Sample records for cervicovaginal lavage specimens

  1. Detection of cervical neoplasia by DNA methylation analysis in cervico-vaginal lavages, a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J. J. H.; Yang, N.; Lendvai, A.; Klip, H. G.; Volders, H. H.; Buikema, H. J.; van Hemel, B. M.; Voll, M.; Bennink, H. J. T. Coelingh; Schuuring, E.; Wisman, G. B. A.; van der Zee, A. G. J.


    Objective. To explore the feasibility of DNA methylation analysis for the detection of cervical neoplasia in self-obtained cervico-vaginal lavages. Methods. Lavages collected by a self-sampling device and paired cervical scrapings were obtained from 20 cervical cancer patients and 23 patients referr

  2. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding. (United States)

    McNicholl, Janet M; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F


    HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling.

  3. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

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    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1 no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2 no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3 no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4 combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5 depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera injections for at least 6 months, (6 levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV. Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  4. Impact of bacterial vaginosis, as assessed by nugent criteria and hormonal status on glycosidases and lectin binding in cervicovaginal lavage samples.

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    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormonal status and bacterial vaginosis (BV on the glycosidases present and glycosylation changes as assessed by lectin binding to cervicovaginal lavage constituents. Frozen cervicovaginal lavage samples from a completed study examining the impact of reproductive hormones on the physicochemical properties of vaginal fluid were utilized for the present study. In the parent study, 165 women were characterized as having BV, intermediate or normal microflora using the Nugent criteria. The presence of glycosidases in the samples was determined using quantitative 4-methyl-umbelliferone based assays, and glycosylation was assessed using enzyme linked lectin assays (ELLA. Women with BV had elevated sialidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase activities compared to intermediate or normal women (P<0.001, 0.003, 0.006 and 0.042 respectively. The amount of sialic acid (Sambucus nigra, P = 0.003 and high mannose (griffithsin, P<0.001 were reduced, as evaluated by lectin binding, in women with BV. When the data were stratified according to hormonal status, α-glucosidase and griffithsin binding were decreased among postmenopausal women (P<0.02 when compared to premenopausal groups. These data suggest that both hormonal status and BV impact the glycosidases and lectin binding sites present in vaginal fluid. The sialidases present at increased levels in women with BV likely reduce the number of sialic acid binding sites. Other enzymes likely reduce griffithsin binding. The alterations in the glycosidase content, high mannose and sialic acid binding sites in the cervicovaginal fluid associated with bacterial vaginosis may impact susceptibility to viruses, such as HIV, that utilize glycans as a portal of entry.

  5. An Evaluation of the Cobas4800 HPV Test on Cervico-Vaginal Specimens in Liquid versus Solid Transport Media.

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    Hongxue Luo

    Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.

  6. In Vitro Exposure to PC-1005 and Cervicovaginal Lavage Fluid from Women Vaginally Administered PC-1005 Inhibits HIV-1 and HSV-2 Infection in Human Cervical Mucosa. (United States)

    Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Zhang, Shimin; Mizenina, Olga; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Cooney, Michael L; Hoesley, Craig J; Creasy, George W; Friedland, Barbara; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia


    Our recent phase 1 trial demonstrated that PC-1005 gel containing 50 μM MIV-150, 14 mM zinc acetate dihydrate, and carrageenan (CG) applied daily vaginally for 14 days is safe and well tolerated. Importantly, cervicovaginal lavage fluid samples (CVLs) collected 4 or 24 h after the last gel application inhibited HIV-1 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in cell-based assays in a dose-dependent manner (MIV-150 for HIV-1 and CG for HPV). Herein we aimed to determine the anti-HIV and anti-herpes simplex virus 2 (anti-HSV-2) activity of PC-1005 in human cervical explants after in vitro exposure to the gel and to CVLs from participants in the phase 1 trial. Single HIV-1BaL infection and HIV-1BaL-HSV-2 coinfection explant models were utilized. Coinfection with HSV-2 enhanced tissue HIV-1BaL infection. In vitro exposure to PC-1005 protected cervical mucosa against HIV-1BaL (up to a 1:300 dilution) in single-challenge and cochallenge models. CG gel (PC-525) provided some barrier effect against HIV-1BaL at the 1:100 dilution in a single-challenge model but not in the cochallenge model. Both PC-1005 and PC-525 at the 1:100 dilution inhibited HSV-2 infection, pointing to a CG-mediated protection. MIV-150 and CG in CVLs inhibited HIV (single-challenge or cochallenge models) and HSV-2 infections in explants in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Stronger inhibition of HIV-1 infection by CVLs collected 4 h after the last gel administration was observed compared to infection detected in the presence of baseline CVLs. The anti-HIV and anti-HSV-2 activity of PC-1005 gel in vitro and CVLs in human ectocervical explants supports the further development of PC-1005 gel as a broad-spectrum on-demand microbicide.

