are permitted. Thus, it is very necessary to identify the subspecies of sika deer in China in forensic tests. In our study, we used mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis to identify the subspecies of sika deer. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences analysis revealed that two haplotypes came from the unknown samples. One is the same as the haplotype that came from the samples of wild population of C. n. kopschi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two haplotypes of unknown samples clustered with the haplotypes of C. n. kopschi, and had significant difference from the haplotypes of the other subspecies. These results together revealed that the unknown samples came from two individuals that belong to the wild population of C. n. kopschi living in the Qinglingfeng State Natural Reserve of Zhejiang province. Therefore, the results provide forensic evidence of illegal wild animal hunting. PMID:15639603

  18. The origin and genetic variability of the Czech sika deer population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barančeková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Voloshina, I. V.; Myslenkov, A. I.; Kawata, Y.; Oshida, T.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2012), s. 991-1003. ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cervus nippon * Cytochrome b gene * Control region * Introduced species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2012

  19. Trichinellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahdavi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nTrichinellosis is both of veterinary and medical importance in countries where pig breeding and pork consumption exists. In Iran, people are forbidden to consume pork because of the religious regulations. Therefore, there have not been any human cases over the past decades except a doubtful case based on serological test. Although there are some sylvatic trichinellosis in wild life in different parts of Iran, but a little is known about the current prevalence in wild animals. To date, some cases of Trichinella nelsoni  in  golden jackals from Khuzestan Province; Trichinella spiralis  in wild boars, brown bears, golden  jack­als, jungle cat, from Mazandaran Province and stray dogs, Jackals, red fox, hyena, Meriones percicus in Isfahan; finally T.spiralis nelsoni in Herpestes auropuntatus from Khuzestan were reported. Based on these data  and consumption of ani­mal derived food products among some local hunters,  and not a safe and insure rodent control,  trichinellosis could be con­cern as an emerging disease, so more investigation and clinical awareness are needed in this regard.

  20. Infectivity, persistence and serological response of nine Trichinella genotypes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakauskas A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and sylvatic Trichinella genotypes were evaluated for infectivity, muscle larvae persistence, and host antibody responses in rats. Groups of rats were inoculated with T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, three genotypes of T. pseudospiralis (from USSR, USA, and Australia, T. murrelli, Trichinella T6, and T. nelsoni, respectively. The muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram, total larval burden (Ipg x rat weight, and the antibody levels were determined at necropsy 5, 10, 20, and 40 weeks post inoculation. All Trichinella genotypes were established in the rats, but infectivity and persistence differed significantly: T. spiralis established and persisted in high numbers, the three T. pseudospiralis genotypes were also highly infective but differed significantly in persistence, T. britovi and T. nativa had limited infectivity and persistence, Trichinella T6 had low infectivity and very low persistence, and T. murrelli and T. nelsoni were almost non-infective. Except for T. spiralis, initial total muscle larval burdens declined significantly for other genotypes during the experiment. A high initial serological response was detected for all genotypes, but the antibody levels decreased rapidly in relation to decreasing larval burdens. After 20 w.p.i. the antibody levels I remained high only in T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infected rats. The high infectivity and persistence of T. pseudospiralis in rats, suggests that in addition to T. spiralis, this species might be of significant importance in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis.

  1. Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parasite of Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parásito de Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE FALCÓN-ORDAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the revision of the type material of Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier & Mehra, 1959, and new specimens collected from Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, in Veracruz, Mexico, we herein to which A. ackerti is transferred as Lamotheoxyuris ackerti This new genus differs from all other genera included in 1 mouth surrounded by six lips; 2 extension of lateral alae describe a new genus (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., (Kruidener & Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Heteroxynematinae by the following main traits: reduced; and 3 lack of caudal alae.Con base en la revisión del material tipo de Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier y Mehra, 1959 y de nuevos ejemplares recolectados en Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, en Veracruz, México, se describe un nuevo género (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., al que A. ackerti es transferido como Lamotheoxyuris ackerti (Kruidener y Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Este nuevo género se distingue de todos los demás géneros incluidos en Heteroxynematinae por las siguientes características: 1 presencia de seis labios rodeando la boca; 2 extensión reducida del ala lateral; y 3 carencia de ala caudal.

  2. [The taxonomic position of nematodes in the genus Trichinella Railliet, 1895].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, A S

    1998-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the recent taxonomic revision of the genus Trichinella Railliet, 1895 (Pozio et al., 1992 and others) seems to be hasty and insufficiently substantiated. The proposed criteria for identification of new species, such as production of new-born larvae (PNBL) by Trichinella females in vitro, periods of development of nurse cells (DNC), index of reproductive capacity (IRC), resistance to freezing (RF), firstly, have a sufficient dispersion and are frequently very close (PNBL) to T. britovi, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, and T. pseudospiralis, DNC for these species. Secondly, these criteria are not always precise (one cannot agree with the fact that T. spiralis are not resistant to freezing). And, finally, it is impossible to be guided seriously by such criteria as the low or high significance of IRC or RF. According to the fifth criterion--the number of unique allozymic markers--two species are obviously distinguished: T. spiralis (6 markers) and T. pseudospiralis (12 markers). If the absence of capsule formation in case of T. psuedospiralis and the participation of birds in the life cycle of this parasite will be added to the above-mentioned, two species are again clearly distinguished: T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. Presently, it is necessary to classify the remaining species as varieties of subspecies of T. spiralis and to designate T. spiralis nativa, T. spiralis nelsoni, T. spiralis britovi, as recommended by the "Guidelines on Surveillance, Prevention, and Control of Trichinellosis" published by the WHO in 1988. PMID:9608199

  3. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Anna M; Ranker, Tom A; Corn, Paul Stephen; Olmstead, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrusexsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. PMID:18662792

  4. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    winters that coincided with high population density (Tavecchia et al., 2005. The significant interaction between age and time may have been responsible for maintaining differences among cohorts in demographic parameters such as survival (Tavecchia et al., 2005. In turtles, Rivalan et al. (pers. comm. found evidence of a typical cost of reproduction in which the number of reproductive seasons in an individual’s lifetime was inversely related to the extent of reproductive investment in a given season. By statistically accounting for loss of tags in these turtles, which can be substantial and thus may potentially bias state–transition probabilities, the authors discovered that fitness was roughly equivalent for all females, regardless of how often they attempted to breed. The studies by Tavecchia et al. (2005 and Rivalan et al. (pers. comm. illustrate the benefits of using multi–state models in accounting for recapture/re– sighting probabilities. The pattern of senescence in wild populations was a focus of the work by Catchpole et al. (2004 and Gaillard et al. (2004. In the well–studied red deer (Cervus elaphus of Rum, senility was suggested by a survival probability that declined with age among the oldest age classes in both males and females, although there was little evidence for age–dependent survival among the younger age classes (Catchpole et al., 2004. As in many species, some animals dispersed from the study area, and notably Catchpole et al. (2004 accounted for dispersal in their estimates of age–dependent survival. In a comparative study of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, Gaillard et al. (2004 combined traditional mark–recapture analysis with the commonly used Gompertz and Weibull models to describe senescence patterns. They found that senescence in these species can be generally described by the Gompertz model, a result likely to be of interest to researchers working on senescence in a variety of taxa. Both studies

  5. PLAG (1-Palmitoyl-2-Linoleoyl-3-Acetyl-rac-Glycerol) Modulates Eosinophil Chemotaxis by Regulating CCL26 Expression from Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jinseon; Kim, Young-Jun; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Joo Heon; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung-Jae; Han, Yong-Hae; Chong, Saeho; Kim, Jae Wha

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of eosinophils in the circulation and sputum is associated with the severity of asthma. The respiratory epithelium produces chemokine (C-C motif) ligands (CCL) which recruits and activates eosinophils. A chemically synthesized monoacetyl-diglyceride, PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol) is a major constituent in the antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) which has been used in oriental medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanis...

  6. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    A. Q. Mir; Dua, K; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiac...

  7. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of b...

  8. First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang; Si-Yuan Qin; Yuan Zhang; Qing-Feng Meng; Jing Jiang; Gui-Lian Yang; Quan Zhao; Xing-Quan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male a...

