WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervix mucus

  1. [Development of ultrastructural changes in human cervix mucus during the ovarian cycle. Scanning electron microscope study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, F C; Cohen, J; Psychoyos, A

    1976-01-01

    The use of the Scanning Electron Microscope has made it possible through observation to study the human cervical mucus through the various stages of the ovarian cycle, as well as to describe the significant variations of the meshed woof making up the ultrastructure during the ovarian cycle. While the slackening of the woof and the dimension of the meshes are minimal at both the beginning and end of the cycle, they reach a maximum on forteenth day. In the ovulatory period, lateral expansions from the filaments are numerous. On the other hand, median and terminal thicknesses are almost inexistant during the same period : their frequency decreases during the first part of the cycle, then increases during the luteal phase. During both the preceding and following days of ovulation, one can observe numerous twistings at the level of the filaments which probably express the relaxation and then contraction of the latter. The preparatory technique as well as the method of observation used appear reliable enough to allow a comparison of the cervical mucus ultrastructure in varied physiological, pathological and experimental situations. PMID:956619

  2. Effect of protracted whole-body gamma irradiation with 6.7 Gy and 4.8 Gy (700 and 500 R) on trypsin inhibition activity of blood, cervical mucus and on morphological structure of cervix in ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of changes in the trypsin inhibition activities (TIA) of blood plasma, cervical mucus and the morphological structure of the cervix was studied in ewes exposed to 60Co radiation for seven and five days, the radiation doses being 6.7 Gy and 4.8 Gy, respectively. During exposure, the group of ewes irradaited with 4.8 Gy was given the Roboran vitamin addition and following irradiation ampicillin (5250 mg). TIA was determined from retardation of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate N-alpha-tosyl-p-nitroanilide by bovine trypsin; the TIA was expressed as the percentage of inhibited trypsin. Almost all the studied TIA values of blood plasma and cervical mucus were increased in the irradiated animals, the range being from 103.1 to 155.0% of the levels for non-irradiated ewes. A reduction was recorded only in the total TIA of blood plasma in the group irradiated with a dose of 6.7 Gy (83.1% of the values for non-irradiated animals). In the group of animals irradiated with 4.8 Gy and non Roboran administered, the TIA of cervical mucus was observed to decrease to 92.4%. It was found during the study of changes in the proportion of glands in the stroma and changes in epithelium thickness in the mucous membrane of the cervix uteri that the irradiated ewes had the epithelium thickness reduced to 95.3% to 65.5% and that their stromal gland number decreased to 75.4% to 79.7% of that recorded in non-irradiated animals. It was only in the group given the Roboran supplement that an increase to 123.7% of the gland number for untreated ewes was recorded on the tenth day after termination of the irradiation

  3. Adenomyosis with severe inflammation in the uterine cervix in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; KUWAMURA, Mitsuru; Maeda, Masaya; Kajikawa, Taketsugu; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    A dog with purulent vulval discharge was found to have many cysts containing purulent mucus in the uterine cervix. The uterine horns did not contain any pus. Histological examination revealed a cervical adenomyosis infiltrated by many neutrophils. After an ovariohysterectomy including the whole cervix, the dog recovered well.

  4. Cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to characterize the behavior of cervix cancer in a sample of 162 patients with this diagnosis during 2003-2009 in the Isla de la Juventud municipality. From the review of case reports from the National Unit of Cancer the individual medical records of Teaching General Hospital of this municipality and from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology, as well as the deceased persons, it was possible to note that the 63% of cases were women aged 34-57 and that the 20% was in ages outside the screening program. The NIC and/or infection by HPV and smoking were the more frequent risk factors. There was predominance of large cells epidermoid non-keratinized carcinoma and the O stage or in situ. Most of patients were operated on is initial therapy. The great mortality was between fifth and sixth decades of life with a acceptable survival at 5 years

  5. Adherence of bacteria to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract of heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styková, E; Nemcová, R; Valocký, I; Novotný, F; Guba, P

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the adherence of indigenous vaginal bacteria, probiotic strains, and metritis pathogens to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tracts of heifers and cows and compared their adherence with the bacterial adherence to mucus collected from the stomach and large intestine of pigs. Most of the vaginal strains adhered to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract and strongly adhered to gastric mucus, with the exception of Lactobacillus buchneri 24S8. Only Lactobacillus mucosae 29S8, Enterococcus faecium E21, and E. faecium EAC adhered to colonic mucus. Probiotic strains adhered strongly to mucus collected from the reproductive tract and gastric mucus but did not adhere to colonic mucus. Pathogenic strains were adherent to vaginal, uterine horn, and gastric mucus, except Escherichia coli O8:K88ab:H9 (65), Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which adhered to uterine cervix mucus. Only Kocuria kristinae and G. vaginalis adhered to uterine body mucus; E. coli O149:K88ac (EC) adhered to colonic mucus. The strains did not exhibit host specificity but rather strain specificity. The ability to adhere to mucus was a characteristic unique to each strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding in vitro adherence of GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) lactobacilli isolated from different sources to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract. PMID:24206354

  6. Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell L. Van Tassell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host.

  7. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us More COPD: Lifestyle Management Avoiding Infections Breathing Retraining Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Exercises Giving Up Smoking ... mucus is allowed to collect in the airways, breathing may become difficult and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  8. Mucus hypersecretion in the airway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; WEN Fu-qiang; XU Dan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mucus hypersecretion is a distinguishing feature of Chronic intlammation diseases,such as asthma,1chronic bronchitis.2 bronchiectasis3 and cystic fibrosis.4Mucus hypersecretion leads to impairment of mucociliary clearance,abnormal bacterial plantation,mucus plug in the airway,and dysfunction of gas exchange.5

  9. Mucus permeating thiomer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, S; Dünnhaupt, S; Waldner, C; Hauptstein, S; Pereira de Sousa, I; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system based on thiolated poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles exhibiting mucolytic properties to enhance particle diffusion into deeper mucus regions before adhesion. Mediated by a carbodiimide, cysteine and the mucolytic enzyme papain were covalently attached to poly(acrylic acid) via amide bond formation. The conjugates were co-precipitated with calcium chloride in order to obtain papain modified (PAA-pap) and thiolated nanoparticles (PAA-cys) as well as particles containing both conjugates (PAA-cys-pap). The nanoparticulate systems were characterized regarding particle size distribution and zeta potential. Particle transport was investigated by diffusion studies across intestinal mucus using two different techniques. Furthermore, mucoadhesive properties of all particles were evaluated via rheological measurements. Results demonstrated that all nanoparticles were in a size range of 158-214 nm and showed negative zeta potentials. Due to the presence of papain, the PAA-cys-pap particles were capable of cleaving mucoglycoprotein substructures and consequently exhibited a 2.0-fold higher penetration into the mucus layer in comparison with PAA-cys particles. Within the rheological studies, an 1.9-fold increase in mucoadhesion could be achieved for the nanoparticulate system based on thiolated PAA compared to papain modified particles (PAA-pap). Therefore, the newly developed particulate system (PAA-cys-pap) is characterized by mucoadhesive as well as mucolytic properties. The combination of both effects - mucus-permeating and mucoadhesive properties - might be a promising strategy for the development of oral drug delivery systems to overcome the mucus barrier and providing a prolonged residence time close to the absorption membrane. PMID:25603199

  10. PREGNANCY WITH CARCINOMA CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available : Invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy is rare, but is a dilemma for women and their physicians. Pregnancy provides a good opportunity to the obstetrician to screen the patient for cervical neoplasia. We report a case of pregnancy with carcinoma cervix. A 40 years old lady G5P3+1 presented in casualty at 38 weeks 2 days with bleeding per vaginum. On examination she was stage III b Carcinoma Cervix with term pregnancy. She underwent classical cesarean section followed by EBRT and brachytherapy. The main objective of this case report is to highlight the need of doing cervical screening routinely in pregnancy in a low resource setting also to decrease the burden of carcinoma cervix in society

  11. Lymphoma of the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Parnis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the uterine cervix is a very rare diagnosis. A 54-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of postmenopausal bleeding per vaginum. On examination, a friable, fungating lesion was seen on the cervix. Histology revealed a CD 20 positive high-grade non-Hodgkin’s diffuse large B cell lymphoma from cervical biopsies and endometrial curettage. She was diagnosed as stage IE after workup and subsequently treated with six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy of the involved field.

  12. Clearance of a Mucus Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shiyao; Zheng, Ying; Grotberg, James B.

    2008-11-01

    Mucus plugging may occur in pulmonary airways in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. How to clear the mucus plug is essential and of fundamental importance. Mucus is known to have a yield stress and a mucus plug behaves like a solid plug when the applied stresses are below its yield stress τy. When the local stresses reaches τy, the plug starts to move and can be cleared out of the lung. It is then of great importance to examine how the mucus plug deforms and what is the minimum pressure required to initiate its movement. The present study used the finite element method (FEM) to study the stress distribution and deformation of a solid mucus plug under different pressure loads using ANSYS software. The maximum shear stress is found to occur near the rear transition region of the plug, which can lead to local yielding and flow. The critical pressure increases linearly with the plug length and asymptotes when the plug length is larger than the half channel width. Experimentally a mucus simulant is used to study the process of plug deformation and critical pressure difference required for the plug to propagate. Consistently, the fracture is observed to start at the rear transition region where the plug core connects the films. However, the critical pressure is observed to be dependent on not only the plug length but also the interfacial shape.

  13. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function, such an...... presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....

  14. Effects of chelating agents on the rheological property of cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi H; Wang, Yicheng; Shin, Sang-Chul; Chien, Yie W

    2002-06-01

    As an ongoing effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the calcium-dependent fertility regulation process, the viscoelastic properties of the mucus obtained from lamb cervix and human semen, as well as their water and total protein contents after exposure to EDTA, a chelating agent, or Nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a spermicidal agent, were examined. The viscosity was measured using a Cone Plate Digital Viscometer, while the water and total protein contents were determined by the lyophilization process and the Lowry method, respectively. The significant changes in the rheological properties of mucus, such as its viscosity and the water content, upon exposure to EDTA were demonstrated. The viscosity of cervical mucus and human semen were significantly increased by EDTA treatment (as compared to the controls): lamb cervical mucus (2.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3 cps) and human semen (5.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.3 cps), respectively. The hydration rate was decreased by EDTA treatment as compared with the control (93.6 +/- 0.7 vs. 96.8 +/- 0.8%). Among tested samples, the reduction in the percentage of sperm penetration through the cervical mucus was the highest in the mucus containing EDTA, which had the lowest water content (93.6 +/- 0.7%), indicating that there is a positive relationship between the hydration rate of the cervical mucus and its ability to permit the penetration of spermatozoa. This result indicates that spermicidal activity exerted by high concentrations of EDTA is in part due to its effect on the rheological properties of cervical mucus or semen. PMID:12127644

  15. Carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To discuss a variety of technical and clinical issues concerning the management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Although survival rates are high for patients with small volume disease, clinicians continue to search for approaches that might improve treatment results for patients who have bulky central disease, evidence of regional dissemination or other factors associated with a high rate of disease recurrence. New technical approaches have contributed to controversy about the best means of optimizing therapeutic ratio. This course will review current approaches to the management of cervical cancer. Technical aspects of intracavitary and external beam treatment will be emphasized. Problems with brachytherapy dose specification will be discussed as will technical factors that may influence the incidence of treatment-related complications. Current understanding of the natural history of disease and of clinical factors that influence the rate of disease recurrence will be reviewed, including the importance of tumor volume, lymph node involvement, and histologic type on natural history and prognosis. The possible role of controversial methods of clinical evaluation such as lymphangiography and surgical staging will be discussed. Some of the more controversial aspects of treatment including the indications of radiation therapy vs. surgical therapy for stage IB disease, the role of extended field therapy, postoperative therapy, adjuvant hysterectomy, and neoadjuvant or concurrent chemotherapy will be discussed. Conclusions from the recent NCI consensus conference on cervical cancer will be reviewed

  16. Carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To discuss a variety of technical and clinical issues concerning the management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Although survival rates are high for patients with small volume disease, clinicians continue to search for approaches that might improve treatment results for patients who have bulky central disease, evidence of regional dissemination or other factors associated with a high rate of disease recurrence. New technical approaches have contributed to controversy about the best means of optimizing therapeutic ratio. This course will review current approaches to the management of cervical cancer. Technical aspects of intracavitary and external beam treatment will be emphasized. Problems with brachytherapy dose specification will be discussed as will technical factors that may influence the incidence of treatment-related complications. Current understanding of the natural history of disease and of clinical factors that influence the rate of disease recurrence will be reviewed, including the importance of tumor volume, lymph node involvement, and histologic type on natural history and prognosis. The possible role of controversial methods of clinical evaluation such as lymphangiography and surgical staging will be discussed. Some of the more controversial aspects of treatment such as the indications for radiation therapy vs. surgical therapy for stage IB disease, the role of extended field therapy, postoperative therapy, adjuvant hysterectomy and neoadjuvant or concurrent chemotherapy will be reviewed

  17. Enumerating viruses in coral mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Leruste, Amandine; Bouvier, Thierry; Bettarel, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of viruses inhabiting the coral mucus remains undetermined, as there is no suitable standardized procedure for their separation from this organic matrix, principally owing to its viscosity and autofluorescence. Seven protocols were tested, and the most efficient separations were obtained from a chemical treatment requiring potassium citrate.

  18. Enumerating viruses in coral mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruste, Amandine; Bouvier, Thierry; Bettarel, Yvan

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of viruses inhabiting the coral mucus remains undetermined, as there is no suitable standardized procedure for their separation from this organic matrix, principally owing to its viscosity and autofluorescence. Seven protocols were tested, and the most efficient separations were obtained from a chemical treatment requiring potassium citrate. PMID:22729548

  19. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative charge...... complex gel barrier to drug delivery. Current knowledge of mucus characteristics and barrier properties, as achieved by state-of-the-art methodologies, is the topic of this MiniReview emphasizing the gastrointestinal mucus and an overall focus on oral drug delivery. Cell culture-based in vitro models are...... well-established as essential tools in drug research and development, but traditionally, mucus-containing models have only rarely been applied. However, a number of mucus-containing in vitro models have recently been described in the literature and their properties and applications will be reviewed and...

  20. Cancer cervix?: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anemia is very commonly seen in most of the malignancies including cancer cervix. Anemia has long been reported to adversely affect the efficacy of radiation treatment in cervical cancer. At our center, carcinoma cervix accounts for approximately 8-10% of all malignancies. The objective of this study is to see the impact of anemia in the treatment of cancer cervix. In the present study, we collected data of treatment results of FIGO stage II and III cancer cervix patients retrospectively treated in years of 2009-10. We have tried to assess the outcome of results in patients whom haemoglobin (Hb) level < 10 gm/dl and e''10 gm/dl. Out of 200 patients of disease with baseline Hb less than 10 gm/dl, 80(40%) patients had residual disease after 4 weeks of completion of treatment. Out of 168 patients with baseline Hb more than 10 gm/dl, 42(25%) had residual disease (p-0.0012 i.e highly significant). Our study shows that there is a good disease control at local site in patients with higher pretreatment Hb level. Effect of pretreatment Hb on treatment outcome in terms of overall survival, disease free survival, and local relapse free survival along with effect on corrective measures should be studied in detail. (author)

  1. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos FL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederick L Ramos, Jason S Krahnke, Victor KimDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Airway mucus is part of the lung's native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, mucus, sputum

  2. Sonography of the cervix at term gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer-Hoogeveen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract During pregnancy the firm cartilage-like consistency of the cervix is transformed to soft tissue. This transformation is called "cervical ripening" and enables the cervix to dilate and facilitate parturition. In 1960, the Bishop Score was introduced to assess cervical ripeness before induction of labour, which is determined by digital examination. The Bishop Score consists of five different aspects of the cervix, namely dilatation, effacement, consistency, position and station of the...

  3. Carcinoma cervix presenting with clivus metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpitha S Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a large metastatic lesion from carcinoma cervix located in the clivus. Patient presented with severe headache and vomiting, mimicking an intracranial pathology. Radiological imaging suggested metastatic origin of the lesion and later on investigations revealed primary in the uterine cervix. The anatomic importance of extradural neural axis component in the process of metastasis of carcinoma cervix to the clivus is highlighted in this case report.

  4. Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Duncan F

    2007-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a feature of a number of severe respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, each disease has a different airway inflammatory response, with consequent, and presumably linked, mucus hypersecretory phenotype. Thus, it is possible that optimal treatment of the mucus hypersecretory element of each disease should be disease-specific. Nevertheless, mucoactive drugs are a longstanding and popular therapeutic option, and numerous compounds (eg, N-acetylcysteine, erdosteine, and ambroxol) are available for clinical use worldwide. However, rational recommendation of these drugs in guidelines for management of asthma, COPD, or CF has been hampered by lack of information from well-designed clinical trials. In addition, the mechanism of action of most of these drugs is unknown. Consequently, although it is possible to categorize them according to putative mechanisms of action, as expectorants (aid and/or induce cough), mucolytics (thin mucus), mucokinetics (facilitate cough transportability), and mucoregulators (suppress mechanisms underlying chronic mucus hypersecretion, such as glucocorticosteroids), it is likely that any beneficial effects are due to activities other than, or in addition to, effects on mucus. It is also noteworthy that the mucus factors that favor mucociliary transport (eg, thin mucus gel layer, "ideal" sol depth, and elasticity greater than viscosity) are opposite to those that favor cough effectiveness (thick mucus layer, excessive sol height, and viscosity greater than elasticity), which indicates that different mucoactive drugs would be required for treatment of mucus obstruction in proximal versus distal airways, or in patients with an impaired cough reflex. With the exception of mucoregulatory agents, whose primary action is unlikely to be directed against mucus, well-designed clinical trials are required to unequivocally determine the

  5. Pain management in cancer cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palat Gayatri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the cervix uteri is a common cause of pain among women. On the physical realm, the cancer may cause somatic [soft tissue and bone], visceral and neuropathic pain [lumbosacral plexopathy]. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may cause neuropathy too. Psychological, social and cultural factors modify the pain. Evaluation of the individual type of pain and a patient-centred approach are fundamental requirements for rational management. Disease modifying treatment like radiotherapy and chemotherapy must be considered when applicable. Pain control is usually achieved by the use of WHO three-step ladder, remembering that possible association of renal dysfunction would necessitate caution in the use of NSAIDs and opioids. Side effects must be anticipated, prevented when possible, and aggressively treated; nausea and vomiting may already be present, and constipation can worsen pain when there is a pelvic mass. Pain emergencies can be treated by quick titration with intravenous morphine bolus doses. Neuropathic pain may warrant the use of usual adjuvants, with particular reference to cortico-steroids and the NMDA antagonist, ketamine. In intractable pain, many neurolytic procedures are tried, but a solid evidence base to justify their use is lacking. Continuous epidural analgesia with local anaesthetic and opioid may be needed when drug therapy fails, and desperate situations may warrant interventions such as neurolysis. Such physical measures for pain relief must be combined with psychosocial support and adequate explanations to the patient and the family.

  6. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  7. Hypertonic saline releases the attached small intestinal cystic fibrosis mucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ermund (Anna); L.N. Meiss (Lauren N.); B.J. Scholte (Bob); G.C. Hansson (Gunnar)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Hypertonic saline inhalation has become a cornerstone in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), but its effect on CF mucus is still not understood. In CF, mucus stagnates in the airways, causing mucus plugging, and forming a substrate for bacterial invasion. Using horizontal Uss

  8. Conjunctival mucus ferning in hypovitaminosis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular ferning test was used to qualitatively assess mucus function in early stages of xerophthalmia. The results indicate that inspite of histological evidence of loss of goblet cells in the early stages, mucous function and production is sufficient to produce ferning. It is suggested that such derangements in mucous ferning may occur in more advanced stages of xerophthalmia.

  9. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadnik CR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian R Osadnik,1,2 Christine F McDonald,2,3 Anne E Holland2,4,51Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, 4Department of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, 5Department of Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaWe wish to thank Ramos et al for presenting a succinct and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence relating to the important issue of mucus hypersecretion in COPD.1 The authors highlight the association of mucus hypersecretion with poor outcomes, including increased risk of exacerbations, hospitalization and mortality. These associations have led to interest in the potential benefits of mucus clearance techniques in COPD. As Ramos et al1 point out, although the physiological rationale for airway clearance techniques (ACTs in COPD is strong, clinical efficacy has historically been difficult to establish, perhaps due to the variety of techniques and outcomes that have been employed in small studies. We have recently synthesized this body of evidence in a Cochrane systematic review of ACTs for individuals with COPD. The review demonstrated ACTs are safe and meta-analysis showed they confer small beneficial effects on a limited range of important clinical outcomes, such as the need for and duration of ventilatory assistance during an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD.2View original paper by Ramos and colleagues.

  10. Chronic mucus hypersecretion in COPD and death from pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1995-01-01

    The association of chronic mucus hypersecretion and mortality is a matter of debate. We wished to determine whether the relationship between chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related mortality could be explained by proneness to pulmonary infection. We...... followed 14,223 subjects of both sexes for 10-12 yrs. Cases where COPD was an underlying or contributory cause of death (n = 214) were included, and hospital records were obtained when possible (n = 101). From the presence of increased mucus, purulent mucus, fever, leucocytosis and infiltration on chest...... without chronic mucus hypersecretion. Controlling for covariates, in particular smoking habits, a Cox analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between ventilatory function and COPD-related mortality. Chronic mucus hypersecretion was found to be a significant predictor of COPD-related death with...

  11. Induction of Protease Activity in Vibrio anguillarum by Gastrointestinal Mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Denkin, Steven M.; Nelson, David R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of gastrointestinal mucus on protease activity in Vibrio anguillarum was investigated. Protease activity was measured by using an azocasein hydrolysis assay. Cells grown to stationary phase in mucus (200 μg of mucus protein/ml) exhibited ninefold-greater protease activity than cells grown in Luria-Bertani broth plus 2% NaCl (LB20). Protease induction was examined with cells grown in LB20 and resuspended in mucus, LB20, nine-salts solution (NSS [a carbon-, nitrogen-, and phosphorus-...

  12. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with /sup 99m/Tc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed

  13. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, K J; Palmer, D W; Beste, D J; Carl, G A; Belson, T P; Pelc, L R; Toohill, R J

    1985-04-01

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with 99mTc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed. PMID:3921912

  14. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, K.J.; Palmer, D.W.; Beste, D.J.; Carl, G.A.; Belson, T.P.; Pelc, L.R.; Toohill, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with /sup 99m/Tc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed.

  15. Property profiling of biosimilar mucus in a novel mucus-containing in vitro model for assessment of intestinal drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Baldursdóttir, Stefania G; Müllertz, Anette; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2014-01-01

    Oral delivery of drugs, including peptide and protein therapeutics, can be impeded by the presence of the mucus surface-lining the intestinal epithelium. The aim of the present project was to design and characterize biosimilar mucus compatible with Caco-2 cell monolayers cultured in vitro to esta...... of the biorelevance of the Caco-2 cell culture model by application of mucus, resulting in an in vitro model of oral mucosa suitable for future assessment of innovative drug delivery approaches....

  16. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Osadnik, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Christian R Osadnik,1,2 Christine F McDonald,2,3 Anne E Holland2,4,51Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, 4Department of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, 5Department of Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaWe wish to thank Ramos et al for presenting a succinct and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence relating to the important issue of mucus hypersecr...

  17. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  18. Palmar cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamurugan T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the most common gynecological malignancy in developing countries. However, its cutaneous metastasis is a rare entity. The reported incidence of cutaneous metastasis ranges from 0.1 to 2%. Frequent sites of cutaneous metastasis in decreasing order are: abdominal wall, vulva and anterior chest wall. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of cutaneous metastasis to the upper extremity have been reported in the world. We report a case of a 74-year-old postmenopausal lady diagnosed to have carcinoma cervix (stage IIIB who presented with cutaneous metastasis to palm and thigh, 10 months after radical radiotherapy. At presentation, the primary disease had resolved completely. She had a small nodular growth in the left palm and left thigh. Fine needle aspirate cytology and core needle biopsy from both the nodular lesions were positive for squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  20. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  1. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian, R

    Island harboured 1.9 x 10 super(6) thraustochytrids.g/1 dry weight and fresh mucus from Acropora sp. 12 and 20.ml/1. The number of thraustochytrids in detrital mucus incubated with sterilised lagoon water increased significantly than when incubated...

  2. The bovine cervix explored : the cow as a model for studies on functional changes in the cervix uteri

    OpenAIRE

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.

    2002-01-01

    The cervix uteri is a rigid tube which connects the uterus with the vagina and during most of the time it is firmly closed. During oestrus, late pregnancy and parturition, the morphological appearance in the cervix changes markedly, resulting in a softer cervix, which during parturition can even be stretched open to a diameter that is more than a tenfold larger than before. During gyneacological interventions, such as artificial inseminations in several animal species, or in women it would be...

  3. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. PMID:2991089

  4. A new method of separation and quantitation of mucus glycoprotein in rat gastric mucus gel layer and its application to mucus secretion induced by 16,16-dimethyl PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Y; Ishihara, K; Ohara, S; Saigenji, K; Hotta, K

    1991-10-01

    A method was established for recovering the mucus gel layer of rat gastric mucosa without damage to underlying surface epithelium. The mucus gel was solubilized by stirring the gastric mucosa in a solution of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent. Optimal mucus gel solubilization was possible by treatment with 2% NAC for 5 minutes at room temperature. Mucus glycoprotein was quantitatively extracted and measured from the mucus gel sample obtained by the NAC treatment. This treatment caused no damage to surface epithelial cells, as observed by a light microscope. Besides NAC, pronase solution was also adequate for solubilizing the mucus gel layer without any damage to the surface epithelium. However, extraction and measurement of mucus glycoprotein from the pronase-treated mucus gel sample was not possible due to contamination by high molecular hexose-containing substances which were eluted along with the mucus glycoprotein from the column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m. This NAC method was used to examine changes in mucus glycoprotein content in the mucus gel at one hour following the oral administration of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2. A significant increase in mucus glycoprotein of the gel was brought about by the prostaglandin treatment. Thus, the present method was suitable for estimating the amount of mucus secreted in to the mucus gel layer. PMID:1752389

  5. KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H; Hama, Y; Sumi, T; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    2001-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the mucus coat of fish plays a variety of important physical, chemical, and physiological functions. One of the major constituents of the mucus coat is mucus glycoprotein. We found that sialic acids in the skin mucus of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, consisted predominantly of KDN. Subsequently, we isolated KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus and characterized its chemical nature and structure. Loach mucus glycoprotein was purified from the Tris-HCl buffer extract of loach skin mucus by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Nuclease P1 treatment, and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration. The purified mucus glycoprotein was found to contain 38.5 KDN, 0.5% NeuAc, 25.0% GalNAc, 3.5% Gal, 0.5% GlcNAc and 28% amino acids. Exhaustive Actinase digestion of the glycoprotein yielded a glycopeptide with a higher sugar content and higher Thr and Ser contents. The molecular size of this glycopeptide was approximately 1/12 of the intact glycoprotein. These results suggest that approximately 11 highly glycosylated polypeptide units are linked in tandem through nonglycosylated peptides to form the glycoporotein molecule. The oligosaccharide alditols liberated from the loach mucus glycoprotein by alkaline borohydride treatment were separated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and HPLC. The purified sugar chains were analyzed b --> 6GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 3(GalNAcbeta1 --> 14)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(GalNAcalpha1 --> 3)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(Gal3alpha1--> 3)GalNAc-ol, and NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Gal NAc-ol. It is estimated that one loach mucus glycoprotein molecule contains more than 500 KDN-containing sugar chains that are linked to Thr and Ser residues of the protein core through GalNAc. PMID:14533798

  6. Polymers in the gut compress the colonic mucus hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Preska Steinberg, Asher; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-06-28

    Colonic mucus is a key biological hydrogel that protects the gut from infection and physical damage and mediates host-microbe interactions and drug delivery. However, little is known about how its structure is influenced by materials it comes into contact with regularly. For example, the gut abounds in polymers such as dietary fibers or administered therapeutics, yet whether such polymers interact with the mucus hydrogel, and if so, how, remains unclear. Although several biological processes have been identified as potential regulators of mucus structure, the polymeric composition of the gut environment has been ignored. Here, we demonstrate that gut polymers do in fact regulate mucus hydrogel structure, and that polymer-mucus interactions can be described using a thermodynamic model based on Flory-Huggins solution theory. We found that both dietary and therapeutic polymers dramatically compressed murine colonic mucus ex vivo and in vivo. This behavior depended strongly on both polymer concentration and molecular weight, in agreement with the predictions of our thermodynamic model. Moreover, exposure to polymer-rich luminal fluid from germ-free mice strongly compressed the mucus hydrogel, whereas exposure to luminal fluid from specific-pathogen-free mice-whose microbiota degrade gut polymers-did not; this suggests that gut microbes modulate mucus structure by degrading polymers. These findings highlight the role of mucus as a responsive biomaterial, and reveal a mechanism of mucus restructuring that must be integrated into the design and interpretation of studies involving therapeutic polymers, dietary fibers, and fiber-degrading gut microbes. PMID:27303035

  7. Polymers in the gut compress the colonic mucus hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S.; Preska Steinberg, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Colonic mucus is a key biological hydrogel that protects the gut from infection and physical damage and mediates host–microbe interactions and drug delivery. However, little is known about how its structure is influenced by materials it comes into contact with regularly. For example, the gut abounds in polymers such as dietary fibers or administered therapeutics, yet whether such polymers interact with the mucus hydrogel, and if so, how, remains unclear. Although several biological processes have been identified as potential regulators of mucus structure, the polymeric composition of the gut environment has been ignored. Here, we demonstrate that gut polymers do in fact regulate mucus hydrogel structure, and that polymer–mucus interactions can be described using a thermodynamic model based on Flory–Huggins solution theory. We found that both dietary and therapeutic polymers dramatically compressed murine colonic mucus ex vivo and in vivo. This behavior depended strongly on both polymer concentration and molecular weight, in agreement with the predictions of our thermodynamic model. Moreover, exposure to polymer-rich luminal fluid from germ-free mice strongly compressed the mucus hydrogel, whereas exposure to luminal fluid from specific-pathogen-free mice—whose microbiota degrade gut polymers—did not; this suggests that gut microbes modulate mucus structure by degrading polymers. These findings highlight the role of mucus as a responsive biomaterial, and reveal a mechanism of mucus restructuring that must be integrated into the design and interpretation of studies involving therapeutic polymers, dietary fibers, and fiber-degrading gut microbes. PMID:27303035

  8. Dynamics of changes in trypsin-inhibiting activity (TIA) in cervical mucus blood and histomorphological structure of uterus in sheep following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the reproductive organs of sheep was studied after a single local irradiation of ovaries with different X-ray doses. 22 sheep of the Slovak Merino breed, two years old, weighing an average of 30 kg, divided into four groups were irradiated as follows: group I n=6, 4.78 Gy (500 R), group II n=6, 9.67 Gy (1000 R), group III n=6, 19.14 Gy (2000 R). The sheep in the fourth (control) group were not irradiated but underwent laparotomy. Trypsin inhibition activity of the blood plasma and of the cervical mucus was determined from the decreased rate of hydrolysis of the low-molecular substrate (TAPA); the thickness of the epithelium of the cervix and body of the uterus was measured microscopically following fixation and colouring. The dynamics of TIA changes in the cervical mucus differed in the individual groups in the course of days 10, 30 and 100. The dynamics of changes in the thickness of the epithelium of the endometrium, the cervix and the uterus horns had a different character. On day 100 after irradiation the values differed only very little. The dynamics of TIA of the blood plasma (total and low-molecular fraction) differed between the groups and on day 100 of the experiment the values were significantly lower than on day 1. A comparison of the values in irradiated and control sheep showed that the values of TIA of the cervical mucus increased between days 10 and 30 while the values of low-molecular TIA of the plasma decreased. (author)

  9. Law 16.097 Prevention program of uterine cervix cancer in Uruguay: Uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year in Uruguay, is diagnosed around 600 new cases of cancer of uterine cervix. Next important information was related on this cancer and the evolution that will have the carrying of this illness, it was informed about the prevention, symptoms, I diagnose and treatment of the same one

  10. Shape priors for segmentation of the cervix region within uterine cervix images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotenberg, Shelly; Gordon, Shiri; Greenspan, Hayit

    2008-03-01

    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital Uterine Cervix images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Health, in longitudinal multi-year studies. NCI together with the National Library of Medicine is developing a unique web-based database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for the automated analysis of the cervigram content to support the cancer research. In recent works, a multi-stage automated system for segmenting and labeling regions of medical and anatomical interest within the cervigrams was developed. The current paper concentrates on incorporating prior-shape information in the cervix region segmentation task. In accordance with the fact that human experts mark the cervix region as circular or elliptical, two shape models (and corresponding methods) are suggested. The shape models are embedded within an active contour framework that relies on image features. Experiments indicate that incorporation of the prior shape information augments previous results.

  11. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  12. Non-parametric Bayesian modeling of cervical mucus symptom

    OpenAIRE

    Bin, Riccardo De; Scarpa, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the cervical mucus symptom is useful to identify the period of maximum fertility of a woman. In this paper we analyze the daily evolution of the cervical mucus symptom during the menstrual cycle, based on the data collected in two retrospective studies, in which the mucus symptom is treated as an ordinal variable. To produce our statistical model, we follow a non-parametric Bayesian approach. In particular, we use the idea of non-parametric mixtures of rounded continuous kerne...

  13. Automatic evaluation of uterine cervix segmentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotenberg, Shelly; Gordon, Shiri; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Jeronimo, Jose; Greenspan, Hayit

    2007-03-01

    In this work we focus on the generation of reliable ground truth data for a large medical repository of digital cervicographic images (cervigrams) collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This work is part of an ongoing effort conducted by NCI together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop a web-based database of the digitized cervix images in order to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. As part of this effort, NCI has gathered twenty experts to manually segment a set of 933 cervigrams into regions of medical and anatomical interest. This process yields a set of images with multi-expert segmentations. The objectives of the current work are: 1) generate multi-expert ground truth and assess the diffculty of segmenting an image, 2) analyze observer variability in the multi-expert data, and 3) utilize the multi-expert ground truth to evaluate automatic segmentation algorithms. The work is based on STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation), which is a well known method to generate ground truth segmentation maps from multiple experts' observations. We have analyzed both intra- and inter-expert variability within the segmentation data. We propose novel measures of "segmentation complexity" by which we can automatically identify cervigrams that were found difficult to segment by the experts, based on their inter-observer variability. Finally, the results are used to assess our own automated algorithm for cervix boundary detection.

  14. Active microrheology of Chaetopterus mucus determines three intrinsic lengthscales that govern material properties

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, W J; Deheyn, D D; Morales-Sanz, A; Blair, D L; Urbach, J S; Robertson-Anderson, R M

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the scale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the Chaetopterus marine worm and determine the intrinsic lengthscales controlling distinct rheological and structural regimes. Mucus produced by this ubiquitous filter feeder serves a host of roles including filtration, protection and trapping nutrients. The ease of clean mucus extraction coupled with similarities to human mucus rheology also make Chaetopterus mucus a potential model system for elucidating human mucus mechanics. We use optically trapped microsphere probes of 2-10 microns, to induce oscillatory strains and measure mucus stress response. We show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on the strain scale (l) with three distinct regimes emerging: microscale: l_110 microns. While mucus response is similar to water for l_1 indicating that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, for l_2 the response is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, demonstrating that the mucus behaves as a continuum. However, t...

  15. Adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix — clinical and prognostic characteristics of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tanriverdieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare form of cancer of the cervix. Because of the small number of observations adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix remains poorly understood disease, although the first mention of it dates back to 1956, when A. Glucksmann, and C.D. Cherry first described of mixed carcinoma (adenoacanthoma of the uterine cervix.

  16. 21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of... device that is intended to measure the relative viscoelasticity of cervical mucus collected from a...

  17. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISATION OF MUCUS ADHESION PROTEINS OF LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI

    OpenAIRE

    Etzold, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Mucus is the first point of contact between the gut microbiota and the host. Mucus adhesins are thought to be key mediators in the mucus adhesion of commensal Lactobacillus species. However, knowledge on the structural or functional basis of adhesin interaction with mucin glycoproteins, the main component of mucus, is limited. This work describes the biochemical and structural properties of two cell-surface proteins from Lactobacillus reuteri, the mucus-binding protein (MUB) and the Lar0958 p...

  18. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    IZABELA MARTIN; ANGELA STOICA; PAULA POŞAN; LAURA URDEŞ

    2013-01-01

    To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,t...

  19. The pigmented portio: benign lentigo of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, V; Zimberg, S T; Kay, S

    1981-01-01

    The first case of benign lentigo of the uterine cervix is reported, providing further evidence that the cervix is able to form the entire spectrum of melanocytic lesions known to occur in the skin. Review of the literature reveals 19 cases of primary malignant melanoma of the cervix and 30 cases of blue nevus. The reported case offers support that benign lentigines may play a role as premalignant lesions of malignant melanoma not only in the skin, but aldo in mucous membranes. PMID:7327080

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ; STÁDNÍK, Luděk; Mojmír VACEK; František LOUDA

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts), sperm motility (SM) during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC) and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval), open days (SP), inseminations number for pregnancy (index), an...

  1. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Palaoro

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper.

  2. [Cervix factors as a cause of infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, P; Westergaard, L

    1990-04-23

    The uterine cervix plays an important role in the natural fertilization process and, consequently, it is also a significant factor in infertility. In about 6% of infertile couples, the infertility is caused by the cervical factor. The post coital test (PCT) is the most essential diagnostic procedure. A good PCT result excludes the cervical factor as the cause of infertility. A poor or negative PCT result, on the other hand, only indicates that the cervical tract is the cause in the case of women with verified ovulation and in whom other causes have been excluded. Treatment of the cervical factor has always been difficult. Intrauterine insemination is the best documented treatment method with a pregnancy rate of about 30%. In future, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be alternatives in the treatment of infertility owing to the cervical factor. PMID:2184560

  3. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)

  4. Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Cervix and Pregnancy. A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Práxedes Rojas Quintana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year-old female patient with a 12 week pregnancy was presented. She was diagnosed with an ultered Pap test. She was referred to the cervix uterine pathology specialist where an exophytic lesion compatible to cervix uterine cancer in advanced stages. The treatment as well as the conduct followed by the specialist was really hard due to the patient´s pregnant condition.

  5. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7,000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment for cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas. (author)

  6. Retinoic acid suppresses intestinal mucus production and exacerbates experimental enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Oehlers

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to retinoids for the treatment of acne has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The intestinal mucus layer is an important structural barrier that is disrupted in IBD. Retinoid-induced alteration of mucus physiology has been postulated as a mechanism linking retinoid treatment to IBD; however, there is little direct evidence for this interaction. The zebrafish larva is an emerging model system for investigating the pathogenesis of IBD. Importantly, this system allows components of the innate immune system, including mucus physiology, to be studied in isolation from the adaptive immune system. This study reports the characterization of a novel zebrafish larval model of IBD-like enterocolitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. The DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to recapitulate several aspects of the zebrafish trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced enterocolitis model, including neutrophilic inflammation that was microbiota-dependent and responsive to pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, the DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to be a tractable model of stress-induced mucus production and was subsequently used to identify a role for retinoic acid (RA in suppressing both physiological and pathological intestinal mucin production. Suppression of mucin production by RA increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to enterocolitis when challenged with enterocolitic agents. This study illustrates a direct effect of retinoid administration on intestinal mucus physiology and, subsequently, on the progression of intestinal inflammation.

  7. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang, E-mail: 11229036@zju.edu.cn; Su, Heng, E-mail: shtdyso@163.com; Lv, Weiyang, E-mail: 3090103369@zju.edu.cn; Du, Miao, E-mail: dumiao@zju.edu.cn; Song, Yihu, E-mail: s-yh0411@zju.edu.cn; Zheng, Qiang, E-mail: zhengqiang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus.

  8. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  9. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,the electrical resistance of the cervical mucus in cows in different physiologicalstages (pregnant, no pregnant was measured. The ovulation detector DRAMINSKIwas used. This equipment allows to obtained a quickly and precise rapport on thephysiological stage of the cow. It can be detected the cow with atypical ovulation,irregular ovulation. This method improve the insemination efficiency, allowsdetecting early gestation period or the moment of ovulation. All these have a positiveinfluence on the development strategy of the farm and improve the economicperformances.

  10. Mucus Distribution Model in a Lung with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zarei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians with a reported incidence of 1 in every 3200 live births. Most strikingly, CF is associated with early mortality. Host in flammatory responses result in airway mucus plugging, airway wall edema, and eventual destruction of airway wall support structure. Despite aggressive treatment, the median age of survival is approximately 38 years. This work is the first attempt to parameterize the distributions of mucus in a CF lung as a function of time. By default, the model makes arbitrary choices at each stage of the construction process, whereby the simplest choice is made. The model is sophisticated enough to fit the average CF patients' spirometric data over time and to identify several interesting parameters: probability of colonization, mucus volume growth rate, and scarring rate. Extensions of the model appropriate for describing the dynamics of single patient MRI data are also discussed.

  11. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with [3H] glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques

  12. Bacterial populations and adaptations in the mucus layers on living corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducklow, H.W.; Mitchell, R.

    1979-07-01

    The external mucus layers of the stony coral Porites astreoides and the soft corals Palythoa sp. and Heteroxenia fuscesens are inhabited by communities of marine heterotrophic bacteria. Population levels of bacteria in coral mucus may be regulated by the self-cleaning behavior of the host. Bacterial populations in coral mucus respond to stresses applied to the host coral by growing to higher population levels in the mucus, indicating that these are populations of viable organisms closely attuned to host metabolism. Members of these microbial populations utilize the mucus compounds and may play a role in processing coral mucus for reef detritus feeders. One such species, Vibrio alginolyticus, grows rapidly on Heteroxenia mucus, is attracted to dissolved mucus, and possesses a mechanism to maintain itself on the coral surface.

  13. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between Lactobacillus reuteri strains and intestinal mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffers, Faye

    2012-01-01

    Mucus is the first point of contact between the gut microbiota and the host. Here we used the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between gut bacteria and mucus. Firstly, the mucus binding ability of a collection of L. reuteri strains from different vertebrate hosts was assessed in vitro against mucus extracted from mouse and porcine gastrointestinal tracts. The adhesion profile was strain-specific showing the highest bindi...

  14. The Interaction of Large Bowel Microflora with the Colonic Mucus Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jeffrey P.; Brownlee, Iain A.

    2010-01-01

    The colonic mucus barrier is the first line of defence that the underlying mucosa has against the wide range of potentially damaging agents of microbial, endogenous, and dietary origin that occur within the colonic lumen. The functional component of mucus is the secreted, polymeric glycoprotein mucin. The mucus barrier can either act as an energy source or a support medium for growth to the intestinal microflora. The mucus barrier appears to effectively partition the vast number of microbial ...

  15. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Manuela; Dreesen, Leentje; Hoorens, Prisca R; Goddeeris, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Den Broek, Wim; Geldhof, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an Ostertagia ostertagi infection on the abomasal mucus biosynthesis in cattle. Increased gene expression of MUC...

  16. Direct visualization of mucus production by the cold-water coral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetsche, E.-M.; Baussant, T.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus product

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

  18. Mucus can change the permeation rank order of drug candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagesaether, Ellen; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria Elisabeth; Ulven, Trond

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of mucus on the permeability of newly developed structurally related free fatty acid receptor 1-agonists TUG-488, TUG-499 and TUG-424, which were compared to the more hydrophilic ketoprofen and the more hydrophobic testosterone as reference drugs. The...

  19. Human intestinal mucus proteins isolated by transanal irrigation and proctosigmoidoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Gómez Buitrago

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal mucus essentially consistsof a network of Mucin2 glycoproteinsembedded in many lower molecularweight proteins. This paper contributes tothe proteomic study of human intestinalmucus by comparing two sample collectionmethods (transanal irrigation and brushcytology during proctosigmoidoscopy andanalysis techniques (electrophoresis anddigestion in solution. The entire samplecollection and treatment process is explained,including protein extraction, digestion anddesalination and peptide characterisationusing a nanoAcquity UPLC chromatographcoupled to an HDMS spectrometer equippedwith a nanoESI source. Collecting mucus viatransanal irrigation provided a larger samplevolume and protein concentration from asingle patient. The proctosigmoidoscopysample could be analysed via digestion insolution after depleting albumin. The analysisindicates that a simple mucus lysis methodcan evaluate the electrophoresis and digestionin solution techniques. Studying humanintestinal mucus complexes is importantbecause they perform two essential survivalfunctions for humans as the first biochemicaland physical defences for the gastrointestinaltract and a habitat for intestinal microbiota,which are primarily hosted in the colon andexceeds the human genetic information andcell number 100- and 10-fold (1.

  20. Estradiol increases mucus synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tam

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI. Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-β antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0 cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6 mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium.

  1. Susceptibility to Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion, a Genome Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berge, Maarten; Wijmenga, Ciska; Zanen, Pieter; Luinge, Marjan A; Platteel, Mathieu; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Dahlback, Magnus; Tosh, Kerrie; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Sterk, Peter J; Spira, Avi; Vestbo, Jorgen; Nordestgaard, Børge; Benn, Marianne; Nielsen, Sune F; Dahl, Morten; Verschuren, W Monique; Picavet, H Susan J; Smit, Henriette A; Owsijewitsch, Michael; Kauczor, Hans U; de Koning, Harry J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Eva; Mejza, Filip; Nastalek, Pawel; van Diemen, Cleo C; Cho, Michael H; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Beaty, Terri H; Lomas, David A; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, M A; Loth, Daan W; Lahousse, Lies; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Andre; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Brouwer, Uilke; Koppelman, Gerard H; Vonk, Judith M; Nawijn, Martijn C; Groen, Harry J M; Timens, Wim; Boezen, H Marike; Postma, Dirkje S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of sm...

  2. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  3. Comparative performance analysis of cervix ROI extraction and specular reflection removal algorithms for uterine cervix image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Jeronimo, Jose; Thoma, George R.

    2007-03-01

    Cervicography is a technique for visual screening of uterine cervix images for cervical cancer. One of our research goals is the automated detection in these images of acetowhite (AW) lesions, which are sometimes correlated with cervical cancer. These lesions are characterized by the whitening of regions along the squamocolumnar junction on the cervix when treated with 5% acetic acid. Image preprocessing is required prior to invoking AW detection algorithms on cervicographic images for two reasons: (1) to remove Specular Reflections (SR) caused by camera flash, and (2) to isolate the cervix region-of-interest (ROI) from image regions that are irrelevant to the analysis. These image regions may contain medical instruments, film markup, or other non-cervix anatomy or regions, such as vaginal walls. We have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the performance of alternative preprocessing algorithms on a test set of 120 images. For cervix ROI detection, all approaches use a common feature set, but with varying combinations of feature weights, normalization, and clustering methods. For SR detection, while one approach uses a Gaussian Mixture Model on an intensity/saturation feature set, a second approach uses Otsu thresholding on a top-hat transformed input image. Empirical results are analyzed to derive conclusions on the performance of each approach.