  7. Assessment of utility of ductal lavage and ductoscopy in breast cancer-a retrospective analysis of mastectomy specimens. (United States)

    Badve, Sunil; Wiley, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Norma


    Early detection of breast lesions continues to be an important goal in the management of breast cancer. At present, mammographic imaging in addition to physical examination is the main screening method for the detection of cancer. Fiberoptic ductoscopy and duct lavage are being recently used to evaluate patients at risk for breast cancer. Both techniques examine the nipple and central duct area to identify intraductal lesions. In this study, we examined the frequency of involvement of these structures in mastectomy specimens as a surrogate marker to estimate the utility of these methods in breast cancer patients. The presence and type of involvement of the nipple and central duct area was retrospectively evaluated in 801 mastectomy specimens from a 4-year period that had been performed for infiltrating or in situ carcinoma. Atypical proliferation or cells, when seen in the ducts of this region, was considered as evidence of nipple involvement, even if definite evidence of malignancy was lacking. The review of 801 mastectomies showed nipple and central duct involvement in 179 (22%) cases. Among the 665 cases of infiltrating carcinoma, 17% did not have an intraductal component. The relative rarity of nipple and central duct in mastectomy specimens and the lack of an in situ component in many cases raise questions about the utility of fiberoptic ductoscopy and duct lavage as methods for screening of breast cancer. Additionally, as these methods examine only 1-2 ducts of the 15-20 ducts that open at the nipple, they might fail to detect focal abnormalities.

  8. BV和VVC患者阴道灌洗液中相关细胞因子水平检测及意义%Detection and significance of cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage fluid in patients with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贺强; 张学军; 戴随


    目的 提高细菌性阴道病(BV)和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)诊疗水平.方法 采集35例健康育龄妇女(对照组)、35例BV患者(BV组)、35例VVC患者(VVC组)阴道灌洗液,用ELISA法检测三组相关细胞因子(IL-2、IL-8、IFN-γ、IL-4、IL-13、IL-10、IgE)水平.结果 与对照组比较,BV组IL-2显著降低,IL-13、IL-4、IL-10显著升高,IL-8、IFN-γ、IgE无明显变化;VVC组IFN-γ显著降低,IL-2、IL-13、IL-4、IgE显著升高,IL-8、IL-10无显著变化.讨论 BV与VVC均存在Th1/Th2平衡失调,检测两种疾病局部细胞因子的变化有助于更好的控制感染.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and treament level of bacterial vaginosis(BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC).Methods Cervicovaginal lavage fluid was collected from 35 healthy women in child-bearing age ( control group) ,35 patients with BC(BV group) ,35 patients with VVC (WC group).The level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-8,IFN-γ,IL-4,IL-13 ,IL-10,IgE)of the three groups were detected by ELISA.Results Compared with the control group, the IL-2 of BV group decreased significantly,IL-13,IL-4,IL-10 increased significantly,IL-8,IFN-γ,IgE had no significant change;the IFN-γof VVC group decreased significantly, IL-2,IL-13,IL-4,IgE increased obviously,IL-8,IL-10 had no significant change.Conclusions The un-balance of Th1/Th2 is common in BV and VVC, detecting the changes of local cytokine is helpful for controling their inflammation better.

  9. Rapid simultaneous identification and quantitation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa directly from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens using automated microscopy. (United States)

    Metzger, Steven; Frobel, Rachel A; Dunne, W Michael


    Diagnosis of ventilator-assisted pneumonia (VAP) requires pathogen quantitation of respiratory samples. Current quantitative culture methods require overnight growth, and pathogen identification requires an additional step. Automated microscopy can perform rapid simultaneous identification and quantitation of live, surface-immobilized bacteria extracted directly from patient specimens using image data collected over 3 h. Automated microscopy was compared to 1 μL loop culture and standard identification methods for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp. in 53 remnant bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Microscopy identified 9/9 S. aureus and 7/7 P. aeruginosa in all specimens with content above the VAP diagnostic threshold. Concordance for specimens containing targets above the diagnostic threshold was 13/16, with concordance for sub-diagnostic content of 86/90. Results demonstrated that automated microscopy had higher precision than 1 μL loop culture (range ~0.55 log versus ≥1 log), with a dynamic range of ~4 logs (~10(3) to 10(6) CFU/mL).