  9. Distinct Distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and a New Final Host Record for D. chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    OHTORI, Maiko; Aoki, Mikiko; ITAGAKI, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study dealt with the morphological and molecular identification of Dicrocoelium flukes obtained from Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) in the twelve districts of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis were exclusively detected in the western, and coastal and eastern areas of Iwate Prefecture, respectively. This geographically distinct occurrence of the two Dicrocoelium species would be associated with the dis...

  10. Habitatové preference jelena siky v Doupovských horách

    OpenAIRE

    Rohla, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on habitat preferences of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Doupov mountains. The aim was to recognise the area of residence of given individuals. This data could be used for easier reduction of sika deer population, thereby for decrease of damage in forest stands and agriculture crops. Because the population of sika deer is too high, more effective hunting practice is needed to reduce it to endurable levels. The collected data show, that although we followed three stags at ...

  11. Intraspecific evolution within an ecologically diverse species can be used to examine evolutionary trends observed in ruminant morphology: a review of case studies of the Japanese sika deer

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Mugino Ozaki

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses the question “Are interspecific and macroevolutionary trends observed in ruminant morphology found among populations of a single species?” Several case studies of the Japanese sika deer, Cervus nippon, are discussed. The Japanese sika deer is a suitable species for this purpose because it inhabits various environments from the northern subarctic forests to the southern subtropical forests. It shows conspicuous variations in feeding habits, body size, and other morphologi...

  12. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge Tom; Toolan Dónal; Egan John; More Simon

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to in...

  13. Genetic diversity of native Primorian and introduced Czech populations of Dybowski’s sika deer using microsatellite markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barančeková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Voloshina, I. V.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr

    Huilo Huilo : Fundacion Huilo Huilo, 2010 - (Werner-Flueck, J.; Charrier, A.). s. 44-45 [International Deer Biology Congress /7./. 02.08.2010-07.08.2010, Huilo Huilo] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cervus nippon hortulorum * genotyping * genetic diversity * mtDNA * bottleneck Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.travelsolutions.cl/idbc/media/idbc_abstracts.pdf

  14. Habitat Selection by Eld’s Deer following Relocation to a Patchy Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Duo Pan; Yan-Ling Song; Zhi-Gao Zeng; Bravery, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging issue in wildlife conservation is the re-establishment of viable populations of endangered species in suitable habitats. Here, we studied habitat selection by a population of Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi) relocated to a patchy landscape of farmland and forest. Hainan Eld's deer were pushed to the brink of extinction in the 1970s, but their population expanded rapidly from 26 to more than 1000 individuals by 2003 through effective reserve protection. As part of a wider relocation...

  15. REVIEW: Baluran Nasional Park Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    M. YUSUF SABARNO

    2002-01-01

    One of the biodiversity richness in Indonesia is ecosystem of Baluran National Park savanna. This type of savanna is similar to African savanna that is included in tropical savanna. There are two types of savanna, namely flat and undulating savanna. The savanna ecosystem that covers about 40% of the total area of Baluran National Park has important role on supporting herbivore animals such as wild cattle (Bos javanicus), deer (Cervus timorensis) and wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The variety...

  16. Deer Frozen Semen Quality in Tris Sucrose and Tris Glucose Extender with Different Glycerol Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. M. Nalley; R. Handarini; R.I Arifiantini; T.L. Yusuf; B. Purwantara; G. Semiadi

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) frozen semen quality, the influence of sugar and glycerol concentration on semen characteristics of sperm was investigated. The semen was collected from five sexually mature Timor deer using an electroejaculator. The semen was evaluated and divided into six equal tubes and diluted with Tris sucrose glycerol 10% (TSG10); Tris sucrose glycerol 12% (TSG12); Tris sucrose glycerol 14% (TSG14); Tris glucose glycerol 10% (TGG10); Tris glucose glyce...

  17. Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha from southeastern Brazil: three new species from Rio de Janeiro State, a new species group for Neotropical Rhagovelia Mayr, and notes on distribution and synonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov., and Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. are described. Rhagovelia scitula and R. whitei are transferred from the robusta group to the new whitei group. Rhagovelia denticulata is synonymized under R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae, and Stridulivelia quadrispinosa are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro State. Additional new municipality records in Rio de Janeiro State are presented for Microvelia braziliensis, M. ioana, M. mimula, M. pulchella, Paravelia basalis, P. itatiayana, Rhagovelia accedens, R. agra, R. aiuruoca, R. elegans, R. hambletoni, R. henryi, R. itatiaiana, R. lucida, R. macta, R. modesta, R. novana, R. scitula, R. tenuipes, R. tijuca, R. triangula, and R. zela. Corrections are presented for the previously published distributions of Rhagovelia aiuruoca, R. lucida, R. macta, and R. triangula.

  18. Trichinella: differing effects of antigens from encapsulated and non-encapsulated species on in vitro nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M Amparo; Siles-Lucas, Mar; López-Abán, Julio; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan José; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Martínez-Fernández, Antonio R; Muro, Antonio

    2007-01-19

    Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease affecting a wide variety of animals, including man. Non-encapsulated and encapsulated species diverge with respect to their developmental strategies. Little is known at the molecular level about parasite-derived mediators responsible for host muscle cell transformation occurring during trichinellosis. In this context, host-parasite relationships in Trichinella-infected animals could be related to different host-immune and cell mediators, e.g. nitric oxide (NO). Here, we investigate the stimulatory/inhibitory role of L1 antigens from four encapsulated (T. spiralis, T. britovi, T. nelsoni and T. nativa) and one non-encapsulated (T. pseudospiralis) Trichinella species on NO production from rat macrophages in vitro. Our results demonstrate that encapsulated and non-encapsulated Trichinella species differ in their capacity to stimulate the secretion of NO from host macrophages. Biological significance of these differences should be further assessed in the available experimental models. PMID:16959431

  19. 四个地区猪旋毛线虫株同工酶的比较鉴定简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云飞; 钟淑梅; 王爱华; 周勇志; 邱巧平; 沈杰; 常正山; 张永年

    1993-01-01

    旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)是一种极为重要的人畜互通病,不仅造成重大的经济损失,而且严重危害人体健康。我国主要分布在东北、河南、湖北、云南和西藏等地。旋毛虫属毛形线虫属(Trichinella),和其它3种毛形线虫[固有毛形线虫(T.ncava),纳氏毛形线虫(T.nelsoni)和拟旋毛线虫(T.pseudospiratis)]相比,

  20. Effect of low dose irradiation on Trichinella isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation should be an effective and safe method for reducing the risk of human trichinellosis. With the existence of different Trichinella phenotypes, however, parasite strains with different gene pools may exhibit different radiosensitivity. Studies were performed using the rat as a laboratory animal for testing Trichinella spiralis isolated from different hosts from one geographic region. The results showed no unique radioresistance of the strains. Although the effective dose of irradiation (i.e. the dose required for total blocking of development of muscle larvae) for most isolates was 0.6kGy, that dose did not affect the viability of Trichinella larvae of all strains. Two strains, tested at doses only up to 0.6 kGy, had their reproductive capacities reduced by more than 10,000-fold as a result of exposure to irradiation. On the other hand, strains of Trichinella isolated in a different region from different hosts and belonging to different taxa (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, putative European T. nelsoni = T3) were similarly more radiosensitive when tested in mice. A dose of 0.2 kGy prevented the production of larval progeny of all but one strain. The results of the experiments performed with the same T. spiralis strain on two different laboratory hosts (rat and mouse) showed unequivocally that the different results of the former experiments were attributable to the laboratory host used. The laboratory rat was found to be more sensitive in a bioassay for monitoring Trichinella larvae viability. It is concluded that low dose irradiation, 0.3-0.6 kGy, of hog carcasses can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of pork heavily infected with Trichinella. However, irradiation procedures should be complemented by health education, improvement in sanitary measures on farms raising pigs and improvement in diagnosing infections in animals. Isolation of the domestic transmission cycle from the wildlife transmission cycle is also important