  4. Mucoadhesive nanoparticles may disrupt the protective human mucus barrier by altering its microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Mucus secretions typically protect exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tracts from foreign entities, including pathogens and environmental ultrafine particles. We hypothesized that excess exposure to some foreign particles, however, may cause disruption of the mucus barrier. Many synthetic nanoparticles are likely to be mucoadhesive due to hydrophobic, electrostatic or hydrogen bonding interactions. We therefore sought to determine whether mucoadhesive particles (MAP could alter the mucus microstructure, thereby allowing other foreign particles to more easily penetrate mucus. We engineered muco-inert probe particles 1 µm in diameter, whose diffusion in mucus is limited only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, and used them to measure possible MAP-induced changes to the microstructure of fresh human cervicovaginal mucus. We found that a 0.24% w/v concentration of 200 nm MAP in mucus induced a ∼10-fold increase in the average effective diffusivity of the probe particles, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the fraction capable of penetrating physiologically thick mucus layers. The same concentration of muco-inert particles, and a low concentration (0.0006% w/v of MAP, had no detectable effect on probe particle penetration rates. Using an obstruction-scaling model, we determined that the higher MAP dose increased the average mesh spacing ("pore" size of mucus from 380 nm to 470 nm. The bulk viscoelasticity of mucus was unaffected by MAP exposure, suggesting MAP may not directly impair mucus clearance or its function as a lubricant, both of which depend critically on the bulk rheological properties of mucus. Our findings suggest mucoadhesive nanoparticles can substantially alter the microstructure of mucus, highlighting the potential of mucoadhesive environmental or engineered nanoparticles to disrupt mucus barriers and cause greater exposure to foreign particles, including pathogens and other

  5. Pretreatment of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus with Pluronic F127 Enhances Nanoparticle Penetration without Compromising Mucus Barrier Properties to Herpes Simplex Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ensign, Laura M.; Lai, Samuel K.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diff...

  6. Bone metastases in the patients of carcinoma cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Baid B; Kumar L; Chander S; Rath G; Kumar S; Kriplani A; Batla N

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen of 620 patients (2.7%) of cancer cervix were diagnosed to have bone metastasis (BM). In three bone metastasis were seen at initial presentation; remaining 14 developed BM in 3 to 36 months after the diagnosis of cancer cervix. Backache (8), localised pain (8), in thigh/hip/neck paraparesis (1) were main symptoms. The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 4 (median 2.5) months. Lumber spine, pelvic bones and long bones were the commonest site of involvement. The lesions were s...

  7. Mucus and iron absorption regulation in rats fed various levels of dietary iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested two hypotheses: (1) that iron binding by secreted mucus enhances iron absorption and (2) that iron binding by secreted mucus prevents excess iron absorption. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 200 or 500 mg Fe/kg diet (Fe-0, Fe-200 and Fe-500 rats, respectively) for 3 wk. Iron absorption was measured in fasted rats using 59FeCl3 in a 10-min in situ duodenal ligated-segment procedure. After draining the segment contents, the mucus layer was separated from the under-lying mucosal surface using Quarterman's agar cast technique. In comparison with that in Fe-200 rats, iron absorption in Fe-0 rats was markedly increased, but the 59Fe and the total mucus in the mucus layer were decreased. The 59Fe absorption and total mucus and total iron in the mucus layer were similar in Fe-500 rats and Fe-200 rats, but the 59Fe in the mucus layer was marginally lower in Fe-500 rats. There was no evidence that mucus enhanced iron absorption; it appeared to trap or bind iron proportionally to the amount of secreted mucus, suggesting protection against excess absorption. Mucus secretion and possibly synthesis were decreased in the Fe-0 rats

  8. In situ variation of cervical mucus pH during exposure to atmospheric air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure of cervical mucus to air during specular examination could modify mucus pH. Detection of changes is justified because of their possible interference with sperm-mucus interaction, since an acidic pH is unfavorable to sperm penetration and is associated with infertility due to the cervical factor. Twenty women with good quality mucus were evaluated. pH measurements of ecto- and endocervical mucus were made in situ using a glass electrode after 0-, 5- and 10-min exposure to air. There was a progressive alkalinization of mucus pH. Mean values of ectocervical mucus pH were 6.91, 7.16 and 7.27, while mean values of endocervical mucus pH were 7.09, 7.34 and 7.46 at 0, 5 and 10 min, respectively. Significant differences were found between the mean values obtained at 0 and 5 min, and at 0 and 10 min (P<0.05, whereas the differences in mean values at 5 and 10 min were not significant at either site. We conclude that 5 to 10 min of exposure to atmospheric air affects cervical mucus pH in a significant way. Since tests used to evaluate sperm-mucus interaction generally have not considered this possibility, we suggest that they should be performed immediately after mucus collection in order to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  9. Hypoxia and metastasis in an orthotopic cervix cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hypoxia can promote tumor metastasis by mechanisms that are believed to result from changes in gene expression. The current study examined the role of putative metastatic genes regulated by cyclic hypoxia in relation to metastasis formation in orthotopic models of cervix cancer. Methods: Orthotopic tumors derived from ME180 human cervix cancer cells or from early generation human cervix cancer xenografts were exposed to cyclic hypoxic conditions during growth in vivo and tumor growth and lymphnode metastases were monitored. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and various genes in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway were inhibited using genetic (inducible shRNA vs CXCR4) small molecule (AMD3100) or antibody (5E1) treatment (CXCR4 and Hh genes, respectively) during tumor growth. Results: As reported previously, exposure of tumor bearing mice to cyclic hypoxia caused a reduction of tumor growth but a large increase in metastasis. Inhibition of CXCR4 or Hh gene activity during tumor growth further reduced primary tumor size and reduced lymphatic metastasis to levels below those seen in control mice exposed to normoxic conditions. Conclusion: Blocking CXCR4 or Hh gene expression are potential therapeutic pathways for improving cervix cancer treatment

  10. A Novel Oligosaccharide from the Mucus of the Loach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel oligosaccharide was isolated and purified from the mucus of the loach,Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.It was identified by several qualitative tests and characterized by elementary analysis,UV and IR spectrum.Its average molecular weight (Mw=1539.4) was determined by gel permeation chromatography.The major structural monomers of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus oligosaccharide were identified to be D-galactose and L-fucose by paper chromatography and gas chromatography.

  11. Coral mucus is a hot spot for viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Kim, Hanh; Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Doan-Nhu, Hai; Nguyen-Ngoc, Lam; Nguyen-Thanh, Thuy; Tran-Quang, Huy; Brune, Justine

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing suspicion that viral communities play a pivotal role in maintaining coral health, yet their main ecological traits still remain poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the seasonal distribution and reproduction pathways of viruses inhabiting the mucus of the scleractinians Fungia repanda and Acropora formosa collected in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam) during an 11-month survey. The strong coupling between epibiotic viral and bacterial abundance suggested that phages are ...

  12. Microbes enriched in seawater after addition of coral mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, E; Niesner, C; Wild, C; Pernthaler, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated which microbial taxa in coastal Red Sea water were stimulated by addition of mucus from the coral Fungia sp. Decreases in the concentration and C/N ratio of particulate organic material during short-term incubations (50 h) were paralleled by a steep rise in the number of Gammaproteobacteria, particularly Alteromonadaceae, followed by Vibrionaceae. Two almost identical genotypes affiliated with Alteromonas macleodii accounted for up to >85% of all Alteromonadaceae (45% of the t...

  13. Value and importance of intracavitary therapy in uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guiding topic of this report was 'the value and importance of intracavitary therapy in uterine cervix carcinoma'. This implies first of all the task to assess the importance of contact therapy within the scope of all therapeutic measures taken in case of uterine cervix carcinoma. Furthermore it was necessary to compare the importance of the different methods of contact therapy: conventional radium therapy as well as low dose rate and high dose rate afterloading techniques. As to surgical intervention, it is clear that only favorable stages can be taken into consideration for this treatment. It is shown by means of data taken from the Annual Report, Vol. 18, that a considerable number of patients with uterine cervix carcinoma I are irradiated even in hospitals whose field of activity lies preponderantly in surgery, and that by far most of the patients cured from uterine cervix cancer owe their recovery to contact therapy. The consideration of contact therapy methods show clearly that radium should no longer be used in clinical practice. Psychological doubts often hinder the decision if long-term or short-term afterloading therapy is to be applied. It is therefore shown that the very different forms of radium therapy with their chronological and spatial dose distribution were due to the characteristics of radium (e.g. little specific activity) or to other compelling features and that they were not based on radiobiological aspects. The radium dose values obtained by empirical research and the resulting spatial and chronological dose distribution are therefore not imperative. So it is not inevitable to choose the low dose rate afterloading method. On the contrary, the high dose rate technique with an adequate fractionation is very probably the method of choice. To sum up it can be said that contact therapy is still the most important therapeutic method in uterine cervix cancer. (orig.)

  14. Post-traumatic bronchial mucus plug leading to pneumonectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M.S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt trauma of the chest is not uncommon these days. By far, the most important cause of significant blunt chest trauma is motor vehicle accidents. Pedestrians struck by vehicles, falls from height, blast injuries and acts of violence are other causative mechanisms. Most of the blunt trauma cases need no operative intervention and can be managed by supportive procedures. Aim: We present a case of a 10-year old boy who had blunt trauma to chest due to fall from height. Findings: The patient was in respiratory distress and developed surgical emphysema and pneumothorax on the left side. He was managed by putting in a chest drain on the left side. Patient improved and was discharged .He again developed respiratory distress 15 days later. On bronchoscopic examination, an obstruction was found just distal to the carina in the left bronchus. Several futile attempts were made to retrieve the obstructing material. Hence, mucus plug was removed through left bronchotomy. There was no improvement in the ventilation of the left lung for 7 days. Bronchoscopic suction was done. All the measures failed and the lung remained collapsed. Patient underwent pneumonectomy as the last treatment option available in our hospital. At the time of reporting this case, patient was doing well. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy helps in reducing lung collapse. If patient is reluctant to chest physiotherapy and coughing, it can lead to accumulation of respiratory secretions and formation of mucus plug. This mucus plug can cause collapse of the lung and ill consequences.

  15. Coral Mucus Is a Hot Spot for Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kim, Hanh; Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Doan-Nhu, Hai; Nguyen-Ngoc, Lam; Nguyen-Thanh, Thuy; Tran-Quang, Huy; Brune, Justine

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing suspicion that viral communities play a pivotal role in maintaining coral health, yet their main ecological traits still remain poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the seasonal distribution and reproduction pathways of viruses inhabiting the mucus of the scleractinians Fungia repanda and Acropora formosa collected in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam) during an 11-month survey. The strong coupling between epibiotic viral and bacterial abundance suggested that phages are dominant among coral-associated viral communities. Mucosal viruses also exhibited significant differences in their main features between the two coral species and were also remarkably contrasted with their planktonic counterparts. For example, their abundance (inferred from epifluorescence counts), lytic production rates (KCN incubations), and the proportion of lysogenic cells (mitomycin C inductions) were, respectively, 2.6-, 9.5-, and 2.2-fold higher in mucus than in the surrounding water. Both lytic and lysogenic indicators were tightly coupled with temperature and salinity, suggesting that the life strategy of viral epibionts is strongly dependent upon environmental circumstances. Finally, our results suggest that coral mucus may represent a highly favorable habitat for viral proliferation, promoting the development of both temperate and virulent phages. Here, we discuss how such an optimized viral arsenal could be crucial for coral viability by presumably forging complex links with both symbiotic and adjacent nonsymbiotic microorganisms. PMID:26092456

  16. The effect of nanoparticle permeation on the bulk rheological properties of mucus from the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, M D; Van Rooij, L K; Chater, P I; Pereira de Sousa, I; Pearson, J P

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of delivering oral therapeutic peptides, proteins and nucleotides is often hindered by the protective mucus barrier that covers mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in nanocarriers is a potential strategy to protect the cargo but they still have to pass the mucus barrier. Decorating nanoparticles with proteolytic enzymes has been shown to increase the permeation through mucus. Here we investigate the effect of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (BRO), a proteolytic enzyme from pineapple stem, on the bulk rheology of mucus as well as non-decorated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Porcine intestinal mucus from the small intestine was incubated for 30min in the presence of PLGA nanoparticles or polyacrylic nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (PAA-BRO). The effect of nanoparticles on the rheological properties, weight of gel, released glycoprotein content from mucus as well as the viscosity of liquid removed was assessed. Treatment with nanoparticles decreased mucus gel strength with PAA-BRO reducing it the most. PAA-BRO nanoparticles resulted in the release of increased glycoprotein from the gel network whereas mucus remained a gel and exhibited a similar breakdown stress to control mucus. Therefore it would be possible to use bromelain to increase the permeability of nanoparticles through mucus without destroying the gel and leaving the underlying mucosa unprotected. PMID:25758122

  17. Mucus Hyperconcentration as a Unifying Aspect of the Chronic Bronchitic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brian; Anderson, Wayne H; Boucher, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Abnormalities in mucus production and qualitative properties such as mucus hydration are central to the pathophysiology of airway disease including cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic bronchitis. In vitro air-liquid interface epithelial cell cultures demonstrate direct relationships between mucociliary transport, periciliary liquid (PCL) height, and mucus concentration (expressed as percent solids or partial osmotic pressure). In health, the osmotic modulus/pressure of the PCL exceeds that of the mucus layer, resulting in efficient, low-friction movement of mucus. In disease, through multiple mechanisms, the osmotic pressure of the mucus begins to exceed basal PCL values, resulting in compression of the cilia and slowing of mucus transport. The in vivo data in both cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis parallel in vitro data demonstrating that when mucus osmotic pressure is increased, mucociliary clearance is decreased. In chronic bronchitis, there is a direct correlation between FEV1 and percent solids of mucus, demonstrating a strong relationship between disease progression and mucus abnormalities. Animal models, based mechanistically on raised sodium absorption (and therefore water absorption) from airway surfaces, mimic the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Collectively, these data suggest the importance of mucus concentration in the pathogenesis of airway disease. It is important to understand the precise mechanisms that result in mucus hyperconcentration, for example, mucin overproduction versus abnormal regulation of ion/water transport, which may be unique to and characteristic of each disease phenotype. The measurement of mucus concentration may be a simple method to diagnose chronic bronchitis, monitor its progression, and serve as a biomarker for development of new therapies. PMID:27115951

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts, sperm motility (SM during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval, open days (SP, inseminations number for pregnancy (index, and pregnancy rates (PR in Holstein cows (n=284. Signifi cant differences of interval, SP and index were detected also in relation to number of AI and day of lactation (P < 0.001. Cows without reproduction diseases (healthy had better results of interval, SP (P < 0.01, index and PR. Pregnancy rate of healthy cows was by 11.43% higher, but without statistical signifi cance. The higher results of PR (62.74% were discovered in relation to ferny-like crystallization of cervical mucus (P < 0.001. CMC affected results of cervical mucus survival test, the highest motility of sperms after the 60 and 90 minutes was assumed in the case of club moss – ferny (14.80% and 7.96% and ferny-like crystallization (13.82% and 8.47% with statistical signifi cance (P < 0.05. The choice of these characteristics and defi nition of their relations allows assuming their using for detailed study and determination of the cows´ biological ability to conceive, the one of the main components of effi ciency of cows´ reproduction.

  19. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.;

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders of...

  20. Size-Limited Penetration of Nanoparticles into Porcine Respiratory Mucus after Aerosol Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Xabier; Pawelzyk, Paul; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Wagner, Christian; Willenbacher, Norbert; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-04-11

    We investigated the rheological properties and the penetration of differently sized carboxylated nanoparticles in pig pulmonary mucus, on different distance and time scales. Nanoparticles were either mechanically mixed into the mucus samples or deposited as an aerosol, the latter resembling a more physiologically relevant delivery scenario. After mechanical dispersion, 500 nm particles were locally trapped; a fraction of carboxylated tracer particles of 100 or 200 nm in diameter could however freely diffuse in these networks over distances of approximately 20 μm. In contrast, after aerosol deposition on top of the mucus layer only particles with a size of 100 nm were able to penetrate into mucus, suggesting the presence of smaller pores at the air-mucus interface compared to within mucus. These findings are relevant to an understanding of the fate of potentially harmful aerosol particles, such as pathogens, pollutants, and other nanomaterials after incidental inhalation, as well as for the design of pulmonary drug delivery systems. PMID:26957140

  1. The role of mucus in the cross talk between gut bacteria and the host

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is home to a complex microbial community engaged in a dynamic interaction with the immune system. Mucus is the first point of contact of the microbiota with the host, acting as a first line of defence. Furthermore γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) respond to the invading bacteria that circumvent the mucus barrier. In this study two approaches were used to investigate the role of mucus in intestinal homeostasis; firstly the im...

  2. Inhibition of human gall bladder mucus synthesis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, M; A. Allen; Dowling, R. H.; Murphy, G; Lennard, T W

    1992-01-01

    Hypersection of gall bladder mucus is associated with gall stone formation in animal models. Aspirin inhibits both mucus synthesis and secretion, prevents gall stone formation in animals and reduces gall stone recurrence in man after dissolution therapy. Mucus biosynthesis in human gall bladder mucosal explants is inhibited by aspirin in vitro. We have studied the effects of aspirin in vivo. Fifty five patients with functioning gall bladder and stones have been randomised, 27 to group 1 (aspi...

  3. Protein content and pattern during mucus gland maturation and its ecdysteroid control in honey bee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Colonello, Nínive; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    International audience We analyzed mucus gland protein content and pattern for drones of Africanized honey bees. The effect of exogenous ecdysteroids on mucus gland maturation was judged against the endogenous ecdysteroid titer. During the first 5 days of adult life, the mucus protein content increases steeply, whereas the protein pattern becomes reduced in complexity. Subsequently, the protein content decreases, reaching a plateau level at day 8. The protein pattern of mature glands is ch...

  4. Scalable Method to Produce Biodegradable Nanoparticles that Rapidly Penetrate Human Mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qingguo; Boylan, Nicholas J; Cai, Shutian; Miao, Bolong; Patel, Himatkumar; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Mucus typically traps and rapidly removes foreign particles from the airways, gastrointestinal tract, nasopharynx, female reproductive tract and the surface of the eye. Nanoparticles capable of rapid penetration through mucus can potentially avoid rapid clearance, and open significant opportunities for controlled drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Here, we report an industrially scalable emulsification method to produce biodegradable mucus-penetrating particles (MPP). The emulsification of di...

  5. Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3 is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry.

  6. Antibacterial substance from mucus of a scleractinian coral,Symphyllia gigantea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guohua; HUANG Liangmin; TAN Yehui; YIN Jianqiang; WANG Hankui; HUANG Hui; ZOU Kun; LI Ruiping

    2007-01-01

    Coral mucus covers the surface of coral and contains antibacterial substances as a first line of defense. Coral mucus not only enables the coral itself to resist disease, but also provides antibacterial agents for people. We collected mucus from a scleractinian coral (Symphyllia gigantea) at Sta. Sanya (China), then extracted the antibacterial substances using 10% glacial acetic acid with the help of antiprotease inhibitors, and tested the antibacterial activity by a terrestrial bacterium (Staphylococcus aurevs) and a marine bacterium (Vibrio anguillarum). The result showed that, there were antibacterial agents in the mucus, and their antibacterial activities were lost by treatment of the sample at 90 °C water for 10 min.

  7. Active microrheology reveals molecular-level variations in the viscoelastic properties of Chaetopterus mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, William; Messmore, Ashley; Anderson, Rae

    The sea annelid, Chaetopterus Variopedatus, secretes a bioluminescent mucus that also exhibits complex viscoelastic properties. The constituents of the mucus are relatively unknown but it does play an important role in the development of the worms' parchment-like housing tubes. In order to determine how and why this mucus can exhibit material properties ranging from fluidity to rigidity we perform microrheology experiments. We determine the microscale viscoelastic properties by using optical tweezers to produce small oscillations in the mucus which allow us to determine both the linear storage and loss moduli (G',G'') along with the viscosity of the fluid. By varying the size of the microspheres (2-10 µm) and oscillation amplitude (.5-10 µm) we are able to determine the dominant intrinsic length scales of the molecular mesh comprising the mucus. By varying the oscillation frequency (1-15Hz) we determine the crossover frequency at which G' surpasses G'', to quantify the longest relaxation time of the mesh network. Initial results show a strong dependence on bead size which indicate that the dominant entanglement lengthscale of the mucus mesh is ~5 um. Microspheres of this size exhibit a wide variety of stress responses in different regions of the mucus demonstrating the substantial microscale heterogeneity of the mucus. We carry out measurements on a population of worms of varying size and age to determine mucus variability between worms.

  8. Nano-carrier systems: Strategies to overcome the mucus gel barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünnhaupt, S; Kammona, O; Waldner, C; Kiparissides, C; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-10-01

    The present review provides an overview of nanotechnology-based strategies to overcome various mucus gel barriers including the intestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, buccal and pulmonary mucus layer without destroying them. It focuses on the one hand on strategies to improve the mucus permeation behavior of particles and on the other hand on systems avoiding the back-diffusion of particles out of the mucus gel layer. Nanocarriers with improved mucus permeation behavior either exhibit a high density of positive and negative charges, bearing mucolytic enzymes such as papain and bromelain on their surface or display a slippery surface due to PEG-ylation. Furthermore, self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems (SNEDDS) turned out to exhibit comparatively high mucus permeating properties. Strategies in order to avoid back-diffusion are based on thiolated polymers reacting to a higher extent with cysteine subunits of the mucus at pH 7 in deeper mucus regions than at pH 5 being prevalent in luminal mucus regions of the intestinal and vaginal mucosa. Furthermore, particles changing their zeta potential from negative to positive once they have reached the epithelium seem to be promising carriers. The summarized knowledge should provide a good starting point for further developments in this field. PMID:25712487

  9. Bone metastases in the patients of carcinoma cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen of 620 patients (2.7%) of cancer cervix were diagnosed to have bone metastasis (BM). In three bone metastasis were seen at initial presentation; remaining 14 developed BM in 3 to 36 months after the diagnosis of cancer cervix. Back ache (8), localised pain (8), in thigh/hip/neck paraparesis (1) were main symptoms. The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 4 (median 2.5) months. Lumber spine, pelvic bones and long bones were commonest site of involvement. The lesions were single in 12 and at multiple sites in five patients. Radiologically the lesions were osteolytic in all except three where 99mTc bone scan showed increased uptake of radionuclide. Palliative radiotherapy resulted in significant symptomatic relief. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. Oncologic imaging for carcinoma of the cervix, ovary and endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety percent of neoplasms of the cervix are epidermoid carcinomas. Most of the remaining 10% is accounted for by adenocarcinomas; sarcomas of the cervix are rare lesions with a very poor prognosis. Grading of the microscopic specimens obtained from patients with epidermoid carcinomas generally follows the standard three-grade system, viz, well, moderately, and poorly differentiated cellular structure. While the degree of differentiation may have less influence on overall survival than does stage and bulk of the primary lesion, there are studies that indicate that patients with high grade lesions have a poorer prognosis. In Chung's series, for example, the incidence of nodal metastases in patients with stage IB squamous cancers was 0% for grade 1, 18% for grade 2, and 50% for grade 3 lesions. Similarly, the two year survival in the same stage was 100%, 93%, and 77% for grades 1, 2 and 3, respectively

  11. Cloprostenol treatment of feline open-cervix pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Mitacek, María C; Stornelli, María C; Tittarelli, Claudia M; Nuñez Favre, Romina; de la Sota, Rodolfo L; Stornelli, María A

    2014-02-01

    Treatment with cloprostenol, a prostaglandin synthetic analogue, was evaluated in five queens with open-cervix pyometra. Cloprostenol was administered (5 μg/kg body weight SC) on 3 consecutive days and amoxicillin (20 mg/kg body weight IM) on 7 consecutive days. Transient post-injection reactions caused by cloprostenol administration included diarrhea, vomiting and vocalizations. Reactions began as quickly as 10 mins after cloprostenol administration and lasted as long as 30 mins. All queens improved clinically after cloprostenol treatment and remained healthy until the end of the study, 1 year after treatment. All queens resumed normal estrous cycles without further treatment and two (40%) delivered a normal litter. In conclusion, use of cloprostenol is an acceptable treatment for open-cervix pyometra in queens. PMID:23884637

  12. Lymphoma of uterine cervix: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaan, Daniel; Constantino, Carolina Pesce Lamas; Souza, Rodrigo Canellas de, E-mail: daniel.kanaan@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Parente, Daniella Braz [Instituto D' Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease. About 1.0% to 1.5% of extranodal lymphomas originates in the female genital tract. The clinical presentation of this condition is nonspecific and magnetic resonance imaging is important for diagnostic elucidation. The present report describes the case of a 80-year-old patient with lumbar pain, whose magnetic resonance imaging showed a large uterine mass. The final diagnosis was lymphoma. (author)

  13. Modern Data about Morphofunctional Features of the Cervix

    OpenAIRE

    Guzik, O. V.; Slobodian, O. M.; Navarchuk, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research was to study the macro- and microstructure of the cervix during human ontogenesis using study materials and analysis of Ukrainian and foreign literature. Various cervical lesions are observed in all age periods and require thorough investigation of cervical epithelium for early detection, diagnosis and clear differentiation of precancerous diseases of this region. The development of modern methods of investigation of the internal organs of the fetus requires more...

  14. Screening of cancer cervix: Pap smear in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Parimala A; Nidhi Sharma; Jayashree K. Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cervical premalignant lesions in rural India is likely to be high due to presence of several risk factors like early marriage, early coitarche and multiparity. Hence prospective cross sectional study was conducted to find the incidence of pre-invasive state and cancer of cervix in women between the age group 30 and 60 years, visiting Thirumazhisai health centre by Pap's smear method. Methods: Cervical mucosa is scraped, using Ayre spatula a 360 and deg; tu...

  15. Sacral plexus injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 42-year-old woman developed lower extremity weakness and sensory loss 1 year after external and intracavitary radiotherapy for Stage IB carcinoma of cervix. She has been followed for 5 years posttreatment, and the neurologic abnormalities have persisted, but no evidence of recurrent carcinoma has been found. We believe this to be a rare case of sacral plexus radiculopathy developing as a late complication after radiotherapy. Suggestions are made for improving the radiotherapy technique to prevent this complication in future cases

  16. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thyroid from functionally cured cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a very unusual occurrence of a metastatic squamous carcinoma to thyroid gland from a treated squamous cell carcinoma cervix 12 years before with no recurrence at the primary site. The case also has an additional complexity of rapid progression of the metastatic thyroid carcinoma to wide spread dissemination to lungs and bones while on concurrent chemo radio therapy confirming the aggressiveness of the entity

  17. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger Jenna-Lynn B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary metastasis presenting as lymphangitic carcinomatosis arising from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the cervix is a rare event. Poorly represented in the literature, this event is associated with a difficulty in accurate diagnosis, b grave prognosis, and the c lack of recognized predisposing risk factors. Case Report A 50 year-old female presented at our practice with a three-month history of a productive cough associated with dyspnoea and shortness of breath. A chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT scan revealed multiple bilateral patchy areas with subsegmental atelectasis in both lungs which was investigated with a bronchoscopy, left thoracoscopy, and a left lung biopsy. Pathological examination of the wedge biopsy of the left upper lobe revealed neoplastic sheets of cell disturbed along the septal vessels, perivascular/peribronchial lymphatics, and the subpleural lymphatics. This lymphangitic carcinomatosis was confirmed to be metastatic from SCC of the cervix that had been diagnosed and treated two years ago. She was treated with systemic Carbo/Taxol chemotherapy and corticosteroids as a palliative measure. Despite temporary improvement, she died 13 months later. Conclusion Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is a rare manifestation of metastatic SCC of the cervix. As clinical presentations including radiographic imaging mimics other pulmonary entities, accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. Increased clinical awareness of such patterns of metastases in cervical cancer supported by accurate pathological diagnosis is imperative to guide appropriate therapy in these patients.

  18. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure. (author)

  19. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, E.A.; Lazarev, P.I.; Vazina, A.A.; Zheleznaya, L.A.

    1985-11-05

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure.

  20. Fate of paclitaxel lipid nanocapsules in intestinal mucus in view of their oral delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groo AC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Claire Groo,1,2 Patrick Saulnier,1 Jean-Christophe Gimel,1 Julien Gravier,3 Caroline Ailhas,2 Jean-Pierre Benoit,1,4 Frederic Lagarce1,4 1LUNAM Université, INSERM U1066 Micro et nanomédecines biomimétiques, Angers, France; 2Ethypharm, Grand-Quevilly, France; 3Institut Albert Bonniot, INSERM/UJF U823, La Tronche, France; 4Pharmacy Department, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France Abstract: The bioavailability of paclitaxel (Ptx has previously been improved via its encapsulation in lipid nanocapsules (LNCs. In this work, the interactions between LNCs and intestinal mucus are studied because they are viewed as an important barrier to successful oral delivery. The rheological properties of different batches of pig intestinal mucus were studied under different conditions (the effect of hydration and the presence of LNCs. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET was used to study the stability of LNCs in mucus at 37°C for at least 3 hours. Diffusion through 223, 446, and 893 µm mucus layers of 8.4, 16.8, and 42 µg/mL Ptx formulated as Taxol® (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rueil-Malmaison, France or encapsulated in LNCs (Ptx-LNCs were investigated. The effect of the size of the LNCs on their diffusion was also investigated (range, 25–110 nm in diameter. Mucus behaves as a non-Newtonian gel with rheofluidifying properties and a flow threshold. The viscous (G˝ and elastic (G´ moduli and flow threshold of the two mucus batches varied with water content, but G´ remained below G˝. LNCs had no effect on mucus viscosity and flow threshold. The FRET efficiency remained at 78% after 3 hours. Because the destruction of the LNCs would lead to a FRET efficiency below 25%, these results suggest only a slight modification of LNCs after their contact with mucus. The diffusion of Taxol® and Ptx-LNCs in mucus decreases if the mucus layer is thicker. Interestingly, the apparent permeability across mucus is higher for Ptx-LNCs than for Taxol® for

  1. Mucus Sugar Content Shapes the Bacterial Community Structure in Thermally Stressed Acropora muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sonny T M; Davy, Simon K; Tang, Sen-Lin; Kench, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral's mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26 to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower temperatures, the main components of mucus were N-acetyl glucosamine and C6 sugars, but these constituted a significantly lower proportion of the mucus in thermally stressed corals. The change in the mucus composition coincided with a shift from a γ-Proteobacteria- to a Verrucomicrobiae- and α-Proteobacteria-dominated community in the coral mucus. Bacteria in the class Cyanobacteria also started to become prominent in the mucus when the coral was thermally stressed. The increase in the relative abundance of the Verrucomicrobiae at higher temperature was strongly associated with a change in the proportion of fucose, glucose, and mannose in the mucus. Increase in the relative abundance of α-Proteobacteria were associated with GalNAc and glucose, while the drop in relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria at high temperature coincided with changes in fucose and mannose. Cyanobacteria were highly associated with arabinose and xylose. Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29°C, which were prior to visual signs of coral bleaching at 31°C. A compositional change in the coral mucus, induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. This, in turn, has the potential to impact the physiological function of the coral holobiont. PMID:27047481

  2. Mucus sugar content shapes the bacterial community structure in thermally stressed Acropora muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny T.M. Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral’s mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26°C to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower temperatures, the main components of mucus were N-acetyl glucosamine and C6 sugars, but these constituted a significantly lower proportion of the mucus in thermally-stressed corals. The change in the mucus composition coincided with a shift from a γ-Proteobacteria- to a Verrucomicrobiae- and α-Proteobacteria-dominated community in the coral mucus. Bacteria in the class Cyanobacteria also started to become prominent in the mucus when the coral was thermally stressed. The increase in the relative abundance of the Verrucomicrobiae at higher temperature was strongly associated with a change in the proportion of fucose, glucose and mannose in the mucus. Increase in the relative abundance of α-Proteobacteria were associated with GalNAc and glucose, while the drop in relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria at high temperature coincided with changes in fucose and mannose. Cyanobacteria were highly associated with arabinose and xylose. Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29°C, which were prior to visual signs of coral bleaching at 31°C. A compositional change in the coral mucus, induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. This, in turn, has the potential to impact the physiological function of the coral holobiont.

  3. Mucus Sugar Content Shapes the Bacterial Community Structure in Thermally Stressed Acropora muricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sonny T. M.; Davy, Simon K.; Tang, Sen-Lin; Kench, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral’s mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26 to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower temperatures, the main components of mucus were N-acetyl glucosamine and C6 sugars, but these constituted a significantly lower proportion of the mucus in thermally stressed corals. The change in the mucus composition coincided with a shift from a γ-Proteobacteria- to a Verrucomicrobiae- and α-Proteobacteria-dominated community in the coral mucus. Bacteria in the class Cyanobacteria also started to become prominent in the mucus when the coral was thermally stressed. The increase in the relative abundance of the Verrucomicrobiae at higher temperature was strongly associated with a change in the proportion of fucose, glucose, and mannose in the mucus. Increase in the relative abundance of α-Proteobacteria were associated with GalNAc and glucose, while the drop in relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria at high temperature coincided with changes in fucose and mannose. Cyanobacteria were highly associated with arabinose and xylose. Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29°C, which were prior to visual signs of coral bleaching at 31°C. A compositional change in the coral mucus, induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. This, in turn, has the potential to impact the physiological function of the coral holobiont. PMID:27047481

  4. Smoking produced mucus and clearance of particulates in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies of miners have shown a lesser relative lung-cancer risk for smokers than for nonsmokers. For example, experiments by Cross and associates with dogs have shown an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoke against radon-daughter and dust exposure. One reason for these changes may be the thickened mucus layer in the tracheobronchial region of smokers. Physiological changes in the lung due to smoking may decrease the effects of radioactive particles in cancers in the bronchial region by apparently promoting faster clearance, in that region, of radioactive particles and by decreasing the radiation dose through reduced penetration to the sensitive basal epithelial cells. Because of the short half-life of radon daughters, even if there is possible tobacco-related delay of particle clearance from the alveolar region it cannot affect radon clearance. Therefore, the possible mitigating effect of tobacco on radon-produced cancer appears to be limited to the tracheobronchial region. It would be of value to a number of occupations if the same changes in the lungs due to smoking could be produced in exposed workers in the absence of cigarette-smoking. Beta-carotene and vitamin A, which affect maintenance and secretion of the mucosal lining, appear to thicken mucus, thereby providing protection against radon-induced lung cancers that is similar to smoking-related changes in the lung

  5. Preliminary Results on the Influence of Engineered Artificial Mucus Layer on Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döllinger, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Berry, David A.; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Luegmair, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have confirmed the influence of dehydration and an altered mucus (e.g., due to pathologies) on phonation. However, the underlying reasons for these influences are not fully understood. This study was a preliminary inquiry into the influences of mucus architecture and concentration on vocal fold oscillation. Method: Two…

  6. Investigation of mucus transport in an idealized lung airway model using multiphase CFD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Rahul; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-11-01

    Mucus, a Bingham fluid is transported in the pulmonary airways by consistent beating of the cilia and exhibits a wide range of physical properties in response to the core air flow and various pathological conditions. A better understanding of the interfacial instability is required as it plays a crucial role in gas transport, mixing, mucus clearance and drug delivery. In the current study, mucus is modelled as a Newtonian fluid and the two phase gas-liquid flow in the airways is investigated using an inhomogeneous Eulerian-Eulerian approach. The complex interface between the phases is tracked using the conventional VOF (Volume of Fluid) method. Results from our CFD simulations which are performed in idealized single and double bifurcation geometries will be presented and the influence of airflow rate, mucus layer thickness, mucus viscosity, airway geometry (branching & diameter) and surface tension on mucus flow behavior will be discussed. Mean mucus layer thickness, pressure drop due to momentum transfer & increased airway resistance, mucus transport speed and the flow morphology will be compared to existing experimental and theoretical data.

  7. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  8. Bacterial decomposition of coral mucus as evaluated by long-term and quantitative observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miyajima, T.

    2011-06-01

    Coral mucus released from Acropora formosa and Montipora digitata was incubated with bacteria under dark conditions for 1 year to evaluate the quantitative degradability. All the mucus samples showed a similar decomposition pattern: about 80% of total organic carbon (TOC) in the mucus was mineralized within 1 month, while some mucus was slowly decomposed over the 1 year. Regression analysis using an exponential curve considering three degradability pools (labile, semilabile, and refractory) fitted the changes of the TOC concentrations very well ( r 2 > 0.99). Compiling the data on the two coral species, the labile organic C in the coral mucus had mineralization rates of 10-18% d-1 and accounted for 79-87% of the initial TOC in the mucus. Semilabile organic C had mineralization rates of 0.3-1.6% d-1 and accounted for 11-18% of the initial TOC. Refractory organic C accounted for 6% at most. These results suggest that not all coral mucus is rapidly decomposed by bacteria but some mucus remains as semilabile and refractory organic matter for several months.

  9. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  10. Oestrus synchronisation and superovulation alter the production and biochemical constituents of ovine cervicovaginal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jessie W; Rickard, Jessica P; Mooney, Ethan; Bernecic, Naomi C; Soleilhavoup, Clement; Tsikis, Guillaume; Druart, Xavier; Leahy, Tamara; de Graaf, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Controlled breeding programmes utilising exogenous hormones are common in the Australian sheep industry, however the effects of such programmes on cervicovaginal mucus properties are lacking. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate cervicovaginal (CV) mucus from naturally cycling (NAT), progesterone synchronised (P4), prostaglandin synchronised (PGF2α), and superovulated (SOV) Merino ewes. Experiment 1; volume, colour, spinnbarkeit, chemical profile and protein concentration of mucus (NAT, P4, PGF2α and SOV; n=5 ewes/treatment) during the follicular (5 d) and luteal phases (8 d) was investigated. Experiment 2; in vivo mucus pH and in vitro mucus penetration by frozen-thawed spermatozoa (NAT, P4 and SOV; n=11 ewes/treatment) was investigated over oestrus (2 d) and the mid-luteal phase (pH only, 2 d). Oestrus mucus was more abundant, clearer in colour and less proteinaceous than luteal phase mucus (p0.05). Results indicate that exogenous hormones used for controlled breeding affect cervicovaginal mucus production, but few other tested characteristics. Further research is required to explain fertility differences between synchronised and naturally cycling animals following cervical AI. PMID:27496692

  11. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  12. Analyses of human colonic mucus obtained by an in vivo sampling technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, H.M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Loof, A.; Houtvin, S.A.L.W. van; Troost, F.J.; Venema, K.; Kodde, A.; Koek, G.H.; Schipper, R.G.; Heerde, W.L. van; Brummer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The mucus layer is an important dynamic component of the epithelial barrier. It contains mucin glycoproteins and other compounds secreted by the intestinal epithelium, such as secretory IgA. However, a standardized in vivo sampling technique of mucus in humans is not yet available. Aim:

  13. Role of Lactobacillus reuteri cell and mucus-binding protein A (CmbA) in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hanne; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A; Axelsson, Lars

    2014-04-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a symbiotic inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals, is marketed as a probiotic. The ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus is an interesting property with regard to probiotic features such as colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and interaction with the host. Here, we present a study performed to elucidate the role of sortase (SrtA), four putative sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs), and one C-terminal membrane-anchored cell surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 in adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus in vitro. This included mutagenesis of the genes encoding these proteins and complementation of mutants. A null mutation in hmpref0536_10255 encoding srtA resulted in significantly reduced adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus, indicating involvement of SDPs in adhesion. Evaluation of the bacterial adhesion revealed that of the five putative surface protein mutants tested, only a null mutation in the hmpref0536_10633 gene, encoding a putative SDP with an LPxTG motif, resulted in a significant loss of adhesion to both Caco-2 cells and mucus. Complementation with the functional gene on a plasmid restored adhesion to Caco-2 cells. However, complete restoration of adhesion to mucus was not achieved. Overexpression of hmpref0536_10633 in strain ATCC PTA 6475 resulted in an increased adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus compared with the WT strain. We conclude from these results that, among the putative surface proteins tested, the protein encoded by hmpref0536_10633 plays a critical role in binding of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 to Caco-2 cells and mucus. Based on this, we propose that this LPxTG motif containing protein should be referred to as cell and mucus binding protein A (CmbA). PMID:24473252

  14. Effect of Native Gastric Mucus on in vivo Hybridization Therapies Directed at Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Xiong, Ranhua;

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the worldwide population. It is mostly found deep in the gastric mucus lining of the stomach, being a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma. To face the increasing resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics, antimicrobial nucleic acid...... barriers-the highly viscoelastic gastric mucus and the bacterial cell envelope. We found that LNA/2'OMe is capable of diffusing rapidly through native, undiluted, gastric mucus isolated from porcine stomachs, without degradation. Moreover, although LNA/2'OMe hybridization was still successful without...... permeabilization and fixation of the bacteria, which is normally part of in vitro studies, the ability of LNA/2'OMe to efficiently hybridize with H. pylori was hampered by the presence of mucus. Future research should focus on developing nanocarriers that shield LNA/2'OMe from components in the gastric mucus...

  15. Mucus Barriers to Microparticles and Microbes are Altered in Hirschprung’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hasan M.; Carlson, Taylor L.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucus forms a protective hydrogel layer over the intestinal epithelium, presenting a selective and robust barrier to the uptake of particulates and microbe invasion. Disease can alter mucus production and composition, thus potentially modifying mucosal barrier properties. Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) is a developmental abnormality of the nervous system often complicated by intestinal infection. An investigation of colonic mucus barrier properties in an HD animal model, endothelin receptor B mutant mice, revealed significantly reduced microsphere (passive) and microbe (active) transport rates (7-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, in proximal colonic mucus) relative to wild-type. Transport differences were evident in both the ganglionic and aganglionic colon segments, in agreement with the risk of Hirschsprung’s disease-associated enterocolitis after surgery to remove aganglionic colon segments. The development of therapies aimed at altering colonic mucus barrier properties could be explored towards preventing the onset of enterocolitis in Hirschsprung’s disease. PMID:25644515

  16. Mucus Barriers to Microparticles and Microbes are Altered in Hirschsprung's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hasan M; Carlson, Taylor L; Goldstein, Allan M; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Mucus forms a protective hydrogel layer over the intestinal epithelium, presenting a selective and robust barrier to the uptake of particulates and microbe invasion. Disease can alter mucus production and composition, thus potentially modifying mucosal barrier properties. Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a developmental abnormality of the nervous system often complicated by intestinal infection. An investigation of colonic mucus barrier properties in an HD animal model, endothelin receptor B mutant mice, revealed significantly reduced microsphere (passive) and microbe (active) transport rates (7-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, in proximal colonic mucus) relative to wild-type. Transport differences were evident in both the ganglionic and aganglionic colon segments, in agreement with the risk of HD-associated enterocolitis after surgery to remove aganglionic colon segments. The development of therapies aimed at altering colonic mucus barrier properties could be explored towards preventing the onset of enterocolitis in HD. PMID:25644515

  17. Micro-configuration Observation of Porous Bioceramic for Sliding on Intestinal Mucus Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of the prepared porous bioceramic material, including surface porosity and apparent contact area with the artificial mucus film are computed and analyzed. The surface micro-configurations of the porous material before and after sliding on the mucus ftlm are observed in 2D and 3 D by digital microscopy. We describe how much mucus enters and stays within different pores, and how the porous material with rough/porous surface contacts with the mucus film ( elastic surface/gel). The presented results illustrate that the material with different porous structure can lead to different mucus suction, surface scraping and changes of contact area and condition during sliding, which will be active for high friction of robotic endoscope with the intestinal wall for intestinal locomotion.

  18. Pic, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Different Pathogens in the Enterobacteriaceae Family, Is a Potent Mucus Secretagogue▿

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Gutierrez-Jimenez, Javier; Garcia-Tovar, Carlos; Castro, Luis A.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Hector; Cordova, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection is a formation of biofilm, which comprises a mucus layer with immersed bacteria in the intestines of patients. While studying the mucinolytic activity of Pic in an in vivo system, rat ileal loops, we surprisingly found that EAEC induced hypersecretion of mucus, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of mucus-containing goblet cells. Interestingly, an isogenic pic mutant (EAEC Δpic) was unable to cause this mucus hyp...

  19. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi Manuela; Dreesen Leentje; Hoorens Prisca R; Li Robert W; Claerebout Edwin; Goddeeris Bruno; Vercruysse Jozef; Van Den Broek Wim; Geldhof Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an Ostertagia ostertagi infection on the abomasal mucus biosynthesis in cattle. Increased gene expression of MUC1...

  20. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  1. Dynamic changes in mucus thickness and ion secretion during Citrobacter rodentium infection and clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny K Gustafsson

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing pathogen used as a murine model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The mucus layers are a complex matrix of molecules, and mucus swelling, hydration and permeability are affected by many factors, including ion composition. Here, we used the C. rodentium model to investigate mucus dynamics during infection. By measuring the mucus layer thickness in tissue explants during infection, we demonstrated that the thickness changes dynamically during the course of infection and that its thickest stage coincides with the start of a decrease of bacterial density at day 14 after infection. Although quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that mucin mRNA increases during early infection, the increased mucus layer thickness late in infection was not explained by increased mRNA levels. Proteomic analysis of mucus did not demonstrate the appearance of additional mucins, but revealed an increased number of proteins involved in defense responses. Ussing chamber-based electrical measurements demonstrated that ion secretion was dynamically altered during the infection phases. Furthermore, the bicarbonate ion channel Bestrophin-2 mRNA nominally increased, whereas the Cftr mRNA decreased during the late infection clearance phase. Microscopy of Muc2 immunostained tissues suggested that the inner striated mucus layer present in the healthy colon was scarce during the time point of most severe infection (10 days post infection, but then expanded, albeit with a less structured appearance, during the expulsion phase. Together with previously published literature, the data implies a model for clearance where a change in secretion allows reformation of the mucus layer, displacing the pathogen to the outer mucus layer, where it is then outcompeted by the returning commensal flora. In conclusion, mucus and ion secretion are dynamically altered during the C. rodentium infection cycle.