  10. Broad-Range Detection of Microorganisms Directly from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens by PCR/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Ullberg, Måns; Lüthje, Petra; Mölling, Paula; Strålin, Kristoffer


    The clinical demand on rapid microbiological diagnostic is constantly increasing. PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, PCR/ESI-MS, offers detection and identification of over 750 bacteria and Candida species directly from clinical specimens within 6 hours. In this study, we investigated the clinical performance of the IRIDICA BAC LRT Assay for detection of bacterial pathogens in 121 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples that were received consecutively at our bacterial laboratory for BAL culture. Commensal or pathogenic microorganisms were detected in 118/121 (98%) BAL samples by PCR/ESI-MS, while in 104/121 (86%) samples by routine culture (PLegionella pneumophila, Bordetella pertussis, Norcadia species and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In conclusion, PCR/ESI-MS detected a broad range of potential pathogens with equal or superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods within few hours directly from BAL samples. This novel method might thus provide a relevant tool for diagnostics in critically ill patients. PMID:28085931

  11. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen: An unusual presentation of a common tumor

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    Adrienne E Moul


    Full Text Available Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting as a primary lung disease is rare. We present a 52-year-old male with a 3-month history of cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a primary lung disease: Bilateral interstitial and alveolar opacities with blunting of the costophrenic angles, multiple diffuse foci of consolidations and nodules, predominantly subpleural and located in the lower lobes, and diffuse interlobular septal thickening and peribronchial thickening. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was obtained. Cytospin smears were diagnostic for a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Clinically, the patient had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels greater than 5,000 ng/mL. Because of this, immunocytochemistry for PSA was performed which was positive, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. This unusual case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate first diagnosed by BAL highlights the significance of available clinical information and the use of immunocytochemistry for proper diagnosis.

  12. Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR. (United States)

    Rabodonirina, M; Raffenot, D; Cotte, L; Boibieux, A; Mayençon, M; Bayle, G; Persat, F; Rabatel, F; Trepo, C; Peyramond, D; Piens, M A


    We report on the development of a rapid nested PCR protocol for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in which the protocol included the use of a commercially available DNA extraction kit (GeneReleaser). GeneReleaser enabled us to obtain amplification-ready DNA within 20 min without requiring the purification of the DNA. The nested PCR was performed with the primers pAZ102-E, pAZ102-H, and pAZ102-L2 (A. E. Wakefield, F. J. Pixley, S. Banerji, K. Sinclair, R. F. Miller, E. R. Moxon, and J. M. Hopkin, Lancet 336:451-453, 1990.). Results were obtained in about 4 h with the adoption of denaturation, annealing, and extension steps shortened to 20 seconds. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was tested with a P. carinii cyst suspension and was found to be less than one cyst (one to eight nuclei). The detection limit was the same with the use of GeneReleaser or proteinase K-phenol chloroform for DNA extraction. The nested PCR assay was prospectively compared with staining with Giemsa and methenamine silver stains for the detection of P. carinii in 127 BAL samples from 105 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients investigated for acute respiratory illness. Twenty-five BAL specimens (20%) were positive by staining and the nested PCR and 25 (20%) were negative by staining and positive by the nested PCR. These 25 BAL specimens with conflicting results were obtained from 23 patients, 82% of whom were receiving prophylactic therapy against P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). Only two patients were diagnosed with possible PCP. The final diagnosis was not PCP for 20 patients who were considered to be colonized or to have a low level of infection. This colonization is not of clinical importance but is of epidemiological importance. Our rapid, simple, and sensitive amplification protocol may be performed in clinical laboratories for the routine diagnosis of PCP with BAL specimens.

  13. Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection before and after hysterectomy: evidence of different tissue tropism for oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Burk, Robert D; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Xue, Xiaonan; Watts, D Heather; Anastos, Kathryn; Palefsky, Joel M; Levine, Alexandra M; Colie, Christine; Castle, Philip E; Strickler, Howard D


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in nearly all cervical cancers and approximately half of vaginal cancers. However, vaginal cancer is an order of magnitude less common than cervical cancer, not only in the general population but also among women with HIV/AIDS. It is interesting therefore that recent studies found that HPV was common in both normal vaginal and cervical tissue, with higher prevalence of nononcogenic HPV types in the vagina. In our investigation, we prospectively examined HPV infection in 86 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative women who underwent hysterectomy during follow-up in a longitudinal cohort. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were obtained semi-annually and tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. To address possible selection biases associated with having a hysterectomy, subjects acted as their own comparison group--before versus after hysterectomy. The average HPV prevalence was higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women both before (59% vs. 12%; p < 0.001) and after hysterectomy (56% vs. 6%; p < 0.001). Multivariate random effects models (within-individual comparisons) demonstrated significantly lower HPV prevalence [odds ratio (OR) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-0.85) after hysterectomy. The association of HPV prevalence with hysterectomy was similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. However, hysterectomy had greater effects on oncogenic (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.35-0.66) than nononcogenic HPV types (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.71-1.11; P(interaction) = 0.002). Overall, we observed greater reductions in oncogenic than nononcogenic HPV prevalence after hysterectomy. If correct, these data could suggest that oncogenic HPV have greater tropism for cervical compared to vaginal epithelium, consistent with the lower incidence of vaginal than cervical cancer.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANGHong-Fa; HANZi-Yan; LIANGZang-Guang; XIESu-Xiang