  1. Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha from southeastern Brazil: three new species from Rio de Janeiro State, a new species group for Neotropical Rhagovelia Mayr, and notes on distribution and synonymy Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera Gerromorpha do Sudeste do Brasil: três novas espécies do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, um novo grupo para espécies neotropicais de Rhagovelia Mayr, e notas sinonímicas e de distribuição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov., and Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. are described. Rhagovelia scitula and R. whitei are transferred from the robusta group to the new whitei group. Rhagovelia denticulata is synonymized under R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae, and Stridulivelia quadrispinosa are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro State. Additional new municipality records in Rio de Janeiro State are presented for Microvelia braziliensis, M. ioana, M. mimula, M. pulchella, Paravelia basalis, P. itatiayana, Rhagovelia accedens, R. agra, R. aiuruoca, R. elegans, R. hambletoni, R. henryi, R. itatiaiana, R. lucida, R. macta, R. modesta, R. novana, R. scitula, R. tenuipes, R. tijuca, R. triangula, and R. zela. Corrections are presented for the previously published distributions of Rhagovelia aiuruoca, R. lucida, R. macta, and R. triangula.Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov. e Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. são descritas. Rhagovelia scitula e R. whitei são transferidas do grupo robusta para o novo grupo whitei. Rhagovelia denticulata é sinonimizada com R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae e Stridulivelia quadrispinosa são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Ocorrências adicionais novas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro são apresentadas para Microvelia braziliensis, M. ioana, M. mimula, M. pulchella, Paravelia basalis, P. itatiayana, Rhagovelia accedens, R. agra, R. aiuruoca, R. elegans, R. hambletoni, R. henryi, R. itatiaiana, R. lucida, R. macta, R. modesta, R. novana, R. scitula, R. tenuipes, R. tijuca, R. triangula e R. zela. Correções acerca das distribuições de Rhagovelia aiuruoca, R. lucida, R. macta e R. triangula são apresentadas.

  2. Tolerance to low temperatures of domestic and sylvatic Trichinella spp. in rat muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, Alvydas; Kapel, Christian M O

    2003-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the tolerance to low temperatures of 9 Trichinella isolates in rat muscle tissue. Nine groups of 24 rats were infected with encapsulated Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella murrelli, Trichinella T6, Trichinella nelsoni, and 3 nonencapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis strains. Six rats from each of the groups were necropsied at 5, 10, 20, and 40 wk postinfection (wpi). Muscle tissues containing Trichinella larvae were exposed to temperatures of -18, -5, and 5 C for 1 or 4 wk, and afterward the reproductive capacity index (RCI) in mice was determined for the 9 individual Trichinella isolates. Only T. nativa muscle larvae were infective after freezing at a temperature of -18 C. At 5 wpi all encapsulated isolates, except for the tropical species T. nelsoni, remained infective after exposure to a temperature of -5 C for both 1 and 4 wk, whereas nonencapsulated T. pseudospiralis survived only 1 wk of exposure. All Trichinella spp. remained infective after exposure to a temperature of 5 C. Muscle larvae for all investigated species remained infective as long as they persisted in live rats during the experiment. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of age on the temperature tolerance of encapsulated T. spiralis and nonencapsulated T. pseudospiralis. In addition, significant interaction between age of muscle larvae and length of exposure was found. In general Trichinella muscle larvae of medium age (10 and 20 wpi) tolerated freezing better than early and late stages of infection (5 and 40 wpi). This is the first study to demonstrate such a relationship between age of infection and temperature tolerance of Trichinella spp. muscle larvae. PMID:14533685

  3. Sequence-based molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the American box turtles (Terrapene spp.) with support from DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradley T; Bernstein, Neil P; Birkhead, Roger D; Koukl, Jim F; Mussmann, Steven M; Placyk, John S

    2013-07-01

    The classification of the American box turtles (Terrapene spp.) has remained enigmatic to systematists. Previous comprehensive phylogenetic studies focused primarily on morphology. The goal of this study was to re-assess the classification of Terrapene spp. by obtaining DNA sequence data from a broad geographic range and from all four recognized species and 11 subspecies within the genus. Tissue samples were obtained for all taxa except for Terrapene nelsoni klauberi. DNA was extracted, and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cytb) and nuclear DNA (nucDNA) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPD) genes were amplified via polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In addition, the mtDNA gene commonly used for DNA barcoding (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) was amplified and sequenced to calculate pairwise percent DNA sequence divergence comparisons for each Terrapene taxon. The sequence data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, a molecular clock, AMOVAs, SAMOVAs, haplotype networks, and pairwise percent sequence divergence comparisons. Terrapene carolina mexicana and T. c. yucatana formed a monophyletic clade with T. c. triunguis, and this clade was paraphyletic to the rest of T. carolina. Terrapene ornata ornata and T. o. luteola lacked distinction phylogenetically, and Terrapene nelsoni was confirmed to be the sister taxon of T. ornata. Terrapene c. major, T. c. bauri, and Terrapene coahuila were not well resolved for some of the analyses. The DNA barcoding results indicated that all taxa were different species (>2% sequence divergence) except for T. c. triunguis - T. c. mexicana and T. o. ornata - T. o. luteola. The results suggest that T. c. triunguis should be elevated to species status (Terrapene mexicana), and mexicana and yucatana should be included in this group as subspecies. In addition, T. o. ornata and T. o. luteola should not be considered separate subspecies. The DNA barcoding data support these

  4. [Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    5 animal species. Giardia cysts were found only in faecal samples from humans living in Poznań and the samples obtained from animals coming from Poznań and around Puszczykowo. The highest frequency of infection was stated in domestic animals (2.5%) and in animals kept in the Zoological Garden (2.0%), whereas a slightly lower frequency was noticed in wild animals (1.5%) and in humans (1.3%). No Giardia cysts were found in the faecal samples collected from breeding animals. Two new species of Giardia hosts were identified, namely Rhinella marina and Peromyscus eremicus; however, due to a minimal amount of faecal samples supplied for the study it was impossible to define the species and genotype of this parasite. PCR products (the partial of beta-giardin gene) were obtained in seven faecal samples out of the ten studied, including three samples from people and four faecal samples derived from three animal species (i.e. dog, tamandua, red deer). Moreover, molecular characterization of seven Giardia isolates from three persons and four animal species (red-bellied monkey, silver marmoset, Thomson's gazelle, and sheep) kept in an axenic in vitro culture was performed. Based on the beta-giardin sequence fragment analysis, four assemblages of G. intestinalis genotypes were identified (A, B, C and D). In humans, A and B G. intestinalis genotypes and three subgenotypes, including a cosmopolitan subgenotype A2 and two new subgenotypes A and B were detected. Furthermore, four G. intestinalis genotypes were found in animals, including three genotypes which are non-infectious to humans, namely: genotypes C and D in dogs and a cervids-specific genotype A in red deer (Cervus elaphus), which indicate that these animals do not constitute the source of infection to humans. On the other hand, in a tamandua from the Zoological Garden in Poznań a new subgenotype B of G. intestinalis was identified, which due to a close relationship with Giardia isolates obtained from humans is

  5. Étude d'une grotte à Ours du Pléistocène moyen en Dordogne : la Grotte XIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Guadelli, Jean-Luc

    1997-01-01

    La Grotte XIV (Dordogne, France) a livré des restes attribuables à des espèces d'âge pléistocène moyen ancien : Dinobatis, Panthera gombaszoegensis, Panthère, Felis (de grande taille) ou Lynx (de petite taille), Ursus cf. deningeri, Canis cf. etruscus, Hemitragus, Cervus, Capreolus, Dicerorhinus,... Les restes d'Ours présentent des caractères très primitifs (entoconide des M1 très simple, faible torsion de l'articulation distale des tibias, ...) ce qui pose la question de l'identification pré...

  6. Distinct distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and a new final host record for D. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Maiko; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    This study dealt with the morphological and molecular identification of Dicrocoelium flukes obtained from Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) in the twelve districts of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis were exclusively detected in the western, and coastal and eastern areas of Iwate Prefecture, respectively. This geographically distinct occurrence of the two Dicrocoelium species would be associated with the distribution of the final hosts, sika deer for D. chinensis and Japanese serow for D. dendriticum. This study also reports that Capricornis crispus is a new final host of D. chinensis. PMID:24998394

  7. Comparative Morphology of Prickles of Rubus croceacanthus (Rosaceae) in Kashima Island and Its Neighbouring Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Shogo Takei; Kazuhiro Yoshioka; Satoru Yamada; Hiroshi Hayakawa; Jun Yokoyama; Katsura Ito; Shin-ichi Tebayashi; Ryo Arakawa; Tatsuya Fukuda

    2013-01-01

    Kashima Island (32° 57? N, 132° 27? E) is a small island of southern Japan with high population density of sika deer (Cervus nippon). To ascertain whether heavy sika deer browsing has resulted in increased plant defences on the island, we conducted a morphological comparison of Rubus croceacanthus H. Lev. (Rosaceae) on Kashima Island and in the neighbouring areas on the mainland. We measured the length and density of the leaf and stem prickles. We found that the prickles of R. croceacanthus o...