  2. Sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of sexual consciousness and sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri were performed on patients of middle and old ages by questionnaires and questionning by doctors, and the following results were obtained. 1. Before radiotherapy, sexual activity was most prominent in their twenties and thirties. However, patients who were in fifties when this study was performed had most active sexual lives during the ages from 35 to 50 years. 2. Frequencies of sexual intercourse decreased markedly just before radiotherapy, and many patients received radiotherapy when sexual activity fell. 3. 32% of the patients have not experienced sexual intercourse after radiotherapy. 4. Decreases in the sex urge, sexuality, vaginal dicharge, and frequency of sexual intercourse after radiotherapy were recognized in 77%, 77%, 70%, and 93% respectively. 5. Patients who became unwilling to maintain sexual lives after radiotherapy because of fear about recurrence or aggravation of cancer were 38% by questionnaires and 49% by questionning by doctors. 6. Pains on sexual intercourse were found in 69% by questionnaires and 49% by questionning by doctors. Most pains occurred at pennis insertion and was thought to be due to atrophy and inflammation of vagina and external genitalia in most cases. 7. Both vaginal damages and sexual dysfunction in patients with radiotherapy following surgery for cancer of the cervix uteri, in patients with radiotherapy alone for cancer of the cervix uteri, and in patients with radiotherapy following surgery for cancer of the ovary and corpus uteri were marked, modest and mild, respectively. 8. Vaginal damage score was higher in patients treated more than 5 years before than those less than 2 years ago, but there were no differences in sexual dysfunction score between both groups. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, R.; Takamizawa, H. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Arai, T.; Morita, S.

    1981-03-01

    Investigations of sexual consciousness and sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri were performed on patients of middle and old ages by questionnaires and questioning by doctors, and the following results were obtained. 1. Before radiotherapy, sexual activity was most prominent in their twenties and thirties. However, patients who were in fifties when this study was performed had most active sexual lives during the ages from 35 to 50 years. 2. Frequencies of sexual intercourse decreased markedly just before radiotherapy, and many patients received radiotherapy when sexual activity fell. 3. 32% of the patients have not experienced sexual intercourse after radiotherapy. 4. Decreases in the sex urge, sexuality, vaginal discharge, and frequency of sexual intercourse after radiotherapy were recognized in 77%, 77%, 70%, and 93% respectively. 5. Patients who became unwilling to maintain sexual lives after radiotherapy because of fear about recurrence or aggravation of cancer were 38% by questionaires and 49% by questioning by doctors. 6. Pains on sexual intercourse were found in 69% by questionaires and 49% by questionning by doctors. Most pains occurred at penis insertion and was thought to be due to atrophy and inflammation of vagina and external genitalia in most cases. 7. Both vaginal damage and sexual dysfunction in patients with radiotherapy following surgery for cancer of the cervix uteri, in patients with radiotherapy alone for cancer of the cervix uteri, and in patients with radiotherapy following surgery for cancer of the ovary and corpus uteri were marked, modest and mild, respectively. 8. Vaginal damage score was higher in patients treated more than 5 years before than those less than 2 years ago, but there were no differences in sexual dysfunction score between both groups.

  4. Using of electrical impedance tomography for diagnostics of the cervix uteri diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokhanova, O. V.; Chijova, Y. A.; Okhapkin, M. B.; Korjenevsky, A. V.; Tuykin, T. S.

    2010-04-01

    The report presents results of investigation of the neck of the womb (cervix) of 64 women aged from 19 to 70, that formed 4 clinical groups (1st group: 15 women without any pathology of the cervix, 2nd group: 27 women with the erosion, 3rd group: 11 women with dysplasia, 4th group: 11 women with cancer of the cervix). The aim of this research is to assess the capabilities of electrical impedance tomography in the diagnostics of the cervix diseases. The methods of the research were: visual examination with the speculum, colposcopy, and biopsy of the cervix. Also the new method of visualization of the cervix was used - electrical impedance tomography with the help of gynecological impedance tomograph (GIT). The following results were obtained. The electrical conductivity of the cervix in norm and in different pathology has different indices, which allow differential diagnostics of benign and malignant diseases. Summary: the method of electrical impedance tomography allows not only visually estimate portio vaginalis, but receive indices of electrical conductivity of the cervix on the depth up to 0.8 cm and thereby reveal pathological changes in epithelium without invasive and operative intervention.

  5. MRI findings of small cell neuroendocrime carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, You Sun; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Choi, Seo Youn; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare primary neoplasm, accounting for less than 5% of all uterine cervical cancers. The tumor is known to have an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. In this article, we present the MRI findings of 5 cases of pathologically-proven small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix, including diffusion-weighted images.

  6. Aggressive approach in a case of cancer cervix with uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Janaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in developing countries. Majority of them present in locally advanced stages. A 36-year-old lady presented with bleeding and white discharge per vagina since four months, vomiting and reduced urine output since two weeks. Patient had an exophytic cervical growth. Investigation revealed elevated serum creatinine. Patient received single fraction radiation and underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. At one month follow-up, serum creatinine returned to almost normal level. Patient underwent bilateral ante grade stenting and completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In selected subsets of patients, aggressive management offered longer palliation and good quality of life.

  7. The sexual function following irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following irradiation of a carcinoma of the cervix, the vagina is frequently narrowed or sometimes obliterated. This article considers the sexual functioning of women following such treatment. They noticed changes in their emotions and felt alterations in their function as a woman. They were less happy with cohabitation and found it more difficult to experience an orgasm. Their frequency of lovemaking diminished as did the occurrence of sexual dreams. A treatment scheme for helping such women with their sexual problems is outlined. (C.F.)

  8. INVERTED CONDYLOMA OF UTERINE CERVIX: A RARE CONDYLOMATOUS LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Charles

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is an epitheliotropic virus that can infect and cause disease of skin or mucosa at any site. HPV associated lesions can be broadly divided into cutaneous and mucous membrane lesions. Cutaneous lesions include: warts, Butcher’s wart and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. The anogenital diseases, include warts (condyloma, dysplasia (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, and squamous cell carcinoma. Here we are presenting a case report of a 27 year old female who was histologically diagnosed as inverted condyloma a rare condylomatous lesion involving the uterine cervix.

  9. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in cervixes of pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, T; Oishi, H.; Hayashi, K; Nonogaki, M; Tanaka, K.; Yamanishi, K

    1995-01-01

    We looked for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 genomes in the cervixes of pregnant women in the late stages of their pregnancies. Of 72 samples collected with cervical swabs and amplified by nested PCR, we found that 14 (19.4%) and 2 (2.7%) contained detectable HHV-6 and HHV-7 genomes, respectively. The two samples in which HHV-7 DNA was detected also contained HHV-6 genomes. Hybridization of HHV-6 DNA amplified by PCR with variant-specific probes revealed that all of these DNA samples b...

  10. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  11. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth ...

  12. Lactobacillus strains belonging to Casei group display various adherence to enterocytes and mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Markowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of lactobacilli to adhere to the surface of the intestine is an important functional characteristic which can largely determine the effective colonization of the intestinal tract by probiotics. The following study compares the adhesion efficiency of the twenty strains of Lactobacillus genus belonging to Casei group to the Caco-2 cells and gastrointestinal mucus. Material and methods. Twenty isolates of lactobacilli belonging to Casei group were tested. The ability of bacterial cells to adhere to mucus was examined using adhesion assay to gastrointestinal mucus. Obtained results were compared with adhesion efficiency to Caco-2 cells. Phylogenetic relationship between isolates was analysed by rep-PCR. Results. The results showed large differences in adhesion efficiency between strains, as well as differences in the efficiency of adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Group similarity highlighted by a rep-PCR technique does not correspond with groups of similarity in terms of the characteristics of the ability to adhere to mucus or the epithelial cells of intestinal tract. Conclusions. Strains having a high adhesion efficiency to enterocytes do not always show a high adhesion efficiency to the mucus. This may indicate the presence of different and multiple factors responsible for adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus group Casei strains to epithelial cells and mucus.

  13. Towards a versatile technique for tracking nanoparticle-mucus interaction: a step on the road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafee, N.; Schneider, M.

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory mucus is one of the main barriers for nanoparticle-based pulmonary delivery systems. This holds true especially for lung diseases like cystic fibrosis, where a very tenacious thick mucus layer hinders particle diffusion to the lung epithelium or the target area. Typically, mean square displacement of particles is used for mobility evaluation. In contrast, our objective is to develop a feasible technique to track directed particle penetration as a prerequisite for efficient pulmonary nanotherapy. Therefore, particle diffusion in artificial mucus was monitored based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and particle-mucus interaction was observed. As pharmaceutical relevant and benign materials, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by hot-melt emulsification using glyceryl behenate and different stabilizing agents such as poloxamer-407, tween-80, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The diffusion of labeled SLNs in stained artificial sputum representing CF-patient sputum was verified by 3D time laps imaging. Thus, the effect of coating, particle size and mucus viscosity on nanoparticle diffusion was studied. Using image analysis software "Image J", the total fluorescent signal after 30 min in case of poloxamer-coated SLNs was 5 and 100 folds higher than tween- and PVA-coated SLNs, respectively. Nevertheless, increasing mucus viscosity reduced the diffusion of tweencoated SLNs by a factor of 10. Studying particle-mucus interaction by CLSM can be considered a promising and versatile technique.

  14. Antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of fish epidermal mucus Cynoglossus arel andArius caelatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran; Selvam Priyadharshini; Kolandhasamy Prabhu; Solomon Raj Sophia Rani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the antimicrobial, hemolytic activity and immunomodulatory activity of fish epidermal mucus and their chemical constituents fromCynoglossus arel (C. arel) and Arius caelatus (A. caelatus). Mucus plays an important role in the prevention of colonization by parasites, bacteria and fungi.Methods: Epidermal mucus was obtained from two marine fishes, lyophilized and the chemical composition of epidermal mucus was analysed byFT-IR analysis. Thein vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (fungi, gram positive and gram-negative bacteria) and also the hemolytic activity and immunomodulatory activity were determined.Results:Totally ten human pathogens were tested against the fish mucus. Out of the ten pathogens, five pathogens have proved to be sensitive to the mucus. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed againstVibrio cholera (V. cholera) (9 mm and2 mm in diameter), followed byStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with a inhibition zone of (6 mm and3 mm),Streptococcus areus (S. areus) (5 mm and4 mm),Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) (4mm and5 mm) respectively.Conclusions: The present investigation has revealed that positive progresses in the fish mucus extracts against human pathogens and hemolytic activity. But further efforts are required for the purification and isolation of the active antimicrobial compounds in order to establish their possible applications.

  15. Therapeutic Potential to Modify the Mucus Barrier in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, numerous studies have shown that disruption of the mucus barrier plays an important role in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in ulcerative colitis. Alterations in the mucus barrier are well supported by published data and are widely accepted. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and Carnoy’s fixation has revealed the importance of the mucus barrier in maintaining a mutualistic relationship between host and bacteria. Studies have raised the possibility that modulation of the mucus barrier may provide therapies for the disease, using agents such as short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This review describes changes in the mucus barrier of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in animal models of the disease. We also review the involvement of the mucus barrier in the exacerbation of the disease and explore the therapeutic potential of modifying the mucus barrier with short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, fatty acid synthase, H2S, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and phophatidyl choline.

  16. Therapeutic Potential to Modify the Mucus Barrier in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Shen, Xiao; Li, Yi; Guo, Zhen; Zhu, Weiming; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Gu, Lili; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have shown that disruption of the mucus barrier plays an important role in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in ulcerative colitis. Alterations in the mucus barrier are well supported by published data and are widely accepted. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and Carnoy's fixation has revealed the importance of the mucus barrier in maintaining a mutualistic relationship between host and bacteria. Studies have raised the possibility that modulation of the mucus barrier may provide therapies for the disease, using agents such as short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This review describes changes in the mucus barrier of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in animal models of the disease. We also review the involvement of the mucus barrier in the exacerbation of the disease and explore the therapeutic potential of modifying the mucus barrier with short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, fatty acid synthase, H₂S, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and phophatidyl choline. PMID:26784223

  17. Diffusion-sensitive optical coherence tomography for real-time monitoring of mucus thinning treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Hill, David B.; Chapman, Brian S.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mucus hydration (wt%) has become an increasingly useful metric in real-time assessment of respiratory health in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD, with higher wt% indicative of diseased states. However, available in vivo rheological techniques are lacking. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are attractive biological probes whose diffusion through tissue is sensitive to the correlation length of comprising biopolymers. Through employment of dynamic light scattering theory on OCT signals from GNRs, we find that weakly-constrained GNR diffusion predictably decreases with increasing wt% (more disease-like) mucus. Previously, we determined this method is robust against mucus transport on human bronchial epithelial (hBE) air-liquid interface cultures (R2=0.976). Here we introduce diffusion-sensitive OCT (DS-OCT), where we collect M-mode image ensembles, from which we derive depth- and temporally-resolved GNR diffusion rates. DS-OCT allows for real-time monitoring of changing GNR diffusion as a result of topically applied mucus-thinning agents, enabling monitoring of the dynamics of mucus hydration never before seen. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell) with a layer of endogenous mucus were doped with topically deposited GNRs (80x22nm), and subsequently treated with hypertonic saline (HS) or isotonic saline (IS). DS-OCT provided imaging of the mucus thinning response up to a depth of 600μm with 4.65μm resolution, over a total of 8 minutes in increments of >=3 seconds. For both IS and HS conditions, DS-OCT captured changes in the pattern of mucus hydration over time. DS-OCT opens a new window into understanding mechanisms of mucus thinning during treatment, enabling real-time efficacy feedback needed to optimize and tailor treatments for individual patients.

  18. Results of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-nine consecutive patients who were treated with radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix between April 1982 and December 1986 were reviewed. Twelve patients were treated with low dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using radium-226, and 46 were treated with high dose-rate irradiation using a remote afterloading system combined with external irradiation, and the other one was treated with external irradiation alone. The 5-year-survival rates for stage Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIb, and IVa were 77.8, 85.7, 87.5, 45.5 and 40.0%, respectively. The 5-year-survival rates for the low and high dose-rates irradiation were 66.7 and 73.9%, respectively. The most common complication of radiation therapy was rectal bleeding, which required conservative treatment (grade 2) in 11 (18.6%). The morbidities for the low and high dose-rates irradiation were similar. The causes of death in 17 patients were local recurrence in 14, metastases in 2 and other specified in one. These findings suggest that high dose-rate intracavitary irradiation is as effective as low dose-rate irradiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and that further efforts for controlling the local tumors with stage IIIb disease without an increased rate of side-effects is required. (author)

  19. Changes in oxygenation during radiotherapy in carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in tumor oxygenation, assessed by polarographic needle electrode measurements, following fractionated external beam radiotherapy in carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Normal and tumor tissue oxygenation was measured in 19 patients prior to radiotherapy and after 40-45 Gy of external beam radiotherapy delivered in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. All measurements were performed during anesthesia. Results: There was no significant difference in the level of normal tissue oxygenation pre- and post radiotherapy. The individual patient median tumor pO2 values ranged from 0 to 31 mmHg pre-radiotherapy and 1 to 61 mmHg post-radiotherapy. The mean of the 19 median pO2 values increased from 8 (SD ± 10) mmHg to 20 (± 20) mmHg following external beam radiotherapy. The increase was significant by paired Wilcoxon test (p = 0.011). There was also a significant fall in the proportion of values < 5 mmHg (p = 0.040). Although this value remained constant, or fell, in the majority of patients (15/19), it increased in 4 tumors. Tumor size pre- and post-radiotherapy did not correlate with the level of pretreatment oxygenation; neither did the change in tumor size and change in level of oxygenation. Conclusion: The level of tumor oxygenation increased in the majority of patients (15/19) following 40-45 Gy of radiotherapy in carcinoma of the cervix

  20. ROLE OF PALLIATION IN STAGE IV CARCINOMA CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Palliation reduces the severity of disease symptoms, rather than reversing its progression or providing a cure. Metast atic cancer cervix (Ca Cx is incurable by surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, but these modali ties are useful for palliation. Globally about five to six lakh new cases of carcinoma cervi x are diagnosed every year. Of these, one lakh cases are diagnosed in India of which 25.0% are fro m West Bengal only. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the role of palliation in Sta ge IV Carcinoma Cervix. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: During the study period of five years from January 2 007 to December 2011, consecutive seventy five new cases of stage IV carc inoma cervix diagnosed at Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Research Institute, Kolkata, we re included in our study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical examination with relevant investigations l ike kidney function tests (KFT, biopsy, cystoscopy, CT scan etc were done for diagno sis & staging. Treatment was decided based on woman's age, general health and the locati on & type of the tumour. Treatment options were surgery, radiotherapy (RT, chemotherapy (CT an d simple palliation. In our study, combined CT+RT was done in 18.67% patients most of w ho presented with Stage IV disease. Radiation was given as brachytherapy following telet herapy. Chemotherapy was used as adjunct to RT or for palliation or as neo-adjuvant c hemotherapy (NACT, most commonly using paclitaxel (135mg/square metre, cisplatin (50mg/ squ are metre and 5- fluorouracil (600mg/ square metre. At times, chemotherapy could provide pa in relief only. Vault smear and metastatic workup was done during follow-up visits ev ery 8-12 weeks after treatment completion. RESULTS: Majority of patients belonged to the age group 42-69 years with a median age of 53 years. Bladder involvement was see n in 15(20.0% cases, bowel involvement in 14(19.0% and distant metastasis in 46(61.0% ca ses. Most cases were of Squamous

  1. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Rix; de Goeij, Jasper M.; Mueller, Christina E.; Ulrich Struck; Middelburg, Jack J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Christian Wild; Naumann, Malik S.; Dick van Oevelen

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated....

  2. Bacteria Associated with Mucus and Tissues of the Coral Oculina patagonica in Summer and Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Omry; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    The relative abundance of bacteria in the mucus and crushed tissue of the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica was determined by analyses of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated colonies and from a 16S rRNA clone library of extracted DNA. By SYBR gold staining, the numbers of bacteria in mucus and tissue samples were 6.2 × 107 and 8.3 × 108/cm2 of coral surface, respectively, 99.8% of which failed to produce colonies on Marine Agar. From analysis of mucus DNA, the most-abundant bacterium was Vibr...

  3. Metastasis of extra-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma to the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Yoshida, H; Watanabe, R; Ishikawa, M; Ikeda, S I; Kato, T

    2016-04-01

    Secondary metastatic tumours of the uterine cervix are rare. There have been no reports of duodenal cancer metastasizing to the uterine cervix. Here we present a rare case of an extra-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma that has metastasized to the uterine cervix. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had surgery for an extra-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma five years previously. Follow-up examination revealed a suspicious right ovarian mass and nodules in the cervix and posterior fornix of the vagina. Biopsies suggested squamous cell carcinoma in the cervix and adenocarcinoma in the fornix. Intraoperatively, the right ovary was enlarged and peritoneal disseminations were found in the pouch of Douglas and the sigmoid colon mesentery. Histopathology of the subsequent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy specimen revealed a cervical squamous cell carcinoma categorized as pT1b1. Adenocarcinoma infiltration into the ovaries, uterine cervix and vagina, with vascular involvement was detected. Immunohistochemistry revealed the tumour in the cervix and ovaries to be positive for CK7, MUC5AC and MUC6, and immunonegative for CK20, CDX2, Pax8, ER, MUC2 and CD10, similar to the original duodenal adenocarcinoma. This case illustrates the difficulty in making a preoperative diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma in the uterine cervix with a coexisting primary cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The absence of atypia in cervical glandular cells and immunohistochemical profiling of the adenocarcinoma clusters helped to reach a final diagnosis. This is the first report of an extra-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma metastasis to the uterine cervix. PMID:27126664

  4. Effects of nasal allergen challenge on dynamic viscoelasticity of nasal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, M; Majima, Y; Ukai, K; Sakakura, Y

    1993-04-01

    The effects of nasal provocation on the rheologic properties of nasal mucus were investigated in patients with allergic rhinitis provoked by house dust. The elastic modulus (G') and the dynamic viscosity (eta') of nasal mucus were determined by an oscillating sphere magnetic rheometer. Before and after the allergen challenge, G' increased, whereas eta' decreased with increasing oscillatory frequency; these findings indicate that the nasal mucus under these conditions is a non-newtonian fluid and has the cross-linked gel-like nature typical of mucus. Both G' and eta' values after nasal provocation were significantly lower than before. The values of G' and eta' after allergen challenge were in the optimal viscoelasticity range for mucociliary transport. PMID:8476173

  5. The properties of the mucus barrier, a unique gel - how can nanoparticles cross it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jeffrey P; Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    The key criterion for a nanoparticle drug-delivery system is the ability to produce substantial bioavailability without damaging the physiological protective mechanisms. The main area for drug delivery is the aerodigestive tract. All epithelial surfaces have a membrane-bound layer and in the lung this layer is surmounted by a gel layer. In the gastrointestinal tract the membrane-bound mucin layer is covered by a mucus bilayer. The pore sizes of mucus gels are around 100 to 200 nm. Consequently, only nanoparticles in this size range could potentially penetrate without modification of these layers. To study nanoparticle permeation with results that pertain to in vivo conditions, native mucus mucin preparations must be used. Strategies to increase pores in mucus gels are discussed herein. PMID:27010985

  6. Ultrastructural changes in the architecture of collagen in the human cervix treated with urea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kischer, C. W.; Droegemueller, W; Shetlar, M.; Chvapil, M.; Vining, J.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of a solution of 30% urea in acetate buffer at pH 4.0 into the stroma of the uterine cervix results in a marked change in the mechanical properties of the tissue with subsequent easy dilatation. This study analyzes the changes in the collagenous matrix of the cervix by ultrastructural and biochemical methods. Collagen fibrils in urea-treated sections of the cervix are swollen and unravelled, showing spiral configuration of subunits in both cross-sections and longitudinal sections. T...

  7. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Ju

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) of the uterine cervix is a rare malignancy, and 21 cases have been reported the literature from every language (including our case). Herein, we describe a 17-yearold female patient who presented with active vaginal bleeding. Pelvic examination revealed a 1.6 ×1.0×0.5-cm-sized soft mass protruding from the uterine cervix. The final pathological diagnosis was ASPS of the uterine cervix. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly nuclear positive for trans...

  8. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H

    1990-01-01

    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus. PMID:2319385

  9. Draft genome sequence of Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from coral mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaella Z. Palermo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the genomic features of the Actinobacteria Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from mucus of the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida. The sequences are available under accession number LDNX01000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LDNX00000000. The genomic analysis revealed interesting information about the adaptation of bacteria to the marine environment (such as genes involved in osmotic and oxidative stress and to the nutrient-rich environment provided by the coral mucus.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from coral mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Bruna Rafaella Z; Castro, Daniel B A; Pereira, Letícia Bianca; Cauz, Ana Carolina G; Magalhães, Beatriz L; Carlos, Camila; da Costa, Fernanda L P; Scagion, Guilherme P; Higa, Juliana S; Almeida, Ludimila D; das Neves, Meiriele da S; Cordeiro, Melina Aparecida; do Prado, Paula F V; da Silva, Thiago M; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian A; Paulino, Luciana C; Vicentini, Renato; Ferraz, Lúcio F C; Ottoboni, Laura M M

    2016-03-01

    Here, we describe the genomic features of the Actinobacteria Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from mucus of the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida. The sequences are available under accession number LDNX01000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LDNX00000000). The genomic analysis revealed interesting information about the adaptation of bacteria to the marine environment (such as genes involved in osmotic and oxidative stress) and to the nutrient-rich environment provided by the coral mucus. PMID:26981384

  11. New Method for Counting Bacteria Associated with Coral Mucus ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

    2010-01-01

    The ability to count bacteria associated with reef-building corals in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner has been hindered by the viscous and highly autofluorescent nature of the coral mucus layer (CML) in which they live. We present a new method that disperses bacterial cells by trypsinization prior to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and quantification by epifluorescence microscopy. We sampled seawater and coral mucus from Porites lobata from 6 reef sites influenced b...

  12. Calcifying extracellular mucus substances (EMS) of Madrepora oculata; a first geobiological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reitner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Colonial non-zooxanthellate corals from deep-water coral reefs, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, produce large amounts of extracellular mucus (EMS). This mucus has various functions, e.g., an antifouling capability protecting the coral skeleton from attacks of endolithic and boring organisms. Both corals show thick epithecal and exothecal skeletal parts with a clear lamellar growth pattern. The formation of the epitheca is unclear. It is supposed that the EMS play a central role during...

  13. Mucus Sugar Content Shapes the Bacterial Community Structure in Thermally Stressed Acropora muricata

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sonny T. M.; Davy, Simon K.; Tang, Sen-Lin; Kench, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral’s mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26 to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed tha...

  14. Influenza hemagglutination inhibiting activity in respiratory mucus from horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (heaves syndrome).

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, J; Willoughby, R A; McDonell, W; Valli, V. E.; Viel, L; Bignell, W

    1983-01-01

    Samples of mucus from the lower trachea were collected from 53 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and from 24 clinically normal horses. Serum samples were collected from 35 of the horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and from the 24 normal horses. Samples were tested for inhibition of hemagglutination by influenza A equine 1 and 2 viruses. There were high levels of hemagglutination inhibiting activity against influenza A equine 1 in mucus samples from horses with c...

  15. Mucoadhesive Nanoparticles May Disrupt the Protective Human Mucus Barrier by Altering Its Microstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; So, Conan; Schneider, Craig; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Mucus secretions typically protect exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tracts from foreign entities, including pathogens and environmental ultrafine particles. We hypothesized that excess exposure to some foreign particles, however, may cause disruption of the mucus barrier. Many synthetic nanoparticles are likely to be mucoadhesive due to hydrophobic, electrostatic or hydrogen bonding interactions. We therefore sought to determine whether mu...

  16. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates. PMID:25717100

  17. Role of mucus in gastric mucosal injury induced by local ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, K; Joh, T; Yokoyama, Y; Itoh, M

    1995-09-01

    The role of gastric mucus was evaluated in a rat model of gastric epithelial damage induced by local ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) stress. In this model, blood-to-lumen chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) clearance served as an index of injury. Tetraprenyl acetone (TPA; 100 mg, 200 mg/kg IP) was used to stimulate mucus production. Administration of TPA increased both the hexosamine content in gastric tissue and the amount of alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff (AB-PAS) stained mucus in the mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. Increases in 51Cr-EDTA clearance induced by I/R were significantly attenuated by TPA in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.6%, 0.8%) was perfused into the gastric lumen to assess the effect of reduction in mucus on the injury induced by I/R. Although mean values of hexosamine content were increased by perfusion with NAC, AB-PAS-stained mucus in the mucosa was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Perfusion of NAC did not change basal 51Cr-EDTA clearance but significantly exacerbated the increase in clearance induced by I/R in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that gastric mucus protects the gastric mucosa against I/R stress in vivo. PMID:7665977

  18. Analysis of gunshot residues as trace in nasal mucus by GFAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliste, Marina; Chávez, Luis Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    When a gun is fired, the majority of gunshot residues are deposited on the shooter's hands. But these residues disappear through contact with surfaces or washing. Therefore, the maximum time frame to find GSR on a suspect's hands is 8h. The mucus, inside of a nostril, forms a surface layer where they are trapped foreign particles. In this way, mucus inside of a gunshot suspect's nostrils could act like an adhesive medium to stick on it gaseous particles from a gunshot. In this study, the presence of GSR in nasal mucus and its residence time is examined. A new procedure for the sampling of possible gunshot residue accumulated in the nasal mucus is designed. Samples are taken with cotton swabs moistened with a solution of EDTA and, after an acid digestion, are analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, samples of hands are taken for comparison purposes. GSR recovery has been successful. The concentration of GSR in nasal mucus is found to be lower than on the hands, but with a longer residence time. Thus, it is possible to expand the sampling time of a suspect also, as nasal mucus cannot be contaminated by handling weapons. PMID:26874050

  19. High occurrence of viruses in the mucus layer of scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kim, Hanh; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Doan-Nhu, Hai; Nguyen-Ngoc, Lam; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Baudoux, Anne-Claire; Desnues, Christelle; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Bettarel, Yvan

    2014-12-01

    Viruses attract increasing interest from environmental microbiologists seeking to understand their function and role in coral health. However, little is known about their main ecological traits within the coral holobiont. In this study, a quantitative and qualitative characterization of viral and bacterial communities was conducted on the mucus of seven different coral species of the Van Phong Bay (Vietnam). On average, the concentrations of viruses and bacteria were, respectively, 17- and twofold higher in the mucus than in the surrounding water. The examination of bacterial community composition also showed remarkable differences between mucus and water samples. The percentage of active respiring cells was nearly threefold higher in mucus (m = 24.8%) than in water (m = 8.6%). Interestingly, a positive and highly significant correlation was observed between the proportion of active cells and viral abundance in the mucus, suggesting that the metabolism of the bacterial associates is probably a strong determinant of the distribution of viruses within the coral holobiont. Overall, coral mucus, given its unique physicochemical characteristics and sticking properties, can be regarded as a highly selective biotope for abundant, diversified and specialized symbiotic microbial and viral organisms. PMID:25756121

  20. Lung gene therapy with highly compacted DNA nanoparticles that overcome the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jung Soo; Kim, Anthony J; Trehan, Kanika; Schneider, Craig S; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Woodward, Owen M; Boylan, Nicholas J; Boyle, Michael P; Lai, Samuel K; Guggino, William B; Hanes, Justin

    2014-03-28

    Inhaled gene carriers must penetrate the highly viscoelastic and adhesive mucus barrier in the airway in order to overcome rapid mucociliary clearance and reach the underlying epithelium; however, even the most widely used viral gene carriers are unable to efficiently do so. We developed two polymeric gene carriers that compact plasmid DNA into small and highly stable nanoparticles with dense polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coatings. These highly compacted, densely PEG-coated DNA nanoparticles rapidly penetrate human cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus ex vivo and mouse airway mucus ex situ. Intranasal administration of the mucus penetrating DNA nanoparticles greatly enhanced particle distribution, retention and gene transfer in the mouse lung airways compared to conventional gene carriers. Successful delivery of a full-length plasmid encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was achieved in the mouse lungs and airway cells, including a primary culture of mucus-covered human airway epithelium grown at air-liquid interface, without causing acute inflammation or toxicity. Highly compacted mucus penetrating DNA nanoparticles hold promise for lung gene therapy. PMID:24440664

  1. Hyper-osmolarity and calcium chelation: Effects on cystic fibrosis mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermund, Anna; Meiss, Lauren N; Gustafsson, Jenny K; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2015-10-01

    A non-functional Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) leads to the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the CFTR is expressed in multiple organs, pulmonary disease is the major cause of illness and death in patients with CF. Stagnant mucus, causing airway obstruction, bacterial overgrowth, persistent inflammation and tissue destruction characterizes the disease, but how the defect in CFTR function is coupled to the mucus phenotype is still controversial. We have recently shown that bicarbonate ions passing through CFTR are necessary for proper unfolding of the MUC2 mucin, thus highlighting the importance of bicarbonate ion transport via the CFTR and the ability of these ions to raise the pH and chelate calcium bound to the mucin as the important steps in forming normal mucus. In order to find potential CF treatments and expand our knowledge about the usefulness of bicarbonate as an active ingredient in formulations to alleviate mucus plugging, we used an Ussing-type chamber and explants from the F508del-CFTR mutant mouse ileum to test the effect of calcium chelators on mucus attachment, either in isolation or in combination with osmolytes such as mannitol or hypertonic saline. We found that increasing the concentration of bicarbonate, both alone or in combination with increased osmolarity of the solution, detached the otherwise attached CF mucus. PMID:26134505

  2. Mucus properties and goblet cell quantification in mouse, rat and human ileal Peyer's patches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ermund

    Full Text Available Peyer's patches (PPs are collections of lymphoid follicles in the small intestine, responsible for scanning the intestinal content for foreign antigens such as soluble molecules, particulate matter as well as intact bacteria and viruses. The immune cells of the patch are separated from the intestinal lumen by a single layer of epithelial cells, the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE. This epithelium covers the dome of the follicle and contains enterocyte-like cells and M cells, which are particularly specialized in taking up antigens from the gut. However, the presence and number of goblet cells as well as the presence of mucus on top of the FAE is controversial. When mouse ileal PPs were mounted in a horizontal Ussing-type chamber, we could observe a continuous mucus layer at mounting and new, easily removable mucus was released from the villi on the patch upon stimulation. Confocal imaging using fluorescent beads revealed a penetrable mucus layer covering the domes. Furthermore, immunostaining of FAE from mice, rats and humans with a specific antibody against the main component of intestinal mucus, the MUC2 mucin, clearly identify mucin-containing goblet cells. Transmission electron micrographs further support the identification of mucus releasing goblet cells on the domes of PPs in these species.

  3. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%, whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9% and inorganic matter (67.1%. The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  4. INDIVIDUALIZED TREATMENT OF PREINVASIVE LESIONS OF THE CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu Dorin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of cervical preinvasive lesions in primary medical practice is characterized by a wide variety of attitudes, objectives and therapeutic decisions. The purpose of the study. To supply new landmarks referring to the preinvasive lesions of cervical cancer from the perspective of the clinician. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 16732 patients who were monitored comparatively in the Family Planning offices in the counties of Ia�i and Buz�u, between 2007 and 2011. Results and discussions. The treatment was applied according to the type of the lesion. Conclusions. The individualized treatment of the preinvasive lesions of the cervix targeted the destruction of the pathogenic agent and the infected tissues and caused a fibroblast proliferation and re-epithelisation

  5. Vaginal Septoplasty in Septate Uterus with Double Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Barbanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion defects of the Müllerian ducts occur frequently and they have been described by the American Fertility Society. However, septate uterus with cervical duplication and longitudinal vaginal septum is not described by this classification and has suggested a change in the classical theory of fusion of the Müllerian ducts. This paper describes a rare case report of a patient with complete septate uterus with double cervix and longitudinal vaginal septum, submitted to the vaginal septoplasty for dyspareunia, progressing to clinical improvement. The description of this case is to contribute with all uncommon cases of Müllerian anomalies reports and clinical treatment protocols, which is not yet established.

  6. Direct Visualization of Mucus Production by the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa with Digital Holographic Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Zetsche

    Full Text Available Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus production are currently still poorly described because the existing tools to study these processes are not appropriate. Using a novel microscopic technique-digital holographic microscopy (DHM-we studied the mucus release of L. pertusa under various experimental conditions. DHM technology permits μm-scale observations and allows the visualization of transparent mucoid substances in real time without staining. Fragments of L. pertusa were first maintained in flow-through chambers without stressors and imaged with DHM, then exposed to various stressors (suspended particles, particulate food and air exposure and re-imaged. Under non-stressed conditions no release of mucus was observed, whilst mucus strings and sheaths were produced in response to suspended particles (activated charcoal and drill cuttings sediment i.e. in a stressed condition. Mucus strings and so-called 'string balls' were also observed in response to exposure to particulate food (brine shrimp Artemia salina. Upon air-exposure, mucus production was clearly visible once the fragments were returned to the flow chamber. Distinct optical properties such as optical path length difference (OPD were measured with DHM in response to the various stimuli suggesting that different mucus types are produced by L. pertusa. Mucus produced to reject particles is similar in refractive index to the surrounding seawater, suggesting that the energy content of this mucus is low. In contrast, mucus produced in response to either food particle addition or air exposure had a higher refractive index, suggesting a higher metabolic investment in the production of these mucoid substances. This paper shows for the first time the

  7. Direct Visualization of Mucus Production by the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa with Digital Holographic Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Baussant, Thierry; Meysman, Filip J R; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus production are currently still poorly described because the existing tools to study these processes are not appropriate. Using a novel microscopic technique-digital holographic microscopy (DHM)-we studied the mucus release of L. pertusa under various experimental conditions. DHM technology permits μm-scale observations and allows the visualization of transparent mucoid substances in real time without staining. Fragments of L. pertusa were first maintained in flow-through chambers without stressors and imaged with DHM, then exposed to various stressors (suspended particles, particulate food and air exposure) and re-imaged. Under non-stressed conditions no release of mucus was observed, whilst mucus strings and sheaths were produced in response to suspended particles (activated charcoal and drill cuttings sediment) i.e. in a stressed condition. Mucus strings and so-called 'string balls' were also observed in response to exposure to particulate food (brine shrimp Artemia salina). Upon air-exposure, mucus production was clearly visible once the fragments were returned to the flow chamber. Distinct optical properties such as optical path length difference (OPD) were measured with DHM in response to the various stimuli suggesting that different mucus types are produced by L. pertusa. Mucus produced to reject particles is similar in refractive index to the surrounding seawater, suggesting that the energy content of this mucus is low. In contrast, mucus produced in response to either food particle addition or air exposure had a higher refractive index, suggesting a higher metabolic investment in the production of these mucoid substances. This paper shows for the first time the potential of

  8. Brachytherapy as sole treatment modality in initial cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate brachytherapy as the only treatment modality in inoperable early cervix carcinoma patients (carcinoma in situ, IA and IBocc). In a retrospective analysis 36 patients were treated with intracavitary irradiation between 1984 and 1988 in the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases. Distribution by stage was; carcinoma in situ: one patient (2,47%), IA: six patients (16,6%), IBooc: twenty-nine patients (80,7%). Histology revealed epidermoid carcinoma in all cases. Mean age 55 years (range: 32-78). Treatment consisted in: two intracavitary applications of Radium, for 120 hours each, with a month interval, in 30 patients (carcinoma in situ: one, IA: four, IBocc: twenty-five patients), two applications of 72 hours each, with 15 days interval in four patients (IA: one, IBocc: 3) and one single intracavitary radium application in two patients (IA and IBocc). Local control was complete in all carcinoma in situ and IA patients. Only 1 of 29 patients with IBocc stage failed to respond, in spite of having received two applications, this shows that local response is independent of the number of insertions. Incidence of complications was low, and resolved with medical treatment. One patient had rectal adenocarcinoma 3 years after treatment -it was considered as radio induced neoplasm, since time of appearance was more than two years and localization was within irradiated area. Two patients died form intercurrent diseases, one (IBocc) from persistent diseases. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Three years survival was: 100% for carcinoma in situ and IA 86,2% for IBocc. Five years survival was 80% for IA and IBocc. Brachytherapy as unique modality of treatment is highly effective in initial cervix carcinoma stages. (author). 41 refs., 14 tabs., 2 figs., 1 ill

  9. HPV Prevalence and Concordance in the Cervix and Oral Cavity of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity.

  10. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies showed that the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction. - Highlights: • TMEM16A acts as downstream events of IL-13 signaling pathway. • Established the link between TMEM16A and mucus hypersecretion. • NF-κB activation might be responsible for TMEM16A mediated mucus secretion

  11. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiachen; Jiang, Youfan; Li, Li; Liu, Yanan; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Depeng, E-mail: depengjiang@163.com

    2015-06-10

    Previous studies showed that the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction. - Highlights: • TMEM16A acts as downstream events of IL-13 signaling pathway. • Established the link between TMEM16A and mucus hypersecretion. • NF-κB activation might be responsible for TMEM16A mediated mucus secretion.

  12. HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, T H; Turek, L P; Wang, D; Yankowitz, J; Ritchie, J. M.; Smith, E M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specime...

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of cervix in a postmenopausal woman: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Subrata; Jana, Sritanu; Bose, Kingshuk

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of cervix is a very rare neoplasm accounting only 4% of all cervical adenocarcinomas. Intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is supposed to be causative factor for clear cell adenocarcinoma in childhood and young-age patients. We are reporting a case of clear cell carcinoma of cervix in a 49-years-old multiparous post-menopausal woman, who had no exposure to DES (in-utero) or synthetic non-steroidal estrogen.

  14. Sonographically accessed funneling of the uterine cervix as a predictor of successful labor induction

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seon Hwa; Kong, Mi Kyung; Kim, Eui Hyeok; Han, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Bishop score and length of the uterine cervix are good predictors of successful labor induction. However, little is known about the association between the funneling of the uterine cervix and successful labor induction. The study aimed to evaluate cervical funneling as a predictor of successful labor induction. Methods This study was designed as a prospective observational study. Subjects who delivered a baby by labor induction were enrolled in the study from July 2011 to August...

  15. Primary Uterine Cervix Schwannoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ardeshir Hakam; Yuan Shan; Masoumeh Ghayouri; Johnny Nguyen; Maryam Tahmasbi

    2012-01-01

    Schwannoma (neurilemmoma) is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that occurs in a wide variety of locations; however, its finding in the uterine cervix is extremely rare. We report a case of an incidental primary benign cervical schwannoma in a 48-year-old woman. In the English literature, a few cases of primary schwannoma of the cervix have been reported, which include seven cases of primary malignant cervical schwannoma and only two that are benign. These cases are reviewed in the follow...

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures – Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number. PMID:27494700

  17. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan profiles in the canine cervix during different stages of the estrous cycle and in open- and closed-cervix pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linharattanaruksa, Pichanun; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2014-03-01

    The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson's trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  18. Comparison of Measurements of the Uterus and Cervix Obtained by Magnetic Resonance and Transabdominal Ultrasound Imaging to Identify the Brachytherapy Target in Patients With Cervix Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Sylvia van, E-mail: sylvia.vandyk@petermac.org [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas [Rural Clinical School, University of Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Schneider, Michal [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Bernshaw, David [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Narayan, Kailash [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transabdominal ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound can identify the brachytherapy target and be used to guide conformal brachytherapy planning and treatment for cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients undergoing curative treatment with radiation therapy between January 2007 and March 2012 were included in the study. Intrauterine applicators were inserted into the uterine canal while patients were anesthetized. Images were obtained by MRI and transabdominal ultrasound in the longitudinal axis of the uterus with the applicator in treatment position. Measurements were taken at the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus at 2.0-cm intervals along the applicator, from the external os to the tip of the applicator. Data were analyzed using Bland Altman plots examining bias and 95% limits of agreement. Results: A total of 192 patients contributed 1668 measurements of the cervix and uterus. Mean (±SD) differences of measurements between imaging modalities at the anterior and posterior uterine surface ranged from 1.5 (±3.353) mm to 3.7 (±3.856) mm, and −1.46 (±3.308) mm to 0.47 (±3.502) mm, respectively. The mean differences were less than 3 mm in the cervix. The mean differences were less than 1.5 mm at all measurement points on the posterior surface. Conclusion: Differences in the measurements of the cervix and uterus obtained by MRI and ultrasound were within clinically acceptable limits. Transabdominal ultrasound can be substituted for MRI in defining the target volume for conformal brachytherapy treatment of cervix cancer.

  19. Bacteria penetrate the inner mucus layer before inflammation in the dextran sulfate colitis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin E V Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection of the large intestine with its enormous amount of commensal bacteria is a challenge that became easier to understand when we recently could describe that colon has an inner attached mucus layer devoid of bacteria (Johansson et al. (2008 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 15064-15069. The bacteria are thus kept at a distance from the epithelial cells and lack of this layer, as in Muc2-null mice, allow bacteria to contact the epithelium. This causes colitis and later on colon cancer, similar to the human disease Ulcerative Colitis, a disease that still lacks a pathogenetic explanation. Dextran Sulfate (DSS in the drinking water is the most widely used animal model for experimental colitis. In this model, the inflammation is observed after 3-5 days, but early events explaining why DSS causes this has not been described. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When mucus formed on top of colon explant cultures were exposed to 3% DSS, the thickness of the inner mucus layer decreased and became permeable to 2 microm fluorescent beads after 15 min. Both DSS and Dextran readily penetrated the mucus, but Dextran had no effect on thickness or permeability. When DSS was given in the drinking water to mice and the colon was stained for bacteria and the Muc2 mucin, bacteria were shown to penetrate the inner mucus layer and reach the epithelial cells already within 12 hours, long before any infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: DSS thus causes quick alterations in the inner colon mucus layer that makes it permeable to bacteria. The bacteria that reach the epithelial cells probably trigger an inflammatory reaction. These observations suggest that altered properties or lack of the inner colon mucus layer may be an initial event in the development of colitis.

  20. Direct Visualization of Mucus Production by the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Baussant, Thierry; Meysman, Filip J.R.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus production are currently still poorly described because the existing tools to study these processes are not appropriate. Using a novel microscopic technique—digital holographic microscopy (DHM)–we studied the mu...

  1. Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucociliary clearance and cough are the two main natural mucus draining methods in the bronchial tree. If they are affected by a pathology, they can become insufficient or even ineffective, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable. The manipulations of physical therapists are known to be very efficient clinically but they are mostly empirical since the biophysical mechanisms involved in these manipulations have never been studied. We develop in this work a model of mucus clearance in idealized rigid human bronchial trees and focus our study on the interaction between (1) tree geometry, (2) mucus physical properties and (3) amplitude of flow rate in the tree. The mucus is considered as a Bingham fluid (gel-like) which is moved upward in the tree thanks to its viscous interaction with air flow. Our studies point out the important roles played both by the geometry and by the physical properties of mucus (yield stress and viscosity). More particularly, the yield stress has to be overcome to make mucus flow. Air flow rate and yield stress determine the maximal possible mucus thickness in each branch of the tree at equilibrium. This forms a specific distribution of mucus in the tree whose characteristics are strongly related to the multi-scaled structure of the tree. The behavior of any mucus distribution is then dependent on this distribution. Finally, our results indicate that increasing air flow rates ought to be more efficient to drain mucus out of the bronchial tree while minimizing patient discomfort

  2. Biodegradable mucus-penetrating nanoparticles composed of diblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Schneider, Craig; Zhong, Weixi; Pulicare, Sarah; Choi, Woo-Jin; Mert, Olcay; Fu, Jie; Lai, Samuel K.; Hanes, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Mucus secretions coating entry points to the human body that are not covered by skin efficiently trap and clear conventional drug carriers, limiting controlled drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. To overcome this challenge, we recently engineered nanoparticles that readily penetrate a variety of human mucus secretions, which we termed mucus-penetrating particles (MPP). Here, we report a new biodegradable MPP formulation based on diblock copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly(ethy...

  3. Local therapy for small cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare and aggressive tumor. This tumor is similar to small cell carcinoma of the lung with a tendency to metastasize early. While there has been an increasing interest in the use of chemotherapy regimens similar to those used for small cell carcinoma of the lung, the optimum local therapy for small cell carcinoma of the cervix remains unknown. We reviewed the treatment outcome of patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in our cancer center with an emphasis on the local/regional disease control. Material and Methods: Between 1983 and 1993, medical records of patients diagnosed with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were reviewed. There were 281 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix referred to our department for radiation treatment. Seven patients had pathologic diagnosis of either small cell or neuroendocrine histology. Details of the treatments and follow-up information of these patients were reviewed with a medium follow-up period of three years (range - 1 to 4 years). Results: Five patients had pure small cell histology. Two patients had mixed histology: one with mixed small cell anaplastic neuroendocrine cells and a small foci of adenocarcinoma, the other had mixed small cell and squamous cell histology. Four patients had clinical stage IB disease. The others had IIA, IIB, and IIIB disease, respectively. All patients received either irradiation (XRT) alone or as part of the local therapy. Three patients received XRT alone, one received surgery followed by XRT, one received XRT followed by surgery, and the remaining two had triple modality treatment (chemotherapy, surgery, and XRT). Three patients were alive without evidence of disease recurrence at the last follow-up. Two of these received adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to local therapy. The third patient, whose tumor was smaller than one cm at the time of diagnosis, received XRT alone. Four patients died with disease

  4. The microbiome of coral surface mucus has a key role in mediating holobiont health and survival upon disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasl, Bettina; Herndl, Gerhard J; Frade, Pedro R

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are well-recognized members of the coral holobiont. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of mucus-associated microbial communities under natural conditions and after disturbances, and how these dynamics relate to the host's health. Here we examined the natural variability of prokaryotic communities (based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing) associating with the surface mucus layer (SML) of Porites astreoides, a species exhibiting cyclical mucus aging and shedding. Shifts in the prokaryotic community composition during mucus aging led to the prevalence of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (Verrucomicrobiaceae and Vibrionaceae) in aged mucus and to a twofold increase in prokaryotic abundance. After the release of aged mucus sheets, the community reverted to its original state, dominated by Endozoicimonaceae and Oxalobacteraceae. Furthermore, we followed the fate of the coral holobiont upon depletion of its natural mucus microbiome through antibiotics treatment. After re-introduction to the reef, healthy-looking microbe-depleted corals started exhibiting clear signs of bleaching and necrosis. Recovery versus mortality of the P. astreoides holobiont was related to the degree of change in abundance distribution of the mucus microbiome. We conclude that the natural prokaryotic community inhabiting the coral SML contributes to coral health and that cyclical mucus shedding has a key role in coral microbiome dynamics. PMID:26953605

  5. Bacteria penetrate the normally impenetrable inner colon mucus layer in both murine colitis models and patients with ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Malin E. V.; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jabbar, Karolina S.; Xia, Lijun; Xu, Hua; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Carvalho, Frederic A.; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The inner mucus layer in mouse colon normally separates bacteria from the epithelium. Do humans have a similar inner mucus layer and are defects in this mucus layer a common denominator for spontaneous colitis in mice models and ulcerative colitis (UC)? Methods and results The colon mucus layer from mice deficient in Muc2 mucin, Core 1 O-glycans, Tlr5, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Slc9a3 (Nhe3) together with that from dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice was immunostained for Muc2, and...

  6. The microbiome of coral surface mucus has a key role in mediating holobiont health and survival upon disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasl, Bettina; Herndl, Gerhard J; Frade, Pedro R

    2016-09-01

    Microbes are well-recognized members of the coral holobiont. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of mucus-associated microbial communities under natural conditions and after disturbances, and how these dynamics relate to the host's health. Here we examined the natural variability of prokaryotic communities (based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing) associating with the surface mucus layer (SML) of Porites astreoides, a species exhibiting cyclical mucus aging and shedding. Shifts in the prokaryotic community composition during mucus aging led to the prevalence of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (Verrucomicrobiaceae and Vibrionaceae) in aged mucus and to a twofold increase in prokaryotic abundance. After the release of aged mucus sheets, the community reverted to its original state, dominated by Endozoicimonaceae and Oxalobacteraceae. Furthermore, we followed the fate of the coral holobiont upon depletion of its natural mucus microbiome through antibiotics treatment. After re-introduction to the reef, healthy-looking microbe-depleted corals started exhibiting clear signs of bleaching and necrosis. Recovery versus mortality of the P. astreoides holobiont was related to the degree of change in abundance distribution of the mucus microbiome. We conclude that the natural prokaryotic community inhabiting the coral SML contributes to coral health and that cyclical mucus shedding has a key role in coral microbiome dynamics. PMID:26953605

  7. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Thakur; Bhupender Gupta; Anmol Gupta; Raman Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated sig...

  8. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, B P; Lichtendonk, W J; Witjes, J A

    2002-05-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a refrigerator. After precipitation, the urine was decanted. The residue was stirred to a homogeneous suspension. To samples of 4.5 ml mucus, 0.5 ml NAC 10% was added. To the control sample, 0.5 ml water was added. The samples were incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 5, 30 and 60 min. Viscosity was measured in the Bohlin VOR Rheometer. The viscosity of the ileal neobladder mucus decreased quickly after incubating with NAC 10%. Viscosity increased slightly after I h of incubation. The viscosity in the control sample was higher than in the other incubated samples. NAC was found to decrease the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus, supporting the in vivo experience that NAC can be useful in patients with an ileal neobladder to facilitate the evacuation of mucus by decreasing viscosity. PMID:12088194

  9. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  10. Tensiometric and Phase Domain Behavior of Lung Surfactant on Mucus-like Viscoelastic Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Daniel M; Fiegel, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Lung surfactant has been observed at all surfaces of the airway lining fluids and is an important contributor to normal lung function. In the conducting airways, the surfactant film lies atop a viscoelastic mucus gel. In this work, we report on the characterization of the tensiometric and phase domain behavior of lung surfactant at the air-liquid interface of mucus-like viscoelastic gels. Poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels were formulated to serve as a model mucus with bulk rheological properties that matched those of tracheobronchial mucus secretions. Infasurf (Calfactant), a commercially available pulmonary surfactant derived from calf lung extract, was spread onto the hydrogel surface. The surface tension lowering ability and relaxation of Infasurf films on the hydrogels was quantified and compared to Infasurf behavior on an aqueous subphase. Infasurf phase domains during surface compression were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and phase shifting interferometry. We observed that increasing the bulk viscoelastic properties of the model mucus hydrogels reduced the ability of Infasurf films to lower surface tension and inhibited film relaxation. A shift in the formation of Infasurf condensed phase domains from smaller, more spherical domains to large, agglomerated, multilayer structures was observed with increasing viscoelastic properties of the subphase. These studies demonstrate that the surface behavior of lung surfactant on viscoelastic surfaces, such as those found in the conducting airways, differs significantly from aqueous, surfactant-laden systems. PMID:26894883

  11. Humoral immune response against native or 60Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or 60Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a 60Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  12. A parametric study of mucociliary transport by numerical simulations of 3D non-homogeneous mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe

    2016-06-14

    Mucociliary clearance is the natural flow of the mucus which covers and protects the lung from the outer world. Pathologies, like cystic fibrosis, highly change the biological parameters of the mucus flow leading to stagnation situations and pathogens proliferation. As the lung exhibits a complex dyadic structure, in-vivo experimental study of mucociliary clearance is almost impossible and numerical simulations can bring important knowledge about this biological flow. This paper brings a detailed study of the biological parameters influence on the mucociliary clearance, in particular for pathological situations such as cystic fibrosis. Using recent suitable numerical methods, a non-homogeneous mucus flow (including non-linearities) can be simulated efficiently in 3D, allowing the identification of the meaningful parameters involved in this biological flow. Among these parameters, it is shown that the mucus viscosity, the stiffness transition between pericilliary fluid and mucus, the pericilliary fluid height as well as both cilia length and beating frequency have a great influence on the mucociliary transport. PMID:27126985

  13. Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, H; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P; Kent, P W

    1993-07-01

    Studies have been made of mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in different regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract in normal patients and those with ulcerative colitis (UC), active or inactive, by means of 3H-glucosamine (3H-GlcNH2)--35S-sulphate double labelling of epithelial biopsy specimens under culture conditions. The time based rate of 3H-GlcNH2 labelling of mucus in rectal tissue was similar to that in active or inactive UC whereas the rate of 35SO4(2) labelling was significantly increased in active disease. The 3H specific activities measuring the amount of isotopic incorporation into surface and tissue mucus glycoproteins were increased in patients with active UC compared with normal or inactive subjects. The 35S specific activities did not differ significantly between patients with active UC and those in remission. In the rectum, glycosylation of mucus glycoproteins decreases with the increasing age of the patient. Regional differences in 3H-labelling of mucus components are reported for ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Sulphation (35S-labelling) was higher in all parts of the colon in left sided UC. Results point to accelerated glycosylation of core proteins in the active phase of UC. PMID:8344580

  14. Ulcerative colitis as a polymicrobial infection characterized by sustained broken mucus barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jiao; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Xi-Yan; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2014-01-01

    To reduce medication for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), we need to establish the etiology of UC. The intestinal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown to differ from that of healthy controls and abundant data indicate that it changes in both composition and localization. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is significantly higher in IBD patients compared with controls. Probiotics have been investigated for their capacity to reduce the severity of UC. The luminal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract are covered by a mucus layer. This normally acts as a barrier that does not allow bacteria to reach the epithelial cells and thus limits the direct contact between the host and the bacteria. The mucus layer in the colon comprises an inner layer that is firmly adherent to the intestinal mucosa, and an outer layer that can be washed off with minimal rinsing. Some bacteria can dissolve the protective inner mucus layer. Defects in renewal and formation of the inner mucus layer allow bacteria to reach the epithelium and have implications for the causes of colitis. In this review, important elements of UC pathology are thought to be the intestinal bacteria, gut mucus, and the mucosa-associated immune system. PMID:25071341

  15. Cancer of the cervix: a training guide to promote awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This 4-page training guide presents factual information and suggested community activities related to the prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries. After describing the risk factors for cervical carcinoma and possible signs of advanced disease, the guide presents the story of Maya--a woman in an arranged marriage whose husband would not permit her to seek medical care for abdominal pain and bleeding until her cervical cancer had advanced beyond treatment. Health educators are encouraged to use Maya's story as a learning tool to identify the chain of physical, social, economic, and political factors that contributed to her premature death. Audiences can be encouraged to identify links in Maya's story (e.g., not receiving a Pap test) that could have been changed to produce a different ending. It is recommended that, in low-resource communities, Pap smears be provided at least every 5 years to women over 35 years of age. Under development is a simple, inexpensive alternative to Pap tests that involves putting a vinegar solution on the cervix and examining it with the aid of a low-power magnifying tool; the vinegar causes abnormal cervical tissue to turn white. PMID:12292697

  16. Carcinoma of the cervix. Correlations between MR staging and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 110 patients with cervical cancer, correlations between pretreatment MR findings and 5-year prognoses were analyzed. MR findings were classified according to clinical staging criteria of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In 75 patients, staging by MR and that by conventional clinical methods agreed with surgical findings in 51 (68%) cases each, was overestimated in 5 (7%) and 16 (21%), and underestimated in 19 (25%) and 8 (11%), respectively. None of 41 patients without high-intensity areas (HIA) in the cervix on MR developed recurrence, but 26 of 69 (38%) with HIA relapsed. Two of 67 (3%) patients with MR stage IIa or lower developed recurrence, but 24 of 43 (56%) with stage IIb or higher relapsed. Among 26 patients with poor prognoses, 2 of 11 (18%) with stage IIb or lower, versus 9 of 15 (60%) with stage IIIb or higher disease detected by MR had distant metastases. Among 22 patients with MR stage IIb disease, local and distant recurrence occurred in 6 and 2 (50%, 17%) of 12 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy, versus 1 and none (10%, 0%) of 10 who received definitive radiotherapy. Fifteen of 95 (16%) patients without lymph node swelling greater that 1.5 cm on MR developed recurrence, while 11 of 15 (73%) patients with lymphadenopathy relapsed. MR is valuable not only in staging cervical cancer but also in assessing the risk of recurrence. (author)

  17. HDR neutron brachytherapy for cervix carcinoma in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1988 and December 1995, a total of 285 patients with stage I-17, with stage II-157, with stage III-104 and stage IV-7 carcinoma of the cervix were treated with a combination of external beam radiation or surgery and HDR brachytherapy. The dose prescription for HDR brachytherapy was point A. The goals of combined radiation therapy were to deliver a total dose of 60.5-68.5 Gy to point A and 53-58 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes (point B) or 14 Gy-eq to point A in case of preoperative brachytherapy. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray- equivalents by the use of PC-based computer programme. Relative biological effectiveness of the Cf-252 neutrons was physical gamma and neutron dose rate dependent. Most of the insertions were performed weekly when dose per fraction was 8-10 Gy or 2 insertions were done in one week at lower fractions. The median follow-up for the various stages of disease ranged from 0.5 to 6.5 year. Treatment results, acute and late toxicity will be discussed

  18. Irradiation of cancer of the uterine cervix and immunological mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of lymphocytes in blood, the cellular immunity by the reaction of a tuberculin test, and the change of productivity of specific antibody by anti-DNA antibody were examined in 29 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix which had received radio therapy. Blood sedimentation rate at one hour were accelerated by irradiation. It seemed that blood sedimentation rate did not correlate with the total amount of protein in blood, and some changes should occur in blood. Lymphocytes which were celles in charge of immunity showed marked decrease by irradiation in peripheral blood. In spite of marked decrease of lymphocytes in blood, the reaction of a tuberculin test was hardly in flanced. There were various kinds of immunoglobulin which were decreased by irradiation. Above-mentioned changes were recognized similarly in the cases irradiated after the operation, in which tumor cells were extremely few. One case, in which anti-DNA antibody was positive, showed a rise in its antibody titer by irradiation. It was presumed that fall of various kinds of immunological functions by irradiation was relative one by decrease of the total number of lymphocytes, and cellular immunity to specific antibody stimulation, and antibody productivity would be preserved in various lymphatic tissues outside irradiation fields. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Optimization of combined radiation therapy of the cervix cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Philippenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of a new combination of known medical products - inhibitorsenzyme of cyclooxigenase-2 (diclofenac, ketoprofen with smalldoses cytostatics (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil as“nonconventional” radiosensibilizators for optimization of combinedradial treatment of cervical cancer is offered. One hundred andtwenty patients with cervix cancer were involved into research(average age - 52.5±3.3, mainly II stage of process (50.8±4.6%,morphologically - nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma(65.0±4.4%. Frequency of full regress of a tumor in the basicgroups has reached in 77.5±6.6% (1-basic group and 82.5±6.0% (2-basic group in comparison with a control group 70.0±7.2%(р<0.05. By results of the cytological research in cells thepathomorphosis of IV degree was recorded in 1-basic group - 60.0%(superficial smears and 57.5% (a puncture biopsy, in 2-basic group- 85.0% (superficial smears and 82.5% (a puncture biopsy incomparison with the control - 55.0% (superficial smears and apuncture biopsy, р<0.05.

  20. Role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer cervix: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramita Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT represents a promising modality apart from or radiotherapy as initial treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The primary objectives of NACT in the treatment of cervical cancer include improvement in tumor characteristics, to allow avoidance of radiotherapy, to prolong disease-free and overall survival, and facilitation of fertility-sparing surgery. Though several studies have shown promising results of NACT on tumor response, downstaging, decrease in local recurrence, improved progression free survival, yet its role is controversial and plenty of study results are waiting to establish its efficacy. After reviewing the available literatures in the internet, and focusing the light of our continuous 3 years experience, we have made an effort to find out the relevance of NACT in cancer cervix. NACT is feasible and produces impressive responses in cervical carcinoma, as has been demonstrated by several phase II and phase III trials. Some meta-analysis suggested that NACT followed by surgery improves overall survival compared with nonstandard radiotherapy alone.

  1. Bladder and rectal complications following radiotherapy for cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred and thirty-two patients with cervix carcinoma who were treated with whole pelvis irradiation and two intracavitary applications had bladder and rectal dosimetry during brachytherapy with contrast agents placed into the bladder and rectum prior to orthogonal simulator radiographs. Doses were computer calculated at points A and B, F (bladder), R1 (rectum), and R2 (rectosigmoid). Late occurring bladder and rectal complications were graded on a severity scale of 1 to 3, and 14% had grade 2 or 3 injuries (9% developed fistulas). Statistical evaluation of the data showed that severe bladder and rectal injuries occur more commonly in stage IIIA and IIIB disease and in those receiving high external beam doses (5000 rad +). Analysis of variance tests revealed a significant correlation of brachytherapy dose to points R1 and R2 with severe rectal injuries but there was not a correlation of dose to F with bladder injuries. Nor was there correlation of injuries with dose to point A or the milligram-hour dose. We conclude that our technique for rectal dosimetry is adequate but that an improved technique of bladder dosimetry is needed. Also, when combining whole pelvis irradiation with two intracavitary applications (4000 rad to point A), the whole pelvis dose should probably not exceed 4000-4500 rad

  2. Bacterial communities and species-specific associations with the mucus of Brazilian coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Camila; Torres, Tatiana T; Ottoboni, Laura M M

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the existence of species-specific associations between Brazilian coral species and bacteria. Pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rDNA was used to analyze the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with the mucus of four coral species (Madracis decactis, Mussismilia hispida, Palythoa caribaeorum, and Tubastraea coccinea) in two seasons (winter and summer), which were compared with the surrounding water and sediment. The microbial communities found in samples of mucus, water, and sediment differed according to the composition and relative frequency of OTUs. The coral mucus community seemed to be more stable and resistant to seasonal variations, compared to the water and sediment communities. There was no influence of geographic location on the composition of the communities. The sediment community was extremely diverse and might act as a "seed bank" for the entire environment. Species-specific OTUs were found in P. caribaeorum, T. coccinea, and M. hispida. PMID:23567936

  3. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1984-01-01

    Filter characteristics were determined and compared in ciliary and mucus-net filter feeders. The ciliary feeders include the polychaete Sabella penicillus, the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, the marine bivalves Monia squama, Cardium glaucum, and Petricola pholadiformis, and the freshwater...... bivalves Dreissena polymorpha, Unio pictorum and Anodonta cygnea. The mucus-net feeders are the polychaete Chaetopterus variopedatus, the gastropod Crepidula fornicata and the ascidians Styela clava, Ciona intestinalis, Ascidia virginea, A. obliqua and A. mentula. Efficiencies of particle retention as a...... function of particle size was determined by counting of particles in samples of inhalant and exhalant water. The lower threshold for efficient particle retention varied from .apprx. 6 .mu.m in T. retuso to .apprx. 1 .mu.m in D. polymorpha. Mucus nets efficiently retained particles down to 1-2 .mu.m. Filter...

  4. X-ray diffraction study of structural stability of giant proteoglycan molecules of mucus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction study of various native and modified gastrointestinal mucins was carried out using synchrotron radiation. The mucus X-ray patterns of mammals and invertebrates are very similar and display a large number of sharp diffraction rings at the spacing of about 4.65 nm, which are due to the helical packing of polysaccharide chains covalently connected to the protein core. A comparative analysis of the X-ray patterns obtained earlier by us from various samples of mucus and biological tissues showed that the 4.65(±0.15) nm spacing is a nanoscale structural invariant of giant proteoglycan molecules of both the mucus and the extracellular matrix of tissues. A role of structural dynamics of proteoglycan scaffolding of biological systems in mechanism of modifying adaptation of organisms to significant changes of temperature is discussed.

  5. X-ray diffraction study of structural stability of giant proteoglycan molecules of mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazina, A.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, RAS, Institutskaya St. 3, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vazina@iteb.ru; Lanina, N.F.; Vasilieva, A.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, RAS, Institutskaya St. 3, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Korneev, V.N. [Institute of Cell Biophysics, RAS, 142290 Pushchino (Russian Federation); Zabelin, A.V. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polyakova, E.P. [Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy, 127550 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-11

    X-ray diffraction study of various native and modified gastrointestinal mucins was carried out using synchrotron radiation. The mucus X-ray patterns of mammals and invertebrates are very similar and display a large number of sharp diffraction rings at the spacing of about 4.65 nm, which are due to the helical packing of polysaccharide chains covalently connected to the protein core. A comparative analysis of the X-ray patterns obtained earlier by us from various samples of mucus and biological tissues showed that the 4.65({+-}0.15) nm spacing is a nanoscale structural invariant of giant proteoglycan molecules of both the mucus and the extracellular matrix of tissues. A role of structural dynamics of proteoglycan scaffolding of biological systems in mechanism of modifying adaptation of organisms to significant changes of temperature is discussed.

  6. A simulated mucus layer protects Lactobacillus reuteri from the inhibitory effects of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weirdt, R; Coenen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Fievez, V; Van den Abbeele, P; Van de Wiele, T

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal, beneficial gut microbe that colonises the intestinal mucus layer, where it makes close contact with the human host and may significantly affect human health. Here, we investigated the capacity of linoleic acid (LA), the most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in a Western-style diet, to affect L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 prevalence and survival in a simulated mucus layer. Short-term (1 h) survival and mucin-agar adhesion assays of a log-phase L. reuteri suspension in intestinal water demonstrated that the simulated mucus layer protected L. reuteri against the inhibitory effects of LA by lowering its contact with the bacterial cell membrane. The protective effect of the simulated mucus layer was further evaluated using a more complex and dynamic model of the colon microbiota (SHIME®), in which L. reuteri survival was monitored during 6 days of daily exposure to LA in the absence (L-SHIME) and presence (M-SHIME) of a simulated mucus layer. After 6 days, luminal L- and M-SHIME L. reuteri plate counts had decreased by 3.1±0.5 and 2.6±0.9 log cfu/ml, respectively. Upon supplementation of 1.0 g/l LA, the decline in the luminal L. reuteri population started earlier than was observed for the control. In contrast, mucin-agar levels of L. reuteri (in the M-SHIME) remained unaffected throughout the experiment even in the presence of high concentrations of LA. Overall, the results of this study indicate the importance of the mucus layer as a protective environment for beneficial gut microbes to escape from stress by high loads of the antimicrobial PUFA LA to the colon, i.e. due to a Western-style diet. PMID:24311313

  7. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  8. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  9. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Eckes, Maxi J; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  10. Nanoparticles decorated with proteolytic enzymes, a promising strategy to overcome the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Cattoz, Beatrice; Wilcox, Matthew D; Griffiths, Peter C; Dalgliesh, Robert; Rogers, Sarah; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The intestinal mucus gel layer represents a stumbling block for drug adsorption. This study is aimed to formulate a nanoparticulate system able to overcome this barrier by cleaving locally the glycoprotein substructures of the mucus. Mucolytic enzymes such as papain (PAP) and bromelain (BRO) were covalently conjugated to poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Nanoparticles (NPs) were then formulated via ionic gelation method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, enzyme content and enzymatic activity. The NPs permeation quantified by rotating tube studies was correlated with changes in the mucus gel layer structure determined by pulsed-gradient-spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and spin-echo SANS (SESANS). PAP and BRO functionalized NPs had an average size in the range of 250 and 285 nm and a zeta potential that ranged between -6 and -5 mV. The enzyme content was 242 μg enzyme/mg for PAP modified NPs and 253 μg enzyme/mg for BRO modified NPs. The maintained enzymatic activity was 43% for PAP decorated NPs and 76% for BRO decorated NPs. The rotating tube technique revealed a better performance of BRO decorated NPs compared to PAA decorated NPs, with a 4.8-fold higher concentration of NPs in the inner slice of mucus. Addition of 0.5 wt% of enzyme functionalized NPs to 5 wt% intestinal mucin led to c.a. 2-fold increase in the mobility of the mucin as measured by PGSE-NMR indicative of a significant break-up of the structure of the mucin. SANS and SESANS measurements further revealed a change in structure of the intestinal mucus induced by the incorporation of the functionalized NPs mostly occurring at a length scale longer than 0.5 μm. Accordingly, BRO decorated NPs show higher potential than PAP functionalized NPs as mucus permeating drug delivery systems. PMID:25661320

  11. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Manuela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an Ostertagia ostertagi infection on the abomasal mucus biosynthesis in cattle. Increased gene expression of MUC1, MUC6 and MUC20 was observed, while MUC5AC did not change during infection. Qualitative changes of mucins, related to sugar composition, were also observed. AB-PAS and HID-AB stainings highlighted a decrease in neutral and an increase in acidic mucins, throughout the infection. Several genes involved in mucin core structure synthesis, branching and oligomerization, such as GCNT3, GCNT4, A4GNT and protein disulphide isomerases were found to be upregulated. Increase in mucin fucosylation was observed using the lectin UEA-I and through the evaluation of fucosyltransferases gene expression levels. Finally, transcription levels of 2 trefoil factors, TFF1 and TFF3, which are co-expressed with mucins in the GI tract, were also found to be significantly upregulated in infected animals. Although the alterations in mucus biosynthesis started early during infection, the biggest effects were found when adult worms were present on the surface of the abomasal mucosa and are likely caused by the alterations in mucosal cell populations, characterized by hyperplasia of mucus secreting cells.

  12. The detection of gunshot residues in the nasal mucus of suspected shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Daniele; Brandone, Alberto; Amadasi, Alberto; Cattaneo, Cristina; Profumo, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantification of metallic residues produced by gunshots, called gunshot residues (GSR), provide crucial elements in forensic investigations. The research has been largely focused on their collection onto the hands of suspected shooters, but the method is often burdened by risks of contamination. This research was focused on the possibility of sampling GSR trapped inside the nasal mucus of consenting shooters. Samples of the nasal mucus of "blank" control subjects and shooters were chemically analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), for residues of antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba), while lead (Pb) was excluded as ubiquitously environmental contaminant and due to high instrumental quantification limit (IQL) of INAA for this element. Shots were fired using two types of weapons (pistols and revolvers) and different firing sequences. The mucus was sampled at different times: immediately after the shots, after 30-60-120 and 180 min. Different amounts of Sb and Ba were detected between controls and shooters, witnessing the ability of the nasal mucus to retain GSR at concentrations significantly different even from the highest basal levels. Moreover, in order to simulate actual cases, nasal mucus from five groups of shooters was sampled after different shots with the same weapon and cartridges, immediately and after 1, 3, 12, and 24 h. The highest values were always found in the first 3 h from firing, for both weapons. Interestingly, for all the weapons, significant Sb and Ba concentrations were also found up to 12 h after firing, contrary to what occurs on hands, even though a progressive decrease was detected, with values below the detection threshold only after 24 h, thus demonstrating that GSR are persistent in nasal mucus. These first results proving that both Sb and Ba were qualitatively detectable in the nasal mucus of shooters indicate that the chemical analysis of the nasal mucus of suspected shooters may represent a

  13. Adhesion mechanisms of Vibrio fluvialis to skin mucus of Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢庆枇; 赵敏慧; 王晓露; 邹文政; 陈昌生

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis incubated in trypticase soy broth(TSB)showed stronger adhesion to the skin mucus of Epinephelus awoara than V.fluvialis grown on trypticase soy agar(TSA),and this bacterial adhesion was assessed in terms of saturation kinetics.Treating bacteria with antibody against O-antigens resulted in significantly reduced bacterial adhesion.In the early growth stage,the adhering bacteria numbers increased with incubation time,peaked at 24 h,and then dropped sharply.Prior heat treatment of the mucus at ...

  14. Mucus sugar content shapes the bacterial community structure in thermally stressed Acropora muricata

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sonny T. M.; Davy, Simon K.; Sen-Lin eTang; Kench, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral’s mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26°C to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed t...

  15. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frade, P.R.; Roll, K.; Bergauer, K.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associatedwith the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has thereforeremained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibita similar specificity towards coral hosts a

  16. Glycosaminoglycan distribution in the rat uterine cervix during the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Jose Matozinho Cubas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix during each phase of the rat estrous cycle. DESIGN: Based on vaginal smears, forty female, regularly cycling rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each group: GI - proestrous, GII - estrous, GIII - metaestrous and GIV - diestrous. Animals were sacrificed at each phase of the cycle, and the cervix was immediately removed and submitted to biochemical extraction and determination of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: The uterine cervix had the highest amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans and dermatan sulfate during the estrous phase (8.90 ± 0.55 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001; and 8.86 ± 0.57 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001. In addition, there was more heparan sulfate at the cervix during the proestrous phase (0.185 ± 0.03 mg/g of cetonic extract than during any other phase (p<0.001. There were no significant changes in the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the uterine cervix during the estrous cycle. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans may be influenced by hormonal fluctuations related to the estrous cycle, with dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate being the glycosaminoglycans most sensitive to hormonal change.

  17. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: Determination of normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Libera, Hanna; Lange, Silke; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Jaeger, Horst J. [Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Marien-Hospital Wesel, Department of Radiology, Wesel (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies. (orig.)

  18. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: Determination of normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies. (orig.)

  19. Bacterial flora of the cervix in women using different methods of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukkamaa, M; Stranden, P; Jousimies-Somer, H; Siitonen, A

    1986-03-01

    Bacteriologic culture samples were taken from the cervix in three groups of 10 healthy, sexually active women using barrier contraception, oral contraceptives, or a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive device. Culture samples for Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were taken, a cytologic vaginal smear was obtained, and an amine sniff test was performed; these were in addition to a routine gynecologic examination. Multiple bacteria were isolated from the cervix in women using oral contraceptives or an intrauterine contraceptive device, whereas lactobacilli alone dominated the flora of women using barrier contraception. Significantly more anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the cervix in oral contraceptive and intrauterine contraceptive device users when compared with the barrier method users. Symptoms and findings evident of anaerobic vaginosis were associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteria in the cervix of three patients using the intrauterine contraceptive device. The results showed that the cervical bacterial flora in sexually active healthy women is rich in anaerobes that can be regarded as a normal finding in women using oral contraceptives or intrauterine contraceptive devices. Barrier contraception with a condom prevents this anaerobic shift and maintains a lactobacilli-dominated flora in the cervix. PMID:3953700

  20. Two-dimensional Electrophoresis Analysis of Differential Protein Expression in Squamous Carcinoma of the Cervix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xue-qiong; WU Jie-li; YU Li-rong; LIN Yi; L(U) Jie-qiang; ZOU Shuang-wei; HU Yue

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish and optimize the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE)maps of squamous carcinoma of the cervix and to study the protein difference between squamous carcinoma of the cervix(SCC)and normal cervical tissue.Methods:Using Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by computer-assisted image analysis,the differential proteins between squamous carcinoma of the cervical tissue and normal cervical tissue were compared.Then using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry,the differential proteins were identified.Results:The well-resolved and reproducible two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of squamous carcinoma of the cervix tissue and normal cervical tissue were obtained.After silver staining.the average matching ratio of squamous carcinoma of the cervix was 86.1%.There was a good reproducibility of spot position in 2-DE map,with average deviation in IEF direction of 0.95±0.13 mm,while in SDS-PAGE direction it was 1.20±0.18 mm.Ten protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry,some of which were involved in cell proliferation,cell apoptosis,intracellular enzymes,structural proteins,cycle regulation,and tumor occurrence.Conclusion:The differentially expressed proteins provide a fundamental basis for further study of human squamous carcinoma of the cervix and screening of its specific markers.

  1. COMMUNITY BASED EARLY DETECTION OF CARCINOMA CERVIX BY VARIOUS S CREENING METHODS AND COMPARING THEIR EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Pavithra Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Ca cervix is the most common cancer among women in developing countries. In developed countries , screening is done by Pap smear which is resulting in drastic decrease in ca cervix which is not so in developing countries due to various reasons. So visual inspection of cervix can be cost effective screening procedure if its efficacy is proved in low resource countries. OBJECTIVE : To determine which screening method is efficient in detecting premalignant & malignant lesions of ca cervix in resource poor settings . METHODS : Pap smear was done in all 600 women , along with this VIA in 200 women , VILI in 20 0 women was done. Either pap or VIA or VILI positive cases were selected for colposcopy followed by biopsy if positive findings were there on colposcopy . 10% of either screening negative cases were subjected for biopsy to know false negative rate from each group. Main outcome measures: comparison of all three screening methods (pap smear , VIA , VILI in terms of sensitivity , specificity , PPV , NPV in comparison with gold standard colposcopic guided cervical biopsy . RESULTS: The aided visual inspection has mor e PPV than pap smear , The sensitivity of all three screening methods were comparable. The specificity & NPV of pap smear were high. CONCLUSION: So the aided visual inspection can be used as screening method in detection of premalignant and malignant lesion s of cervix in place of papsmear especially in rural setting.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREGIVER BURDEN IN CANCER CERVIX AND CANCER BREAST ILLNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caregivers of individuals suffering from cancer illnesses are at risk of having subjected to mental health consequences. There is a paucity of data comparing the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. To study the association of caregiver burden with demographic factors like age, gender, duration of caregiving etc. Materials & Methods: This Cross sectional study is performed on the key relatives of patients of 31 cancer cervix and 31 cancer breast patients. Burden assessment schedule was used. Results: Our findings suggest burden is more in male caregivers of breast cancer patients. It is not so in caregivers of cancer cervix patients. Whenever the caregiver is closely related to the patients the burden is high in both groups. Whenever the burden scores were high the depression scores were also high. Treatment modalities as a whole correlates with burden scores in caregivers of breast cancer patients but not in cancer cervix patients. Conclusion: Caregivers with breast and cervical cancer patients are vulnerable if the caregiver is male, from low socioeconomical background, more closely related and when the patients received poor treatment modalities.

  3. Pretreatment of human cervicovaginal mucus with pluronic F127 enhances nanoparticle penetration without compromising mucus barrier properties to herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M; Lai, Samuel K; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS-PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  4. Effect of troglitazone on radiation sensitivity in cervix cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Zheng Zhe; Liu, Xian Guang; Song, Hye Jin; Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Troglitazone (TRO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma} ) agonist. TRO has antiproliferative activity on many kinds of cancer cells via G1 arrest. TRO also increases Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} -superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase. Cell cycle, and SOD and catalase may affect on radiation sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TRO on radiation sensitivity in cancer cells in vitro. Three human cervix cancer cell lines (HeLa, Me180, and SiHa) were used. The protein expressions of SOD and catalase, and catalase activities were measured at 2-10 {mu}M of TRO for 24 hours. Cell cycle was evaluated with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Cell survival by radiation was measured with clonogenic assay. By 5 {mu}M TRO for 24 hours, the mRNA, protein expression and activity of catalase were increased in all three cell lines. G0- G1 phase cells were increased in HeLa and Me180 by 5 {mu}M TRO for 24 hours, but those were not increased in SiHa. By pretreatment with 5 {mu}M TRO radiation sensitivity was increased in HeLa and Me180, but it was decreased in SiHa. In Me180, with 2 {mu}M TRO which increased catalase but not increased G0-G1 cells, radiosensitization was not observed. ROS produced by radiation was decreased with TRO. TRO increases radiation sensitivity through G0-G1 arrest or decreases radiation sensitivity through catalasemediated ROS scavenging according to TRO dose or cell types. The change of radiation sensitivity by combined with TRO is not dependent on the PPAR {gamma} expression level.

  5. Locally advanced cervix carcinoma - innovation in combined modality therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locally advanced cervical carcinoma continues to be a challenge to the clinician due to local failure as well as systemic metastases. Standard intracavitary and external beam techniques result in local control rates of only 35-65%, with long term survival rates of 25-60% in patients with state IIIA-IVA disease, indicating the need to identify new treatment strategies. Optimization programs for remote-afterloading interstitial brachytherapy allow the delivery of higher local doses of radiation to volumes that more closely approximate tumor target volumes as identified on MR scans, leading to improved therapeutic ratios. Identification of subsets of patients more likely to fail standard therapy, either locally or systemically, may be possible through such techniques as in vivo measurements of hypoxia with Eppendorf oxygen electrodes, interstitial fluid pressure measurements, the Comet assay, and nitroimidazole binding methods. Traditional chemotherapies, administered in either a neoadjuvant role or concomitantly with radiation have been disappointing in prospective trials. A variety of new agents are being investigated to determine if they can increase the frequency or duration of complete response. The taxanes, with response rates of 17-23% by themselves, are being assessed as potential radiosensitizers. The camptotheicin CRT-11 (Irinotecan) has demonstrated activity in platinum resistant cervix cancer, with response rates of 24%. Bioradiotherapeutic approaches, using 13-cis-retinoic acid and interferon-2a, are undergoing phase II studies. Neoangiogenesis inhibitors and vaccines against HPV are also being examined. The aggressive pursuit of techniques that help identify those patients most likely to fail, that allow the delivery of higher radiation doses more safely to the target volume, and that incorporate the use of more effective systemic therapies is necessary to improve the outcome for this disease

  6. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for locally advanced cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A phase II trial was designed to evaluate the toxicity and outcome of patients with locally advanced cervix cancer treated with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (AHFX). Methods and Materials: In this prospective trial, AHFX doses of 1.25 Gy were administered twice daily at least 6 hours apart to a total pelvic dose of 57.5 Gy. A booster dose was then administered via either low-dose rate brachytherapy or external beam therapy to a smaller volume. All patients were accrued and treated at Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute (PMCI) between 1986 until April 1991. Results: Sixty-one eligible patients were enrolled in this protocol; 2 (3.2%) had Stage IIB; 42 (68.9%) had Stage III; 8 (13.1%) had Stage IV and 9 (14.8%) had recurrent cervical cancer. Fifty-two patients (85%) completed the planned external beam without a treatment break. Thirty patients had acute toxicity that required regular medication. One patient died of acute treatment related toxicity. Fifty-five patients received booster therapy: 45 with intrauterine brachytherapy, 6 with interstitial brachytherapy, and 4 with external beam. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 6 years. Overall 5-year survival is 27% and 5-year relapse free survival is 36%. Nineteen patients died with pelvic disease and the actuarial local control rate was 66%. There were 8 severe late complications observed in 7 patients. Seven required surgical intervention (an actuarial rate of 27%). Five patients also required total hip replacement. Conclusions: The local control rate was favorable compared with other series that have used standard fractionation, although overall survival remained similar. The severe late complication rate was high for this protocol and higher than similar protocols reported in the literature

  7. Malignant mixed mullerian tumor arising from the uterine cervix: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jong Joon; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Hye Kyung [Seoul Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Malignant mixed mullerian tumors (MMMTs) are a rare uterine tumor and contribute to approximately 1-3% of all corpus malignant tumors. MMMTs are usually in the uterine corpus, but can also arise from the uterine cervix, vagina, ovaries and fallofian tubes. MMMTs of the uterine cervix are extremely rare. MMMTs are highly malignant and tend to maintain a rapid growth and exhibit a high rate of recurrence. Therefore, the prognosis of patients diagnosed with these types of tumors is extremely poor. We report a rare case of a malignant mixed mullerian tumor arising from the uterine cervix and introduce CT and MRI findings. CT and magnetic resonance findings of the uterine cervical MMMT in our case show highly aggressive features, such as parametrial involvement, pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenopathy, and distant metastasis and high enhancement.

  8. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a

  9. Proteomic analysis of pure human airway gland mucus reveals a large component of protective proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Soo Joo

    Full Text Available Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269-319 proteins per subject. We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38% had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican. A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment.

  10. In Vitro Microfluidic Models of Mucus-Like Obstructions in Small Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Molly K.; Grotberg, James B.; Sznitman, Josué

    2012-11-01

    Liquid plugs can form in the lungs as a result of a host of different diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of such fluid obstructions have been found as far down in the bronchiole tree as the sixteenth generation, where bronchiole openings have diameters on the order of a hundred to a few hundred microns. Understanding the propagation of liquid plugs within the bifurcating branches of bronchiole airways is important because their presence in the lungs, and their rupture and break-up, can cause injury to the epithelial cells lining the airway walls as a result of high wall shear stresses. In particular, liquid plug rupture and break-up frequently occurs at airway bifurcations. Until present, however, experimental studies of liquid plugs have generally been restricted to Newtonian fluids that do not reflect the actual pseudoplastic properties of lung mucus. The present work attempts to uncover the propagation, rupture and break-up of mucus-like liquid plugs in the lower generations of the airway tree using microfluidic models. Our approach allows the dynamics of mucus-like plug break-up to be studied in real-time, in a one-to-one in vitro model, as a function of mucus rheology and bronchial tree geometry.

  11. Mucus-secreting 'signet-ring' cells in CSF revealing the site of primary cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Agnelli, G.; Gresele, P.

    1980-01-01

    A case is reported of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which identification of mucus-secreting 'signet-ring' carcinoma cells in the CSF allowed diagnosis of an otherwise asymptomatic gastric cancer. When lumbar puncture is performed, careful cytological examination of the CSF should be carried out in any undiagnosed patient with neurological symptoms and signs.

  12. Lung protease/anti-protease network and modulation of mucus production and surfactant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Verdugo, Ignacio; Descamps, Delphyne; Chignard, Michel; Touqui, Lhousseine; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Lung epithelium guarantees gas-exchange (performed in the alveoli) and protects from external insults (pathogens, pollutants…) present within inhaled air. Both functions are facilitated by secretions lining airway surface liquid, mucus (in the upper airways) and pulmonary surfactant (in the alveoli). Mucins, the main glycoproteins present within the mucus, are responsible for its rheologic properties and participate in lung defense mechanisms. In parallel, lung collectins are pattern recognition molecules present in pulmonary surfactant that also modulate lung defense. During chronic airways diseases, excessive protease activity can promote mucus hypersecretion and degradation of lung collectins and therefore contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. Importantly, secretion of local and systemic anti-proteases might be crucial to equilibrate the protease/anti-protease unbalance and therefore preserve the function of lung host defense compounds and airway surface liquid homeostasis. In this review we will present information relative to proteases able to modulate mucin production and lung collectin integrity, two important compounds of innate immune defense. One strategy to preserve physiological mucus production and collectin integrity during chronic airways diseases might be the over-expression of local 'alarm' anti-proteases such as SLPI and elafin. Interestingly, a cross-talk between lung collectins and anti-protease activity has recently been described, implicating the presence within the lung of a complex network between proteases, anti-proteases and pattern recognition molecules, which aims to keep or restore homeostasis in resting or inflamed lungs. PMID:20493919

  13. The influence of ranitidine bismuth citrate on rat gastric mucosal microcirculation and adherent mucus gel layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Kotzampassi K., Paramythiotis D., Voudouris A., Milias K., Eleftheriadis E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate (RBC, recently developed to fight H. pylori, exhibits a triple action: anti-bacterial, antisecretive and mucosal-protective. Since less research has focused upon its mucosal protective action, we decided to study two parameters concerning that topic, i.e. the gastric mucosal blood flow and the adherent mucus gel thickness. Twenty rats were treated by gavage with either 25mg/kg RBC or equal volume (1ml of drinking water; 60 min later, laparotomy was performed, the stomach opened along the greater curvature and gastric mucosal blood flow assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry. After this measurement, five - 20mm long- fullthickness strips were sectioned from the stomach, mounted transversely on glass plates and viewed under a light microscopy using an eyepiece graticule (4 measurements/strip. Rats treated with RBC were found to exhibit a statistically significant increase in gastric mucosal blood flow (36.2916.64 vs 88.9912.23 relative units of flow, p=0.001 as well as in adherent mucus gel thickness (69.3021.7 vs 222.3947.71m, p=0.0001. It is thus concluded that the ability of RBC to increase gastric mucosal blood flow and adherent mucus gel thickness may contribute to the protective action of this compound. Key words: gastric mucosal blood flow, adherent mucus, ranitidine bismuth citrate, H. pylori

  14. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrient

  15. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  16. Intracavitary radiotherapy of cervix carcinoma with flexible applicators after vesicovaginal interposition operation of the uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advantages of new flexible intracervical applicators treating cervical cancer with high dose rate afterloading brachytherapy are reported: The insertion of the flexible applicator is usually possible without anesthesia and dilatation of the cervix. Therefore the treatment can be performed on an outpatient basis. The risks of perforation and infection are minimal. Dosimetry and documentation of the applicator geometry are possible, if the planning system allows the definition of individual curves of an individual applicator. We now prefer flexible applicators instead of rigid steel applicators treating cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  17. Contributions of imaging to radiation therapy planning for uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External irradiation and brachytherapy are curative in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. The aim of radiotherapy is to optimize the irradiation of the target volume and to optimize the irradiation of the target volume and to reduce the dose to critical organs. The use of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging added to clinical findings and standard guidelines) are studied in the treatment planning of external irradiation and brachytherapy in carcinoma of the cervix. Imaging allows an individualized and conformal treatment planning. (author)

  18. Changes in serum trace elemental content of uterine cervix cancer patients using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood sera of uterine cervix cancer patients, analyze their alteration with respect to healthy controls and identify the best predictors amongst these for disease occurrence and progression. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used in this work to identify and quantify trace elements Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br in the blood sera of uterine cervix cancer subjects and healthy control subjects. The observed alterations are discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms by which these elements might influence the carcinogenic process. (author)

  19. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  20. Immunolocalization of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype 4 (EP4 in the Cervix of Cyclic Bitches and Those with Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Linharattanaruksa1, K Chatdarong1, S Ponglowhapan1, M Khalid3 and S Srisuwatanasagul2*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervix is an important part of the reproductive tract; in non-pregnant animals it remains closed during anestrus and diestrus and is open only during estrus. In pathological conditions like pyometra, the cervix may be open or closed but the control mechanism is not clearly known. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is considered to be involved in changes of extracellular matrix via coupling to prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4. This study investigated the expression of EP4 in the cervices of bitches during different stages of estrous cycle and those with pyometra. After ovariohysterectomy, cervices were collected from anestrus (n=6, estrus (n=12 and diestrus (n=6, open- (n=10 and closed-cervix pyometra (n=10 bitches. Cervical EP4 expression was observed at all the layers and the stages but the differences in EP4 expression either among bitches in different stages of the estrous cycle and between open- and closed-cervix pyometra were limited to only surface epithelium (SE. In cyclic bitches during estrus and in open-cervix pyometra bitches, significantly higher (P<0.05 EP4 expression was found in SE of uterine part than vaginal part. In SE of the uterine part, the expression was higher in the bitches during estrus than in anestrus and diestrus, and in the bitches affected by open-cervix than those with closed-cervix pyometra. The results suggest that regulation of cervical dilation appeared in the uterine part of the cervix. Moreover, EP4 may be involved in stimulating dilation of the cervix in both estrus and open-cervix pyometra bitches.