  8. Historie výskytu a chovu jelena siky v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Boček, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the history of the occurrence and breeding of a sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the Czech Republic. The thesis focuses on the type characteristics and the description of its life pattern and the history of a sika deer expansion within Europe and the Czech Republic primarily. The thesis contains the evaluation of populations development in the areas with the highest coincidence of a sika deer in our country as well, namely in the West Bohemia and the Bouzov Region. The ...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Prickles on Rubus sieboldii (Rosaceae) between Grazed and Ungrazed Areas in Southwestern Shikoku, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shogo Takei; Kyohei Ohga; Hiroshi Hayakawa; Jun Yokoyama; Katsura Ito; Shin-ichi Tebayashi; Ryo Arakawa; Tatsuya Fukuda

    2012-01-01

    Kashima Island (32º57?N, 132º27?E) is a very small island (45.1 ha) in southwestern Shikoku, Japan with a high density (ca. 38.5/km2) of Sika deer (Cervus nippon). To examine induced defences of plants against the Sika deer, we conducted morphological analyses of prickles of Rubus sieboldii Blume (Rosaceae) between grazed (Kashima Island) and ungrazed areas (neighbour locations) in southwestern Shikoku. The length and density of prickles on leaves and around stems were measured. The prickles ...

  10. Historie chovu jelena siky Dybowského v Českých zemích

    OpenAIRE

    Mlateček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The history of Dybowski´s Sika deer breeding in the Czech Republic This bachelor work is dedicated to the problems of Japanese Sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon), it´s introduce to Europe and to the Czech Republic including it´s occurrence. The presence of a Sika deer population in the vast teritories of the Czech Republic causes problems from the aspect of hunting as well as forestry. The practical part of this work focuses on the observation of the influence of Earth´s magnetic field...

  11. 牧場採草地へのニホンジカ侵入に対する防護柵の影響

    OpenAIRE

    高山, 耕二; 内山, 雄紀; 赤井, 克己; 花田, 博之; 伊村, 嘉美; 中西, 良孝; Takayama, Koji; UCHIYAMA, Yuki; AKAI, Katsumi; Hanada, Hiroyuki; IMURA, Yoshimi; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; 髙山, 耕二

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain fundamental information regarding effective methods for reducing the damage caused to meadows by sika deer (Cervus nippon). A survey was conducted to evaluate the effect of fencing for preventing sika deer invasion of meadows A (8 ha) and B (7.4 ha) in Iriki Livestock Farm (148 ha). Fence A (175 cm in height) that was set around meadow A comprised wire net (120 cm in height) and synthetic fiber net (120-175 cm in height) fences, whereas Fence B (140cm...

  12. Mortality of domesticated java deer attributed to Surra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulaini, R; Jamnah, O; Adnan, M; Zaini, C M; Khadijah, S; Rafiah, A; Chandrawathani, P

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports an outbreak of trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Java deer (Cervus timorensis) on a government deer farm in Lenggong, Perak. Seventeen adult female Java deer were found dead within a week. Symptoms of dullness, inappetence, anaemia, anorexia, respiratory distress and recumbency were seen prior to death in the infected Java deer. Beside trypanosomiasis, other parasitic infections such as theileriosis, helminthiasis and ectoparasite infestation were also recorded. Post mortem results showed generalized anaemia in most animals with isolated cases of jaundice. There was no significant finding with respect to bacteriological and viral investigations. PMID:18209710

  13. Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cédric Roqueplo; Olivier Cabre; Bernard Davoust; Angeli Kodjo

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa), 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7%) w...

  14. [Methods and tools for parasite differentiation within the genus Trichinella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastusiak, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes the major biological, biochemical and molecular methods which have been developed during last 20 years to distinguish parasites of the genus Trichinella. From the time of the discovery of Trichinella in 1835 until the 1970, it was assumed that trichinellosis was caused by a single species of parasite, Trichinella spiralis. Many biological parameters have been compared to differentiate the parasite, such as host specificity, geographical distribution, reproductive abilities, nurse cell development and resistance to freezing. Now, investigators realize that the genus Trichinella is a much more complex group of parasites and simple biological methods are non sufficient. In order to identify and better characterize the species and genotypes of Trichinella it was necessary to develop more sensitive techniques. First, for detecting Trichinella infection immunological methods have been used, such as detection of antibodies in host blood and antigens of parasites using monoclonal antibodies against immunodominant proteins. Later, biochemical techniques have been used such as isoenzyme analysis. The main goal of these methods is to provide a simple, rapid and reproducible techniques to differentiate Trichinella parasites. For this purpose DNA-based methods appeared the best ones. Beginning with the use restriction enzymes, repetitive DNA probes for detection of parasite DNA, and later techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), give results at the high level of sensitivity. All of this information has been used to construct a new taxonomy of the genus Thrichinella. To date, 11 taxa have been recognized in the genus: 8 species (Trichinella spiralis T1, Trichinella nativa T2, Trichinella britovi T3, Trichinella pseudospiralis T4, Trichinella murrelli T5, Trichinella nelsoni T7, Trichinella papuae T10, Trichinella zimbabwensis T 11) and additionally three genotypes whose taxonomic status is yet uncertain (T6, T8, T9). Based upon morphology

  15. The prevalence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins in sera of wildlife in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A R; Wilks, C R; Spratt, D M; Presidente, P J

    1981-04-01

    Anti-leptospiral agglutinins were found in the serum from 18 (7 species) of 419 (25 species) animals sampled from various areas of southeastern Australia. Positive serologic reactions were observed in 5 of 25 (20%) brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), 1 of 26 (3.8%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), 2 of 12 (16.7%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 1 of 3 (33.3%) koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), 3 of 41 (7.3%) common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), 2 of 100 (2%) bush rat (Rattus fuscipes) and 4 of 12 (25%) rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). The majority (55.5%) of serologic reactions were to serovar hardjo. No serologic reactions were observed in samples from echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), swainson's antechinus (Antechinus swaisonsii), long-nosed bandicoot (Perameles nasuta), brown bandicoot(Isoodon obesulus), common ringtail (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), greater glider (Schoinobates volans), eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster), black rat (Rattus rattus), eastern swamp rat (Rattus lutreolus), broad-toothed rat (Mastacomys fuscus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), hog deer (Axis porcinus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). PMID:7241704

  16. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  17. Quantifying landscape ruggedness for animal habitat analysis: A case study using bighorn sheep in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, J.M.; Longshore, K.M.; Thompson, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Terrain ruggedness is often an important variable in wildlife habitat models. Most methods used to quantify ruggedness are indices derived from measures of slope and, as a result, are strongly correlated with slope. Using a Geographic Information System, we developed a vector ruggedness measure (VRM) of terrain based on a geomorphological method for measuring vector dispersion that is less correlated with slope. We examined the relationship of VRM to slope and to 2 commonly used indices of ruggedness in 3 physiographically different mountain ranges within the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. We used VRM, slope, distance to water, and springtime bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) adult female locations to model sheep habitat in the 3 ranges. Using logistic regression, we determined that the importance of ruggedness in habitat selection remained consistent across mountain ranges, whereas the relative importance of slope varied according to the characteristic physiography of each range. Our results indicate that the VRM quantifies local variation in terrain more independently of slope than other methods tested, and that VRM and slope distinguish 2 different components of bighorn sheep habitat.