  1. 16s rRNA Identification of Pediococcus spp. from Broiler and Studies of Adherence Ability on Immobilized Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Damayanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study taxonomical status of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from broiler and adherence ability on mucus in vitro. Molecular analysis was performed by analyzing 16S rRNA gene using universal primer. The adherence assay on mucus was carried out using microplate method with total plate count (TPC, absorbance (A550 and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of this studies revealed that three of LAB isolates have closed relation to Pediococcus acidilactici (99.9% species.Three isolates of P. acidilactici have adherence ability on broiler mucus higher than that on porcine mucin with an adherence percentage of 55.5% versus 50.8% and absorbance A550 of 0.061 versus 0.051, respectively. The highest adherence ability showed by P. acidilactici R02 with adherence percentage was 59.3% and absorbance A550 = 0.068. Adherence on mucus were affected by the addition of 3 g/l of gastric juice and 0.3% (b/v of bile salt. Adherence analysis using SEM also showed that the adherence on broiler mucus was higher than the adherence on porcine mucin. Altogether this adherence studies, suggest that three isolates of P. acidilactici LAB were capable of colonizing host intestinal mucus in vitro as important property to be promising probiotic bacteria for broiler.Key words : adherence, broiler, Pediococcus, mucus, 16S rRNA

  2. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Moon, Hye Seong; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Chong Il; Ahn, Jung Ja [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study, The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, Iymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was 45 - 50 Gy. Vagina cuff irradiation was performed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, al a low-dose rate of CS-137, with the total dose of 4488-4932 chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months (15-108 months), The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were 98%, 95% and 94%, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients (9%) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can

  3. Abnormalities of uterine cervix in women with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyoti Bhatia; Panayota Kotsali; Oana Vele; Jason Bratcher; Burton Korelitz; Katherine Vakher; Shlomo Mannor; Maria Shevchuk; Gworgia Panagopoulos; Adam Ofer; Ecaterina Tamas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities of the uterine cervix in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when compared to healthy controls.METHODS: One hundred and sixteen patients with IBD [64 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 52 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] were matched to 116 healthy controls by age (+/- 2 years) at the time of most recent papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Data collected consisted of age, race, marital status, number of pregnancies,abortions/miscarriages, duration and severity of IBD,Pap smear results within five years of enrollment, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Pap smear results were categorized as normal or abnormal including atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL). RESULTS: The median age at the time of Pap smear was 46 (range: 17-74) years for the IBD group and matched controls (range: 19-72 years). There were more Caucasian subjects than other ethnicities in the IBD patient group (P = 0.025), as well as fewer abortions (P = 0.008), but there was no significant difference regarding marital status. Eighteen percent of IBD patients had abnormal Pap smears compared to 5% of controls (P = 0.004). Subgroup analysis of the IBD patients revealed no significant differences between CD and UC patients in age, ethnicity, marital status, number of abortions, disease severity, family history of IBD, or disease duration. No significant difference was observed in the number of abnormal Pap smears or the use of immunosuppressive medications between CD and UC patients (P = 0.793). No definitive observation could be made regarding HPV status, as this was not routinely investigated during the timeframe of our study.CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of IBD in women is related to an increased risk of abnormal Pap smear, while type of IBD and exposure to immunosuppressive medications are not. This has significant implications for

  4. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study, The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, Iymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was 45 - 50 Gy. Vagina cuff irradiation was performed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, al a low-dose rate of CS-137, with the total dose of 4488-4932 chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months (15-108 months), The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were 98%, 95% and 94%, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients (9%) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can

  5. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid mucus and its potential for other bacterial fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

    2012-05-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA was used to nonlethally detect Aeromonas salmonicida and other bacteria in salmonid skin mucus. Mucus samples from wild spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with endemic A. salmonicida and from cultured lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were tested by PCR-DGGE and were compared with mucus culture on Coomassie brilliant blue agar and internal organ culture. PCR-DGGE gave a highly reproducible 4-band pattern for 9 strains of typical A. salmonicida, which was different from other Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas salmonicida presence in mucus was evident as a band that comigrated with the bottom band of the A. salmonicida 4-band pattern and was verified by sequencing. PCR-DGGE found 36 of 52 coho salmon positive for A. salmonicida, compared with 31 positive by mucus culture and 16 by organ culture. Numerous other bacteria were detected in salmonid mucus, including Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads. However, Yersinia ruckeri was not detected in mucus from 27 lake trout, but 1 fish had a sorbitol-positive Y. ruckeri isolated from organ culture. Yersinia ruckeri seeded into a mucus sample suggested that PCR-DGGE detection of this bacterium from mucus was possible. PCR-DGGE allows nonlethal detection of A. salmonicida in mucus and differentiation of some Aeromonas spp. and has the potential to allow simultaneous detection of other pathogens present in fish mucus. PMID:22506865

  6. Prognostic significance of s-phase fraction detected by antithymidine antibodies in epidermoid cervix carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the predictive value of pretreatment proliferative activity of epidermoid cervix carcinoma cells with respect to short- and long-term results of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The proliferative activity of 25 epidermoid cervix carcinomas was evaluated as the immunofluorescent labelling index (LI) by rabbit antithymidine antibodies reacting specifically with single-stranded DNA of replication forks in S-phase cells. The short-term clinical outcome was estimated at 3-6 months after treatment by visual and palpatory examination. Three-year follow-up data were obtained through hospital charts and correspondence with referring physicians for only 19 patients. Results: There was no statistically significant association between LI and such conventional prognostic factors as clinical stage. The LI value of cervix carcinomas was significantly associated with complete regression at 3-6 months after radiotherapy and 3-year disease-free survival. Complete regression at 3-6 months was observed in 87.5% patients with fast proliferating tumors (LI > 7.0%), and only in 41.2% patients with slowly proliferating tumors (p = 0.03). Probability of 3-year disease-free survival was 85.7% in patients with fast proliferating tumors and 50.0% in those with slowly proliferating tumors (p = 0.05). Conclusions: The immunofluorescent LI of epidermoid cervix carcinoma is able to provide prognostic information on short-term tumor response to radiotherapy and disease-free survival

  7. Biatrial Cardiac Metastases in a Patient with Uterine Cervix Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglayan Geredeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanomas of uterine cervix are quite rarely seen neoplasms, and long-life prognosis of patients with this disease is poor. Immunohistochemical methods and exclusion of other primary melanoma sites are used to confirm the diagnosis. As with other melanomas, cervix malignant melanomas may also cause cardiac metastases. Cardiac metastases are among rarely seen but more commonly encountered cases, compared to primary cardiac tumors. Here, we present a case of biatrial cardiac metastases in a 73-year-old patient with uterine cervix malignant melanomas. The patient underwent echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. Our report shows the importance of advanced diagnostic techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance, not only for the detection of cardiac masses, but for a better anatomic definition and tissue characterization. Although the cases of malignant melanomas leading to multiple cardiac metastasis were reported in literature, the metastatic concurrence of malignant melanomas in both right and left atriums is quite rarely encountered as metastatic malignant melanomas. Also, another intriguing point in our case is that the primary lesion of our case was stemmed from uterine cervix, but not skin.

  8. Distensibility and pain of the uterine cervix evaluated by novel techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hans; Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua;

    2016-01-01

    The article serves to review the literature on the human uterine cervix based on a new distension technology named Functional Luminal Imaging Probe (FLIP). This technology was originally developed to study the biomechanical competence of the gastro-esophageal junction where it provides a geometric...

  9. Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation therapy of the uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the radio-therapy is maximize the radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to the critical organ. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix treatment are external irradiation or an interstitial brachytherapy make use of isotope. Brachytherapy is a method of radiotherapy in advantage to achieve better local control with minimum radiation toxicity in comparison with external irradiation because radiation dose is distributed according to the inverse square low of gamma-ray emitted from the implanted sources. Authors make use of the patients data which 192Ir gives medical treatment intracavity. Intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer, critical organ take 20% below than exposure dose of A point in the ICRU report. None the less of the advice, Radiation proctitis and radiation cystitis are frequent and problematic early complications in patients treated with radiation for the uterine cervix cancer. In brachytherapy of uterine cervical cancer using a high dose rate remote afterloading system, it is of prime importance to deliver a accurate dose in each fractionated treatment by minimizing the difference between the pre-treatment planned and post-treatment calculated doses. Use of packing to reduce late complications intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer. Bladder and rectum changes exposure dose rate by radiotherapy make use of packing.

  10. The Reserve Cell in the Uterine Cervix: aspects of development, differentiation and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van Muyden-Martens (Jolise)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCarcinoma of the uterine cervix is worldwide the second most common cancer in women1. It has been approximately 150 years since the first description of uterine cervical carcinoma, a century since the description of its precursor lesions2, and half a century since the introduction of the

  11. Are we justified for concomitant chemo-radiation in advanced stage cancer cervix?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the survival rates have achieved a plateau of 30-45% at five years. Over the last decade there have been studies on the use of chemo-radiotherapy in carcinoma cervix. Over 19 randomized trials have been published addressing the issue of chemo-radiotherapy. However, heterogeneous data, poor randomization, inadequate number of patients, sub-optimal radiotherapy, non-uniform use of chemotherapeutic drugs, its sequencing and poor documentation have not yet provided the evidence to substantially alter the practice. The Cochrane and Canadian meta-analyses have to a large extent tried to address the role of concomitant chemo-radiation, but carcinoma cervix stage III accounted for only 30?35%. Moreover, evaluation with optimal radiation schedules and comparison of late toxicities still remain unanswered. What is more important is that the cisplatin is relatively inexpensive and is available worldwide. This means that cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is affordable in the developing countries where carcinoma cervix still forms the major cancer. However, the role of chemo-radiation in carcinoma cervix stage IIIB in developing countries including India still remains unexplored. With an aim to evaluate the role and benefit of chemo-radiation in- patients with cervical cancer we proposed this randomized study

  12. A rare case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a renal transplant recipient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2009-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.

  13. A rare case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a renal transplant recipient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.

  14. The more frequent types of human papillomavirus in Cuban samples of cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervix cancer (UCC) is considered a sexually transmitted disease due to factors involved in its appearance and development and this infection is recognized as the main etiological agent of this entity. In Cuba this type of tumor is placed in 2nd category in incidence and in 4th place in mortality among the malignant disease affecting the female sex. The objective of present study is to determine the types of human virus papilloma (HVP) present in samples of cervix tumors in Cuban women, as well as to describe the behavior of different risk factors associated with this disease. Forty five samples of cervix cancer were analyzed and the presence of 20 types of HVP was determined by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers founding in them a 91,1% of positivity. Genotype 16 was the more prevalent, followed by the 18, 45, 31, 39, 51, 56, 59, PAP23A. The low risk type 6 and 11 weren't founded in samples. Promiscuity was the more interesting risk factor in our study. Knowledge of the viral types present in cervix cancer in our patients is very important when we approach the development and the use of prophylactic and therapeutical vaccines

  15. The effects of cervical mucus removal before Intrauterine Insemination (IUI in improving pregnancy rates infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a less expensive and less invasive treatment in comparison with other assisted reproductive techniques, and it has been widely used for a variety of indications as well as in the treatment of couples with infertility. The outcome of IUI may be affected by numerous factors but in this study, we evaluated the effects of cervical mucus removal undertaken before IUI on clinical pregnancy rates."n"nMethods : In this randomized clinical trial study, all infertile women who were candidates for IUI and attended Shahid Akbar Abadi Hospital during 2009 and 2010 were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Cervical mucus was removed prior to IUI in patients in group A but in group B, a classic IUI was done without removing the cervical mucus. Pregnancy rates were assessed in the two groups by serum levels of β-HCG and detection of fetus in the uterus.  "n"nResults : 291 women including 143 in the classic IUI group and 148 in cervical mucus removal group completed the study. The pregnancy rates were 14.2% (21 pregnancies upon 148 cycles in the cervical mucus removal group and 7% (10 pregnancies upon 143 cycles in the control group (P=0.04, OR: 2.199; CI 95%: 0.997-4.85."n"nConclusion: The findings showed that cervical mucus removal could result in a two-fold increase in pregnancy rate in comparison with classic IUI. Thus, we suggest this practical and noninvasive method to improve pregnancy rate in these patients.

  16. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A histomorphological and immunohistochemical study of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSCC is a distinctive subcategory of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. It has a propensity for local recurrence and late metastasis. Histologically, it can be misinterpreted as transitional cell carcinoma, or other papillary lesions of the cervix including squamous papilloma, verrucous carcinoma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 with papillary configuration. Materials and Methods: Nine cases of PSCC of the uterine cervix were diagnosed on a cervical biopsy specimen on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E stained sections. Their clinic-morphological features were analyzed. The cases were further evaluated immunohistochemically by cytokeratin 7 (CK7, cytokeratin 20 (CK20, p53 and Ki-67. Results: The patients ranged in age from 35 years to 75 years; with abnormal uterine bleeding being the most common clinical presentation. All the cases showed papillary architecture with fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelium. Three cell types were observed: Clear, intermediate and basaloid. Stromal invasion was seen in five cases, whereas in the remaining four cases, the biopsy specimen was too superficial to definitely assess invasion. Immunohistochemically, eight cases were CK7 + /CK20 - and one case was CK7 - /CK20 - . All nine cases showed nuclear accumulation of mutant p53. Moderate and high proliferative activity was observed in two and seven cases, respectively. Five of patients for whom follow-up information was available underwent radical hysterectomy and two of them were disease free 18 months following treatment. Conclusion: PSCC of the uterine cervix are a clinicomorphologically distinct group of cervical lesions that display a morphologic spectrum. They are potentially aggressive malignant tumors that should be distinguished from transitional cell carcinoma and other papillary lesions of the uterine cervix.

  17. Synchronous HPV-associated cancer of the cervix and anal canal in a non-HIV infected patient treated simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous malignancies are uncommon. The oncogenic viruses like Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16 and 18 have been implicated in the development of cancers of the cervix and anal canal and an increased risk occurs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected (HIV individuals. Though cervical screening for HPV infection is recommended in female patients with anal cancers, synchronous presentation of cancer cervix and anal canal is rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old lady with synchronous cancer cervix and anal canal with HPV 16 positivity by polymerase chain reaction (PCR treated with external radiotherapy, followed by brachytherapy to both the sites.

  18. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Brown, Shanaree [Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Applegate, Kimberly E. [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Howenstine, Michelle [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pulmonology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  19. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  20. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  1. CFTR delivery to 25% of surface epithelial cells restores normal rates of mucus transport to human cystic fibrosis airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL, mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal epithelium and submucosal gland acinar cells. Critical questions for the development of gene transfer strategies for CF airway disease are what airway regions require CFTR function and how many epithelial cells require CFTR expression to restore normal ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to CF airway epithelium? An in vitro model of human CF ciliated surface airway epithelium (CF HAE was used to test whether a human parainfluenza virus (PIV vector engineered to express CFTR (PIVCFTR could deliver sufficient CFTR to CF HAE to restore mucus transport, thus correcting the CF phenotype. PIVCFTR delivered CFTR to >60% of airway surface epithelial cells and expressed CFTR protein in CF HAE approximately 100-fold over endogenous levels in non-CF HAE. This efficiency of CFTR delivery fully corrected the basic bioelectric defects of Cl(- and Na(+ epithelial ion transport and restored ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to levels approaching those of non-CF HAE. To determine the numbers of CF HAE surface epithelial cells required to express CFTR for restoration of mucus transport to normal levels, different amounts of PIVCFTR were used to express CFTR in 3%-65% of the surface epithelial cells of CF HAE and correlated to increasing ASL volumes and mucus transport rates. These data demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that restoration of normal mucus transport rates in CF HAE was achieved after CFTR delivery to 25% of surface epithelial cells. In vivo experimentation in appropriate models will be required to determine what level of mucus transport will afford clinical benefit to CF patients

  2. HCO3- Transport in Relation to Mucus Secretion from Submucosal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo NS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of HCO(3(- transport in relation to fluid secretion by submucosal glands is being studied in sheep, pigs, cats and humans. Optical methods have been developed to measure secretion rates of mucus volume from single glands with sufficient temporal resolution to detect differences in minute-by-minute secretion rates among glands. The ionic composition and viscoelastic properties of the uncontaminated gland mucus are measured with a combination of ratiometric fluorescent indicators, ion-selective microelectrodes, FRAP, and a miniaturized, magnetic force viscometer. Sheep glands secreted basally at low rates, showed small, transient responses to alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists, and large responses to a cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Peak rates and temporal patterns of responses to carbachol differed markedly among glands. To assess the contribution of HCO(3(- transport to gland secretion, we either inhibited Na(+/K(+/2Cl(- cotransporter (NKCC with bumetanide or replaced HCO(3(- with HEPES and gassed with O(2. Bumetanide caused a small, non-significant inhibition of basal secretion, but removal of HCO(3(-/CO(2 significantly reduced basal secretion almost by half. Both bumetanide and removal of HCO(3(-/CO(2 reduced carbachol-stimulated secretion significantly, with HCO(3(- removal having the larger effect: a reduction to 33% of control (P less than 0.01. The remaining secretory response to carbachol was nearly eliminated by bumetanide. Sheep mucus pH measured with ion selective electrodes was about 0.4 log more acidic than the bath. In humans, we observed the same pattern of responses to agonists and antagonists as in sheep, and observed a mucus pH of 7.0 using 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF. We hypothesize that HCO(3(- transport is important in the formation of mucus secretion, but that most HCO(3(- is scavenged before the final mucus appears at the duct opening. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

  3. Glycan profiling of gel forming mucus layer from the scleractinian symbiotic coral Oculina arbuscula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddeville, Bernadette; Maes, Emmanuel; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Guerardel, Yann

    2011-06-13

    The gel forming mucus layer surrounding scleractinian corals play fundamental functions in the maintenance of a favorable microenvironment required for the survival of these organisms. In particular, it harbors a rich partially species-specific symbiotic community through yet poorly understood molecular interactions. However, removal or contamination of this community by exogenous bacteria is closely linked to the worldwide bleaching events that are presently devastating coral colonies. The present study investigates the structure of major high molecular weight glycoconjugates that are responsible for both rheological properties of mucus and sugar-protein interactions with microbial communities. We demonstrated that it is composed by two distinct types of sulfated macromolecules: mucin type glycoproteins densely substituted by short unusual O-linked glycans and repetitive polysaccharides. PMID:21517058

  4. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss and...... aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in...

  5. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian [Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, CCB-Centrum for Chemistry und Biomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy (Austria); Salvenmoser, Willi [University of Innsbruck, Department for Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Institute of Zoology and Center for Molecular Biosciences (Austria); Bernkop-Schnuerch, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.bernkop@uibk.ac.at [Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, CCB-Centrum for Chemistry und Biomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8-198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  6. The inner of the two Muc2 mucin-dependent mucus layers in colon is devoid of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Malin E. V.; Phillipson, Mia; Petersson, Joel; Velcich, Anna; Holm, Lena; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2008-01-01

    We normally live in symbiosis with ∼1013 bacteria present in the colon. Among the several mechanisms maintaining the bacteria/host balance, there is limited understanding of the structure, function, and properties of intestinal mucus. We now demonstrate that the mouse colonic mucus consists of two layers extending 150 μm above the epithelial cells. Proteomics revealed that both of these layers have similar protein composition, with the large gel-forming mucin Muc2 as the major structural comp...

  7. Imaging of mucus clearance in the airways of living spontaneously breathing mice by optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Mario; Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Hüttmann, Gereon; König, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Mucus transport is essential to remove inhaled particles and pathogens from the lung. Impaired removal of mucus often results in worsening of lung diseases. To understand the mechanisms of mucus transport and to monitor the impact of therapeutic strategies, it is essential to visualize airways and mucus in living animals without disturbing transport processes by intubation or surgically opening the airways. We developed a custom-built optical coherence microscope (OCM) providing a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 1.5 µm with a field of view of 2 mm at up to 150 images/s. Images of the intact trachea and its mucus transport were recorded in anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice. NaCl solution (0.9% and 7%) or Lipopolysaccharide were applied intranasally. OCM resolved detailed structure of the trachea and enabled measuring the airway surface liquid (ASL) thickness through the tracheal wall. Without stimulation, the amount of ASL was only a few µm above the epithelium and remained constant. After intranasal application of 30 µl saline at different concentrations, an early fast cough-like fluid removal with velocities higher than 1 mm/s was observed that removed a high amount of liquid. The ASL thickness increased transiently and quickly returned to levels before stimulation. In contrast to saline, application of Lipopolysaccharide induced substantial mucus release and an additional slow mucus transport by ciliary beating (around 100 µm/s) towards the larynx was observed. In conclusion, OCM is appropriate unique tool to study mechanisms of mucus transport in the airways and effects of therapeutic interventions in living animals.

  8. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Cory J Krediet; Ritchie, Kim B.; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothes...

  9. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8–198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  10. Structural and molecular insights into novel surface-exposed mucus adhesins from Lactobacillus reuteri human strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzold, Sabrina; MacKenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Walshaw, John; Roos, Stefan; Hemmings, Andrew M; Juge, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal tract is the first point of contact of the intestinal microbiota with the host. Cell surface macromolecules are critical for adherence of commensal bacteria to mucus but structural information is scarce. Here we report the first molecular and structural characterization of a novel cell-surface protein, Lar_0958 from Lactobacillus reuteri JCM 1112(T) , mediating adhesion of L. reuteri human strains to mucus. Lar_0958 is a modular protein of 133 kDa containing six repeat domains, an N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal anchoring motif (LPXTG). Lar_0958 homologues are expressed on the cell-surface of L. reuteri human strains, as shown by flow-cytometry and immunogold microscopy. Adhesion of human L. reuteri strains to mucus in vitro was significantly reduced in the presence of an anti-Lar_0958 antibody and Lar_0958 contribution to adhesion was further confirmed using a L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 lar_0958 KO mutant (6475-KO). The X-ray crystal structure of a single Lar_0958 repeat, determined at 1.5 Å resolution, revealed a divergent immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich fold, sharing structural homology with the Ig-like inter-repeat domain of internalins of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. These findings provide unique structural insights into cell-surface protein repeats involved in adhesion of Gram-positive bacteria to the intestine. PMID:24593252

  11. High occurrence of viruses in the mucus layer of scleractinian corals

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Kim, H.; Bouvier, T.; Bouvier, C.; Hai, D. N.; Lam, N. N.; Rochelle Newall, Emma; Baudoux, A.C.; Desnues, C.; Reynaud, S.; Ferrier-Pages, C.; Bettarel, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Viruses attract increasing interest from environmental microbiologists seeking to understand their function and role in coral health. However, little is known about their main ecological traits within the coral holobiont. In this study, a quantitative and qualitative characterization of viral and bacterial communities was conducted on the mucus of seven different coral species of the Van Phong Bay (Vietnam). On average, the concentrations of viruses and bacteria were, respectively, 17- and tw...

  12. Bacteria and the mucus blanket in experimental small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, P; Fleming, N; Forstner, J.; Roomi, N.; Forstner, G

    1987-01-01

    Self-filling blind loops were created experimentally in jejunal segments of specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats, and the loop contents and mucosa were examined over an 8-week period for evaluation of the interaction between mucus and luminal bacteria. Corresponding jejunal segments from rats that did not undergo surgery were used as controls. Proliferation of anaerobic bacteria developed in the test animals by the first week after surgery. Despite anaerobic bacterial proliferation, no adh...

  13. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    OpenAIRE

    von Ossowski, I; Satokari, R.; Reunanen, J.; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid; Vanderleyden, Jos; DE VOS W.M.; Palva, A.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological...

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kankainen, M; Paulin, L.; Tynkkynen, S.; Ossowski, von, I.; Reunanen, J.; Partanen, P.; Satokari, A.; Vesterlund, S.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Lebeer, S.; Keersmaecker, de, S.C.; Vanderleyden, J.; Hämäläinen, T. (Tiina); Laukkanen, S.; Salovuori, N.

    2009-01-01

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated the colinearity. A significant number of strain-specific genes were predicted in these islands ...

  15. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    OpenAIRE

    Ossowski, von, I.; Vos, de, W.M.; Palva, A.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological...

  16. Bacterial communities and species-specific associations with the mucus of Brazilian coral species

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Carlos; Tatiana T. Torres; Ottoboni, Laura M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the existence of species-specific associations between Brazilian coral species and bacteria. Pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rDNA was used to analyze the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with the mucus of four coral species (Madracis decactis, Mussismilia hispida, Palythoa caribaeorum, and Tubastraea coccinea) in two seasons (winter and summer), which were compared with the surrounding water and sediment. The microbial communities found in s...

  17. Draft genome sequence of Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from coral mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Bruna Rafaella Z.; Castro, Daniel B.A.; Pereira, Letícia Bianca; Cauz, Ana Carolina G.; Beatriz L. Magalhães; Carlos, Camila; da Costa, Fernanda L.P.; Guilherme P. Scagion; Higa, Juliana S.; Almeida, Ludimila D.; das Neves, Meiriele da S.; Cordeiro, Melina Aparecida; Paula F.V. do Prado; da Silva, Thiago M.; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe the genomic features of the Actinobacteria Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from mucus of the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida. The sequences are available under accession number LDNX01000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LDNX00000000). The genomic analysis revealed interesting information about the adaptation of bacteria to the marine environment (such as genes involved in osmotic and oxidative stress) and to the nutrient-rich environment provided by the cora...

  18. Functional diversity of microbial communities associated to the mucus of scleractinians around Moorea (French Polynesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ladrière, Ophélie; Theunis, Laetitia; Wilmotte, Annick; Poulicek, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Mucus production by scleractinians appears as an antifouling mechanism which prevents settlement of other organisms and accumulation of sediments on their surface. This Surface Muccopolysaccharide Layer (SML) harbours dense populations of bacteria which play a paramount role in scleractinians nutrition, metabolism and good health maintenance. However, environmental disturbances can alter these microbiocenoses. Characterization of bacterial communities was carried out using a set of simple tec...

  19. Bacterial dynamics within the mucus, tissue and skeleton of the coral Porites lutea during different seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Li; Qi Chen; Li-Juan Long; Jun-De Dong; Jian Yang; Si Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the response of coral microbial communities to seasonal ecological environment at the microscale will advance our understanding of the relationship between coral-associated bacteria community and coral health. In this study, we examined bacteria community composition from mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and surrounding seawater every three months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The bacterial communities were analyzed using pyrosequencing of the V1-V2 region ...

  20. Draft genome sequence of Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from coral mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Bruna Rafaella Z.; Castro, Daniel B.A.; Letícia Bianca Pereira; Cauz, Ana Carolina G.; Beatriz L. Magalhães; Camila Carlos; da Costa, Fernanda L.P.; Guilherme P. Scagion; Higa, Juliana S.; Almeida, Ludimila D.; das Neves, Meiriele da S.; Melina Aparecida Cordeiro; Paula F.V. do Prado; da Silva, Thiago M.; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the genomic features of the Actinobacteria Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from mucus of the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida. The sequences are available under accession number LDNX01000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LDNX00000000). The genomic analysis revealed interesting information about the adaptation of bacteria to the marine environment (such as genes involved in osmotic and oxidative stress) and to the nutrient-rich environment provided by the cora...

  1. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in corals and its interrelations with bacterial assemblages in coral surface mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Frade, P.R.; Schwaninger, V.; Glasl, B.; Sintes, E.; Hill, R. W.; Simó, R.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Corals produce copious amounts of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a sulfur compound thought toplay a role in structuring coral-associated bacterial communities. We tested the hypothesis that a linkage exists betweenDMSP availability in coral tissues and the community dynamics of bacteria in coral surface mucus. We determinedDMSP concentrations in three coral species (Meandrina meandrites, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea) at twosampling depths (5 and 25 m) and times of day (dawn ...

  2. Altered goblet cell differentiation and surface mucus properties in Hirschsprung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R Thiagarajah

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC leads to significant mortality and morbidity, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. Changes in the colonic epithelium related to goblet cells and the luminal mucus layer have been postulated to play a key role. Here we show that the colonic epithelium of both aganglionic and ganglionic segments are altered in patients and in mice with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR. Structurally, goblet cells were altered with increased goblet cell number and reduced intracellular mucins in the distal colon of biopsies from patients with HSCR. Endothelin receptor B (Ednrb mutant mice showed increased goblet cell number and size and increased cell proliferation compared to wild-type mice in aganglionic segments, and reduced goblet cell size and number in ganglionic segments. Functionally, compared to littermates, Ednrb-/- mice showed increased transepithelial resistance, reduced stool water content and similar chloride secretion in the distal colon. Transcript levels of goblet cell differentiation factors SPDEF and Math1 were increased in the distal colon of Ednrb-/- mice. Both distal colon from Ednrb mice and biopsies from HSCR patients showed reduced Muc4 expression as compared to controls, but similar expression of Muc2. Particle tracking studies showed that mucus from Ednrb-/- mice provided a more significant barrier to diffusion of 200 nm nanoparticles as compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that aganglionosis is associated with increased goblet cell proliferation and differentiation and subsequent altered surface mucus properties, prior to the development of inflammation in the distal colon epithelium. Restoration of normal goblet cell function and mucus layer properties in the colonic epithelium may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of HAEC.

  3. Using Serious Games to Motivate Children with Cystic Fibrosis to Engage with Mucus Clearance Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomou, Andreas; Day, David

    2012-01-01

    Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy is an effective method for removing mucus build-up in the lungs of sufferers of chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the compliance by young children and adolescents to undertake such physiotherapy can lead to confrontation and stressful situations within families, and can impact on the health of the individual. We have developed game software which is controlled through breathing into a PEP mask or mouthpiece using an air pre...

  4. Human sperm quality and lipid content after migration into normal ovulatory human cervical mucus containing low numbers of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nozha Chakroun-Feki; Patrice Therond; Martine Couturier; Florence Eustache; Gerard Limea; Alain Legrand; Pierre Jouannet; Jacques Auger

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the presence of low number of leukocytes in normal ovulatory cervical mucus and sperm quality and lipid content after migration. The percentages of live, motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa, movement parameters assessed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), and ionophore-induced acrosome reaction measured by flow cytometry were determined before and after migration. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to measure the sperm lipid content, including the various diacyl subspecies. The number of leukocytes found in solubilized mucus samples was counted using a haemocytometric method. Overall, the presence of leukocytes in the cervical mucus samples did not significantly influence sperm motility and morphology, sperm kinematic parameters, or the sperm content in sphingomyelin or cholesterol. In contrast, after migration, the decrease in various sperm diacyls and the level of induced acrosome reaction was significantly less pronounced in mucus samples containing ≥ 104 leukocytes than in mucus samples with no or rare leukocytes whereas the level of induced acrosome reaction was higher. The present data suggest that the low level of leukocytes found in normal ovulatory cervical mucus could influence the process of sperm lipid remodelling/capacitation.

  5. A poly(ethylene glycol)-based surfactant for formulation of drug-loaded mucus penetrating particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Olcay; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ying-Ying; Wood, Joseph; Hanes, Justin

    2012-02-10

    Mucosal surfaces are protected by a highly viscoelastic and adhesive mucus layer that traps most foreign particles, including conventional drug and gene carriers. Trapped particles are eliminated on the order of seconds to hours by mucus clearance mechanisms, precluding sustained and targeted drug and nucleic acid delivery to mucosal tissues. We have previously shown that polymeric coatings that minimize adhesive interactions with mucus constituents lead to particles that rapidly penetrate human mucus secretions. Nevertheless, a particular challenge in formulating drug-loaded mucus penetrating particles (MPP) is that many commonly used surfactants are either mucoadhesive, or do not facilitate efficient drug encapsulation. We tested a novel surfactant molecule for particle formulation composed of Vitamin E conjugated to 5 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (VP5k). We show that VP5k-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus, whereas PLGA nanoparticles coated with polyvinyl alcohol or Vitamin E conjugated to 1 kDa PEG were trapped. Importantly, VP5k facilitated high loading of paclitaxel, a frontline chemo drug, into PLGA MPP, with controlled release for at least 4 days and negligible burst release. Our results offer a promising new method for engineering biodegradable, drug-loaded MPP for sustained and targeted delivery of therapeutics at mucosal surfaces. PMID:21911015

  6. Angiotensins processing activities in the venom and epidermic mucus of Scorpaena plumieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Humberto de Araújo; Costa, Ricardo Bezerra; Costa Marques, Maria Elizabeth; Victor Dos Santos, Claudio Wilian; Gomes, Francis Soares; Vieira Pereira, Hugo Juarez

    2016-09-01

    The venom of marine animals is a rich source of compounds with remarkable selectivity and functional diversity. Scorpaena plumieri is the most venomous fish in the Brazilian fauna and is responsible for relatively frequent accidents involving anglers and bathers. In humans, its venom causes edema, erythema, ecchymoses, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and syncope. The venom is chemically characterized by Sp-CTx, a enzyme able to generate an initial endothelium-dependent relaxation response, followed by a contraction response. This study sought to investigate the proteolytic activities regarding vasopeptides angiotensin I and II. Both the venom and the epidermal mucus presented angiotensin conversion activity for angiotensin I, as well as a capacity to form Ang 1-7 directly via Ang I and II. Captopril (10 μM) and EDTA (1 mM) were able to abolish the converting activity of the venom and the epidermal mucus, representing the first description of a converting activity in S. plumieri venom and epidermal mucus. PMID:27215174

  7. Mucolysis of the colonic mucus barrier by faecal proteinases: inhibition by interacting polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, D A; Pearson, J P; Allen, A; Foster, S N

    1990-03-01

    1. Mucolytic (mucus solubilizing) activity in human faeces has been characterized with both purified human and pig colonic mucin and shown to be mediated by proteolysis. 2. Mucolytic activity was demonstrated by: (i) a drop in mucin viscosity; (ii) a substantial reduction in mucin size, from polymer to degraded subunit, as assessed by Sepharose CL-2B gel filtration; (iii) formation of new N-terminal peptides. 3. Mucolytic activity was also followed in faecal extracts by its proteolytic activity using standard succinyl albumin substrate. Proteolysis extended over the pH range 4.5-11.0. Proteolysis was inhibited at pH 7.5 by soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, suggesting the presence of serine proteinases. 4. The polyacrylate carbomer (934P) inhibited both mucolysis of pig colonic mucin and proteolysis of succinyl albumin. 5. Interaction between the polyacrylate (carbomer 934P) and purified human and pig colonic mucin was demonstrated by a marked synergistic increase in solution viscosity (360% above control). 6. The results demonstrate the presence of a mucolytic activity in the human colonic lumen that has the potential to degrade the mucus barrier, and that polyacrylates inhibit this mucolysis and interact to strengthen the colonic mucus barrier. Polyacrylates may therefore have therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease where luminal proteolytic activity can be raised. PMID:2156646

  8. Adhesion of pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus to the gill mucus of Pseudosciaena crocea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; YAN Qingpi; MA Shen; ZHUANG Zhixia; WANG Xiaoru

    2007-01-01

    Adhesion of Vibrio alginolyticus to the gill mucus of Pseudosciaena crocea has been investigated using [methyl-3H]thymidine as isotope tracer. The results showed that: the adhesive quantity of V. alginolyticus increased with bacterial concentrations and reached equilibrium after incubated for 180 min; the higher adhesive quantity was obtained at 15~30 ℃ and sourish conditions; adhesion of V. alginolyticus could not achieved without Na+, and Ca2+ played an auxiliary role in the bacterial adhesion; adhesion of V. alginolyticus was inhibited remarkably by starvation, heat treatment and periodic acid treatment; all of the eight kinds of carbohydrates investigated enhanced the adhesion of V. alginolyticus to the gill mucus of P. crocea, among them, glucose, mannose, fructose and maltose showed the specially enhanced adhesion. The results indicated that V. alginolyticus could adhere to the gill mucus of P. crocea facilely in seawater, and this bacterial adhesion was influenced by environmental factors and closely related to superficial carbohydrate structures and some heat-sensitive structures.

  9. Coral-mucus-associated Vibrio integrons in the Great Barrier Reef: genomic hotspots for environmental adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jeremy E; Bourne, David G; Curtis, Bruce; Dlutek, Marlena; Stokes, H W; Doolittle, W Ford; Boucher, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Integron cassette arrays in a dozen cultivars of the most prevalent group of Vibrio isolates obtained from mucus expelled by a scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) colony living on the Great Barrier Reef were sequenced and compared. Although all cultivars showed >99% identity across recA, pyrH and rpoB genes, no two had more than 10% of their integron-associated gene cassettes in common, and some individuals shared cassettes exclusively with distantly-related members of the genus. Of cassettes shared within the population, a number appear to have been transferred between Vibrio isolates, as assessed by phylogenetic analysis. Prominent among the mucus Vibrio cassettes with potentially inferable functions are acetyltransferases, some with close similarity to known antibiotic-resistance determinants. A subset of these potential resistance cassettes were shared exclusively between the mucus Vibrio cultivars, Vibrio coral pathogens and human pathogens, thus illustrating a direct link between these microbial niches through exchange of integron-associated gene cassettes. PMID:21270840

  10. Beyond the mucus escalator: Complex ciliary hydrodynamics in disease and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Guo, Hanliang; John, Dabiri; Kanso, Eva; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures lining external and internal body surfaces where they interact with fluids. The main function of motile cilia is often described as that of a ``mucus escalator'', i.e., a homogeneous ciliary carpet moving along layer of mucus along the surface to transport food, germ cells, debris, or pathogens. Accordingly, the performance of ciliary systems is usually measured in terms of a single metric, transport velocity, or its presumed proxy, ciliary beat frequency. We challenge this simple view through the observation that both healthy and diseased biological systems exhibit a variety of cilia morphologies, beat patterns, and arrangements, resulting in complex flow patterns and transport phenomena that cannot be reduced to a single parameter. Here we present two case studies. In one system, the ciliated surface creates two distinct flow regimes for first trapping and then sheltering potential symbiont bacteria for further biochemical screening. In the other system, chronic disease induces a misalignment of ciliary beat, leading to a pathological transition from uniform mucus transport to a pattern of stagnation and circulation. These studies suggest that (a), we need to develop a wider range of metrics for describing ciliary transport in biological and clinical contexts, and (b), engineered ciliated systems exploiting a variety of design parameters could provide novel ways of manipulating fluids at the microscale.

  11. A Tale of Transmission: Aeromonas veronii Activity within Leech-Exuded Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Dacks, Andrew M; Ryan, Kenneth J; Rio, Rita V M

    2016-05-01

    Transmission, critical to the establishment and persistence of host-associated microbiotas, also exposes symbionts to new environmental conditions. With horizontal transmission, these different conditions represent major lifestyle shifts. Yet genome-wide analyses of how microbes adjust their transcriptomes toward these dramatic shifts remain understudied. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of a symbiont as it shifts between lifestyles during transmission. The gammaproteobacteriumAeromonas veroniiis transmitted from the gut of the medicinal leech to other hosts via host mucosal castings, yetA. veroniican also transition from mucosal habitancy to a free-living lifestyle. These three lifestyles are characterized by distinct physiological constraints and consequently lifestyle-specific changes in the expression of stress-response genes. Mucus-boundA. veroniihad the greatest expression in terms of both the number of loci and levels of transcription of stress-response mechanisms. However, these bacteria are still capable of proliferating within the mucus, suggesting the availability of nutrients within this environment. We found thatA. veroniialters transcription of loci in a synthetic pathway that obtains and incorporatesN-acetylglucosamine (NAG; a major component of mucus) into the bacterial cell wall, enabling proliferation. Our results demonstrate that symbionts undergo dramatic local adaptation, demonstrated by widespread transcriptional changes, throughout the process of transmission that allows them to thrive while they encounter new environments which further shape their ecology and evolution. PMID:26896136

  12. Helicobacter pylori Couples Motility and Diffusion to Actively Create a Heterogeneous Complex Medium in Gastric Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir; Fu, Henry Chien

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori swims through mucus gel by generating ammonia that locally neutralizes the acidic gastric environment, turning nearby gel into a fluid pocket. The size of the fluid zone is important for determining the physics of the motility: in a large zone swimming occurs as in a fluid through hydrodynamic principles, while in a very small zone the motility could be strongly influenced by nonhydrodynamic cell-mucus interactions including chemistry and adhesion. Here, we calculate the size of the fluid pocket. We model how swimming depends on the de-gelation range using a Taylor sheet swimming through a layer of Newtonian fluid bounded by a Brinkman fluid. Then, we model how the de-gelation range depends on the swimming speed by considering the advection-diffusion of ammonia exuded from a translating sphere. Self-consistency between both models determines the values of the swimming speed and the de-gelation range. We find that H. pylori swims through mucus as if unconfined, in a large pocket of Newtonian fluid.

  13. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient’s case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term.

  14. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two

  15. Cancer of the Cervix – From Bleak Past to Bright Future; a Review, with an Emphasis on Cancer of the Cervix in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Hayati, Othman

    2003-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix has the potential to be eradicated since the initiating cause is known. There was not much known about this cancer until the time of the Renaissance. In Malaysia, it is the second most common cancer among females after breast cancer. The strategies on prevention in this country are still not optimal. This article highlights the problems and also discusses the pathogenesis of this disease. The key to prevention is screening and the future is the era of molecular pap smear. PMID:23365496

  16. Uterine cervix squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the Ampulla of Vater: a case report with review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dalma Udovčić Gagula; Faruk Skenderi; Srđan Gornjaković; Nermina Ibišević; Adisa Chikha; Semir Vranić; Aleksandra Ðuran

    2013-01-01

    Metastases to gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. In particular, metastases to the ampulla of Vater are very rare and may represent a significant diagnostic challenge. Metastases from the uterine cervix to the ampulla of Vater are exceedingly rare and only one case has been described in the available literature. We describe here a second case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix to the ampulla of Vater in a 45-year-old woman. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma prese...

  17. Immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for simulation of muco-ciliary transport: effect of mucus depth at various amounts of cilia beat frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmardan, M. M.; Sedaghat, M. H.; Norouzi, M.; Nazari, M.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation based on immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to study 2D muco-ciliary transport problem. The periciliary liquid (PCL) and mucus layers in this study are considered as the Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid respectively. An Oldroyd-B model is used as the constitutive equations of mucus layer. To simulate accurate effects of the cilia and PCL-mucus interface on the fluid, immersed boundary method is used. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of mucus depth on the muco-ciliary clearance at various values of cilia beat frequencies. Our results show that, by increasing mucus depth, which results from air pollution and smoking, mean mucus velocity decreases. But it can be completely modified by increasing cilia beat frequency and the cilia beat frequency has great effect on the muco-ciliary clearance.

  18. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix diagnosed by cervical smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arık, Deniz; Öge, Tufan; Kabukçuoğlu, Sare; Yalçın, Ömer Tarık; Özalp, Sinan

    2016-06-01

    The melanocytic cells of the cervical epithelium are capable of forming the complete spectrum of melanocytic lesions, from benign lentigines to melanoma. Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix is a rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. The absence of melanin pigment can lead to misdiagnosis as carcinomas, sarcomas, or lymphoma. Immunohistochemical studies should be used for confirmation. In order to consent the cervix as a primary site, exclusion of any other probable primary sites of melanoma is needed. Here, we present a 61-year-old female patient with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. After cervical smear, diagnosis was confirmed by cervical punch biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:535-537. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991516

  19. Distensibility and pain of the uterine cervix evaluated by novel techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Hans; Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2016-07-01

    The article serves to review the literature on the human uterine cervix based on a new distension technology named functional luminal imaging probe. This technology was originally developed to study the biomechanical competence of the gastro-esophageal junction where it provides a geometric profile of the lumen during distension, which can be related to sensory data. We searched and reviewed publications on cervical distention from 2002. The functional luminal imaging probe technology has been used for studying the mechanical and mechano-sensory properties of the cervix in non-pregnant women. In early pregnant women and in term pregnant women, the technique provides geometric measurements from the whole cervical canal during distension, which changes dramatically during pregnancy. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the technique predicts the outcome of labor induction better than the Bishop score does. The functional luminal imaging probe technology has potential as a research tool as well as for clinical use in gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:26946059

  20. Flow cytofluorometric evidence for the differential radioresponsiveness of aneuploid and diploid cervix tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    348 patients have been included in the study over a 54-month period. Data on these patients have shown that DNA aneuploid tumours are significantly more radioresponsive than diploid cervix tumours. Analysis of the data on 213 patients with a minimum follow-up time of 15 months has, however, failed to show an overall more favourable prognosis conferred by tumour DNA aneuploidy. Analysis of the relationship between clinical stage and disease state and tumour DNA ploidy, however, suggests that (1) aneuploid tumours metastasize to distant sites at an earlier stage of the disease than diploid tumours and (2) local recurrence rates for diploid tumours, in late stage disease, are double those for aneuploid tumours. Improved staining procedures, and instrument modification, has also shown that cervix tumour heterogeneity is of considerably greater frequency than at first appeared to be the case (approximately 75% of DNA aneuploid tumours show heterogeneity). (Auth.)

  1. Laser vaporization in treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The study shows the treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix in 79 patients. After first vaporization 74 patients were cured successfully. In two cases the laser procedure should be repeated and in 3 women the operation should be performed for the third time. All patients are still under control in our department and there is no recurrence observed. Carbon- dioxide laser vaporization under colposcopic control is an efficient method of treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix that requires no anaesthesia. The healing process after laser procedures is fast and without complications. The number of recurrences is low. Use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control because of precise destruction of lesions, fast healing and a low number of recurrences seems to be the method of choice.

  2. Dosimetry of intracavitary applications in carcinoma of the cervix: rectal dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), in its Report-38, has given certain recommendations regarding the specifications of bladder and rectal reference points in the intracavitary treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Conforming to this report, 182 intracavitary applications performed in stage I and II cervix cases were analyzed. In 113 applications, the maximum rectal dose was found to be in a point on the anteroposterior line drawn through the centre of colpostat sources. However, for our type of applications, the point on the anteroposterior line drawn through the lower end of the uterine tube seldom gets maximum dose. In addition, it was observed that there are other dose points than the ICRU reference point receiving doses close to maximum dose. It was concluded that doses to multiple rectal reference points should be recorded, in addition to the ICRU-defined rectal reference point

  3. An evaluation of coral lophelia pertusa mucus as an analytical matrix for environmental monitoring: A preliminary proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Fiona; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Larssen, Eivind; Uleberg, Kai-Erik; Sydnes, Magne O; Lyng, Emily; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Baussant, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    For the environmental monitoring of coral, mucus appears to be an appropriate biological matrix due to its array of functions in coral biology and the non-intrusive manner in which it can be collected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using mucus of the stony coral Lophelia pertusa (L. pertusa) as an analytical matrix for discovery of biomarkers used for environmental monitoring. More specifically, to assess whether a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach can be applied to characterize the protein composition of coral mucus and changes related to petroleum discharges at the seafloor. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) screening analyses of orange and white L. pertusa showed that the mucosal protein composition varies significantly with color phenotype, a pattern not reported prior to this study. Hence, to reduce variability from phenotype difference, L. pertusa white individuals only were selected to characterize in more detail the basal protein composition in mucus using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In total, 297 proteins were identified in L. pertusa mucus of unexposed coral individuals. Individuals exposed to drill cuttings in the range 2 to 12 mg/L showed modifications in coral mucus protein composition compared to unexposed corals. Although the results were somewhat inconsistent between individuals and require further validation in both the lab and the field, this study demonstrated preliminary encouraging results for discovery of protein markers in coral mucus that might provide more comprehensive insight into potential consequences attributed to anthropogenic stressors and may be used in future monitoring of coral health. PMID:27484144

  4. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Na Wu,1,2,* Xinxin Zhang,2,* Feifei Li,2 Tao Zhang,2 Yong Gan,2 Juan Li1 1School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 µm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. Keywords: siRNA delivery, vaginal administration, spray-dried powders, mucus penetration, molecular sieve effect

  5. Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteases cleave the MUC2 mucin in its C-terminal domain and dissolve the protective colonic mucus gel

    OpenAIRE

    Lidell, Martin E.; Moncada, Darcy M.; Chadee, Kris; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2006-01-01

    In order for the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (E.h.) to cause invasive intestinal and extraintestinal infection, which leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it must disrupt the protective mucus layer by a previously unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that cysteine proteases secreted from the amoeba disrupt the mucin polymeric network, thereby overcoming the protective mucus barrier. The MUC2 mucin is the major structural component of the colonic mucus gel. Heavily O-glycos...

  6. Direct Visualization of Mucus Production by the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zetsche, E.-M.; Baussant, T; F. Meysman; van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus production are currently still poorly described because the existing tools to study these processes are not appropriate. Using a novel microscopic technique—digital holographic microscopy (DHM)–we studied the mu...

  7. Direct visualization of mucus production by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa with digital holographic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zetsche, E.-M.; Baussant, T.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus production are currently still poorly described because the existing tools to study these processes are not appropriate. Using a novel microscopic technique—digital holographic microscopy (DHM)–we studied the mu...

  8. Pre-operative radiotherapy treatment in uterine cervix voluminous carcinoma clinic phase IB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty four patients with voluminous tumor of the uterine cervix were selected and submitted to preoperative radiation with radical dosages in pelvis and to radiation therapy alone. Results as to survival in both of the treatments were similar. Complication rates in both of the treatments were not higher than the acceptable levels. Hospitalization periods were not longer than the usual for Wertheim-Meigs surgery. (author)

  9. Immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of rats bearing the Walker 256 tumor treated with copaiba balsam

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Macedo Botelho; Suelen Costa Corrêa; Rodolfo Costa Lobato; Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira; Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of 20 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) bearing the Walker 256 tumor, treated with copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis). METHODS: The animals were grouped into four subgroups, with five rats each: the GCT and GCopT received distilled water and topically copaiba, respectively, while the GCG and GCopG received distilled water and copaiba by gavage, respectively. The substances were administered for nine days. On the 12th day, a...

  10. Sulfated polyanions block Chlamydia trachomatis infection of cervix-derived human epithelia.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaretzky, F R; Pearce-Pratt, R; Phillips, D M

    1995-01-01

    Using a cell line derived from the human cervix and a rapid fluorescence cytotoxicity assay, we have shown that Chlamydia trachomatis infection can be blocked by certain sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenan, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and dextran sulfate) and glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) but not by other glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A or C, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid). The most negatively charged molecules are the most effectiv...

  11. A Giant Gartner Duct Cyst Originating from the Uterine Cervix and Adjacent Myometrium: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hui; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Gartner duct cysts are relatively common congenital cysts in the anterolateral wall of the vagina. Most are small (less than 2 cm) and asymptomatic, but larger cysts may cause problems. We report a rare case of a giant Gartner duct cyst (7 cm) originating from the right lateral portion of the uterine cervix and adjacent myometrium. It appeared as an exophytic multiseptated cystic mass containing different density fluids on CT

  12. Concomitant mucin-producing tumors of ovary and adenocarcinoma of cervix: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian mucinous borderline tumors are divided into two morphologic groups: endocervical-like and intestinal type. Most endocervical adenocarcinomas exhibit mucinous and/or endometrioid differentiation, they infrequently metastasize to the ovaries but may simulate primary ovarian tumors (both atypical proliferative or borderline and carcinoma. In patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma in the abdominal cavity, caution should be exercised in interpreting the possible primary site of the tumor on the basis of the immunohistochemical profiles. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA is assessed to determine whether the ovarian neoplasms were metastases or primary independent neoplasm. Approximately 90% of endocervical adenocarcinomas are related to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV with the remainder being unrelated to HPV. Both types metastasize to the ovaries very infrequently. Ovarian endocervical-type (mullerian mucinous tumors and tumors composed of a mixture of endocervical-type mucinous, serous endometrioid, squamous, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reported to date have been primarily limited to borderline and micro invasive types. We report a-36-yr old woman with adenocarcinomas of uterine cervix who also had ovarian mucinous borderline tumor.Case presentation: The patient presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and lower abdominal pain. She had a history of uterine cervix polyps. Pelvic ultrasound showed a right adnexal mass and a large cervical size. Histological diagnosis in uterine cervix biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma of cervix. Radical hysterectomy type III with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histological finding in adnexal mass revealed borderline mucinous tissue of ovarian tumor. Testing for HPV DNA in the tumoral tissue was negative. This confirms that the ovarian tumor is not metastatic from endocervical adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: We conclude that in a patient with

  13. Relaxin Regulates Hyaluronan Synthesis and Aquaporins in the Cervix of Late Pregnant Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Yu May; Tiwari, Anjana; Mahendroo, Mala; Conrad, Kirk P.; Parry, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical ripening is associated with loss of structural integrity and tensile strength, thus enabling the cervix to dilate at term. It is characterized by changes in glycosaminoglycan composition, increased water content, and a progressive reorganization of the collagen network. The peptide hormone relaxin via interaction with its receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), promotes tissue hydration and increases cervical hyaluronan (HA) concentrations, but the mechanisms that regula...

  14. Multivariate prognostic analysis of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radical hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    KATO, TATSUYA; Watari, Hidemichi; Takeda, Mahito; Hosaka, Masayoshi; Mitamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Sudo, Satoko; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Kudo, Masataka; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment outcome of patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix who underwent radical hysterectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy. Methods A total of 130 patients with stage IB to IIB cervical adenocarcinoma treated with hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy from 1982 to 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological data including age, stage, tumor size, the number of positive node sites, ly...

  15. Changing Roles of Cadherins and Catenins during Progression of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in the Uterine Cervix

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Carla J.; van Dorst, Eleonora; van Krieken, Han; Jansen-van Rhijn, Connie M.; Warnaar, Sven O.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Litvinov, Sergey V.

    1999-01-01

    Uterine cervix represents a convenient model for the study of the gradual transformation of normal squamous epithelium via low- to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Because SIL, on the basis of the cytokeratins expressed, are thought to originate from the reserve cells, we analyzed whether SILs also show a reserve cell phenotype with respect to intercellular interactions. The changes in expression and subcellular localization of the components of the adherens junction and de...

  16. A Rare Presentation of Lymphoma of the Cervix with Cross-Sectional Imaging Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Brinda Rao Korivi; Jensen, Corey T.; Madhavi Patnana; Patel, Keyur P.; Tharakeswara K. Bathala

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the cervix is an extremely uncommon entity, with no standard established treatment protocol. A 43-year-old asymptomatic female with a history of dual hit blastic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia in complete remission presented with an incidental cervical mass, which was initially felt to represent a cervical fibroid on computed tomography (CT). It was further evaluated with ultrasound, biopsy, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which demonstrated ...

  17. Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a rare complication of therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPolla, J.; Foucar, E.; Leshin, B.; Whitaker, D.; Anderson, B.

    1985-11-01

    The clinical and pathological features of a case of multifocal lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva are reported in a patient with chronic lymphedema of a lower extremity. Ten years previously the patient had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Although lymphangioma circumscriptum is an extremely rare complication of altered lymphatic drainage, the presence of multiple noninflammatory vesicular appearing lesions in this setting should suggest the correct diagnosis.

  18. In vivo high-resolution magnetic resonance elastography of the uterine corpus and cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuyuan [The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang (China); Asbach, Patrick; Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Hamm, Bernd; Sack, Ingolf; Guo, Jing [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Thomas, Anke [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Berlin (Germany); Braun, Juergen [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    To apply 3D multifrequency MR elastography (3DMMRE) to the uterus and analyse the viscoelasticity of the uterine tissue in healthy volunteers considering individual variations and variations over the menstrual cycle. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated in the study, one of whom was examined 12 times over two menstrual cycles. Pelvic 3DMMRE was performed on a 1.5-T scanner with seven vibration frequencies (30-60 Hz) using a piezoelectric driver. Two mechanical parameter maps were obtained corresponding to the magnitude (vertical stroke G* vertical stroke) and the phase angle (φ) of the complex shear modulus. On average, the uterine corpus had higher elasticity, but similar viscosity compared with the cervix, reflected by vertical stroke G* vertical stroke {sub uterine} {sub corpus} = 2.58 ± 0.52 kPa vs. vertical stroke G* vertical stroke {sub cervix} = 2.00 ± 0.34 kPa (p < 0.0001) and φ {sub uterine} {sub corpus} = 0.54 ± 0.08, φ {sub cervix} = 0.57 ± 0.12 (p = 0.428). With 2.23 ± 0.26 kPa, vertical stroke G* vertical stroke of the myometrium was lower in the secretory phase (SP) compared with that of the proliferative phase (PP, vertical stroke G* vertical stroke = 3.01 ± 0.26 kPa). For the endometrium, the value of vertical stroke G* vertical stroke in SP was 68 % lower than during PP (PP, vertical stroke G* vertical stroke = 3.34 ± 0.42 kPa; SP, vertical stroke G* vertical stroke = 1.97 ± 0.34 kPa; p = 0.0061). 3DMMRE produces high-resolution mechanical parameter maps of the uterus and cervix and shows sensitivity to structural and functional changes of the endometrium and myometrium during the menstrual cycle. (orig.)

  19. Multicentric pigmented Bowen's disease of the genitalia associated with carcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    King, C. M.; Yates, V. M.; Dave, V K

    1984-01-01

    A case of multicentric pigmented Bowen's disease in a 45 year old woman with a previous history of carcinoma of the cervix is described. The two conditions may have a common pathogenesis, and a preceding viral infection with herpes simplex or human papillomavirus could be of aetiological relevance. Patients with multicentric pigmented Bowen's disease may be at risk of developing other tumours of the genital tract. Treatment with carbon dioxide laser proved effective.

  20. Therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in preinvasive disease of the cervix and cervical cancer in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    154 pregnant women with displasis and cervical carcinoma of the uterus treated in the Institute in years 1953-1990 underwent investigation. Authors noticed that only 50 pathologies were diagnosed in 1st trimester of pregnancy and 85% constituted precancerous and early forms of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Authors presented the model of management and care of pregnancy, labour and puerperium in these patients. Due to this procedure we obtained 90% comparability of preliminary and final diagnosis. (author)

  1. Investigation of rectal complication after RALS-therapy for uterine cervix cancer using multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal injury is one of the major side effects after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. According to our previous reports, the cases of rectal complication were mainly related to the measured rectal dose in half of patients, and the other causes were related to the following factors; such as diabetes mellitus, hemorrhagic tendency, syphilis and so on. Concerning to rectal complication, these factors were investigated by means of the discriminant analysis, one of the multivariate analyses, in this paper. Twenty-eight factors as to radiation dose, laboratory tests and physical condition of patients were analyzed. From August 1978 through January 1980, 52 cases of previously untreated carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated using RALS, remotely controlled high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy, at our department. The data from 49 out of 52 cases were available for the discriminant analysis. By m eans of this analysis, it was found that these factors, such as the dose of whole pelvic irradiation, Point A dose of RALS, measured rectal dose by RALS, WGC-Z and TPHA were important factors for occurence of rectal complication. According to the discriminant score, 46 out of 49 cases (94 %) could be correctly discriminated. There were two cases of false positive and one false negative. Form February 1980 through July 1980, 27 cases of previously untreated carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated at our department. The obtained discriminant function was applied to these 27 cases, and 24 out of 27 cases (89 %) were correctly predicted. There were two cases of false positive, and one of false negative. Discriminant analysis is useful for the prediction of rectal complication after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (J.P.N.)

  2. Immunophenotype and human papillomavirus status of serous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Shinichi; Sasajima, Yuko; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Oda-Otomo, Rie; Okada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Serous adenocarcinoma of the cervix (SACC) is a very rare tumor. Our study aimed to characterize the immune profile and human papillomavirus (HPV) status of SACC, in comparison with other serous adenocarcinomas arising in the female genital tract. The pathological specimens obtained from 81 patients with serous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (n = 12), 29 endometrium, 20 ovary and 20 patients with mucinous carcinoma of the uterine cervix were reviewed. We assessed the expression of WT-1, p53, p16, HER2, CEA, and CA125 by immunohistochemistry and HPV DNA by PCR in 12 SACC samples. Their immune profile was compared with that of uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), ovarian serous adenocarcinoma (OSA), and mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma (MEA). WT-1 and HER2 were expressed in very few SACC samples (0 and 0%, respectively), but p16, CA125, CEA and p53 were present in 100, 92, 58 and 50%, respectively. The difference in WT-1 expression between SACC and UPSC, MEA is not significant, but SACC differ significantly from OSA (p UPSC, whereas the frequency of expression of WT-1 was significantly lower in SACC than OSA. It appeared that p53 expression was associated with worse clinical outcome in patients with SACC, and that HPV infection was related to its occurrence. PMID:25370301

  3. Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with diminished survival in carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between overall survival and prognostic factors in carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation therapy. A clinicopathologic study was performed on 24 patients. Methods and Materials: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies were stained for Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Topoisomerase I, Topoisomerase II, and p53. Clinical factors such as stage, grade, tumor size, pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin level, and radiotherapy dose were also evaluated. Results: Median follow-up was 75 months for living patients. The only immunohistochemical or clinical factor that was associated with improved survival was decreased COX-2 distribution staining. High COX-2 distribution staining was associated with decreased overall survival (p=0.021) and decreased disease-free survival (p=0.015) by log-rank comparison of Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The 5-year overall survival rates for tumors with low vs. high COX-2 distribution values were 75% and 35%, respectively. COX-2 staining intensity was found to correlate positively with tumor size (p=0.022). Conclusion: These findings indicate that increased expression of COX-2 portends a diminished survival in patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy. Because COX-2 is an early-response gene involved in angiogenesis and inducible by different stimuli, these data may indicate opportunity to intervene with specific inhibitors of COX-2 in carcinoma of the cervix

  4. Radical radiotherapy for cervix cancer: The effect of waiting time on outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the effect of treatment waiting time on clinical outcome for patients with cervix cancers treated with radical radiotherapy. Methods and materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cervix cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy between 1990 and 2001 at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre. Analyses were performed according to the three following separate definitions of waiting times: interval from start of radiotherapy to (1) date of initial biopsy (2) date of examination under anesthesia, and (3) date of radiation oncology consultation. Associations between waiting times and patient characteristics and disease control were investigated using t-tests, analyses of variance, and Cox regression analyses. Results: A total of 195 patients were studied. The vast majority of patients were treated within 5, 6, and 8 weeks of their consultation (91%), examination under anesthesia (88%), and biopsy (81%), respectively. On average, delays between initial biopsy and treatment start were greater for older patients (p = 0.025) (5.8 weeks for 70 years old) and those with smaller tumors (p 4 cm vs. 6.3 weeks for ≤4 cm). Univariate analysis revealed no adverse effect of treatment delay on tumor control. Multivariate analysis, with the inclusion of multiple prognostic tumor and treatment parameters, revealed an adverse effect of treatment delay on survival outcomes. Conclusions: Longer radiotherapy waiting times were found to be associated with diminished survival outcomes for patients treated radically for cervix cancer. The significance of this observed association requires further investigation

  5. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type of the uterine cervix: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Makiko; Oishi, Naoki; Nakazawa, Tadao; Nakazawa, Kumiko; Mitsumori, Toru; Yuminamochi, Tsutomu; Kirito, Keita; Hirata, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    We report a rare case of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type of the uterine cervix that showed cytologic features mimicking cervical cancer. A 65-year-old woman presented with vaginal bleeding. Gynecological examination revealed a bulky tumor of the cervix. A conventional Papanicolaou-stained cervical smear showed hypercellularity consisting of numerous variably sized cohesive clusters that mimicked epithelial tumors, with a necrotic and inflammatory background. A small number of individually scattered cells were also identified. These scattered cells showed pleomorphic, often cleaved, or horseshoe-shaped nuclei and pale cytoplasm. Biopsy specimens revealed a diffuse growth of atypical cells with an angiocentric pattern. Extensive necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were present. There were numerous mitotic figures. The tumor cells were positive for CD45RO, CD3ε, CD56, granzyme B, TIA-1, CD7, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA (EBER) by in situ hybridization, and negative for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, and CD30. Based on these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type of the uterine cervix. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:430-433. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26872300

  6. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotriya, D.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, R. N. L.

    2015-06-01

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  7. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrotriya, D., E-mail: shrotriya2007@gmail.com; Srivastava, R. N. L. [Department of Radiotherapy, J.K. Cancer Institute Kanpur-208019 (India); Kumar, S. [Department of Physics, Christ Church College, Kanpur-208001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  8. Translabial ultrasound of the third-trimester uterine cervix. Correlation with digital examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, B S; Nyberg, D A; Luthy, D A; Hirsch, J H; Hickok, D E; Petty, C N

    1990-12-01

    This prospective blinded study compared translabial ultrasound (TLU) and digital palpation of the cervix among women whose cervix could not be visualized adequately or at all with transabdominal ultrasound during the third trimester of pregnancy. The cervical canal and internal cervical os were adequately visualized during 109 of 113 TLUs (96%). The TLU was well tolerated by the patients; only two patients refused the TLU pending discussion of the technique with their obstetrician. Among 43 examinations of patients without clinical cervical effacement, TLU showed a cervical length of 2.5 to 4.2 cm (mean, 2.9 cm). An excellent correlation (R = 0.90) was noted between cervical length on TLU and percentage of cervical effacement on digital examination. The correlation between amount of cervical dilatation on TLU and on digital examination was not high (R = 0.58). We conclude that the measurements of cervical length on TLU correlate well with the amount of cervical effacement on digital examination and that TLU provides a rapid and well-tolerated alternative technique to visualize the third-trimester uterine cervix. PMID:2277401

  9. Insufficiency fracture of the pelvis after the radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix has been reported since early days of this century. Recently, the concept of insufficiency fracture has been confirmed. Insufficiency fracture is one of the stress fractures and occurs when the elastic resistance of bone is inadequate to withstand normal or physiological stress. In the American and European studies, radiotherapy is known as a cause of insufficiency fracture. There are no reports on insufficiency fracture in the Japanese literatures. Four cases of carcinomas of the uterine cervix presented pelvic insufficiency fractures following radiotherapy. In the pubic bone, a vertical parasymphyseal fracture with mixed lytic and sclerotic changes of surrounding tissue is characteristic. Sacral insufficiency fracture shows a vertical or horizontal line with lytic and sclerotic appearance. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive modality for the early detection. H-shaped configuration is diagnostic for sacral insufficiency fracture. CT is an accurate technique demonstrating a vertical fracture and excluding the malignant bony lesion. Although radiological findings of insufficiency fracture are similar to bone malignancy, differential diagnosis from malignant lesions is possible. Bony symptoms of all patients disappeared without specific treatments. In the follow-up study of patients with carcinomas of the uterine cervix after radiotherapy, it is important to have the consideration on insufficiency fracture. (author)

  10. Insufficiency fracture of the pelvis after the radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Teppei; Sugiyama, Akira; Ichinohe, Kenji; Teshima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motoichiro; Takai, Michikatsu; Kaneko, Masao (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Bone injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix has been reported since early days of this century. Recently, the concept of insufficiency fracture has been confirmed. Insufficiency fracture is one of the stress fractures and occurs when the elastic resistance of bone is inadequate to withstand normal or physiological stress. In the American and European studies, radiotherapy is known as a cause of insufficiency fracture. There are no reports on insufficiency fracture in the Japanese literatures. Four cases of carcinomas of the uterine cervix presented pelvic insufficiency fractures following radiotherapy. In the pubic bone, a vertical parasymphyseal fracture with mixed lytic and sclerotic changes of surrounding tissue is characteristic. Sacral insufficiency fracture shows a vertical or horizontal line with lytic and sclerotic appearance. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive modality for the early detection. H-shaped configuration is diagnostic for sacral insufficiency fracture. CT is an accurate technique demonstrating a vertical fracture and excluding the malignant bony lesion. Although radiological findings of insufficiency fracture are similar to bone malignancy, differential diagnosis from malignant lesions is possible. Bony symptoms of all patients disappeared without specific treatments. In the follow-up study of patients with carcinomas of the uterine cervix after radiotherapy, it is important to have the consideration on insufficiency fracture. (author).

  11. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  12. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  13. Combined inhaled salbutamol and mannitol therapy for mucus hyper-secretion in pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Ballerin, Giulia; Morgan, Lucy; Buddle, Lachlan; Scalia, Santo; Young, Paul M

    2014-03-01

    This study focuses on the co-engineering of salbutamol sulphate (SS), a common bronchodilator, and mannitol (MA), a mucolytic, as a potential combination therapy for mucus hypersecretion. This combination was chosen to have a synergic effect on the airways: the SS will act on the β2-receptor for relaxation of smooth muscle and enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, whilst mannitol will improve the fluidity of mucus, consequently enhancing its clearance from the lung. A series of co-spray-dried samples, containing therapeutically relevant doses of SS and MA, were prepared. The physico-chemical characteristics of the formulations were evaluated in terms of size distribution, morphology, thermal and moisture response and aerosol performance. Additionally, the formulations were evaluated for their effects on cell viability and transport across air interface Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells, contractibility effects on bronchial smooth muscle cells and cilia beat activity using ciliated nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The formulations demonstrated size distributions and aerosol performance suitable for inhalation therapy. Transport studies revealed that the MA component of the formulation enhanced penetration of SS across the complex mucus layer and the lung epithelia cells. Furthermore, the formulation in the ratios of SS 10(-6) and MA 10(-3) M gave a significant increase in cilia beat frequency whilst simultaneously preventing smooth muscle contraction associated with mannitol administration. These studies have established that co-spray dried combination formulations of MA and SS can be successfully prepared with limited toxicity, good aerosol performance and the ability to increase ciliary beat frequency for improving the mucociliary clearance in patients suffering from hyper-secretory diseases, whilst simultaneously acting on the underlying smooth muscle. PMID:24431080

  14. Mucosal bacterial microflora and mucus layer thickness in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Fyderek, Magdalena Strus, Kinga Kowalska-Duplaga, Tomasz Gosiewski, Andrzej Wędrychowicz, Urszula Jedynak-Wąsowicz, Małgorzata Sładek, Stanisław Pieczarkowski, Paweł Adamski, Piotr Kochan, Piotr B Heczko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the mucosa-associated bacterial microflora and mucus layer in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.METHODS: Sixty-one adolescents (mean age 15 years, SD ± 4.13 were included in the study. Intestinal biopsies from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of IBD patients and from controls with functional abdominal pain were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The number of microbes belonging to the same group was calculated per weight of collected tissue. The mucus thickness in frozen samples was measured under a fluorescent microscope.RESULTS: The ratios of different bacterial groups in inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of IBD patients and controls were specific for particular diseases. Streptococcus spp. were predominant in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn’s disease (CD patients (80% of all bacteria, and Lactobacillus spp. were predominant in ulcerative colitis patients (90%. The differences were statistically significant (P = 0.01-0.001. Lower number of bifidobacteria was observed in the whole IBD group. A relation was also found between clinical and endoscopic severity and decreased numbers of Lactobacillus and, to a lesser extent, of Streptococcus in biopsies from CD patients. The mucus layer in the inflamed sites was significantly thinner as compared to controls (P = 0.0033 and to non-inflamed areas in IBD patients (P = 0.031.CONCLUSION: The significantly thinner mucosa of IBD patients showed a predominance of some aerobes specific for particular diseases, their numbers decreased in relation to higher clinical and endoscopic activity of the disease.

  15. Coral-mucus-associated Vibrio integrons in the Great Barrier Reef: genomic hotspots for environmental adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Jeremy E.; Bourne, David G; Curtis, Bruce; Dlutek, Marlena; Stokes, H. W.; Doolittle, W Ford; Boucher, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Integron cassette arrays in a dozen cultivars of the most prevalent group of Vibrio isolates obtained from mucus expelled by a scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) colony living on the Great Barrier Reef were sequenced and compared. Although all cultivars showed >99% identity across recA, pyrH and rpoB genes, no two had more than 10% of their integron-associated gene cassettes in common, and some individuals shared cassettes exclusively with distantly-related members of the genus. Of ...

  16. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng;

    2010-01-01

    . The intestinal mucus layer of germ free mice has been shown to display a distinctly different composition and structure compared to mucus from conventionally bred animals in vitro and in vivo. This points towards an important role of the microbiota in the regulation of mucin production. To which...... extent expression of all mucin genes are dependent on the presence of microorganisms and whether specific bacteria are capable of regulating mucus production in early life remains, however, to be established. The very first period after birth is believed to be vulnerable for establishment of the gut...... a regulatory role in the regulation of production of mucin, the importance of endogenous regulation as opposed to gut microbiota has not been investigated. Four groups of mouse pups (n=8 in each group) from differently colonized dams were analyzed with respect to expression of genes involved in...

  17. Association between invasive cancer of the cervix and HIV-1 infection in Tanzania: the need for dual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoma Twalib

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer of the cervix is the second commonest malignancy in females worldwide and is the leading malignancy among women in Tanzania. Cancer of the cervix has been strongly associated with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV which is a sexually transmitted disease. However, the role of HIV-1 in the aetiology of cancer of the cervix is less clear. Studies suggest that HPV and HIV-1 infection are synergistic and therefore their dual occurrence may fuel increased incidence of cancer of the cervix and AIDS. We therefore conducted a study to determine the association between cancer of the cervix and HIV-1. Methods The study was carried out in Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania between January and March 2007. A hospital-based case control design was used to study 138 cases and 138 controls. The cases were consenting women 18 years and above with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, while the controls were consenting non-cancer adult women attendants or visitors. The participants were counselled and tested for HIV-1 and interviewed to assess risk factors for cancer of the cervix and HIV-1. Estimation of risk was done by computing odds ratios and confidence intervals. Confounding and interaction between the factors were assessed using logistic regression. Results HIV-1 prevalence was much higher among the cases (21.0% than among the controls (11.6%. In logistic regression, HIV-1 was associated with cancer of the cervix (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4–5.9. Among the cases the mean age was lower for HIV-1 infected (44.3 years than HIV-1 uninfected women (54 years, p = 0.0001. Conclusion HIV-1 infection is associated with invasive cancer of the cervix. Resource-constrained countries with a high burden of HIV-1 and cervical cancer should adopt a high-risk approach that targets HIV-1 positive women for screening of cervical cancer initially by utilizing HIV/AIDS resources.

  18. Copper oxide nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation and mucus production in asthmatic mice via MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ko, Je-Won; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-05-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs), metal oxide nanoparticles were used in multiple applications including wood preservation, antimicrobial textiles, catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation and heat transfer fluid in machines. We investigated the effects of CuONPs on the respiratory system in Balb/c mice. In addition, to investigate the effects of CuONPs on asthma development, we used a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. CuONPs markedly increased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts, proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). CuONPs induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion with increases in phosphorylation of the MAPKs (Erk, JNK and p38). In the OVA-induced asthma model, CuONPs aggravated the increased AHR, inflammatory cell count, proinflammatory cytokines, ROS and immunoglobulin E induced by OVA exposure. In addition, CuONPs markedly increased inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung and mucus secretions, and MAPK phosphorylation was elevated compared to OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Taken together, CuONPs exhibited toxicity on the respiratory system, which was associated with the MAPK phosphorylation. In addition, CuONPs exposure aggravated the development of asthma. We conclude that CuONPs exposure has a potential toxicity in humans with respiratory disease. PMID:26472121

  19. UV-absorbing bacteria in coral mucus and their response to simulated temperature elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, J.; Kannapiran, E.; Manikandan, B.; Francis, K.; Arora, Shruti; Karunya, E.; Kumar, Amit; Singh, S. K.; Jose, Jiya

    2013-12-01

    Reef-building corals encompass various strategies to defend against harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Coral mucus contains UV-absorbing compounds and has rich prokaryotic diversity associated with it. In this study, we isolated and characterized the UV-absorbing bacteria from the mucus of the corals Porites lutea and Acropora hyacinthus during the pre-summer and summer seasons. A total of 17 UV-absorbing bacteria were isolated and sequenced. The UV-absorbing bacteria showed UV absorption at wavelengths ranging from λ max = 333 nm to λ min = 208 nm. Analysis of the DNA sequences revealed that the majority of the UV-absorbing bacteria belonged to the family Firmicutes and the remaining belonged to the family Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria). Comparison of the sequences with the curated database yielded four distinct bacterial groups belonging to the genus Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Salinicoccus and Vibrio. The absorption peaks for the UV-absorbing bacteria shifted to the UV-A range (320-400 nm) when they were incubated at higher temperatures. Deciphering the complex relationship between corals and their associated bacteria will help us to understand their adaptive strategies to various stresses.

  20. Effect of chest physiotherapy on the removal of mucus in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effectiveness of some of the components of a physiotherapy regimen on the removal of mucus from the lungs of 6 subjects with cystic fibrosis. On 5 randomized study days, after inhalation of a 99mTc-human serum albumin aerosol to label primarily the large airways, the removal of lung radioactivity was measured during 40 min of (a) spontaneous cough while at rest (control), (b) postural drainage, (c) postural drainage plus mechanical percussion, (d) combined maneuvers (postural drainage, deep breathing with vibrations, and percussion) administered by a physiotherapist, (e) directed vigorous cough. Measurements continued for an additional 2 h of quiet rest. Compared with the control day, all forms of intervention significantly improved the removal of mucus: cough (p less than 0.005), physiotherapy maneuvers (0.005 less than or equal to p less than 0.01), postural drainage (p less than 0.05), and postural drainage plus percussion (p less than 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between regimented cough alone and therapist-administered combined maneuvers, nor between postural drainage alone and with mechanical percussion. We conclude that in cystic fibrosis, vigorous, regimented cough sessions may be as effective as therapist-administered physiotherapy in removing pulmonary secretions. Postural drainage, although better than the control maneuver, was not as effective as cough and was not enhanced by mechanical percussion. Frequent, vigorous self-directed cough sessions are potentially as useful as more complex measures for effective bronchial toilet

  1. Effect of chest physiotherapy on the removal of mucus in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, C.M.; Waldes, R.; Sampson, D.; Newhouse, M.T.

    1982-07-01

    We studied the effectiveness of some of the components of a physiotherapy regimen on the removal of mucus from the lungs of 6 subjects with cystic fibrosis. On 5 randomized study days, after inhalation of a /sup 99/mTc-human serum albumin aerosol to label primarily the large airways, the removal of lung radioactivity was measured during 40 min of (a) spontaneous cough while at rest (control), (b) postural drainage, (c) postural drainage plus mechanical percussion, (d) combined maneuvers (postural drainage, deep breathing with vibrations, and percussion) administered by a physiotherapist, (e) directed vigorous cough. Measurements continued for an additional 2 h of quiet rest. Compared with the control day, all forms of intervention significantly improved the removal of mucus: cough (p less than 0.005), physiotherapy maneuvers (0.005 less than or equal to p less than 0.01), postural drainage (p less than 0.05), and postural drainage plus percussion (p less than 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between regimented cough alone and therapist-administered combined maneuvers, nor between postural drainage alone and with mechanical percussion. We conclude that in cystic fibrosis, vigorous, regimented cough sessions may be as effective as therapist-administered physiotherapy in removing pulmonary secretions. Postural drainage, although better than the control maneuver, was not as effective as cough and was not enhanced by mechanical percussion. Frequent, vigorous self-directed cough sessions are potentially as useful as more complex measures for effective bronchial toilet.

  2. Types of oligosaccharide sulphation, depending on mucus glycoprotein source, corpus or antral, in rat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goso, Y; Hotta, K

    1989-01-01

    Radiolabelled mucus glycoprotein was obtained from tissue and a culture medium each of the corpus and antrum of rat stomach incubated with [35S]sulphate in vitro. Gel-filtration analysis of oligosaccharides liberated by alkaline-borohydride treatment from glycoproteins indicated that 35S-labelled oligosaccharides from the corpus vary considerably with respect to chain length whereas those from antral mucus glycoprotein are composed of small oligosaccharides. Examination of the reduced radiolabelled products obtained by HNO2 cleavage of the hydrazine-treated oligosaccharides indicated sulphate esters of N-acetylglucosamine to be present at three locations on a carbohydrate unit: [35S]sulphated monosaccharide (2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate), [35S]sulphated disaccharide [galactosyl(beta 1-4)-2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate] and [35S]sulphated trisaccharide [fucosyl(alpha 1-2)-galactosyl(beta 1-4)-2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate]. Sulphated disaccharide and trisaccharide, possibly originating from the N-acetyl-lactosamine and fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine sequences respectively, were detected in the corpus, especially as large oligosaccharides, but were present in the antrum in only very small amounts. The sulphated monosaccharide, however, most probably originating from 6-sulphated N-acetylglucosamine residues at non-reducing termini, was present in all oligosaccharide fractions in both the corpus and antrum. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2695066

  3. Proteomic analysis of epidermal mucus from sea lice-infected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, F; Jensen, L B; Uleberg, K E; Larssen, E; Rajalahti, T; Mullins, J; Obach, A

    2013-03-01

    Health diets that contain immunostimulants and other functional ingredients can strengthen the immune response in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and thereby reduce sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infection levels. Such diets can be used to supplement other treatments and will potentially reduce the need for delousing and medication. A sea lice infection trial was conducted on fish with an average weight of 215 g. One control diet and four experimental diets containing functional ingredients were produced. The diets were fed to salmon for 4 weeks before infection with sea lice copepodids. When lice had developed to chalimus III/IV, 88 fish per diet were examined for lice loads. Mucus samples from fish fed the different diets were taken before and after lice infection. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize the protein composition in the epidermal mucus of Atlantic salmon and to identify quantitative alterations in protein expression. Multivariate analysis of the generated data sets was performed to identify protein biomarkers. Putative biomarkers associated with functional feed intake and with sea lice infection have been identified and can form the basis for strategic validation experiments with selected functional feeds. PMID:23305410

  4. The Dosimetric Consequences of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: The Impact of Organ Motion, Deformation and Tumour Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Karen Siah Huey

    Hypothesis: In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervix cancer, the dose received by the tumour target and surrounding normal tissues is significantly different to that indicated by a single static plan. Rationale: The optimal use of IMRT in cervix cancer requires a greater attention to clinical target volume (CTV) definition and tumour & normal organ motion to assure maximum tumour control with the fewest side effects. Research Aims: 1) Generate consensus CTV contouring guidelines for cervix cancer; 2) Evaluate intra-pelvic tumour and organ dynamics during radiotherapy; 3) Analyze the dose consequences of intra-pelvic organ dynamics on different radiotherapy strategies. Results: Consensus CTV definitions were generated using experts-in-the-field. Substantial changes in tumour volume and organ motion, resulted in significant reductions in accumulated dose to tumour targets and variability in accumulated dose to surrounding normal tissues. Significance: Formalized CTV definitions for cervix cancer is important in ensuring consistent standards of practice. Complex and unpredictable tumour and organ dynamics mandates daily soft-tissue image guidance if IMRT is used. To maximize the benefits of IMRT for cervix cancer, a strategy of adaptation is necessary.

  5. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gloria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs, we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement

  6. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...... had no detectable effect on the transfer kinetics observed for the tetracycline resistance encoding plasmid pCF10. In MUCUS, presence of the same pheromone significantly increased the transfer efficiency observed during the first 2 h of conjugation, while the effect was less pronounced later in the...

  7. Successive shifts in the microbial community of the surface mucus layer and tissues of the coral Acropora muricata under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sonny T M; Davy, Simon K; Tang, Sen-Lin; Fan, Tung-Yung; Kench, Paul S

    2015-12-01

    The coral mucus may harbor commensal bacteria that inhibit growth of pathogens. Therefore, there is a need to understand the dynamics of bacterial communities between the coral mucus and tissues. Nubbins of Acropora muricata were subjected to increasing water temperatures of 26°C-33°C, to simultaneously explore the bacterial diversity in coral mucus and tissues by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Photochemical efficiency of symbiotic dinoflagellates within the corals declined above 31°C. Both the mucus and tissues of healthy A. muricata were dominated by γ-Proteobacteria, but under thermal stress there was a shift towards bacteria from the Verrucomicrobiaceae and α-Proteobacteria. Members of Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria also become more prominent at higher temperatures. The relative abundance of Vibrio spp. in the coral mucus increased at 29°C, but at 31°C, there was a drop in the relative abundance of Vibrio spp. in the mucus, with a reciprocal increase in the tissues. On the other hand, during bleaching, the relative abundance of Endozoicomonas spp. decreased in the tissues with a reciprocal increase in the mucus. This is the first systematic experiment that shows the potential for a bacterial community shift between the coral surface mucus and tissues in a thermally stressed coral. PMID:26564958

  8. Relaxin regulates hyaluronan synthesis and aquaporins in the cervix of late pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Yu May; Tiwari, Anjana; Mahendroo, Mala; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2012-12-01

    Cervical ripening is associated with loss of structural integrity and tensile strength, thus enabling the cervix to dilate at term. It is characterized by changes in glycosaminoglycan composition, increased water content, and a progressive reorganization of the collagen network. The peptide hormone relaxin via interaction with its receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), promotes tissue hydration and increases cervical hyaluronan (HA) concentrations, but the mechanisms that regulate these effects are not known. This study in relaxin mutant (Rln(-/-)) mice tested the hypothesis that relaxin regulates HA synthase and aquaporin (AQP) expression in the cervix. We also assessed expression of the RXFP1 protein by immunohistochemistry. Pregnant Rln(-/-) mice had lower Has2 and Aqp3 expression on d 18.5 of pregnancy and decreased cervical HA compared with wild-type Rln(+/+) mice. Chronic infusion of relaxin for 4 or 6 d in pregnant Rln(-/-) mice reversed these phenotypes and increased Has2 and Aqp3 compared with placebo controls. Relaxin-treated mice also had lower Has1 and Aqp5. Changes in gene expression were paralleled by increases in cervical HA and variations in AQP3 and AQP5 protein localization in epithelial cells of Rln(-/-) cervices. Our findings demonstrate that relaxin alters AQP expression in the cervix and initiates changes in glycosaminoglycan composition through increased HA synthesis. These effects are likely mediated through RXFP1 localized to subepithelial stromal cells and epithelial cells. We suggest these actions of relaxin collectively promote water recruitment into the extracellular matrix to loosen the dense collagen fiber network. PMID:23087172

  9. Locally advanced cervix cancer: chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiotherapy. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy has potential advantages for locally advanced cervix cancer. It can down stage a cancer and allow definitive local therapy to be technically possible (surgery), or potentially more effective (radiotherapy). It can also eradicate subclinical systemic metastases. This report reviews a single institution's experience of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy for cervix cancer over a 13-year period. One hundred and six patients were treated with this intent. The patients were analysed for their response to chemotherapy, treatment received, survival, relapse and toxicity. The chemotherapy was feasible and the majority of patients had a complete or partial response (58.5%). Eight patients did not proceed to local treatment. Forty-six patients had definitive surgery and 52 had definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival was 27% and the majority of patients died with disease. The first site of relapse was usually in the pelvis (46.2%). Late complications that required ongoing medical therapy (n = 6) or surgical intervention (n = 2) were recorded in eight patients (7.5%). On univariate analysis stage (P= 0.04), tumour size (P = 0.01), lymph node status (P=0.003), response to chemotherapy (P = 0.045) and treatment (P = 0.003) were all significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.0001) and nodal status (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of survival. Despite the impressive responses to chemotherapy of advanced cervix cancer, there is evidence from randomized trials that it does not improve or compromise survival prior to radiotherapy. As its role prior to surgery remains unclear, it should not be used in this setting outside a prospective randomized trial. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G G Donders

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV an inducing factor for the development of (pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix? DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. SAMPLE: 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. METHODS: Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6. In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05, mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  11. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were included in this study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected and low risk factors for ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma were analyzed. RESULTS The ovary metastasis rate of cervical adenocarcinoma in this study was 4.95%, while it is only 2% in stage IB1. Pathological grade, LSVI, lymph node status, tumor size, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis, while LSVI, lymph node status, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in all stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, but involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus was an independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis in stage IB. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of ovarian metastasis in cervical adenocarcinoma is low. Our study suggests that ovarian preservation is safe and feasible in patients with no risk factors for ovarian metastasis. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26852916

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of MIB-1 and PCNA in precancerous and cancerous lesions of uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Mati Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present study was done to analyze the immunoexpression of diagnostic markers (MIB-1: molecular immunology borstel and PCNA: proliferating cell nuclear antigen in grading cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in cervix. Setting and Design: Total 150 cervical biopsies were divided into four groups respectively; Group I-Normal (n = 32, Group II- CIN (n = 60, Group III- SCC (n = 44, Group IV- CA cervix (n = 14 respectively. Materials and Methods: These biopsies were stained with monoclonal antibodies by streptavidin--biotin method. Mean labeling index was calculated and grading was performed using the I--III scoring system. Statistical Analysis: Findings were correlated with age and menopausal status. Statistical analysis was done by using student sample′t′ test and analysis of variance (ANOVA by SPSS 10 package. Results: MIB-1 immunostaining was positive in 112/150 (74.6% cases and PCNA in 118 /150 (78.6% cases. Labeling indices showed linear progression from normal to CIN to SCC to cancer lesion. Few cases of low-grade CIN lesion had high proliferative index. A significant positive correlation was found between age and PCNA and MIB-1 values (P < 0.05 when comparison was made for all the cases. Conclusion: These markers may be useful in identifying low-grade CIN lesion with high proliferative index. These cases should be kept for follow up studies so that proper intervention can be taken at an early stage. This method is simple and cost effective and can easily be done in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded tissues in a clinical laboratory for grading CIN and SCC lesions in cervix.

  13. The effects of alpha and ndash;tocopherol on endometrial uterine vascularization, uterine cervix oxidative stress and proliferation in female rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Erna Taulina Purba

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion:Administration of and #61537; and ndash;tocopherolcan increase the vascularization in endometrial uterine of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. Besides, and #61537; and ndash;tocopherolinhibit uterine cervix oxidative stress, but can't induces the proliferation of uterine cervix epithelial cells. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 689-696

  14. Cervix-to-rectum measuring device in a radiation applicator for use in the treatment of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischell, D. R.; Mazique, J. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cervix-to-rectum measuring device to be used in the treatment of cervical cancer is described. It includes a handle and a probe pivotably connected to the handle for insertion in the rectum. The measuring device further includes means for coupling the handle to an intrauterine radiation applicator when the latter is positioned in the uterine cervix and the probe is inserted in the rectum to pivot the handle about the probe. A gear is provided which is adapted to pivot with the probe. A pinion pivotably connected to the handle meshes with the gear. A pointer fixed to the pinion is displaced in response to the pivoting of the handle about the probe, and this displacement can be read from a scale on the handle, providing an indication of the cervix-to-rectum distance.

  15. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with malignant pleural effusion in a 29-year old female- A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti R. Samanta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of cervix constitute about 7-15% of all cervical cancer. Clear cell carcinoma, a form of cervical adenocarcinoma is a very rare tumor constituting only 4% of cervical carcinoma. Risk factor and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. Intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only risk factor. Here we report an unusual case of clear cell carcinoma of cervix presented with bilateral pleural effusion, cytology of which shows adenocarcinoma. This is a rare case since patient had no history of diethylstilbestrol exposure and presented with bilateral pleural effusion. This is the first described case report of clear cell carcinoma of cervix with upfront malignant pleural effusion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1795-1797

  16. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Chadha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC, uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  17. [Morphofunctional features of the cervix uteri in women using hormonal contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilepskaia, V N; Kondrikov, N I; Nazarova, N M

    1991-12-01

    The causes of precancerous and cancerous diseases of the cervix are disputed. In women with menstrual disorders usually benign cervical disease is 5 times higher. In the 1960s the theory of hormonal genesis of cervical disease was advanced as similar pathogenetic processes in the cervix, endometrium, myometrium, and breasts resulted in hyperplastic changes in these organs. Ectopia can occur during sexual maturation under the influence of sex hormones. The maximum frequency (65.5%) of ectopia occurred up to age 20. Cervical ectopia can occur under use of oral contraceptives (OCs) for 6-12 months but it vanishes after discontinuation. In a study of 17,942 women aged 18-58 increased risk of preinvasive carcinoma of the cervix was found under longterm use of OCs. Increased frequency of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm from .9/10,000 women/year to 2.2/10,000 women/year was found only under longterm (up to 8 years) of OC use. An epidemiological investigation of 47,000 women using OCs for up to 10 years concluded that there was significant increase of frequency of cervical cancer compared with nonusers. It was 4 times higher in those taking OCs for over 10 years, although longterm use reduced uterine and ovarian cancer. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the endocervix was 14 times more frequent in OC users. In a sample of 128 women, 44% of whom were OC users, 24% had microglandular hyperplasia. Under the use of the 3-phase preparation Trisiston for 6 months-1 year ectopia was diagnosed in 13.6% of women that disappeared after cessation of use. Early cancer and dysplasia disappeared in 1/3 of women taking Enovid for 6-30 months after diagnosis. OCs promote the prophylaxis against genital cancer because women taking OCs undergo gynecological and cytological examinations more often, thus precancerous changes can be diagnosed early. The optimal and the safest method of contraception has to be chosen to minimize the effect on the cervix. PMID:1789353

  18. Nuclear and cytoplasmic oestrogen receptors in squamous carcinoma of the cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Soutter, W P; Pegoraro, R J; Green-Thompson, R. W.; Naidoo, D. V.; Joubert, S. M.; Philpott, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear and cytoplasmic oestrogen receptors (REN and REC) were sought in 5 normal cervices and in 43 specimens of squamous carcinoma of the cervix. All 3 tissues components of the 5 normal cervices contained both REN and REC. Thirty-five (81%) of the tumours contained receptors, but in only 9 (21%) were they found in both subcellular compartments. Twenty-four tumours (56%) had only REC and 2 had only REN. The potential therapeutic significance of these findings is not yet known, but it seems ...

  19. Carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in patients irradiated for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with carcinoma of the vulva and 3 with carcinoma of the vagina following radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix were analyzed. The interval between irradiation and diagnosis of the second tumor varied from 5 to 23 years. Despite the lack of having detailed information on irradiation factors in all patients, circumstantial evidence from this study suggests that radiation therapy may have contributed to the development of carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in some of the patients. Close follow-up patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the genital tract must emphasize inspection for new lesions. The incidences previously reported in the literature are also reviewed for comparison. (author)

  20. Carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in patients irradiated for carcinoma of the cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Iwao; Kakehi, Masae; Ono, Ryosuke; Watai, Kiichi; Yanagawa, Shigeo; Kasamatsu, Tatsuhiro

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with carcinoma of the vulva and 3 with carcinoma of the vagina following radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix were analyzed. The interval between irradiation and diagnosis of the second tumor varied from 5 to 23 years. Despite the lack of having detailed information on irradiation factors in all patients, circumstantial evidence from this study suggests that radiation therapy may have contributed to the development of carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in some of the patients. Close follow-up patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the genital tract must emphasize inspection for new lesions. The incidences previously reported in the literature are also reviewed for comparison. (author).

  1. Incidence of invasive cancers following carcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, F; Randimbison, L.; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix uteri, notified to the population-based Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud between 1974 and 1993, were actively followed up to 31 December 1993 for the occurrence of subsequent invasive neoplasms. Among 2190 incident cases of CIS, followed for a total of 22,225 person-years, 95 metachronous cancers were observed vs 77.9 expected, corresponding to a significant standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.2. Ten cases of invasive cervical ca...

  2. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the

  3. METASTATIC BREAST CANCER TO THE UTERINE CERVIX MIMICKING A GIANT CERVICAL LEIOMYOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORIKAWA, MAI; MORI, YUKIKO; NAGAI, SACHI; TANAKA, SHIHO; SAITO, SHIGEKO; OKAMOTO, TOMOMITSU

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metastasis to the uterine cervix is a complication of breast cancer that is not commonly known. Detection of cervical metastasis before the diagnosis of the primary tumor is even rarer. The present report describes a case of a 52-year-old woman who had a large cervical tumor appearing as a leiomyoma. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathological examination of the cervical tumor showed patterns characteristic of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, leading to the discovery of the primary in the left breast. She subsequently underwent mastectomy, hormone therapy and chemotherapy, and is alive at 7-year follow-up. PMID:23092107

  4. RESULTS OF 192IR CONTACT RADIATION THERAPY FOR CERVIX UTERI CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kravets

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of treatment for locally advanced cervix uteri cancer, by applying a 192Ir radioactive source for contact radiation. Three- and five-year overall and relapse-free survival rates have been obtained for stages: 82.5 and 82.5%; 78.4 and 78.4% for Stage IIb; 57 and 52.3%; 41.6 and 41.6 for IIIb; 53.3 and 47.3%; 42.4 and 37.7% for IVb, respectively.