  18. Compensating for diminishing natural water: Predicting the impacts of water development on summer habitat of desert bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, K.M.; Lowrey, C.; Thompson, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial water sources have been used for decades to enhance and restore wildlife habitat but the benefits of their use have been subject to debate. During the past century, the number of natural springs in Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA, has declined. In response to concerns about the viability of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) population, a number of water developments were constructed throughout the park. We modeled potential historical and present-day summer habitat of female bighorn sheep to evaluate the effectiveness of the artificial and remaining natural water sources in maintaining habitat and to determine how loss of artificial sources might affect future habitat availability. Prior to 1950, 583.5 km2 of summer habitat was potentially available. Presently, only 170.6 km2 of habitat is available around natural water sources and 153.5 km2 is available around guzzlers. When all perennial water sources are included in the habitat model (minus overlap), 302.3 km2 of summer habitat is potentially available. This represents only 51.7% of summer habitat available prior to 1950. Without artificial water developments, 47.7% of present-day summer habitat would be lost, which raises important management questions regarding the debate about what is natural or artificial within otherwise protected areas.

  19. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  20. Trichinella zimbabwensis in a naturally infected mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, L J; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2010-03-01

    Trichinella zimbabwensis has been detected in wild and farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) and in wild monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) of several African countries, but it has never been detected in mammals in nature, in spite of its infectivity to rodents, pigs, foxes and monkeys under laboratory conditions. The aim of this work was to describe the first detection of T. zimbabwensis in a naturally infected lion (Panthera leo) of the Kruger National Park (KNP) of South Africa. The sequence of the expansion segment V, a highly variable non-coding sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA of the genus Trichinella, of larvae from the lion was identical to that of larvae of T. zimbabwensis collected from a Nile crocodile originating from the same locality as the lion, suggesting a possible transmission of this parasite between mammals and reptiles. The KNP proves to be a very interesting area for parasites of the genus Trichinella since three taxa (Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella T8 and T. zimbabwensis) circulate among the wildlife of this protected area. PMID:19580688

  1. Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis induce infection in experimentally infected varans, caimans, pythons and turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Marucci, G; Casulli, A; Sacchi, L; Mukaratirwa, S; Foggin, C M; La Rosa, G

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farm crocodiles of Zimbabwe has opened up a new frontier in the epidemiology of the Trichinella genus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the infectivity of encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli and T. nelsoni) and non-encapsulated species (T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis) in caimans (Caiman crocodilus), varans (Varanus exanthematicus), pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) and turtles (Pelomedusa subrufa) raised at their natural temperature range (26-32 degrees C). Mice and chickens were used as controls. At 6 days post-infection (p.i.), adult worms were detected in the small intestine of reptiles infected with T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis, of chickens infected with T. pseudospiralis and of mice infected with all encapsulated and non-encapsulated species. At 60 days p.i., T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis adult worms were collected from the intestine of varans and caimans and larvae from muscles of the four reptile species, T. pseudospiralis larvae from muscles of chickens, and larvae of all Trichinella species from mouse muscles. The highest reproductive capacity index of both T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis was observed in varans. The results show that T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are able to complete their entire life-cycle in both poikilothermic and homoiothermic animals. PMID:15074882

  2. Nonisotopic single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of sequence variability in ribosomal DNA expansion segments within the genus Trichinella (Nematoda: Adenophorea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Robin B; Hu, Min; Abs El-Osta, Youssef G; Zarlenga, Dante S; Pozio, Edoardo

    2004-10-01

    A nonisotopic single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) approach was employed to 'fingerprint' sequence variability in the expansion segment 5 (ES5) of domain IV and the D3 domain of nuclear ribosomal DNA within and/or among isolates and individual muscle (first-stage) larvae representing all currently recognized species/genotypes of Trichinella. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of the D3 sequence data set, employing three different tree-building algorithms, examined the relationships among all of them. These analyses showed strong support that the encapsulated species T. spiralis and T. nelsoni formed a group to the exclusion of the other encapsulated species T. britovi and its related genotypes Trichinella T8 and T9 and T. murrelli, and T. nativa and Trichinella T6, and strong support that T. nativa and Trichinella T6 grouped together. Also, these eight encapsulated members grouped to the exclusion of the nonencapsulated species T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis and the three representatives of T. pseudospiralis investigated. The findings showed that nonencapsulated species constitute a complex group which is distinct from the encapsulated species and supported the current hypothesis that encapsulated Trichinella group external to the nonencapsulated forms, in accordance with independent biological and biochemical data sets. PMID:15490459

  3. The detection of encapsulated and non-encapsulated species of Trichinella suggests the existence of two evolutive lines in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the discovery of many non-encapsulated isolates of Trichinella, designated Trichinella pseudospiralis and the identification of a new non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, has revealed that the biomass of the genus Trichinella does not only include the well known encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli, and T. nelsoni but also includes geographically disseminated, non-encapsulated species that represent important biological entities in the genus. Larvae of the first stage (L1 of both non-encapsulated and encapsulated species are able to penetrate the muscle cell and induce a dedifferentiation of this cell. But following this point in the parenteral cycle, non-encapsulated and encapsulated species diverge with respect to their developmental strategies where L1 of encapsulated species are able to induce the nurse cell to synthesize collagen, unlike non-encapsulated larvae which do not induce collagen production. The presence or absence of a collagen capsule is of great importance in the natural cycle of these parasites in that it allows the encapsulated larva to survive to substantially longer periods of time and therefore remain infective even within putrefied muscle tissue.

  4. Muscle distribution of sylvatic and domestic Trichinella larvae in production animals and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel, C M O; Webster, P; Gamble, H R

    2005-09-01

    Only a few studies have compared the muscle distribution of the different Trichinella genotypes. In this study, data were obtained from a series of experimental infections in pigs, wild boars, foxes and horses, with the aim of evaluating the predilection sites of nine well-defined genotypes of Trichinella. Necropsy was performed at 5, 10, 20 and 40 weeks post inoculation. From all host species, corresponding muscles/muscle groups were examined by artificial digestion. In foxes where all Trichinella species established in high numbers, the encapsulating species were found primarily in the tongue, extremities and diaphragm, whereas the non-encapsulating species were found primarily in the diaphragm. In pigs and wild boars, only Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella nelsoni showed extended persistency of muscle larvae (ML), but for all genotypes the tongue and the diaphragm were found to be predilection sites. This tendency was most obvious in light infections. In the horses, T. spiralis, Trichinella britovi, and T. pseudospiralis all established at high levels with predilection sites in the tongue, the masseter and the diaphragm. For all host species, high ML burdens appeared to be more evenly distributed with less obvious predilection than in light infections; predilection site muscles harbored a relatively higher percent of the larval burden in light infections than in heavy infections. This probably reflects increasing occupation of available muscle fibers as larger numbers of worms accumulate. Predilection sites appear to be influenced primarily by host species and secondarily by the age and level of infection. PMID:15979801

  5. Biochemical analysis of encapsulated and non-encapsulated species of Trichinella (Nematoda, Trichinellidae) from cold- and warm-blooded animals reveals a high genetic divergence in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Giuseppe; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo

    2003-12-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to analyse genetic variation in the genus Trichinella. Twenty-eight isolates belonging to eight species and six genotypes were analysed for 12 enzyme systems, producing 19 different phenotypes. According to Jaccard's similarity index, the isolates clustered into two main groups, specifically, encapsulated species/genotypes and non-encapsulated species/genotypes. Furthermore, the non-encapsulated species clustered into two other groups: the species infecting mammals and birds ( Trichinella pseudospiralis) and those infecting mammals and reptiles ( Trichinella papuaeand Trichinella zimbabwensis). The encapsulated species/genotypes, which only infect mammals, clustered into four main groups: the cosmopolitan species Trichinella spiralis, the species/genotypes of the temperate regions ( Trichinella britovi, Trichinella murrelli, Trichinella T8, and Trichinella T9), the species/genotype of the arctic region ( Trichinella nativa and Trichinella T6), and the equatorial species Trichinella nelsoni. These results are consistent with biological, epidemiological, and molecular data, which show a high genetic divergence in this genus. PMID:14557876

  6. Molecular characterization of Trichinella genotypes by inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Salamanca, F; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Benito, C; Camachot, M V; Martínez-Fernández, A R

    2006-06-01

    A bulk analysis of inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) provides a quick, reliable, and highly informative system for DNA banding patterns that permit species identification. The present study evaluates the applicability of this system to Trichinella species identification. After a single amplification carried out on a single larva with the primer 816([CA]nRY) under high stringency conditions, which provide high reproducibility, we were able to identify by consistent banding patterns 5 sibling species: Trichinella spiralis (ISS48), 2 Trichinella britovi isolates (ISS11 and ISS86), Trichinella murrelli (ISS35), Trichinella nativa (ISS71), Trichinella nelsoni (ISS29); 3 additional Trichinella genotypes: T8 (ISS149), T9 (ISS408 and ISS409), and T6 (ISS34); and the nonencapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis (ISS13). Moreover, 33 new Trichinella isolates from 2 zoogeographical regions were unequivocally identified. All Trichinella isolates have shown an identical pattern with those produced by the reference strain. According to these data, we have demonstrated that ISSR-PCR is a robust technique that emerges as a useful new application for the molecular identification of Trichinella isolates in epidemiological studies. PMID:16884006

  7. Biological variation in Trichinella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolas-Fernández, F

    2003-06-01

    At present, the genus Trichinella comprises seven species of which five have encapsulated muscle larvae (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. nelsoni and T. murrelli) and two do not (T. pseudospiralis and T. papuae) plus three genotypes of non-specific status (T6, T8 and T9). The diagnostic characteristics of these species are based on biological, biochemical and genetic criteria. Of biological significance is variation observed among species and isolates in parameters such as infectivity and immunogenicity. Infectivity of Trichinella species or isolates is determined, among other considerations, by the immune status of the host in response to species- or isolate-specific antigens. Common and particular antigens determine the extent of protective responses against homologous or heterologous challenge. The kinetics of isotype, cytokine and inflammatory responses against T. spiralis infections are isolate-dependent. Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis induce different dose-dependent T-cell polarizations in the early host response, with T. spiralis initially preferentially promoting Th1-type responses before switching to Th2 and T. pseudospiralis driving Th2-type responses from the outset. PMID:12756064

  8. [Biology, species biodiversity and distribution of Trichinella nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    From the time of the discovery of Trichinella larvae in 1835 until the middle of the next century it was commonly assumed that all trichinellosis was caused by a single species Trichinella spiralis. This species is an intracellular parasite in both a larva and an adult stage. The L1 larvae live in a modified skeletal muscles. The adult worms occupy a membrane-bound portion of columnar epitelium, living as intramulticellular parasite. More than century later T. spiralis have been reported from more than 150 different naturally or experimentally infected hosts and demonstrated worldwide distribution in domestic and/or sylvatic animals. Up to date, Trichinella genus comprised eight species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli, T. nelsoni, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensisi) and three additional genotypic variants that have not yet to be taxonomically defined (T6, T8, T9). Molecular markers revealed that Trichinella T6 is related to T. nativa, Trichinella T8 related to T. britovi. Two main clades are recognized in the genus Trichinella: the first encapsulated in host muscle tissue and the second--non-encapsulated. In this paper the history of Trichinella spp. discovery, their life cycle, taxonomy and phylogeny have been reviewed. PMID:17432238

  9. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  10. Effect of low-dose irradiation on viability of Trichinella isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of pork products should be an effective and safe process in reducing the risk of human trichinellosis; However, Trichinella isolates which show high genetic differentiation could also exhibit different radiosensitivity. Studies performed by using rats for testing 10 isolates of T. spiralis from various hosts from one geographical region showed no difference in radioresistance of the isolates. A dose of irradiation of 0.6 kGy caused total absence of muscle larvae of all but two isolates. On the other hand, 8 Trichinella of different taxa (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, T. britovi) isolated in various regions from different hosts were equally radiosensitive when tested in mice; a dose of 2 kGy prevented the production of larval progeny of all but one isolate. The results of the experiments performed with the same T. spiralis isolate on two different laboratory host (rat and mouse) showed that the different results of the former experiments depended on the laboratory host used; the rat was more sensitive in monitoring Trichinella larvae viability. We can accept that low-dose irradiation (0.3-0.6 kGy) of hog carcasses can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of pork heavily infected with Trichinella. (author)

  11. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population

  12. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Borys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K. Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season. The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selection; both groups of selections gave similar values of germination. The 45.83% of selections of the wild group gave from 88 to 90% of germinated pollen. The selections of cultivated group have been characterized by a wide range of pollen germination. The anther size - length and width - depended upon the selection. The plants of the cultivated group showed a larger size more frequently than those of the wild group. No correlation was found between pollen germination and anthers dimensions. The results were discussed in relation to productivity of fruits trees of the Mexican representatives included in the germplasm collection.

  13. A comparison of two methods for colorimetric in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissue sections and digoxigenin-labeled hybridization probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcino, Joe

    2013-06-01

    Two methods for colorimetric in situ DNA probe hybridization (CISH) assays on paraffin-embedded tissue sections were compared. The heated method used heat (90-100°C) to denature DNA in the sample prior to probe hybridization, while the unheated method used a standard hybridization temperature of 42°C. Both procedures were tested on tissue samples that harbored the mollusk protozoan pathogens Perkinsus marinus, P. chesapeaki, or Haplosporidium nelsoni, the protozoan and bacterial fish pathogens Myxobolus cerebralis (myxosporidean) or Renibacterium salmoninarum (bacterial), or the crab viral pathogen Callinectes sapidus reovirus. Samples were fixed in either formalin or Davidson's fixative and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. The heated method is labor intensive and highly prone to human error, while the unheated method is less labor intensive and can be completed in a shorter period of time. Both methods yielded similar hybridization results. The use of complex and expensive prehybridization buffers did not improve the performances of the tested CISH assays. Prehybridization heat denaturation of DNA in assayed samples increased both assay duration and loss of samples but did not improve hybridization signals. PMID:23697605

  14. Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M. is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus and wild goats (Capra ibex clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnosed Treatment was ineffective on one red deer and one wild goat. Necropsy findings of dead animals were included: hyperemia, petechial hemorrhage in pericardium and heart muscle, pale foci of leg and heart muscles and red brown urine in bladder. This case report represents the attention to Capture myopathy in wild animals and particular caution that should be exercised in capturing and handling of these animals.

  15. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer. PMID:6644934

  16. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  17. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugal, Cherie; van Beest, Floris; Vander Wal, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high......-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012...... disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter...

  18. The effect of immobilizing drugs on adrenal responsiveness to ACTH in Rusa deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T

    1984-01-01

    Resting cortisol values in a fully tame Rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the influence of two anaesthetics, Rompun and Fentaz, on cortisol levels as well as the response to synthetic ACTH were investigated. The mean level of cortisol in a completely tame Rusa deer was found to be 2.22 ng/ml (SD 1.45 ng/ml n = 36; minimal level recorded was 0.96 ng/ml, maximal level recorded was 9.21 ng/ml). No circadian rhythm of cortisol in plasma was detected. Rompun (xylazine hydrochloride) and/or Fentaz (fentanyl citrate) alone or in combination can be used for immobilization of Rusa deer. Neither Rompun nor Fentaz alone or in combination influences the cortisol response to synthetic ACTH administration. Because of the narrow range for safe dosage for Fentaz the use of Rompun for immobilizing deer is recommended. PMID:6149097

  19. QUANTIFICATION OF PREDATION AND INCIDENCE OF PARASITIC INFESTATION IN MELGHAT TIGER RESERVE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LEOPARDS (PANTHERA PARDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. SHIRBHATE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 135 scats of Leopards from Melghat Tiger Reserve were analyzed for any undigested remains. Theanalysis of scats of leopards revealed remains of 11 prey species with a high preponderance of smallmammals including Indian hare (Lepus nigricollis , sambar (Cervus unicolorand wild pig (Susscrofa. The prey preference on the basis of biomass was sambar > wild pig > domestic animals >chital > four horned antelope. but the order of predation on the basis of undigested remains in scatswas Indian hare > sambar > wild pig > langur > domestic animals. It is found that the leopardspreferred two different preys (55 scats, 40.47% at a time. Leopards were also found to be the hostof a number of gastrointestinal parasites. They got these infections from the herbivores on whichthey feed as well as crabs on which they preyed rarely.