  5. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  6. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico); ISSSTE General Hospital Dr. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  7. Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC) belongs to the neuroendocrine carcinomas, and it is a rare gynecological tumor of high-potential malignancy. It has a poorer prognosis compared to cervical squamous cancer or adenocarcinoma, and the therapeutic regimen of the disease differs. Diagnosis is based on pathomorphological characteristics, i.e., the small and round cancer cells (oat cell) which are uniform in shape and size, with the immunohistochemical marker helpful for diagnosis. Combined therapy is first recommended. Postoperative chemotherapy with platinum/etoposide (PE), vincristine/adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (VAC) and taxel/carboplatin (TP) can markedly improve the prognosis of early SCCC patients.

  8. EWING’S SARCOMA OR PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOUR OF CERVIX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor ( PNET is extremely rare in the female genital tract but it has high grade malignant potential. EFT of cervix can be easily confused with other small round cell neoplasm. It reinforces the value of IHC in its objective identification especially at unusual sites where they are found to have the same aggressive behavior as those arising from usual sites & are similarly found to be responsive to optimum local treatment & combination chemotherapy with radiotherapy. We herein report the case of PNET presenting in intrapartum period.

  9. Local use of metronidazole in dimethylsulfoxide in radiotherapy of cervix uteri cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of the local use of metronidazole dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for cervix uteri cancer patients was worked out. Applications of 1-2 g of metronidazole were well tolerated by the patients. Metronidazole concentrations in cervical tumors were high (about 1000 μg/g), in the blood they did not exceed 16 μg/ml. Experiments showed that metronidazole in DMSO diffused in the tissue, its concentrations at a distance of 2-3 cm from the surface were 180-260 μg/g. The local use of metronidazole in DMSO caused an increase in the rate of tumor radiation regression

  10. Rectal complications in carcinoma of the uterine cervix by RALS-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between July 1979 and January, 1980, we treated 24 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix with RALS-TRON-20B, using the rapid processing system of pretreatment dose calculation. The incidence of rectal complications (3/24) was the same as that of a historical control group (5/28). According to ROC curve analysis, 5 rectal complications were related to the measured rectal dose, not to the point A dose or mg-hrs. Our findings suggest that hemorrhagic tendency, syphilis and diabetes mellitus influence the rectal complications. (author)

  11. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  12. Mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy for uterine cervix cancer with a Selectron; An early experience of Osaka University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Takehiro; Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Kozuka, Takahiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Hideya (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Murayama, Shigeyuki

    1993-05-01

    From May 1991 through September 1992, a total of 17 previously untreated patients with invasive uterine cervix cancer and with intact uterus were treated with mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy administered with a Selectron. Early primary tumor responses for all patients were complete. No acute or subacute radiation injury was observed except one patient with aplastic anemia who developed rectal ulcer. Two patients of Stage IIIb died from tumor because of local, paraaortic lymph node and distant metastases. Our early experience concluded that Selectron MDR can be used for cervix cancer patients as safely and effectively as our previously used high-dose rate machine. (author).

  13. Tissue and serum fluorescence spectroscopy as a marker to monitor radiation therapy in cancer of human uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the development of neoplasia epithelial tissues undergo biochemical and structural changes that can manifest in tissue auto-fluorescence. Several research groups have reported the tissue fluorescence spectroscopy for the discrimination of carcinoma or human uterine cervix. And also there have been several reports on using different biomarkers for the detection of cervical cancer. It is attempted to make use of fluorescence spectroscopy technique to monitor the radiation therapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. The clinical samples from 10 patients with stage II and stage III B cervical cancer were analysed. The results showed significant changes in spectral characteristics in tissue fluorescence before and after radiation

  14. Chemotherapy, brachytherapy and surgery of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas: prognosis factors of local control and global survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protocol used allows an excellent local control of the uterine cervix carcinoma with an acceptable morbidity. To anticipate the presence of a tumor residue can be an evolution in the therapy management after external radiotherapy, particularly in optimized image-guided brachytherapy (MRI and PET)New utero vaginal applicators with parameters implantation allow to realise the dose complement at the distal parameters. These advances make consider an improvement of results in the management of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas. (N.C.)

  15. Immunolocalization of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype 4 (EP4) in the Cervix of Cyclic Bitches and Those with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    P Linharattanaruksa1, K Chatdarong1, S Ponglowhapan1, M Khalid3 and S Srisuwatanasagul2*

    2013-01-01

    Cervix is an important part of the reproductive tract; in non-pregnant animals it remains closed during anestrus and diestrus and is open only during estrus. In pathological conditions like pyometra, the cervix may be open or closed but the control mechanism is not clearly known. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is considered to be involved in changes of extracellular matrix via coupling to prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4). This study investigated the expression of EP4 in the cervices of bitch...

  16. Modified-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles downregulate cellular CDX2 expression and cross the gastric mucus barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sadio

    Full Text Available Development of effective non-viral vectors is of crucial importance in the implementation of RNA interference in clinical routine. The localized delivery of siRNAs to the gastrointestinal mucosa is highly desired but faces specific problems such as the stability in gastric acidity conditions and the presence of the mucus barrier. CDX2 is a transcription factor critical for intestinal differentiation being involved in the initiation and maintenance of gastrointestinal diseases. Specifically, it is the trigger of gastric intestinal metaplasia which is a precursor lesion of gastric cancer. Its expression is also altered in colorectal cancer, where it may constitute a lineage-survival oncogene. Our main objective was to develop a nanoparticle-delivery system of siRNA targeting CDX2 using modified chitosan as a vector. CDX2 expression was assessed in gastric carcinoma cell lines and nanoparticles behaviour in gastrointestinal mucus was tested in mouse explants. We show that imidazole-modified chitosan and trimethylchitosan/siRNA nanoparticles are able to downregulate CDX2 expression and overpass the gastric mucus layer but not colonic mucus. This system might constitute a potential therapeutic approach to treat CDX2-dependent gastric lesions.

  17. Urgent problems of improvement of stomatologic aid to patients with locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova О.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to develop the methods of increasing effectiveness of stomatologic accompanying therapy at all stages of locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus. Material and methods: The results of treatment of 563 patients with locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus have been analyzed. Among them 205 patients with the proved diagnosis were examined by a dentist. A special committee developed a plan of accompanying therapy where a stomatologic treatment was significant. Other 358 patients were not examined by a dentist before therapy. Re-sults. Planning of stomatologic aid and carrying out measures directed to the prevention of complications against the background of combined and complex therapy of locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus allows to decrease the number of hemorrhagic complications to 4,9%, local inflammatory processes — to 2,7% as well as other complications. Conclusion: Planning of accompanying stoma-tologic therapy and organization of adequate curable and rehabilitation measures significantly improves life quality of the patients with locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus.

  18. Culture independent characterization of bacteria associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from the Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Indhumathi, Thiruvalluvan; Ravi, Arumugam Veera; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2011-06-01

    Corals are sessile eukaryotic hosts which provide a unique surface for microbial colonization. Culture independent studies show that the coral mucus and tissue harbour diverse and abundant prokaryotic communities. However, little is known about the diversity of bacteria associated with the corals of Gulf of Mannar. The present study characterised the bacterial diversity associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from the Gulf of Mannar by 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. The bacterial communities of the mucus of A. digitifera were diverse, with representatives within the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and several unclassified bacteria. The culture independent bacterial population was totally different from our previous culture dependent study of the mucus and tissue of the same coral. 36% of the bacteria in the clone library of A. digitifera were found to be novel after full length sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene wherein several clones were found to be novel at the Genus and species level. The current study further supports the findings that Actinobacteria amount to a certain proportion among bacterial communities associated with corals. PMID:25187139

  19. Composition and Functional Characterization of Microbiome Associated with Mucus of the Coral Fungia echinata Collected from Andaman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Ghosh, Tarini S.; Das, Subrata K.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the community composition and functions of the microbiome associated with the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata based on metagenomic approach. Metagenome sequence data showed a dominance of the class Gammaproteobacteria followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Clostridia. At the order level, the most abundant groups were Pseudomonadales, Oceanospirillales, Alteromonadales, and Rhodobacterales. The genus Psychr...

  20. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng;

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  1. Complete genome sequence of Coriobacteriaceae Strain 68-1-3, a novel mucus- degrading isolate from the swine intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel Coriobacteriaceae bacterium (Strain 68-1-3) was isolated from the ileum of the swine intestinal tract using a selective mucus-based medium. Here we present the finished genome sequence for the swine commensal, totaling 1.97 Mb in size. Genome-wide differences and low 16S rRNA gene sequence ...

  2. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic mucus hypersecretion, and FEV1 decline, and subsequent hospitalization from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study on 5,354 women and 4,081 men 30 to 79 yr of age with...

  3. STOMATOLOGIC ASPECTS IN THERAPY OF LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED CANCER OF ORAL CAVITY MUCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Matyakin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to improve prophylaxis of dental complications during the therapy in the patients with locally distributed cancer of oral cavity mucus.Materials. Results of sanation of oral cavity in 305 patients with cancer of oral and pharyngeal area are analyzed.Results. The best results are noted in the patients given surgical sanation before chemo-radial therapy. The most number of complications is observed when teeth were extracted after chemical therapy in the period of radial therapy at summary focal dose above 20 Gy as well as in the late periods after radial therapy.Conclusion. A complex of preventive measures with using haemostatic sponge with canamycin in such patients decreases the number of complications and the terms of healing of alveoli of extracted teeth.

  4. Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates and major basic protein inhibits airway mucus secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Davey, R T; Lundgren, B;

    1991-01-01

    Possible roles of eosinophil (EO) products in modulating the release of mucus from airway explants were investigated. Cell- and membrane-free lysates from purified human EOs (1 to 20 x 10(5)) caused a dose-dependent release of respiratory glycoconjugates (RGC) from cultured feline tracheal explants....... Crude extracts from isolated EO granules also stimulated RGC release, suggesting that a granular protein might be responsible. Three proteins derived from EO granules, EO-derived neurotoxin, EO cationic protein (ECP), and major basic protein (MBP) were separated by sequential sizing and affinity...... chromatography. ECP (0.025 to 25 micrograms/ml) caused a dose-dependent increase in RGC release from both feline and human airway explants and also stimulated the release of the serous cell-marker, lactoferrin, from human bronchial explants. EO-derived neurotoxin (0.025 to 50 micrograms/ml) failed to affect RGC...

  5. Purification and characterization of elastase-specific inhibitor. Sequence homology with mucus proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M; Ryle, A P

    1991-01-01

    Elastase-specific inhibitor (ESI) was purified from sputum of patients with chronic bronchitis and compared with mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI, BrI) isolated, without the use of affinity chromatography on an enzyme, from non-purulent sputum of a patient with bronchial carcinoma. The N-terminal sequence of 27 residues of the latter was determined and showed serine as the only N-terminus. The partial N-terminal amino-acid sequence of ESI shows some homology with MPI, especially around the reactive site of MPI for human neutrophil elastase. This region could therefore be the reactive site of ESI. The thermodynamic and kinetic constants of the reactions of ESI with human neutrophil elastase and with porcine pancreatic elastase show that ESI is a fast-acting inhibitor. PMID:2039600

  6. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  7. Protection against heavy metal toxicity by mucus and scales in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, W F; Khan, M A

    1996-03-01

    Fingerlings of three freshwater fish showed differences in susceptibility to lethality of 250 mg/L lead suspension or lead nitrate solution in water. Among these, the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was more tolerant than green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The addition of mucus from largemouth bass, when added to jars containing lead, increased the LT-50 value (time to kill 50% of fingerling exposed to 250 mg/L lead) in green sunfish and goldfish. However, adding scales, especially if the scales were treated with an alkaline solution of cysteine and glycine, made all of these species tolerant to otherwise lethal concentrations of lead or mercury. The scales buffered the pH of lead nitrate solution as well as removed lead (and mercury) from water (by settling down at the bottom after sequestering lead). Scales of younger fingerlings of largemouth bass were more efficient in chelating heavy metals than those of older ones. PMID:8854966

  8. Mucus altering agents as adjuncts for nonviral gene transfer to airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, S; Kitson, C; Farley, R; Steel, R; Marriott, C; Parkins, D A; Scarpa, M; Wainwright, B; Evans, M J; Colledge, W H; Geddes, D M; Alton, E W

    2001-09-01

    Nonviral vectors have been shown to be a safe and valid alternative to recombinant viruses for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF). Nevertheless, gene transfer efficiency needs to be increased before clinical efficacy is likely in man. One barrier to increased efficacy is normal airway mucus. Using an ex vivo model of sheep tracheal epithelium, we show that this barrier can, in part, be overcome by treatment with the mucolytic agents, Nacystelyn or N-acetylcysteine using either a cationic lipid or a cationic polymer as the gene transfer agent. Further, in vivo application of either Nacystelyn or the anticholinergic glycopyrrolate, both clinically used agents, resulted in increased reporter gene expression in the mouse lung, but no significant correction of the bioelectric defect in CF null mice. These results, whilst unlikely to be sufficient in themselves to achieve clinically relevant gene therapy, may be a further useful step in the attainment of this goal. PMID:11571577

  9. Thermosetting gel for the delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid esters to the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaud, Sabine; Peng, Qian; Gurny, Robert; Lange, Norbert

    2008-07-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy has been proposed as an alternative, cervix-sparing treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this context, topical application of 5-ALA to the cervix is beneficial due to the small necessary dose and its minimal side effects. Therefore, lipophilic 5-ALA esters, such as hexylaminolevulinate (HAL), have led to improved local bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Hydrogels have shown to be more appropriate for the local delivery of these derivatives, but due to the limited long-term stability of such formulations at 25 degrees C, the development of an extemporaneously prepared hydrogel targeting CIN can be advantageous. Therefore, a poloxamer 407 thermosetting gel, which is liquid at room temperature and becomes a semi-solid when in contact with the female genital tract, has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Rheological evaluation has shown that a 17.0% poloxamer 407 hydrogel with a sol-gel transition at 24.8 +/- 0.6 degrees C was the best formulation for easy application and optimal residence time. Furthermore, similarly to other hydrogels previously tested, such a formulation shows a more complete HAL release in vitro than conventional cream vehicles, and tends to increase porphyrin accumulation in nude mice skin. Finally, in vitro release profiles were correlated to the in vivo results. PMID:17828758

  10. Role of surgery in breast metastasis from carcinoma of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common malignancy among women in India. Although metastatic disease is common, metastasis to breast is rare. A limited number of case reports are published in the world literature. Most of the previous reports of metastatic cervical carcinoma to breast are either autopsy series or widely disseminated disease where no treatment options were available. A rare case of cervical carcinoma presenting as metastasis in breast is reported here where palliative mastectomy improved the general condition of the patient. A female patient aged 58 years was diagnosed and treated for cervical carcinoma, FIGO stage 2B. Four months after the treatment which included both external beam and intracavitory radiotherapy, the patient presented with breast and lung metastasis. Palliative mastectomy was done which improved the general condition of the patient. Metastatic carcinoma of the cervix can present as a case of breast carcinoma. In an appropriate setting, this possibility should be kept in mind. Palliative mastectomy should be offered for patients of cervical carcinoma with metastasis to breast when needed.

  11. Biometric analysis of uterine cervix during pregnancy using trans vaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the uterine cervix length with magnetic resonance imaging in comparison with findings at trans vaginal ultrasonography. Materials and methods: Twenty pregnant women between the 19th and 30th gestational weeks underwent magnetic resonance imaging and trans vaginal ultrasonography for evaluation of their uterine cervix. Measurements by means of magnetic resonance imaging were performed by two specialists in imaging diagnosis for calculating the interobserver variability of the method. Results: Calculation of the Pearson's correlation coefficient between measurements of the cervical length demonstrated a significant correlation between the results of both methods (r=0.628; p<0.01). The paired t test demonstrated no statistically significant difference between measurements obtained by trans vaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (p=0.068). Interobserver agreement in cervical measurements by magnetic resonance imaging was high (α=0.96), demonstrating the reliability of the method. Conclusion: The comparison between both imaging methods in the evaluation of cervical biometry showed no statistically significant difference thus reinforcing the utilization of ultrasonography. However, in some cases where trans vaginal ultrasonography is contraindicated, magnetic resonance imaging can be alternatively utilized for measurement of the cervical length. (author)

  12. The Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Infectious Disease of the Cervix by Seminal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Adefuye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection between human papillomavirus (HPV infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Moreover there is emerging evidence to support a role for seminal fluid, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins which are present in vast quantities in seminal fluid in regulating pathways that can exacerbate inflammation of the cervix, speed up tumorigenesis, and enhance susceptibility to HIV infection. This review will highlight some of our current knowledge of the role of seminal fluid as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix and will provide some evidence to propose a role for seminal plasma prostaglandins in HIV infection and AIDS-related cancer.

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient in cervical cancer of the uterus: comparison with the normal uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Chiho; Ishigaki, Takeo [Nagoya University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Kumada, Hisashi; Miura, Shunichi [Toyohashi Municipal hospital, Department of Radiology, Toyohashi, Aich (Japan); Takizawa, Osamu [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    A relation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and tumor cellular density has been reported. The purpose of this study was to measure the ADC values of cervical cancers in the uterus and compare them with those of normal cervical tissues, and to test whether ADC could differentiate between normal and malignant cervical tissues in the uterus. Twelve consecutive female patients with cervical cancer of the uterus and ten female patients with other pelvic abnormalities were included in this study. ADC was measured at 1.5 T with b-factors of 0, 300 and 600 s/mm{sup 2} using single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging and a parallel imaging technique. The mean ADC value of cervical cancer lesions was 1.09{+-}0.20 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and that of normal cervix tissue was 1.79{+-}0.24 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (P<0.0001). In nine patients treated by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, the mean ADC value of the cervical cancer lesion increased significantly after therapy (P<0.001). The present study showed, with a small number of patients, that ADC measurement has a potential ability to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue in the uterine cervix. Further study is necessary to determine the accuracy of ADC measurement in monitoring the treatment response. (orig.)

  14. Computer-assisted dosimetry in the radiotherapy of cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer of the cervix is the third leading cause of cancer in the Philippines. The Department of Radiotherapy of the Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center has participated in the Regional Coordinated Research project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to undertake a study to compare computer treatment planning and manual calculations in radiotherapy of the cancer of the cervix; and to perform actual measurements on bladder and rectal points using TLDs. Twenty-seven patients with Stage II-B to III-B were included in the study. External beam teletherapy of 40 Gy without shielding for 4 weeks and 50 Gy with blocks plus brachytherapy of 20-40 Gy were given using LDR or HDR machine. Point A, bladder and rectal points were defined following ICRU 38 recommendations. The results showed dose calculations between commercially available computers and IAEA - provided computers agree to within 20%. Results of TLD measurement in bladder and rectum have shown wide range of variation. (author). 3 refs.; 4 tabs.; 8 figs

  15. Effects of radiotherapy on immunity in patients with localized carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effects of radiotherapy on immune status, a wide range of assessments have been performed on patients with localized carcinoma of the cervix uteri undergoing and initially responding clinically to radical pelvic radiotherapy. neutrophil function was essentially unchanged by treatment. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts fell after treatment and remained depressed 3 and 12 months following treatment. The proportions of T and B cells dropped with treatment but recovered to near-presentation levels during the follow-up period even though absolute counts remained depressed. In vitro tests of cellular immunity were depressed by treatment and remained so 3 and 12 months following treatment whereas skin test responses remained normal throughout the assessments. Inhibitory plasma effects were observed in photohaemagglutinin lymphocyte transformation studies on 4 untreated patients; at follow-up these effects were not evident. A variable response in immune indices has therefore been observed in patients in remission after treatment of localized carcinoma cervix stressing the importance of assessing several aspects of immune function and implying that persistent depression of certain indices does not adversely affect the host tumor response. In two patients relapsing after apparently good initial response, all aspects of immunological assessment (except serum immunoglobulin levels and neutrophil function) deteriorated

  16. Diagnosis of uterine cervix cancer using Müller polarimetry: a comparison with histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbinder, Jean; Deby, Stanislas; Haddad, Huda; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François

    2015-07-01

    Today around 275000 women a year in the world keep dying from the cancer of uterine cervix due to the difficulty to meet the logistic requirements of an organized screening in the developing world. Polarimetric imaging is a new promising technique with a tremendous potential for applications in biomedical diagnostics: it is sensitive to slight morphological changes in tissues, can provide wide field images for the screening and requires light sources such as a LED for example. This work intends to characterize the polarimetric response of the uterine cervix in its healthy and pathological states. An extensive series of ex-vivo measurements is in progress the Kremlin Bicêtre hospital near Paris using an imaging multispectral Mueller polarimeter in backscattering configuration. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performances of polarimetric imaging technique in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of healthy epithelia (Healthy Squamous epithelium and Malpighian Metaplasia) with respect to the diagnosis provided by pathologists from histology slides as the "gold standard". We show that, at λ=550nm, performances as high as 62% sensitivity and 64% specificity are achieved by optimizing a simple threshold on the scalar retardance values.

  17. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Cervix Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, So Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Ki [Research Institute and Hospital National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Cervix cancer is one of common gynecological cancers in the world, and staged with FIGO or TNM system. However, these clinical staging systems lack information about lymph node or distant metastases, thus imaging modalities are considered to make an appropriate therapeutic plan and enhance overall survival rate. In this context, FDG PET is recommended to pre-treatment stating and prognosis prediction, for it could noninvasively evaluate the status of lymph nodes, especially abdominal paraaortic nodes which are closely related with prognosis. Moreover, the degree of FDG uptake is correlated with prognosis. Although there is no consistent method for surveillance of cervix cancer, FDG PET seems a very important tool in detecting tumor recurrence because it is much more advantageous than conventional imaging modalities such as MRI for discerning recurrent tumor from fibrosis caused by radiation or surgery. Furthermore, FDG PET could be used to evaluate treatment response. On the other hand, recently introduced PET/CT is expected to play an ancillary role to FIGO staging by adding anatomical information, and enhance diagnostic performance of PET by decreasing false positive findings.

  18. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of recurrent cancer of the cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Shavladze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define a role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the follow-up of patients with cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU, who have undergone radiation therapy and chemoradiation therapy and to describe the types of the MRI pattern of recurrent CCU in the pelvic region.Materials and methods. The results of a follow-up of 82 patients with a 4-47- (median 12 months month history of invasive CCU were analyzed.Results. Out of the 82 patients with invasive CCU, 25 were found to have pelvic recurrences; in 23 cases MRI revealed the latter (in the cervix uteri (n = 6, corpus uteri (n = 2, vagina (n = 2, parametrium (n = 2, iliac (n = 10, paraaortic (n = 5 lymph nodes, and pelvic wall (n=5.Conclusion. The findings suggest that pelvic MRI is an effective technique to detect and estimate the extent of a pelvic recurrence and it is expedient to incorporate it into the scope of a follow-up after radiation therapy and chemoradiation therapy in patients with invasive CCU.

  19. Tumor regression dynamics with external radiotherapy in cancer cervix and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: To study the external radiotherapy (EXTRT) regression patterns in cancer of the cervix. AIMS: Evaluate EXTRT tumor regression doses (TRD) for 50% (TRD50). 80% response (TRD80), normalized dose response gradient (γ50) and slope (slope 50) with clinical outcome. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Patients, treated solely with radiotherapy and enrolled for other prospective studies having weekly tumor regressions recorded were considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients received 50Gy of EXTRT at 2 Gy/fraction followed by 18Gy of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy at 6 Gy/fraction. Loco-regional regressions were assessed clinically at weekly intervals during EXTRT to generate EXTRT dose-response curves. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Student's t test, logistic regression, Kaplan Meier and Cox's proportional hazard model. Scatter plots were fitted using cubic fit. RESULTS: Age (P=0.052) and absence or presence of gross residual tumor (AGRT and PGRT respectively) following EXTRT (P50. (P80 (P50 (P=0.001). Response status to EXTRT was a prognosticator for loco-regional disease free survival (LDFS) (AGRT vs. PGRT; P=0.046). On multivariate analysis, both TRD50 and TRD80 emerged as significant predictors for tumor status at end of EXTRT while TRD80 was the sole determinant of LDFS. CONCLUSION: Extent of tumor regression to EXTRT is an important predictor for treatment outcome in cancer cervix as evident from TRD50 and TRD80 values of EXTRT tumor regression curves. (author)

  20. Lymphocyte radiosensitivity is a significant prognostic factor for morbidity in carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the relationship between pretreatment peripheral blood lymphocyte radiosensitivity and morbidity following radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was carried out in which patients with carcinoma of the cervix underwent radiation therapy. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was measured on pretreatment peripheral blood lymphocytes, using a limiting dilution clonogenic assay. Late morbidity was assessed using the Franco-Italian glossary. Results were correlated in an actuarial analysis. Results: There were no correlations between the measured lymphocyte radiosensitivity (SF2) and colony-forming efficiency, patient age, tumor grade, or disease stage. For 83 patients, lymphocyte SF2 was a significant prognostic factor for the probability of developing both any (p=0.002) and Grade 3 (p=0.026) morbidity. In 174 patients, stage showed borderline significance as a prognostic factor for morbidity (p=0.056). However, the type of treatment (intracavitary alone, intracavitary plus parametrial irradiation, single insertion plus whole-pelvis irradiation) was significantly associated with the probability of developing late complications (p=0.013). There was a weak significant inverse correlation between lymphocyte SF2 and grade of morbidity (r=-0.34, p=0.002). Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of normal cell radiosensitivity as a factor determining radiation therapy response. They also show that peripheral blood lymphocyte SF2 is a highly significant prognostic factor for the probability of developing late radiation morbidity, and that carcinoma of the cervix is a good model for testing radiobiologic principles in the clinic

  1. PRECANCEROUS AND CANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX DIAGNOSED BY PAP’S SMEAR - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical intra - epithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. It is largely a preventable disease that is characterized by a long lead time. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of precancerous lesions of cervix by Pap smear screening. METHODS : A retrospective hospital based study was conducted at Department of Pathology, in a Tertiary Care Institute and associated hospital, Bhopal. Data was collected from the records of Pap’s smear testing done on 388 patients in years 2011 & 2012. Analysis was done by entering data in SPSS software and Chi - square test was applied to find statistical significance. RESULTS: Most common lesions on Pap’s smear was Low grade squamous intraepithelial les ion (LSIL in 104 (26.8% of cases and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 15 (3.9% of cases. 44 (11.3% were senile Atopic Changes, parasitic Infection in 27 (7% of cases and 2 (0.5% were carcinoma cervix cases. All the cervical lesion s were most common in age of 31 - 40 yrs. and were significantly associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Pap’s smear examination information should be spread in community apart from hospitals. Especially the young women should be motivated for regular Pap’s smear. Pap’s smear is the single most important screening method for early detection of precancerous & cancerous cervical lesions

  2. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  3. Hemoglobin as an important prognostic factor in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of hemoglobin with clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Seventy-five patients with Stage IB to IVA disease who were treated with CCRT were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age was 49.8 years. In the treatment, standard radiotherapy was performed accompanied by concomitant chemotherapy using cisplatin. Pre-treatment hemoglobin was defined as the earliest hemoglobin level prior to the initiation of treatment. Weekly nadir hemoglobin levels throughout treatment were averaged and used as average weekly nadir hemoglobin during treatment (AWNHg). The mean follow-up time was 28.6 months. The mean pre-treatment hemoglobin of 11.6 g/dL was significantly reduced to the mean AWNHg of 9.9 g/dL. The levels of pre-treatment hemoglobin and AWNHg were significantly associated with tumor response to treatment. The 5-year cumulative disease-free survival and overall survival rates for all 75 patients were 67.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that AWNHg (≥9.0 versus <9.0 g/dL) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.038), but pre-treatment hemoglobin was not a significant factor. AWNHg was one of the most powerful independent predictors of overall survival in patients undergoing CCRT for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  4. N-acetyl-cysteine and prostaglandin. Comparable protection against experimental ethanol injury in the stomach independent of mucus thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henagan, J M; Smith, G S; Schmidt, K L; Miller, T A

    1986-12-01

    The role of barrier mucus in mediating the protective effects of 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dm PGE2) against ethanol-induced gastric injury, with and without concomitant treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a potent mucolytic agent, was evaluated. Fasted rats were orally administered either saline, 10 micrograms/kg dm PGE2, 20% NAC, or 10 micrograms/kg dm PGE2 plus 20% NAC. In the first study, the rats were killed 15 minutes later and their stomachs were removed and assayed for barrier mucus adherent to the gastric wall using the Alcian blue technique. In the second study, the rats were orally given 2 mL of absolute ethanol (EtOH) after receiving one of these pretreatment regimens, and 5 minutes later they were killed and their stomachs were evaluated histologically by light microscopy for the magnitude of EtOH injury. Although NAC significantly reduced the thickness of barrier mucus by 76% when compared with control animals, it did not adversely affect the ability of dm PGE2 to spare the deep epithelium from injury by EtOH. In fact, NAC was as effective a protective agent as dm PGE2. Neither agent prevented damage to the surface epithelium by EtOH, verifying previous studies regarding the protective effects of prostaglandins. These results indicate that both dm PGE2 and NAC prevent EtOH-induced damage to the deeper layers of the gastric mucosa independent of mucus gel layer thickness, suggesting that other mechanisms than mucus are involved in mediating this protection. PMID:3789839

  5. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2013-05-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothesis that specific glycosidases were critical for the growth of S. marcescens on mucus and that their inhibition by native coral microbiota reduces fitness of the pathogen. Consistent with this hypothesis, a S. marcescens transposon mutant with reduced glycosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities was unable to compete with the wild type on the mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata, although it was at least as competitive as the wild type on a minimal medium with glycerol and casamino acids. Virulence of the mutant was modestly reduced in the Aiptasia model. A survey revealed that ∼8% of culturable coral commensal bacteria have the ability to inhibit glycosidases in the pathogen. A small molecular weight, ethanol-soluble substance(s) produced by the coral commensal Exiguobacterium sp. was capable of the inhibition of the induction of catabolic enzymes in S. marcescens. This inhibition was in part responsible for the 10-100-fold reduction in the ability of the pathogen to grow on coral mucus. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms of commensal interference with early colonization and infection behaviors in opportunistic pathogens and highlight an important function for the native microbiota in coral health. PMID:23254513

  6. Short Communication - In vitro screening of mucus and solvent extracts of Eisenia foetida against human bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andleeb, Saiqa; Ejaz, Mubashir; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Ali, Shaukat; Kiyani, Ayesha; Shafique, Irsa; Zafar, Atiya

    2016-05-01

    Earthworms are macro invertebrate and have been widely used as therapeutic drugs for thousands of years. In the current research, experiments viz., the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of mucus and solvent extracts of Eisenia foetida were conducted to investigate for the first time in Pakistan against human infectious pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of E. foetida against human pathogens underwent investigation through an agar disc diffusion method while an ABTS•+ free radical scavenging method assessed the antioxidant activity. The percentage of bacterial and fungal growth was analyzed statistically with One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the mucus IV of E. foetida produced a strong potent antibacterial and antifungal activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the highest inhibition zone (33.67±1.53 mm), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (30.33±1.53mm), Penicillium notatum (30±0.051), Escherichia coli (29±1 mm), Candida albicans (28.33±0.54 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (27±1mm), Serratia marcescens (25.33±0.58 mm), Aspergillus flavus (25.33±0.58 mm), Staphylococcus epidermidis (24.33±0.58 mm), Streptococcus pyogenes (21.67±1.53 mm), and Aspergillus niger (20.67±0.53 mm). Mucus IV of E. foetida also showed the highest antioxidant activity (99%). The results clearly indicate that the mucus and solvent extracts contain effective antimicrobial properties and bioactive compounds to inhibit the growth of infectious pathogens. We conclude that mucus extracts of earthworm have significant level of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and in future could be potentially used against various infectious pathogens. PMID:27166541

  7. Novel mucus-penetrating liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system: preparation, in vitro characterization, and enhanced cellular uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiuying Li1, Dan Chen1, Chaoyi Le2, Chunliu Zhu1, Yong Gan1, Lars Hovgaard3, Mingshi Yang41Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; 2University of Toronto Mississauga Campus, Ontario, Canada; 3Oral Formulation Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Maalov; 4Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127.Methods: The two types of liposomes, ie, PF127-inlaid liposomes and PF127-adsorbed liposomes, were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by extrusion, in which coumarin 6 was loaded as a fluorescence marker. A modified Franz diffusion cell mounted with the intestinal mucus of rats was used to study the diffusion characteristics of the two types of PF127 liposomes. Cell uptake studies were conducted in Caco-2 cells and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microcopy as well as flow cytometry.Results: The diffusion efficiency of the two types of PF127-modified liposomes through intestinal rat mucus was 5–7-fold higher than that of unmodified liposomes. Compared with unmodified liposomes, PF127-inlaid liposomes showed significantly higher cellular uptake of courmarin 6. PF127-adsorbed liposomes showed a lower cellular uptake. Moreover, and interestingly, the two types of PF127-modified liposomes showed different cellular uptake mechanisms in Caco-2 cells.Conclusion: PF127-inlaid liposomes with improved intestinal mucus-penetrating ability and enhanced cellular uptake might be a potential carrier candidate for oral drug delivery.Keywords: Pluronic F127, mucus-penetrating, particles, liposomes, oral drug delivery

  8. Searching the Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Mucus Protein Components—Mucins and FCGBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tiange; Klasson, Sofia; Larsson, Erik; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Samuelsson, Tore

    2016-01-01

    The gel-forming mucins are large glycosylated proteins that are essential components of the mucus layers covering epithelial cells. Using novel methods of identifying mucins based on profile hidden Markov models, we have found a large number of such proteins in Metazoa, aiding in their classification and allowing evolutionary studies. Most vertebrates have 5–6 gel-forming mucin genes and the genomic arrangement of these genes is well conserved throughout vertebrates. An exception is the frog Xenopus tropicalis with an expanded repertoire of at least 26 mucins of this type. Furthermore, we found that the ovomucin protein, originally identified in chicken, is characteristic of reptiles, birds, and amphibians. Muc6 is absent in teleost fish, but we now show that it is present in animals such as ghost sharks, demonstrating an early origin in vertebrate evolution. Public RNA-Seq data were analyzed with respect to mucins in zebrafish, frog, and chicken, thus allowing comparison in regard of tissue and developmental specificity. Analyses of invertebrate proteins reveal that gel-forming-mucin type of proteins is widely distributed also in this group. Their presence in Cnidaria, Porifera, and in Ctenophora (comb jellies) shows that these proteins were present early in metazoan evolution. Finally, we examined the evolution of the FCGBP protein, abundant in mucus and related to gel-forming mucins in terms of structure and localization. We demonstrate that FCGBP, ubiquitous in vertebrates, has a conserved N-terminal domain. Interestingly, this domain is also present as an N-terminal sequence in a number of bacterial proteins. PMID:27189557

  9. Searching the Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Mucus Protein Components-Mucins and FCGBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tiange; Klasson, Sofia; Larsson, Erik; Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C; Samuelsson, Tore

    2016-08-01

    The gel-forming mucins are large glycosylated proteins that are essential components of the mucus layers covering epithelial cells. Using novel methods of identifying mucins based on profile hidden Markov models, we have found a large number of such proteins in Metazoa, aiding in their classification and allowing evolutionary studies. Most vertebrates have 5-6 gel-forming mucin genes and the genomic arrangement of these genes is well conserved throughout vertebrates. An exception is the frog Xenopus tropicalis with an expanded repertoire of at least 26 mucins of this type. Furthermore, we found that the ovomucin protein, originally identified in chicken, is characteristic of reptiles, birds, and amphibians. Muc6 is absent in teleost fish, but we now show that it is present in animals such as ghost sharks, demonstrating an early origin in vertebrate evolution. Public RNA-Seq data were analyzed with respect to mucins in zebrafish, frog, and chicken, thus allowing comparison in regard of tissue and developmental specificity. Analyses of invertebrate proteins reveal that gel-forming-mucin type of proteins is widely distributed also in this group. Their presence in Cnidaria, Porifera, and in Ctenophora (comb jellies) shows that these proteins were present early in metazoan evolution. Finally, we examined the evolution of the FCGBP protein, abundant in mucus and related to gel-forming mucins in terms of structure and localization. We demonstrate that FCGBP, ubiquitous in vertebrates, has a conserved N-terminal domain. Interestingly, this domain is also present as an N-terminal sequence in a number of bacterial proteins. PMID:27189557

  10. Protease-activated receptor 2 mediates mucus secretion in the airway submucosal gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jae Lee

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2, a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca(2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP elevated intracellular Ca(2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca(2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca(2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent.

  11. Nanocomplexes for gene therapy of respiratory diseases: Targeting and overcoming the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Sante; Trapani, Adriana; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Puglisi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Gennara; Trapani, Giuseppe; Conese, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials. PMID:26192479

  12. Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D dosimetry with brachytherapy high dose rate cervix carcinoma un operated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been installed in our department based on an SPB CT images, and found that the dose at points H is less than that obtained by calculations based on radiographs. This study aims to analyze this discrepancy in the transition from 2D to 3D calculation in patients with carcinoma of the cervix not operated.

  13. Loss of sequences on the short arm of chromosome 17 is a late event in squamous carcinoma of the cervix

    OpenAIRE

    Herrington, C S; Worsham, M; Southern, S A; Mackowiak, P; Wolman, S R

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To determine by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whether deletion of D17S34, a subtelomeric probe for 17p, occurs in invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix, and to determine the extent of such loss by analysis of the p53 and HER2/NEU genes.

  14. Correlation of diagnostic efficacy of unhealthy cervix by cytology, colposcopy and histopathology in women of rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa D. Chaudhary

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Pap smear had a poorer sensitivity compared to Colposcopy but a better specificity than colposcopy. Hence it may be better to utilise both tests as they complement each other in screening of premalignant lesions of cervix. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 213-218

  15. MRI-assisted cervix cancer brachytherapy pre-planning, based on application in paracervical anaesthesia: final report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petric Primoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Optimal applicator insertion is a precondition for the success of cervix cancer brachytherapy (BT. We aimed to assess feasibility and efficacy of MRI-assisted pre-planning, based on applicator insertion in para-cervical anaesthesia (PCA.

  16. Advanced papillary serous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case with a remarkable response to paclitaxel and carboplatin combination chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Shirase

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary serous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (PSCC is a very rare tumor, and is a recently described variant of cervical adenocarcinoma. We experienced a case of stage IV PSCC. The main tumor existed in the uterine cervix and invaded one third of the inferior part of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls. Furthermore, it had metastasized from the para-aortic lymph nodes to bilateral neck lymph nodes. Immnoreactivity for CA125 was positive, whereas the staining for p53 and WT-1 were negative in both the original tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes. We administered six courses of paclitaxel and carboplatin combination chemotherapy against this advanced PSCC. The PSCC therefore dramatically decreased in size. The main tumor of the uterine cervix showed a complete response by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and more than 95% of the tumor cells in the cervix had microscopically disapperared. This is the first report of PSCC in which combination chemotherapy was used and showed a remarkable response.

  17. Protein-mediated adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4 on human enterocyte and mucus-secreting cell lines in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Coconnier, M H; Klaenhammer, T R; Kernéis, S; Bernet, M F; Servin, A L

    1992-01-01

    The adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4, a human stool isolate, to two human enterocytelike cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29) and to the mucus secreted by a subpopulation of mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria interacted with the well-defined apical microvilli of Caco-2 cells without cell damage and with the mucus secreted by the subpopulation of HT29-MTX cells. The adhesion to Caco-2 cells did not require calcium and i...

  18. Cervix cryosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your health care provider should do a repeat Pap smear or biopsy at a follow-up visit to ... tissue was destroyed. You may need more frequent Pap smears for the first 2 years after cryosurgery for ...

  19. Evaluation of intra- and inter-fraction movement of the cervix during intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To assess the degree of intra- and inter-fraction cervical motion throughout a course of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 10 women with stage 1B1-3B cervical cancer diagnosed from September 2007 to July 2008 was conducted. All patients were treated with chemoradiation using IMRT followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. Pretreatment, patients had 2 seeds placed at a depth of 10 mm into the cervix. On-Board Imaging (OBI) was used to obtain anterior/posterior (AP) and lateral X-rays before and after each treatment. OBI images were rigidly aligned to baseline digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), and movement of cervical seeds was determined in the lateral, vertical, and AP directions. Mean differences in cervical seed position and standard error of the mean (SEM) were calculated. Results: A total of 922 images were reviewed, with approximately 90 images per patient. The mean intra-fractional movement in cervical seed position in the lateral, vertical, and AP directions were 1.6 mm (SD ± 2.0), 2.6 mm (SD ± 2.4), and 2.9 mm (SD ± 2.7), respectively, with a range from 0 to 15 mm for each direction. The mean inter-fractional movement in the lateral, vertical, and AP directions were 1.9 mm (SD ± 1.9), 4.1 mm (SD ± 3.2), and 4.2 mm (SD ± 3.5), respectively, with a range from 0 to 18 mm for each direction. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess intra- and inter-fractional movement of the cervix using daily imaging before and after each fraction. Within and between radiation treatments, cervical motion averages approximately 3 mm in any given direction. However, maximal movement of the cervix can be as far as 18 mm from baseline. This wide range of motion needs to be accounted for when generating planning treatment volumes.

  20. Hybrid adaptive radiotherapy with on-line MRI in cervix cancer IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Substantial organ motion and tumor shrinkage occur during radiotherapy for cervix cancer. IMRT planning studies have shown that the quality of radiation delivery is influenced by these anatomical changes, therefore the adaptation of treatment plans may be warranted. Image guidance with off-line replanning, i.e. hybrid-adaptation, is recognized as one of the most practical adaptation strategies. In this study, we investigated the effects of soft tissue image guidance using on-line MR while varying the frequency of off-line replanning on the adaptation of cervix IMRT. Materials and method: 33 cervical cancer patients underwent planning and weekly pelvic MRI scans during radiotherapy. 5 patients of 33 were identified in a previous retrospective adaptive planning study, in which the coverage of gross tumor volume/clinical target volume (GTV/CTV) was not acceptable given single off-line IMRT replan using a 3 mm PTV margin with bone matching. These 5 patients and a randomly selected 10 patients from the remaining 28 patients, a total of 15 patients of 33, were considered in this study. Two matching methods for image guidance (bone to bone and soft tissue to dose matrix) and three frequencies of off-line replanning (none, single, and weekly) were simulated and compared with respect to target coverage (cervix, GTV, lower uterus, parametrium, upper vagina, tumor related CTV and elective lymph node CTV) and OAR sparing (bladder, bowel, rectum, and sigmoid). Cost (total process time) and benefit (target coverage) were analyzed for comparison. Results: Hybrid adaptation (image guidance with off-line replanning) significantly enhanced target coverage for both 5 difficult and 10 standard cases. Concerning image guidance, bone matching was short of delivering enough doses for 5 difficult cases even with a weekly off-line replan. Soft tissue image guidance proved successful for all cases except one when single or more frequent replans were utilized in the difficult cases

  1. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of locally advanced cervix cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Osman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervix cancer has comparable benefits to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, but with fewer side effects. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the management of locally advanced cervix cancer from stage IB2 (tumor >4.0 cm to IIIB (tumor extending to the pelvic wall and/or hydronephrosis. Our primary objective was to assess benefits in terms of survival. The data source included the USA national library of medicine, Medline search, and the National Cancer Institute PDQ Clinical Protocols. Inclusion criteria for consideration in the current systematic review included studies published between January 1997 and December 2012. In terms of histology, they had to be focused on squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and/or adenocarcinoma. Patients should be either chemotherapy naïve or cervix cancer chemotherapy naïve, and have a performance status ≤2. The search in the above-mentioned scientific websites led to identify 49 publications, 19 of which were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. Therefore only 30 studies were deemed eligible. Data was collected from 1760 patients enrolled in the current systematic review study. The mean age was 45.2 years. The mean tumor size was 4.7 cm. The most commonly used chemotherapies were cisplatin doublets. Paclitaxel was the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in the doublets. The mean chemotherapy cycles were 2.7. After chemotherapy, patients underwent surgery after a mean time of 2.5 weeks. The standard operation was radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Chemotherapy achieved an objective response rate of 84%. The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 61.9% and 72.8% respectively. The treatment protocol was associated

  2. On the Study of Risk Factors of Ca. Cervix and Ca. Breast: a Case Study in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi B. Mahanta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ca.cervix and ca.breast are the most common life threatening cancers among women worldwide and the same is true for north east region of India also. So these two cancers remain a serious public health problem worldwide. Therefore more research work on the risk factors for ca.cervix and ca.breast is needed to better understand its etiology and pathogenesis. With this background this study is conducted to observe the possible factors such as socio-economic, marital etc., which may lead to the occurrence of these cancers in our region. For conducting this study we collect data by interviewing the patient registered in the B. Barooah cancer research institute which is the main sources of cancer data in Assam. Here we take 30 diagnosed cases each for ca.cervix and ca.breast and plot the data in a cross tabular form and analyze different factors and finally we try to abstract the conclusion from these tables. From the study it is revealed that there is strong evidence between the cancer type (ca.breast and ca.cervix and the following risk factors: family income (p=.017, age at marriage (p=.031, age of the patients (p=.017, number of children (p=.001, age at first child birth (p=.003, oral contraceptive used (p=.028. It has been further observed that most of the patients are house wives and non vegetarian. Moreover it is seen that of the two types of cancer the Bengali population of the state are more afflicted by ca.breast whereas the Assamese population are more afflicted by ca.cervix.