  20. Detection of a new microsporidium Perezia sp. in shrimps Penaeus monodon and P. indicus by histopathology, in situ hybridization and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Lightner, Donald V; Redman, Rita M; Le Groumellec, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Samples of microsporidia-infected shrimps exhibiting clinical signs of cotton shrimp disease were collected from Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2014. The tails of the infected shrimps appeared opaque and whitish; subsequent histological examination revealed the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions and mature spores in tissues of the muscle, hepatopancreas, gills, heart, and lymphoid organ. PCR analysis targeting the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) from infected samples resulted in the amplification of a 1.2 kbp SSU rDNA sequence fragment 94% identical to the corresponding region in the genome of the microsporidian Perezia nelsoni, which infects populations of Penaeus setiferus in the USA. Its SSU rDNA sequence was 100% identical among isolates from Madagascar and Saudi Arabia, indicating that shrimps from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were infected with the same microsporidium, the novel Perezia sp. A 443 bp fragment of the SSU rDNA sequence was cloned, labeled with digoxigenin and subjected to an in situ hybridization assay with tissue sections of Perezia sp.-infected Penaeus monodon from Madagascar and Mozambique, and P. indicus from Saudi Arabia. The probe hybridized to the mature spores in the hepatopancreas and muscle from which the spores had been obtained for DNA isolation. This assay was specific, showing no reaction to another microsporidium, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infecting the hepatopancreas of shrimp P. stylirostris cultured in SE Asian countries. We also developed an SSU rDNA-based PCR assay, specific for the novel Perezia sp. This PCR did not react to EHP, nor to genomic DNA of shrimp and other invertebrates. PMID:27409240

  1. Genetic Structure of Pacific Trout at the Extreme Southern End of Their Native Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Garza, John Carlos; Mayden, Richard L; García de León, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Salmonid fishes are cold water piscivores with a native distribution spanning nearly the entire temperate and subarctic northern hemisphere. Trout in the genus Oncorhynchus are the most widespread salmonid fishes and are among the most important fish species in the world, due to their extensive use in aquaculture and valuable fisheries. Trout that inhabit northwestern Mexico are the southernmost native salmonid populations in the world, and the least studied in North America. They are unfortunately also facing threats to their continued existence. Previous work has described one endemic species, the Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster), and one endemic subspecies, Nelson's trout (O. mykiss nelsoni), in Mexico, but previous work indicated that there is vastly more biodiversity in this group than formally described. Here we conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of this important group of fishes using novel genetic markers and techniques to elucidate the biodiversity of trout inhabiting northwestern Mexico, examine genetic population structure of Mexican trout and their relationships to other species of Pacific trout, and measure introgression from non-native hatchery rainbow trout. We confirmed substantial genetic diversity and extremely strong genetic differentiation present in the Mexican trout complex, not only between basins but also between some locations within basins, with at least four species-level taxa present. We also revealed significant divergence between Mexican trout and other trout species and found that introgression from non-native rainbow trout is present but limited, and that the genetic integrity of native trout is still maintained in most locations. This information will help to guide effective conservation strategies for this important group of fishes. PMID:26509445

  2. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  3. Understanding associations between nitrogen and carbon isotopes and mercury in three Ammodramus sparrows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios and mercury (Hg) in breast feathers from three species of closely related sparrows, Saltmarsh, Seaside, and Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus caudacutus, A. maritimus, and A. nelsoni, respectively), to assess if trophic position and food web structure influence Hg exposure in these species. Sparrows were captured during the non-breeding season from 2006 to 2008 in North Carolina salt marshes near Wrightsville Beach, New Hanover County. Generalized linear models were used to test for the influence of species, δ15N, and δ13C on breast feather Hg. The most parsimonious model included species, δ15N, and their interaction term and explained 36% of the variation in breast feather Hg. Each species exhibited a different association between breast feather δ15N and Hg with Seaside Sparrows showing a positive correlation (r = 0.27, P = 0.03), Nelson's Sparrows a negative correlation (r = − 0.28, P = 0.01), and Saltmarsh Sparrows with no significant association. For Saltmarsh Sparrows, δ15N and Hg revealed decoupling between breast feather Hg and trophic position. Our results demonstrate that the influence of δ15N on breast feather Hg is likely indicative of geographic variation in δ15N baselines rather than trophic position. - Highlights: ► Species, δ15N and δ13C influence breast feather Hg in coastal sparrows. ►δ15N influence may be based more on variation in baselines than trophic position. ►δ15N and Hg are decoupled in Saltmarsh Sparrows. ►Variation in Hg is due to geographic variation in contamination/biomagnification.

  4. Foodborne and waterborne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2003-01-01

    More than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. Some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. Of this large number of pathogens, only Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food and water. Eleven helminthic species (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Trichinella spiralis, Tr. nativa, Tr. britovi, Tr. pseudospiralis, Tr. murrelli, Tr nelsoni, Tr. papuae and Tr. zimbabwensis) can grow in meat of different animal species and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw meat or meat products. Twenty trematode species, four cestode species and seven nematode species can infect humans through the consumption of raw sea- and/or fresh-water food (fishes, molluscs, frogs, tadpoles, camarons, crayfishes). Six species of Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar can contaminate food and water. Among the helminths, seven trematode species, seven cestode species and five species of nematodes can reach humans by contaminated food and water. Diagnostic and detection methods that can be carried out routinely on food and water samples are available only for few parasites (Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., Anisakidae, Trichinella sp., Taenia sp.), i.e., for parasites which represent a risk to human populations living in industrialised countries. The majority of food and waterborne infections of parasitic origin are related to poverty, low sanitation, and old food habits. PMID:15058817

  5. Global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Kouam, Marc K; Kantzoura, Vaia; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    Maximum entropy ecological niche modeling was utilized to describe the global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes and to assess their invasive risk in new areas other than the ones currently known. Also, space-time scan statistic was utilized to identify global spatiotemporal clusters of infection. A database containing 3209 records for 12 species and genotypes identified at the International Trichinella Reference Center (ITRC) as well as climate, elevation, and land cover data extracted from various databases were used. Ecological niche modeling implemented in the Maxent program indicated new potential ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, T. papuae (T10), and T. zimbabwensis (T11). The area under the curve values for the test data of the models ranged from 0.901 to 0.998, indicating that the models were very good to excellent. The most important bioclimatic factor in modeling the ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T6, and T. zimbabwensis (T11) was temperature, for T. pseudospiralis (T4) and T. papuae (T10) was precipitation, and for T. murrelli (T5) was land cover. T. spiralis (T1), T. britovi (T3), and T. pseudospiralis (T4) had the same primary land cover which was "Grass Crops". The primary land covers were "Conifer Boreal Forest" for T. nativa (T2), "Cool Fields and Woods" for T. murrelli (T5), "Upland Tundra" for T6, "Tropical Rainforest" for T. papuae (T10), and "Crops and Town" for T. zimbabwensis (T11). The scan statistic analyses revealed the presence of significant spatiotemporal clusters (ppseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, and T. nelsoni (T7). No significant clusters were found for T. papuae (T10) and T. zimbabwensis (T11). PMID:24951834

  6. Reconsideration of the systematics of the Early Pleistocene Cervavitus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervavitus were usually found from the Late Miocene and Pliocene deposits in East Europe, Middle Asia and North China, but they were found recently in many Early Pleistocene localities in southern China. The latter resulted in the discussion of their systematic status between Cervavitus and Cervus. Here we show the Early Pleistocene forms from southern China are morphometrically more similar to northern China Cervavitus species, and the cladistic analysis shows that the southern China forms are closer to classic Cervavitus species than Cervus and that also proves their systematic status in Cervavitus rather than in Cervus. Cervavitus originated in Moldovan forests of East Europe in the late Vallesian (MN10 from a brachyodont and holometacarpal ancestor with two/three-tined antlers and Palaeomeryx fold and evolved into C. novorossiae. It dispersed into West Europe forests in the earliest Turolian and further west to France in the Ruscinian. It dispersed into northern China forests in the early Turolian and represented by C. shanxius. The great quantity of C. shanxius specimens with brachyodont teeth and complete lateral metacarpals implies the arid Loess Plateau of today was a humid forested region in the Late Miocene. C. shanxius migrated southwards in the Plio-Pleistocene probably due to the drying environment in northern China with uplifting of Himalayas and evolved into C. ultimus and C. fenqii, which survived in southern China until the Early Pleistocene (MNQ18.La revisión sistemática de Cervivatus sugiere que deriva del principal clado de los cérvidos posteriores a los muntiacinos, e implica que Procervulinae, Dicrocerinae y la primeras formas de Munticiacinae serían holometacarpales, como también lo es Cervivatus, originario en los bosques de Moldavia (Europa del Este durante el Vallesiense final (MN 10, a partir de un antecesor braquiodonto y holometacarpal, con astas con dos o tres candiles y pliegue paleomerícido, y que da lugar a

  7. Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids

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    Ismail Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study investigated the use of chromosome banding method to detect chromosomal variation and to define the chromosome homology and the possibility of the Bornean Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei and Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis hybrids to reproduce. Approach: Samples were collected from the Livestock Breeding Station, Sabrang, Keningau, Sabah, East Malaysia. The animals studied consisted of two deer subspecies namely the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their hybrids. The karyotypes of the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their F1 hybrids have been investigated by solid giemsa staining, G-banding and Ag-NOR banding techniques. Results: Rusa and Bornean Sambar have different chromosome number; 60 and 62 respectively, but share the same fundamental number of chromosome arm, 70. The hybrids have 2n = 61, consisting of 9 metacentric to submetacentric autosomes and 24 pairs of acrocentric autosomes with two acrocentrics and one submetacentric chromosome being unpaired. The morphology of the sex chromosomes in the F1 hybrids was similar to that of the parental species. The Ag-NOR pattern and the conventional Giemsa staining of chromosomes were effective as markers in the characterization of the karyotypes of the parental lines and hybrids because of the presence of active NORs on different chromosomes of different species. G-band, in contrast, showed complete homology in the presence of euchromatic bands and heterochromatin blocks respectively on each chromosome

  8. Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação in vitro de alimentos incubados com inóculo microbiano de diferentes espécies de ruminantes Kinetic parameters of the ruminal in vitro degradation of feedstuffs given to different ruminant species

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    A.R.G.F. Bezerra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alguns alimentos utilizados para ruminantes de zoológicos foram estimados mediante incubação in vitro com líquido ruminal de audade (Ammotragus lervia, cervo sambar (Cervus unicolor, elande (Taurotragus oryx, bovino (Bos taurus, bubalino (Bubalus bubalis, caprino (Capra hircus e ovino (Ovis aries. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram estimados pela técnica da produção de gás, cujos dados foram ajustados pelos modelos de um e de duplo compartimento. Não foram detectadas diferenças nos parâmetros cinéticos que permitissem agrupar os alimentos (fibrosos × não fibrosos e os animais (domésticos × silvestres. O modelo de duplo compartimento foi o mais adequado para a estimação dos parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal. Inóculo microbiano oriundo de ruminantes domésticos não é recomendado para estimar parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alimentos utilizados para ruminantes silvestres de zoológicos.The estimation of the ruminal kinetic parameters of pumpkin, potato-sweet, beet, broccoli, carrot, alfalfa hay, alfalfa pellet and bean, currently used for feeding wild and domestic ruminants raised in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo, was made through in vitro incubation of the feedstuffs together with ruminal fluid obtained from aoudad (Ammotragus lervia, sambar deer (Cervus unicolor, eland (Taurotragus oryx, cattle (Bos taurus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, goat (Capra hircus and sheep (Ovis aries. The gas production technique was used to obtain gas profiles, and the data were fitted by the mono or double compartmental model. The kinetic parameters were discrepant among both, animals and feedstuffs, and the double compartmental model gave the best estimation. Ruminal inocula from domestic ruminants can not be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of ruminal degradation of feedstuffs for wild ruminants.

  9. Gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E J; Reid, H; Pow, I; Klemt, A

    2002-08-01

    Between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order Artiodactyla at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) of wildebeest (Connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. Gamma herpesvirus DNA was detected in the known, or suspected, carrier species: roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), gemsbok (Oryx gazella), musk ox (Ovibos muschatus) and mouflon (Ovis musimon). In six other species: lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) yak (Bos grunniens), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros), DNA was present in some newborn calves and over 30% of adults, strongly suggesting a carrier state. In contrast five Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and two swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli) died of MCF during the study. A virus isolated from scimitar-horned oryx calves produced cytopathic effects in scimitar-horned oryx kidney cell-culture and caused MCF in a rabbit. PMID:12208112

  10. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in ireland

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    Partridge Tom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

  11. A likelihood-based approach for assessment of extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Marshall, T.C.; McCloskey, Sarah E.; Sethi, S.A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Sedinger, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Genotypes are frequently used to assess alternative reproductive strategies such as extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in wild populations. However, such analyses are vulnerable to genotyping error or molecular artifacts that can bias results. For example, when using multilocus microsatellite data, a mismatch at a single locus, suggesting the offspring was not directly related to its putative parents, can occur quite commonly even when the offspring is truly related. Some recent studies have advocated an ad-hoc rule that offspring must differ at more than one locus in order to conclude that they are not directly related. While this reduces the frequency with which true offspring are identified as not directly related young, it also introduces bias in the opposite direction, wherein not directly related young are categorized as true offspring. More importantly, it ignores the additional information on allele frequencies which would reduce overall bias. In this study, we present a novel technique for assessing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism using a likelihood-based approach in a new version of program cervus. We test the suitability of the technique by applying it to a simulated data set and then present an example to demonstrate its influence on the estimation of alternative reproductive strategies.

  12. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (∼10 Bq kg{sup -1}) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  13. Growth and reproductive performance of sambar deer in Sabal Forest Reserve of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ismail; Dawend, Jiwan

    2013-10-01

    We examined the growth, reproduction, rutting behavior, and health status of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in secondary Acacia mangium plantation. The data were collected over 11 years from a breeding herd of 21 stags and 33 hinds in Sabal Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia. Brody's growth model of the pooled data is Y t  = 148.56 (1 - 0.98e(-0.023t)), which estimates that maximum weights of adults are 184 and 115 kg for males and females respectively. Sambar deer are nonseasonal breeders with the breeding peak in February. Although the earliest age at which a female reached sexual maturity was 11 months, the mean age was 23 ± 7 months. Mean age of first fawning was 32 ± 8 months. Mean gestation period was 259 ± 12 days (n = 82). Stags shed antlers mostly between March and July. Velvet hardens at 103 ± 27 days (n = 23), and velvet harvesting is best at 7-9 weeks when antler length is 25-30 cm. Sambar deer are suitable as a farm species in forest plantations and have a vast potential to uplift rural living standards. PMID:23475732

  14. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  15. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer. PMID:11191897

  16. Protective effect of EC-18, a synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride on lung inflammation in a murine model induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kim, Jae Wha; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung Jae; Han, Yong-Hae; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    The antler of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) has been used a natural medicine in Korea, China and Japan, and a monoacetyldiaglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol, PLAG) was found in the antler of Sika deer as a constituent for immunomodulation. In this study, we investigated protective effects of EC-18 (a synthetic copy of PLAG) on inflammatory responses using a cigarette smoke with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation model. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1h per day for 3days. Ten micrograms of LPS dissolved in 50μL of PBS was administered intra nasally 1h after the final cigarette smoke exposure. EC-18 was administered by oral gavage at doses of 30 and 60mg/kg for 3days. EC-18 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils, reactive oxygen species production, cytokines and elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the cigarette smoke and LPS induced mice. Histologically, EC-18 attenuated airway inflammation with a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression in lung tissue. Additionally, EC-18 inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. Our results show that EC-18 effectively suppresses neutrophilic inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:26655742

  17. Caballos y ciervos : Una aproximación a la evolución climática y económica del Paleolítico superior en el Mediterráneo peninsular

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    Xavier Esteve

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caballos y ciervos son las principales presas de caza mayor en los yacimientos del Paleolítico superior en la cuenca mediterranea de la Península Ibérica. Sólo las cabras monteses pueden llegar a tener mayor importancia en yacimientos situados en áreas abruptas o montañosas. A pesar de los pocos requerimientos climáticos de ambas especies, podemos comprobar una clara relación entre los episodios más fríos del final del Pleistoceno y la caza del caballo y la presencia de los restos de ciervo en los yacimientos arqueológicos durante los momentos más templados. Nuestros resultados indican la existencia de una especie de frontera bioclimática Equus/Cervus que se desplazó de sur a norte en la cuenca medietrranea de la peninsula Ibérica a lo largo del Paleolítico superior.

  18. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  19. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India

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    Jaroli DP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,, hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  20. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan

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    Takaoka H.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable and young (thin cuticle. Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus, O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax. Diagnostic charactets of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus. The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92 %.