  3. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P NAC treatment compared to control mares (P mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups (both P NAC treatment does not reduce viscosity of uterine mucus but has an

  4. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy following simple hysterectomy and radical hysterectomy in stage IB cancer of the cervix: Analysis of risk factors and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1969 and 1980, 242 cases of stage IB cancer of the cervix were referred to the department of radiation oncology for curative radiation therapy. In 186 cases treatment was with radiation therapy alone. In 56 cases treatment included adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy; a minimum follow-up of 5 years has been carried out in this group. In 17 cases radiation therapy followed a simple hysterectomy for an unexpected stage IB cancer of the cervix. In 39 cases radiation therapy was given after a radical hysterectomy for stage IB cancer of the cervix because of positive margins and/or positive pelvic lymph nodes

  5. Relation between simple cytological test and persistence of disease in radiation-treated uterine cervix carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cytological study was conducted covering 174 epidermoid uterine cervix carcinoma patients who had been given combined radiation therapy. The changes were assessed in the karyopyknotic index (KPI) as related to radiation therapy and the incidence of local relapses. At the limit KPI value of 10, the average reliability of the method for diagnosing persistence in the group under study was 83.0%. Patients showing KPI of more than 10 at six weeks following the termination of radical radiation therapy represent a poor prognosis group whereas those showing KPI values lower than 10 have good prognosis. The results show that no strict hormonal dependence of the KPI value exists in uterine ceervix carcinoma patients; only a different situation exists which is probably due to the tumor-organism interaction or to the metabolism of the tumor itself. (author)

  6. Immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of rats bearing the Walker 256 tumor treated with copaiba balsam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Macedo Botelho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of 20 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus bearing the Walker 256 tumor, treated with copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis. METHODS: The animals were grouped into four subgroups, with five rats each: the GCT and GCopT received distilled water and topically copaiba, respectively, while the GCG and GCopG received distilled water and copaiba by gavage, respectively. The substances were administered for nine days. On the 12th day, after euthanasia, the tumor pieces were sent to the identification of T CD4+, T CD8+ and Natural Killer cells. RESULTS: It was found that the pattern of expression for specific markers of phenotypes of cells involved in tumor immune response was similar in all groups, regardless the administration way of copaiba oil (topical or gavage. CONCLUSION: Copaiba balsam, administered either topically or by gavage, did not alter the pattern of tumor immune response in rats bearing Walker 256 Tumor.

  7. Spectropolarimetry biopsies of the cervix at an early cancer and dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Peresunko, O. P.; Babechko, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of the spectral anisotropic properties of layers of oncologic modified biological tissues with precancerous condition (CIN) and with cancer formation (G) of cervix according to linear dichroism determined in the wavelength range 300-800 nm was conducted. Comparison of results of animal testing of samples of biological samples oncologic modified human tissue was conducted, introduction of differentiation criterion spectropolarimetric precancerous condition and the stage cancer formation in the spectral band of 390-410 nm was proposed. Appropriate diagnostically important changes in the value ranges of linear dichroism at each stage of cancer formation (high- and low-grade dysplasia, high and low-grade adenocarcinoma) was determined. A differential method for diagnosis of epithelial cells in the above diseases was suggested.

  8. Assessment with TLD of radiation exposure to staff during radium insertions in cancer of cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation protection survey has been carried out using TLD to assess the radiation exposure to staff during radium insertions for cancer of the cervix. The staff monitored were the radiotherapist, anaesthetist and operating theatre assistant. The radiotherapist, who received the highest exposure, had on the average 160 μGy (16 mrad) whole body (chest) dose while the finger tip doses were around 600 μGy (60 mrad) from the insertion of 60 mg radium. TLD was found to be convenient and sensitive for this purpose, including estimation of finger-tip doses. It helps to maintain the confidence of the staff that their doses are 'as low as readily achievable' and also offers a means of checking improvements in practice where found necessary. (author)

  9. Expression of ras oncogene and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen in carcinomas of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consecutive 50 cases of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix diagnosed in 1992 were subjected to immunohistochemical study for ras oncogene product (p21) and MHC class II (DR) antigen using a microprobe immunostainer. Activated ras and aberrant DR expression were noted in 26 cases (52%) and 11 cases (22%) of cervical squamous cell carcinomas, respectively, without difference among histologic types. The reaction was mainly intracytoplasmic, with granular staining pattern and diffuse distribution. No direct histologic correlation between ras and DR expression was found. Four cases with HPV 16/18 DNA in superficial koilocytotic cells, revealed by in situ hybridization, showed various expression of ras and DR, and these 3 factors histologically did not seem to be affected one another. (Author)

  10. Sentinel-lymph node procedure in breast, uterine cervix, prostate, vulva and penile cancers: Practical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nodal status is the strongest prognostic factor in early stage cancers. The sentinel-lymph node (S.L.N.) is defined as the first draining lymph node of an organ; the lymph node status is determined by the histological results of S.L.N.. The lymphadenectomy, with high morbidity, is realised only in case of metastatic S.L.N.. The S.L.N. identification, in most of cases, is performed using the combination of blue dye and radiocolloid 99mTc injections. The purpose of this article is to give some practical details about the S.L.N. isotopic procedure in breast cancer, vulva and penile cancer, uterine cervix and prostate cancer. (author)

  11. Analysis of complications of cervix carcinoma treated by radiotherapy using the Franco-Italian glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analysed the complications of 215 patients with uterine cervix cancer, treated by radiotherapy (RT) alone. It was done according to the rules of the Franco-Italian glossary, presented at the 7th ESTRO meeting, held in The Hague on September 1988. They were ranked by organ sites and by degrees of gravity. The analysis was done on the total number of complications and they were scored at the highest reached grade of gravity. Seventy one complications were found in 55 patients; they were studied by patient, degree of severity, time of onset, organ system and grade, time of onset and grade, time of onset and organ sites, stage and RT doses and brachytherapy volumes. The importance of the study of complications is stressed, particularly when treatment combines external RT and brachytherapy; some guidelines are given to avoid severe complications. (author) tabs. figs

  12. Cancer of the cervix: Early detection and cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Lynette; Prendiville, Walter

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cancer is known to be a preventable disease through the detection of cervical cancer precursors, historically using cytology of the cervix as the primary screening test. Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in low-resource countries. Alternatives to cytology have been investigated with the strongest possibilities being visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and HPV DNA testing. HPV DNA testing has been shown in randomized trials to be significantly more sensitive for the detection of cervical cancer precursors than either cytology or VIA. In this paper we argue that prevention really does cost less than cure, or that prevention and treatment of cancer costs less than no prevention, in effect just treatment, of cancer. The true cost savings of prevention will include a more difficult assessment of the socioeconomic savings associated with longer, healthier lives for women in their prime who have a major role in supporting their families. PMID:26433500

  13. Effects of radiotherapy on immunity in patients with cured localized carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiotherapy on immune status in patients with localized carcinoma of the cervix have been assessed serially up to 5 years remission by a wide range of methods. Neutrophil function and serum immunoglobulins were essentially normal throughout. Peripheral blood neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and the proportions of T and B-cells fell with treatment but were all normal at 5 years, with the exception of B-cell proportions which remained significantly low. Marked deterioration was seen in in vivo cellular immune responses and this persisted even at 5 years remission. Reduced in vitro immunoreactivity is not therefore a reliable marker of disease recurrence and persisting defects in cellular immunity after radiotherapy do not seem to adversely affect the host tumor response. However, in three of the six patients who subsequently relapsed after therapy, subnormal PHA lymphocyte transformation responses were observed at presentation; all patients achieving sustained remission had normal pretreatment responses

  14. Hypoxyradiotherapy of uterine cervix cancer to decrease of acute side-effects and treatment complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reported on preliminary results of hypoxyradiotherapy in the course of external irradiation in patients with uterine cervix cancer from a view-point of the occurrence of acute reactions and treatment complications. A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing 8.0 to 8.5% of O2 was used to provoke acute hypoxia during irradiation. The applied dosis of external irradiation was simultaneously increased by 40%. On the basis of a randomized study with 120 patients, acute hypoxia was found to protect healthy tissues against post-radiation damage. When the dosis of 96 Gy in the paracervical space and that of 75 Gy in the pelvic wall were applied, acute side-effects decreases significantly if compared with a conventional radiotherapeutic procedure (p<0.01). Radiological preconditions for using acute hypoxia in radiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  15. In vivo light scattering for the detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, Judith R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A noninvasive optical diagnostic system for detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix was evaluated in vivo. The optical system included a fiber-optic probe designed to measure polarized and unpolarized light transport properties of a small volume of tissue. An algorithm for diagnosing tissue based on the optical measurements was developed that used four optical properties, three of which were related to light scattering properties and the fourth of which was related to hemoglobin concentration. A sensitivity of {approx}77% and specificities in the mid 60% range were obtained for separating high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer from other pathologies and normal tissue. The use of different cross-validation methods in algorithm development is analyzed, and the relative difficulties of diagnosing certain pathologies are assessed. Furthermore, the robustness of the optical system for use by different doctors and to changes in fiber-optic probe are also assessed, and potential improvements in the optical system are discussed.

  16. Rectal complication after remote afterloading intracavitary therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T.; Chatani, M.; Hata, K.; Inoue, Ta.; Inoue, To.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-06-01

    From August 1978 through December 1980, 119 patients of previously untreated carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated using RALS, remote afterloading high dose rate intracavitary therapy at our department. The data from 92 out of 119 patients were available for analysis of rectal complication. The incidence of major rectal complications was only 2% (2/92). Uni- and multivariate analyses were used based on the external criterion variable of rectal complication which included even minor injuries. By using these methods, it was clearly indicated that these factors such as TDF of rectum, Z-coordinate of weighted geometric center (WGC-Z), the dose of whole pelvic irradiation, history of chemotherapy and Treponema pallidum hemoagglutination test (TPHA) were important for occurrence of rectal complication. According to discriminant score, 71 out of 92 cases (77%) could be correctly discriminated.

  17. Rectal complication after remote afterloading intracavitary therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From August 1978 through December 1980, 119 patients of previously untreated carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated using RALS, remote afterloading high dose rate intracavitary therapy at our department. The data from 92 out of 119 patients were available for analysis of rectal complication. The incidence of major rectal complications was only 2% (2/92). Uni- and multivariate analyses were used based on the external criterion variable of rectal complication which included even minor injuries. By using these methods, it was clearly indicated that these factors such as TDF of rectum, Z-coordinate of weighted geometric center (WGC-Z), the dose of whole pelvic irradiation, history of chemotherapy and Treponema pallidum hemoagglutination test (TPHA) were important for occurrence of rectal complication. According to discriminant score, 71 out of 92 cases (77%) could be correctly discriminated. (orig.)

  18. Enzymatically structured emulsions in simulated gastrointestinal environment: impact on interfacial proteolysis and diffusion in intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macierzanka, Adam; Böttger, Franziska; Rigby, Neil M; Lille, Martina; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mills, E N Clare; Mackie, Alan R

    2012-12-18

    Fundamental knowledge of physicochemical interactions in the gastrointestinal environment is required in order to support rational designing of protein-stabilized colloidal food and pharmaceutical delivery systems with controlled behavior. In this paper, we report on the colloidal behavior of emulsions stabilized with the milk protein sodium caseinate (Na-Cas), and exposed to conditions simulating the human upper gastrointestinal tract. In particular, we looked at how the kinetics of proteolysis was affected by adsorption to an oil-water interface in emulsion and whether the proteolysis and the emulsion stability could be manipulated by enzymatic structuring of the interface. After cross-linking with the enzyme transglutaminase, the protein was digested with use of an in vitro model of gastro-duodenal proteolysis in the presence or absence of physiologically relevant surfactants (phosphatidylcholine, PC; bile salts, BS). Significant differences were found between the rates of digestion of Na-Cas cross-linked in emulsion (adsorbed protein) and in solution. In emulsion, the digestion of a population of polypeptides of M(r) ca. 50-100 kDa was significantly retarded through the gastric digestion. The persistent interfacial polypeptides maintained the original emulsion droplet size and prevented the system from phase separating. Rapid pepsinolysis of adsorbed, non-cross-linked Na-Cas and its displacement by PC led to emulsion destabilization. These results suggest that structuring of emulsions by enzymatic cross-linking of the interfacial protein may affect the phase behavior of emulsion in the stomach and the gastric digestion rate in vivo. Measurements of ζ-potential revealed that BS displaced the remaining protein from the oil droplets during the simulated duodenal phase of digestion. Diffusion of the postdigestion emulsion droplets through ex vivo porcine intestinal mucus was only significant in the presence of BS due to the high negative charge these

  19. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  20. Impact of MRI in the management and staging of cancer of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstedt, Kristina (Centre of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Ann-Cathrin (Dept. of Gynecological Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Univ. Hospital and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Fridsten, Susanne; Blomqvist, Lennart (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Karolinska Univ. Hospital and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    Background. Cervical carcinoma is the only gynecological tumor still being staged mainly by clinical examination and only a limited use of diagnostic radiology. Cross sectional imaging is increasingly used as an aid in the staging procedure. We wanted to assess the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to the clinical staging of patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Material and methods. A retrospective single-centre analysis of 183 women referred to a tertiary referral centre for gynecological tumors (<= 65 years old) with cervical cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 who have undergone an MRI investigation before start of treatment. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed and any change of the planned treatment after the MRI examination was noted. Results. In patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage Ia2-IIa treated surgically, the treatment plan was altered due to MRI results in 10/125 patients. In the smaller group of patients with clinically more advanced disease receiving radio-chemotherapy, the treatment plan was altered in 12/58 patients. Reasons for changing the treatment plan after MRI were findings indicating a higher (n = 8) or lower (n = 5) local tumor stage, findings of para aortic nodal disease (n = 4) or difficulty to clinically examine the patient due to obesity (n = 2). MRI was also an aid in deciding whether or not to offer fertility preserving treatment in three cases. Conclusion. The use of MRI affects treatment planning in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. The impact is more obvious in more advanced stages of disease and in patients who are difficult to examine clinically due to, for example body constitution. The result of MRI is also an aid in deciding whether or not a fertility preserving operation is feasible

  1. Impact of MRI in the management and staging of cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Cervical carcinoma is the only gynecological tumor still being staged mainly by clinical examination and only a limited use of diagnostic radiology. Cross sectional imaging is increasingly used as an aid in the staging procedure. We wanted to assess the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to the clinical staging of patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Material and methods. A retrospective single-centre analysis of 183 women referred to a tertiary referral centre for gynecological tumors (≤ 65 years old) with cervical cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 who have undergone an MRI investigation before start of treatment. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed and any change of the planned treatment after the MRI examination was noted. Results. In patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage Ia2-IIa treated surgically, the treatment plan was altered due to MRI results in 10/125 patients. In the smaller group of patients with clinically more advanced disease receiving radio-chemotherapy, the treatment plan was altered in 12/58 patients. Reasons for changing the treatment plan after MRI were findings indicating a higher (n = 8) or lower (n = 5) local tumor stage, findings of para aortic nodal disease (n = 4) or difficulty to clinically examine the patient due to obesity (n = 2). MRI was also an aid in deciding whether or not to offer fertility preserving treatment in three cases. Conclusion. The use of MRI affects treatment planning in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. The impact is more obvious in more advanced stages of disease and in patients who are difficult to examine clinically due to, for example body constitution. The result of MRI is also an aid in deciding whether or not a fertility preserving operation is feasible

  2. Adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix - Imaging features with clinicopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang Univ. Hospital, Chung-Ang ne, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: pksungbin@paran.com; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kyung Taek [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Ran [Dept. of Pathology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Kon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Inst. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Background: Adenoma malignum, also known as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, is a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Purpose: To evaluate the clinical, pathologic, and imaging features of the adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix. Material and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the CT and MRI findings in 13 patients: size, endoluminal fluid, appearance of the solid and cystic component, margin, enhancement, characteristics of locules of the cystic lesion, tumor spread, and associated ovarian lesion. Clinical and pathologic features were determined in 24 patients. Results: The mean of the major tumor diameter was 4.1 cm (range, 2.2 - 6.5 cm). In the imaging features, 77% of 13 tumors demonstrated endoluminal fluid. All tumors showed enhancing solid components; 62% were multicystic and 38% had solid lesions. Most solid lesions exhibited an irregular margin (80%). The locules of the multicystic lesions tended to have smooth margins (75%), to have an average major diameter of {<=}1 cm (88%), and to be 11 - 20 in number (75%). The solid lesions were associated with invasion and metastases (60%). Clinically, 38% of 24 patients had watery discharge and 13% had Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, while pathologically, most patients were low stage (I or II) (83%). Over the 2-year follow-up of 17 patients, 82% was free from disease. The patients with more aggressive tumors or an unfavorable prognosis that manifested as tumor recurrence or metastasis tended to have invasion, watery discharges, high stages (III or IV) (100%) and solid lesions, metastases, and associated ovarian lesions (67%). Conclusion: Awareness of imaging features as well as clinicopathologic manifestations of adenoma malignum can aid in accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of prognosis.

  3. X-ray computed tomography in the post treatment evaluation of carcinoma of the cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1988-12-01

    The diagnostic value of X-ray computed tomography scan for early detection of recurrence and/or metastasis were analyzed as an index of a sensitivity, a specificity, a positive predictive value, a negative predictive value and an accuracy among one hundred and thirty-one patients with carcinoma of the cervix as part of post-treatment evaluation during a period from 1980 to 1987. The diagnostic points of CT scan was the following criteria which including (1) parametrial involvement, (2) enlargement of uterine cervix, (3) invasion to vaginal wall, (4) bladder and/or rectal invasion, (5) pyometra, (6) enlargement of pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph nodes, (7) laterality of pelvic muscle, (8) intrapelvic abnormal shadow or ascites retension, (9) hydronephrosis, and (10) distant metastasis. (1) Among the patients treated with surgery, accuracy of each diagnostic point for early detection of recurrence was as follows: (8) 73%, (6) 60%, (9) 47%, (10) 47%, (3) 40%, (1) 33%, (4) 27%, (7) 27%, respectively. (2) Among the patients reated with radiotherapy, accuracy of each diagnostic point for early detection of recurrence was as follws: (1) 65%, (8) 64%, (5) 63%, (4) 61%, (10) 58%, (6) 55%, (9) 53%, (2) 42%, (3) 41%, (7) 41%, respectively. (3) Among the patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy, accuracy of each diagnostic point for early detection of recurrence was as follows: (8) 76%, (10) 76%, (9) 57%, (6) 52%, (1) 48%, (4) 43%, (7) 33%, (3) 19%, respectively. In conclusion, CT findings such as paraaortic lymphadenopathy and invasion to vaginal wall including distant metastasis were most important for early detection of recurrence during the follow-up study.

  4. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerai Woldehiwet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66. IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11% vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  5. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Frade, Pedro R.; Katharina Roll; Kristin Bergauer; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and ...

  6. Adhesion to brown trout skin mucus, antagonism against cyst adhesion and pathogenicity to rainbow trout of some inhibitory bacteria against Saprolegnia parasitica .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-González, M T; Fregeneda-Grandes, J M; González-Palacios, C; Aller-Gancedo, J M

    2013-04-29

    Biological control of saprolegniosis with bacteria might be an alternative to the use of chemical compounds. Among criteria for the selection of such bacteria are their absence of pathogenicity to fish and their ability to prevent adhesion of the pathogen to the skin mucus. The pathogenicity to rainbow trout of 21 bacterial isolates with in vitro inhibitory activity against Saprolegnia parasitica was studied. Fifteen of the isolates, identified as Aeromonas sobria, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia fonticola, Xanthomonas retroflexus and Yersinia kristensenii, were non-pathogenic when injected into rainbow trout. Their capacity to adhere to the skin mucus of male and female brown trout and to reduce the adhesion of S. parasitica cysts under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions was tested. The 15 bacterial isolates showed a low adhesion rate, ranging between 1.7% (for an A. sobria isolate) and 15.3% (a P. fluorescens isolate). This adhesion was greater in the case of mucus from male brown trout than from females. Similarities in the adhesion to male mucus and other substrates and correlation to that observed to polystyrene suggest that adhesion to skin mucus does not depend on the substrate. A high percentage (88.9%) of the S. parasitica cysts adhered to the skin mucus of male brown trout. Almost all of the bacteria reduced this adhesion ratio significantly under exclusion and competition conditions. However, only half of the isolates displaced cysts from skin mucus, and more bacterial cells were necessary for this effect. A novel method to study the adhesion of S. parasitica cysts to skin mucus of trout and their interactions with inhibitory bacteria is described. PMID:23670078

  7. Marinobacterium coralli sp. nov., isolated from mucus of coral (Mussismilia hispida)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimetto, L.; Cleenwerck, I.; Brocchi, M.; Willems, A.; De Vos, P.; Thompson, F.

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated R-40509T, was isolated from mucus of the reef builder coral (Mussismilia hispida) located in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil. The strain was oxidase-positive and catalase-negative, and required Na+ for growth. Its phylogenetic position was in the genus Marinobacterium and the closest related species were Marinobacterium sediminicola, Marinobacterium maritimum and Marinobacterium stanieri; the isolate exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence ...

  8. Saline-saturated DMSO-EDTA as a storage medium for microbial DNA analysis from coral mucus swab samples

    OpenAIRE

    May, Lisa A.; Higgins, Julie L.; Woodley, Cheryl M.

    2011-01-01

    The mucus surface layer of corals plays a number of integral roles in their overall health and fitness. This mucopolysaccharide coating serves as vehicle to capture food, a protective barrier against physical invasions and trauma, and serves as a medium to host a community of microorganisms distinct from the surrounding seawater. In healthy corals the associated microbial communities are known to provide antibiotics that contribute to the coral’s innate immunity and function metabolic activit...

  9. Characterization of Geographically Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with Coral Mucus Produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    OpenAIRE

    McKew, B.A.; Dumbrell, A.J.; Daud, S. D.; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E.; Mogensen, L.; Whitby, C.

    2012-01-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H′, 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H′, 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammap...

  10. Accumulation of nanoparticles in “jellyfish” mucus: a bio-inspired route to decontamination of nano-waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Amit; Thiéry, Alain; Lombard, Fabien; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Boisset, Claire; Bramard, Jean-François; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The economic and societal impacts of nano-materials are enormous. However, releasing such materials in the environment could be detrimental to human health and the ecological biosphere. Here we demonstrate that gold and quantum dots nanoparticles bio-accumulate into mucus materials coming from natural species such as jellyfish. One strategy that emerges from this finding would be to take advantage of these trapping properties to remove nanoparticles from contaminated water.

  11. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Gloria; Vega Daniel; Alfaro Henry; Alonso Mauricio; Valle Juan C; Zayas Gustavo; Reyes Miguel; King Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To as...

  12. Antisperm antibodies of the Ig a class in the cervical mucus and sera of artificially inseminated cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of anti-sperm antibodies of the Ig A class in the cervical mucus and sera of artificially inseminated cows. Cervical mucus and sera samples were collected on the day of artificial insemination and the animals were divided into four groups of 20 cows each according to the number of previous inseminations. The titer of antibodies was determined by the indirect immunofluorescence method using sperm cells suspended in Tris egg-yolk extender or the commercial extender "Biociphos +". Our results indicate that titers of antisperm antibodies of the Ig A class elevate with the number of artificial inseminations. Mean titer values were higher in the cervical mucus samples than in sera indicating that the local immune response is more relevant for the immunological reactivity to sperm and extender antigens. In addition, the titer of antisperm antibodies was generally higher when sperm cells suspended in Tris egg-yolk extender were used for the test.

  13. In vivo study of the mucus-permeating properties of PEG-coated nanoparticles following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaurraga, Laura; Martín-Arbella, Nekane; Zabaleta, Virginia; Quincoces, Gemma; Peñuelas, Ivan; Irache, Juan M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mucus-permeating properties of poly(ethyleneglycol)-coated nanoparticles prepared from the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez® AN) after oral administration in rats. Nanoparticles were "decorated" with PEGs of different molecular masses (PEG2000, PEG6000 and PEG10000) at a PEG-to-polymer ratio of 0.125. All the PEG-coated nanoparticles displayed a mean size of ∼150 nm, slightly negative ζ values and a "brush" conformation as determined from the calculation of the PEG density. For in vivo studies, nanoparticles were labelled with either (99m)Tc or fluorescent tags. Naked nanoparticles displayed a higher ability to interact with the mucosa of the stomach than with the small intestine. However, these interactions were restricted to the mucus layer covering the epithelial surface, as visualised by fluorescence microscopy. On the contrary, PEG-coated nanoparticles moved rapidly to the intestine, as determined by imaging, and, then, were capable to develop important interactions with the mucosa, reaching the surface of the epithelium. These mucus permeating properties were more intense for nanoparticles coated with PEG2000 or PEG6000 than with PEG10000. However, the capability of nanocarriers to develop adhesive interactions within the mucosa decreased when prepared at excessive PEG densities. PMID:25541441

  14. Laser therapy as the method of choice in treating young women with CIN lesions of the uterine cervix and VIN lesions of the vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Piotr A.

    1996-03-01

    The aim of the studies was to attempt to investigate the results of treating young women with CIN I - III of the cervix and epithelial VIN I - III lesions of the vulva by means of the laser technique (vaporization).

  15. Can pure accelerated radiotherapy given as six fractions weekly be an option in locally advanced carcinoma cervix: Results of a prospective randomized phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Accelerated radiotherapy given as six fractions per week is an effective alternative to concomitant chemoradiation in locally advanced carcinoma cervix and has shown lesser toxicities in our study.

  16. Effect of thiol derivatives on mixed mucus and blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risack, L E; Vandevelde, M E; Gobert, J G

    1978-01-01

    The disintegrating effect of three reducing thiol derivatives: [sodium mercaptoethane sulphonate (Mesna), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and dithio-1,4-threitol (DTT)] was investigated in vitro upon blood clots formed in the absence or in the presence of tracheobronchial secretions and compared with the effect of iso-osmotic saline solution. The amounts of haemoglobin released from the clots after 30 min incubation and the initial rates of haemoglobin release were compared for the different products at different concentrations. All three reducing agents showed some ability to disintegrate mixed clots to an extent depending on their concentration. After 30 min incubation, statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference in favour of Mesna at the three concentrations used, i.e. 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mmol/1. The initial rate of haemoglobin release in presence of Mesna was at all concentrations significantly higher than that of NAC or DTT. The effects on normal blood clots were much less pronounced. The effectiveness of Mesna in splitting up mixed blood and mucus clots in the management of patients who had inhaled blood is discussed. PMID:97741

  17. Effect of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced mucus secretion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor and tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B are important mediators contributing to increased airway secretion in the context of different types of respiratory diseases including acute and chronic asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are recommended as add-on therapy for this disease. The cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist montelukast has been used in clinical asthma therapy during the last years. Besides its inhibitory action on bronchoconstriction, only little is known about its effects on airway secretions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Methods The effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity in the rat were assessed by quantification of secreted 35SO4 labelled mucus macromolecules using the modified Ussing chamber technique. Results Platelet activating factor potently stimulated airway secretion, which was completely inhibited by the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 and montelukast. In contrast, montelukast had no effect on tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Conclusion Cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonism by montelukast reverses the secretagogue properties of platelet activating factor to the same degree as the specific platelet activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 but has no influence on treacheal secretion elicited by tachykinins. These results suggest a role of montelukast in the signal transduction pathway of platelet activating factor induced secretory activity of the airways and may further explain the beneficial properties of cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonists.

  18. Assessing mucus and airway morphology in response to a segmental allergen challenge using OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David C.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Asthma affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and the prevalence of the disease appears to be increasing. One of the most important aspects of asthma is the excessive bronchoconstriction that results in many of the symptoms experienced by asthma sufferers, but the relationship between bronchoconstriction and airway morphology is not clearly established. We present the imaging results of a study involving a segmental allergen challenge given to both allergic asthmatic (n = 12) and allergic non-asthmatic (n = 19) human volunteers. Using OCT, we have imaged and assessed baseline morphology in a right upper lobe (RUL) airway, serving as the control, and a right middle lobe (RML) airway, in which the allergen was to be administered. After a period of 24 hours had elapsed following the administration of the allergen, both airways were again imaged and the response morphology assessed. A number of airway parameters were measured and compared, including epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness and buckling, lumen area, and mucus content. We found that at baseline epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness, and mucosal buckling were greater in AAs than ANAs. We also observed statistically significant increases in these values 24 hours after the allergen had been administered for both the ANA and AA sets. In comparison, the control airway which received a diluent showed no statistically significant change.

  19. Detection of sperm-motivating factor in cervical mucus of ovulatory women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Ray Chaudhuri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of any sperm selecting and / or motivating factor in the cervical mucus (CM of ovulatory women, which, in turn, might influence pregnancy rate. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted with 190 infertile couples, having indications for moderate seminopathy, enlisted for intra-uterine insemination (IUI, following routine ultrasound and laparoscopic evaluation at our centre, between April 2006 to August 2010. The female partners were in the age group 25-30 years and were randomly divided into 3 groups to receive sperm processed in 3 different methods, with or without CM. Pre and peri-ovulatory CM was subjected to paper electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane (CAM strip, to study the protein band pattern. The different procedures of sperm processing were compared primarily on the basis of sperm motility and quality in the swim-up layer and also the pregnancy outcome following IUI, with due emphasis on improvisation of current laboratory methodologies used in IUI. Results: The use of CM layer alongwith medium for swim-up proved to be the best regarding selection of sperm with maximum motility and normal morphology, as well as the pregnancy outcome. The CM of ovulatory women around ovulation showed the presence of a specific band in electrophoresis. Conclusion: The use of CM in sperm preparation technique proves to be beneficial to patients undergoing IUI.

  20. Interaction of polyacrylates with porcine pepsin and the gastric mucus barrier: a mechanism for mucosal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S N; Pearson, J P; Hutton, D A; Allen, A; Dettmar, P W

    1994-12-01

    1. The mechanism of interaction of the polyacrylates, carbopols with the mucus barrier in vivo has been investigated in vitro. 2. Carbopol caused a dramatic increase in the viscosity of porcine gastric mucin solutions that was up to 19-fold greater than that of the sum of the individual polymers. 3. The mucin-carbopol interaction was stable after an initial 30 min period for up to 36 h at 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C. It was reduced by increasing the temperature from 20 degrees C to 45 degrees C, was unaffected by pH and ionic strength, but was enhanced by Ca2+. 4. The magnitude of the interaction between mucin and carbopol depended on the polymeric structure of the mucin and the molecular size and level of cross-linking of the carbopol. 5. The interactions were reversible and increased with increasing carbopol and mucin concentration. The dramatic increase in viscosity can be explained in terms of space filling by the mucin molecules leading to predominantly carbopol-carbopol interactions. 6. Carbopol 934P inhibits pepsin hydrolysis and therefore has potential as a mucosal protective agent in vivo. PMID:7874865

  1. Bacterial dynamics within the mucus, tissue and skeleton of the coral Porites lutea during different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Long, Li-Juan; Dong, Jun-De; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Si

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of the response of coral microbial communities to seasonal ecological environment at the microscale will advance our understanding of the relationship between coral-associated bacteria community and coral health. In this study, we examined bacteria community composition from mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and surrounding seawater every three months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The bacterial communities were analyzed using pyrosequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which demonstrated diverse bacterial consortium profiles in corals. The bacterial communities in all three coral compartments studied were significantly different from the surrounding seawater. Moreover, they had a much more dynamic seasonal response compared to the seawater communities. The bacterial communities in all three coral compartments collected in each seasonal sample tended to cluster together. Analysis of the relationship between bacterial assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that the bacterial community correlated to dissolved oxygen and rainfall significantly at our study site. This study highlights a dynamic relationship between the high complexity of coral associated bacterial community and seasonally varying ecosystem parameters.

  2. PPARγ as a Potential Target to Treat Airway Mucus Hypersecretion in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hypersecretion (AMH is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AMH contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and it is associated with reduced lung function and high rates of hospitalization and mortality. It has been suggested that AMH should be a target in the treatment of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence suggests that a key regulator of airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is expressed in structural, immune, and inflammatory cells in the lung. PPARγ is involved in mucin production, and PPARγ agonists can inhibit mucin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PPARγ is a novel target in the treatment of AMH and that further work on this transcription factor may lead to new therapies for chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  3. In vivo imaging of airway cilia and mucus clearance with micro-optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kengyeh K; Unglert, Carolin; Ford, Tim N; Cui, Dongyao; Carruth, Robert W; Singh, Kanwarpal; Liu, Linbo; Birket, Susan E; Solomon, George M; Rowe, Steven M; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2016-07-01

    We have designed and fabricated a 4 mm diameter rigid endoscopic probe to obtain high resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) images from the tracheal epithelium of living swine. Our common-path fiber-optic probe used gradient-index focusing optics, a selectively coated prism reflector to implement a circular-obscuration apodization for depth-of-focus enhancement, and a common-path reference arm and an ultra-broadbrand supercontinuum laser to achieve high axial resolution. Benchtop characterization demonstrated lateral and axial resolutions of 3.4 μm and 1.7 μm, respectively (in tissue). Mechanical standoff rails flanking the imaging window allowed the epithelial surface to be maintained in focus without disrupting mucus flow. During in vivo imaging, relative motion was mitigated by inflating an airway balloon to hold the standoff rails on the epithelium. Software implemented image stabilization was also implemented during post-processing. The resulting image sequences yielded co-registered quantitative outputs of airway surface liquid and periciliary liquid layer thicknesses, ciliary beat frequency, and mucociliary transport rate, metrics that directly indicate airway epithelial function that have dominated in vitro research in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but have not been available in vivo. PMID:27446685

  4. Literature analysis of radiotherapy in uterine cervix cancer for the processing of the patterns of care study in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Eun Seog; Kim, Yong Ho [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [College of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dae Sik [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seung Hee [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Il Han [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Uterine cervix cancer is one of the most prevalent women cancer in Korea. We analysed published papers in Korea with comparing Patterns of Care Study (PCS) articles of United States and Japan for the purpose of developing and processing Korean PCS. We searched PCS related foreign-produced papers in the PCS homepage (212 articles and abstracts) and from the Pub Med to find Structure and Process of the PCS. To compare their study with Korean papers, we used the internet site 'Korean Pub Med' to search 99 articles regarding uterine cervix cancer and radiation therapy. We analysed Korean paper by comparing them with selected PCS papers regarding Structure, Process and Outcome and compared their items between the period of before 1980's and 1990's. Evaluable papers were 28 from United States, 10 from the Japan and 73 from the Korea which treated cervix PCS items. PCS papers for United States and Japan commonly stratified into 3 {approx} 4 categories on the bases of the scales characteristics of the facilities, numbers of the patients, doctors. Researchers restricted eligible patients strictly. For the process of the study, they analysed factors regarding pretreatment staging in chronological order, treatment related factors, factors in addition to FIGO staging and treatment machine. Papers in United States dealt with racial characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, tumor size (6), and bilaterality of parametrial or pelvic side wall invasion (5), whereas papers from Japan treated of the tumor markers. The common trend in the process of staging work-up was decreased use of lymphangiogram, barium enema and increased use of CT and MRI over the times. The recent subject from the Korean papers dealt with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (9 papers), treatment duration (4), tumor markers (8) and unconventional fractionation. By comparing papers among 3 nations, we collected items for Korean uterine cervix cancer PCS. By consensus meeting

  5. Literature analysis of radiotherapy in uterine cervix cancer for the processing of the patterns of care study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uterine cervix cancer is one of the most prevalent women cancer in Korea. We analysed published papers in Korea with comparing Patterns of Care Study (PCS) articles of United States and Japan for the purpose of developing and processing Korean PCS. We searched PCS related foreign-produced papers in the PCS homepage (212 articles and abstracts) and from the Pub Med to find Structure and Process of the PCS. To compare their study with Korean papers, we used the internet site 'Korean Pub Med' to search 99 articles regarding uterine cervix cancer and radiation therapy. We analysed Korean paper by comparing them with selected PCS papers regarding Structure, Process and Outcome and compared their items between the period of before 1980's and 1990's. Evaluable papers were 28 from United States, 10 from the Japan and 73 from the Korea which treated cervix PCS items. PCS papers for United States and Japan commonly stratified into 3 ∼ 4 categories on the bases of the scales characteristics of the facilities, numbers of the patients, doctors. Researchers restricted eligible patients strictly. For the process of the study, they analysed factors regarding pretreatment staging in chronological order, treatment related factors, factors in addition to FIGO staging and treatment machine. Papers in United States dealt with racial characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, tumor size (6), and bilaterality of parametrial or pelvic side wall invasion (5), whereas papers from Japan treated of the tumor markers. The common trend in the process of staging work-up was decreased use of lymphangiogram, barium enema and increased use of CT and MRI over the times. The recent subject from the Korean papers dealt with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (9 papers), treatment duration (4), tumor markers (8) and unconventional fractionation. By comparing papers among 3 nations, we collected items for Korean uterine cervix cancer PCS. By consensus meeting and close communication

  6. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande; Yelikar; Andurkar; Dahitankar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biops...

  7. The Influence of Multiple Human Papillomavirus Types on the Risk of Genotype-Concordant Incident Infections of the Anus and Cervix: The Hawaii HPV Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Marc T.; McDuffie, Katharine; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J.; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Shvetsov, Yurii B.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types on detection of concordant incident HPV infections of the cervix or anus following infection at the other anatomic site was examined in a cohort of 897 women. Multiple HPV infections at the anus were not significantly associated with subsequent acquisition of a concordant cervical infection, whereas prior coinfections in the cervix increased risk of a new cervical HPV infection. Incident anal HPV infections following concordant cervic...

  8. Does initial haemoglobin level modify the efficacy of radiosensitizers. An analysis of the MRC misonidazole studies in head and neck cancer and cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a new analysis of the data from two Medical Research Council (MRC) studies of misonidazole in the treatment of head and neck cancer (MRC Working Party 1984a) and cancer of the cervix (MRC Working Party 1984 b). There were no clear differences in local failure or survival rates between the groups of patients receiving misonidazole and placebo in either head and neck or cervix study. (author)

  9. Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, the Norwegian radium hospital, 1968--1970: results of treatment annd major complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martimbeau, P.W.; Kjorstad, K.E.; Kolstad, P.

    1978-06-15

    Different methods of treatment have been debated over the years for Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, especially in view of the results and complications. We have reviewed the experience of the Norwegian Radium Hospital for carcinoma of the cervix, Stage IB, for the years 1968, 1969, and 1970; most of the patients receive preoperative intrauterine and intravaginal radium, followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy; if the nodes are involved, they also receive external pelvic irradiation. During this period, 437 patients had Stage IB; the 5 year survival was 80.2 per cent (not corrected). We focused our attention on lymphedema following such a method of treatment; of 402 patients operated upon, 23.4% developed lymphedema ranging from mild to moderate to severe; 20 patients (5%) had severe lymphedema; factors involved are analyzed.

  10. A comparative study of external radiotherapy alone versus external radiotherapy + brachytherapy in carcinoma cervix stage III B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest cancer seen in women at Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner (Rajasthan). In the present study external radio-therapy and brachytherapy are used in carcinoma cervix stage III B. After 4000 to 4500 rads to pelvis by external radio-therapy, patient was assessed for intra cavitary application. Total given dose to point A was 7500 rads, to point B was 5000 rads. If patient was not suitable a split course was given where patient was asked to come after 3 weeks for intracavitary application. A comparative study of both methods was done. There was significant improvement in the control of central disease by applying intracavitary source. Radiation reactions were comparable. (author). 4 tables, 10 refs

  11. Uterine cervix squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the Ampulla of Vater: a case report with review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Udovčić Gagula

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. In particular, metastases to the ampulla of Vater are very rare and may represent a significant diagnostic challenge. Metastases from the uterine cervix to the ampulla of Vater are exceedingly rare and only one case has been described in the available literature. We describe here a second case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix to the ampulla of Vater in a 45-year-old woman. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma presented as an isolated metastasis to the ampulla of Vater, two years after the initial diagnosis. While the squamous cell carcinoma could occur as primary ampullary carcinoma, albeit very rare, it is necessary to exclude the possibility of metastatic cancer.

  12. Results from phase III clinical trials with radachlorine for photodynamic therapy of pre-cancer and early cancer of cervix

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Filonenko; L. G. Serova; V. I. Ivanova-Radkevich

    2015-01-01

    The results of clinical study for efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with radachlorine in patients with pre-cancer and cancer of cervix are represented. The study enrolled 30 patients including 4 patients with cervical erosion, 5 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II, 13 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, 4 patients with carcinoma in situ and 4 patients with cervical cancer stage Ia. Radachlorine was administrated as single 30 minute intravenous injection ...

  13. Three-dimensional volumetric gray-scale uterine cervix histogram prediction of days to delivery in full term pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Youn; Kim, Hai-Joong; Hahn, Meong Hi; Jeon, Hye Jin; Cho, Geum Joon; Hong, Sun Chul; Oh, Min Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to figure out whether volumetric gray-scale histogram difference between anterior and posterior cervix can indicate the extent of cervical consistency. Methods We collected data of 95 patients who were appropriate for vaginal delivery with 36th to 37th weeks of gestational age from September 2010 to October 2011 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Ansan Hospital. Patients were excluded who had one of the followings: Cesarean section, labor in...

  14. The WBC raising effect and the side effects of LPS-701 injection of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that LPS-701, an endotoxin extracted and purified by the authors' laboratory from Salmonella typhoid bacilli, has a marked effect on raising the white blood cell count of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, while the systemic and local side effects are slight. It is suggested that injection of LPS-701 can be used as a non-specific immunological stimulating agent for patients receiving radiotherapy. (Auth.)

  15. Long-Term Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Adenocarcinoma/Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Cervix After Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the outcomes of patients with adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) of the cervix primarily treated with radiotherapy (RT), identify the prognostic factors, and evaluate the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 148 patients with Stage I-IVA AC/ASC of cervix after full-course definitive RT were included. Of the 148 patients, 77% had advanced stage disease. Treatment failure was categorized as either distant or local failure. Local failure was further separated into persistent tumor or local relapse after complete remission. The effectiveness of CCRT with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel was examined, and the surgical salvage rate for local failure was reviewed. Results: The 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 68%, 38%, 49%, 30%, and 0% for those with Stage IB/IIA nonbulky, IB/IIA bulky, IIB, III, and IVA disease, respectively, and appeared inferior to that of those with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated using the same RT protocol. Incomplete tumor regression after RT, a low hemoglobin level, and positive lymph node metastasis were independent poor prognostic factors for relapse-free survival. CCRT with weekly cisplatinum did not improve the outcome for our AC/ASC patients. Salvage surgery rescued 30% of patients with persistent disease. Conclusion: Patients with AC/ASC of the cervix primarily treated with RT had inferior outcomes compared to those with squamous cell carcinoma. Incomplete tumor regression after RT was the most important prognostic factor for local failure. Salvage surgery for patients with persistent tumor should be encouraged for selected patients. Our results did not demonstrate a benefit of CCRT with cisplatin for this disease.

  16. Analysis on the Incidence, Staging and Treatment of Carcinoma Cervix at Delta Medical College and Hospital of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin A Banu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women in this part of the world. Bangladesh has the highest level of incidence and mortality rates due to cervical cancer among women. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease by screening and treatment of pre-invasive condition. Unfortunately, there is no effective screening program in Bangladesh.Objective: The objective was to analyze the clinico-pathologic characteristics and, subsequently the therapy delivered to the patients.Materials and method: This cross sectional study was done from January to December 2011 in oncology division of Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. During this period a total of 2264 female carcinoma patients were registered. Out of them 523 patients were with the diagnosis of carcinoma of cervix. Evaluation and characterization of patients with carcinoma cervix were done according to the age group, clinical stages and surgical status. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT and doses, brachytherapy doses and fractions, time interval between EBRT and brachytherapy, neo-adjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy status were the factors taken into consideration for the analysis of treatment of these patients.Results: The study revealed that the incidence of carcinoma cervix was 23% and highest incidence was between 40-50 years of age group, most of the patients were in Stage IIB (34% and IIIB (28% and 31% with unknown stage. About 44% patients were referred postoperatively and most of them with unknown stage. Almost 90% patients received EBRT, 24% patients received concurrent chemo-radiation, 46% of them completed 5 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy and 8.6% patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. About 69% patients received brachytherapy with HDR Co-60 sources and 23% of patients received their brachytherapy treatment after 12 weeks of completion of EBRT.Conclusion: Lack of proper clinical evaluation and documentation, delay in referral and lack

  17. A study of the prognostic role of serum fucose and fucosyl transferase in cancer of the uterine cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Urmi; Guha,Subhas; Chowdhury, J Roy

    1985-01-01

    Serum fucose levels and fucosyl transferase activities have been designated as nonspecific markers of malignancy, and play an important role in the diagnosis of different types of malignancies. In the present study, attempts were made to determine the prognostic significance of these markers in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix after therapy. It was found that both serum fucose and fucosyl transferase, which were elevated in untreated patients declined significantly in patients respo...

  18. The clinical significance of postoperative irradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of postoperative irradiation including the paraaortic node irradiation on pelvic control and survival in the squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Materials and Methods: Between 1977 and 1991, 179 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who received radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were deter-mined as pT1b-2N0-1M0 and followed by postoperative pelvic/paraaortic radiation therapy. 112 cases(pT1b 37 cases and pT2 75 cases) with the number of positive pelvic nodes≥2 or parametrial invasion were treated with whole pelvic irradiation(WP-RT,44-45.6Gy/22-24fr.) and 67 cases(pT1b 30 cases and pT2 37 cases) with the number of positive pelvic node≥3(from 1989 ≥4) or positive common iliac node were treated with whole pelvic and paraaortic node irradiation(WP+PAN-RT,44Gy/22fr.). Almost all cases were irradiated with dynamic conformal technique. For pelvic irradiation, two axial dynamic conformal method that is conformed to pelvic lymphatic region and makes the high dose area concave between the axes to reduce bladder and intestinal dose. For the paraaortic area, one axial dynamic conformal method was used. Results: 5-Y pelvic control were pT1b 89.2% and pT2 94.2%. 5-Y overall survival of pT1b WP-RT and WP+PAN-RT cases were 91.6% and 86.2%, pT2 were 90.6% and 61.6%, respectively. 5-Y survival in the cases of positive pelvic nodes≥3, WP-RT vs WP+PAN-RT were 50.0% vs 69.8%. Therefore, paraaortic irradiation seems to improve the survival. In the cases with positive pelvic nodes≥2, paraaortic recurrences were noted in (5(21)) (23.8%) WP-RT and (3(44))(6.8%) WP+PAN-RT. In the cases with positive pelvic node 0-1, no paraaortic recurrences were observed. Moderate or severe late complications occur red in 38 cases(21.2%). Obstructions of small intestine were seen in 10 cases and urinary complications were in 12 cases. The crude incidence of late complications were (23(112))(20.5%) in WP-RT and (15

  19. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K., Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-08-01

    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  20. Persisting cyclical uterine bleeding in patients treated with radical radiation therapy and hormonal replacement for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical radiation therapy used for carcinoma of the cervix will ablate ovarian function. Since January 1986, our policy has been to administer oral combination oestrogen-progesterone replacement hormonal therapy to all premenopausal patients undergoing radical radiation with or without synchronous chemotherapy, for invasive cervix cancer. Five out of 22 (23%) such patients unexpectedly experienced between one and four episodes of cyclical per vaginal bleeding after the completion of radiation therapy. Bleeding episodes occurred in the absence of persistent tumor or radiation reaction, and suggest persisting endometrial response to exogenous hormonal stimulation. Uterine activity was temporarily retained in these five patients despite a minimal endometrial surface dose of between 4800 and 6490 cGy. The limited number of cycles before bleeding spontaneously ceased may represent the slow death of endometrial cells subsequent to radiation or radiochemotherapy treatment, and has not previously been described. In view of the paucity of data on the radiosensitivity of normal endometrium, we have carefully examined these patients who appear to have retained endometrial sensitivity to hormonal stimuli after radical radiation-chemotherapy for uterine cervix cancer