    There were many studies using cervicovaginal peroxidases to predict ovulation. Some resuits suggested that cervieovaginal peroxidases are reliable indicators for ovulation; but others did not. The present study was designed to determine whether the change patterns of ccrvicovaginal guaiacul peroxidase activity in fertile period of Chinese women can also be served as a basis for development of a technique to predict ovulation time in natural family planning.

  15. Use of cervicovaginal fluid for the identification of biomarkers for pathologies of the female genital tract

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    Tjalma Wiebren AA


    Full Text Available Abstract Cervicovaginal fluid has an important function in the homeostasis and immunity of the lower female genital tract. Analysis of the cervicovaginal fluid proteome may therefore yield important information about the pathogenesis of numerous gynecological pathologies. Additionally, cervicovaginal fluid has great potential as a source of biomarkers for these conditions. This review provides a detailed discussion about the human cervicovaginal proteome and the proteomics studies performed to characterize this biological fluid. Furthermore, infection-correlated pathological conditions of the female genital tract are discussed for which cervicovaginal fluid has been used in order to identify potential biomarkers. Recent years, numerous studies have analyzed cervicovaginal fluid samples utilizing antibody-based technologies, such as ELISA or Western blotting, to identify biomarkers for preterm birth, premature preterm rupture of membranes, bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer. The present article will discuss the importance of proteomic technologies as alternative techniques to gain additional meaningful information about these conditions. In addition, the review focuses on recent proteomic studies on cervicovaginal fluid samples for the identification of potential biomarkers. We conclude that the use of proteomic technology for analysis of human cervicovaginal fluid samples is promising and may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers which can improve disease prevention and therapy development.

  16. Prothymosin α variants isolated from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal fluid suppress HIV-1 replication through type I interferon induction. (United States)

    Teixeira, Avelino; Yen, Benjamin; Gusella, Gabriele Luca; Thomas, Albert G; Mullen, Michael P; Aberg, Judith; Chen, Xintong; Hoshida, Yujin; van Bakel, Harm; Schadt, Eric; Basler, Christopher F; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Mosoian, Arevik


    Soluble factors from CD8(+) T cells and cervicovaginal mucosa of women are recognized as important in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and transmission. Previously, we have shown the strong anti-HIV-1 activity of prothymosin α (ProTα) derived from CD8(+) T cells. ProTα is a small acidic protein with wide cell distribution, to which several functions have been ascribed, depending on its intracellular or extracellular localization. To date, activities of ProTα have been attributed to a single protein known as isoform 2. Here we report the isolation and identification of 2 new ProTα variants from CD8(+) T cells and cervicovaginal lavage with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. The first is a splice variant of the ProTα gene, known as isoform CRA_b, and the second is the product of a ProTα gene, thus far classified as a pseudogene 7. Native or recombinant ProTα variants potently restrict HIV-1 replication in macrophages through the induction of type I interferon. The baseline expression of interferon-responsive genes in primary human cervical tissues positively correlate with high levels of intracellular ProTα, and the knockdown of ProTα variants by small interfering RNA leads to downregulation of interferon target genes. Overall, these findings suggest that ProTα variants are innate immune mediators involved in immune surveillance.

  17. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: report of four cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-feng; WU Yu-yu; WANG Jian


    @@ In 2001, Laskin et al~1 firstly described a series of 14 seemly distinctive mesenchymal tumors that occurred exclusively in the superficial lamina propria of the vagina and cervix of middle to old-aged women. They proposed the term "superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma (SCVM)" to highlight the unique features of this tumor: the superficial subepithelial location and myofibroblastic differentiation of the tumor cells. SCVM appears less well recognized with only three additional reports have been documented in the English literatures.~(2-4) In this study, we described four new cases of SCVM to further characterize the clinical and pathological features of this rare entity.


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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of lower genital tract infections poses a threat to the health of a woman. During pregnancy, these infection s may also have a direct effect on the fetus or may indirectly predispose to fetal damage secondar y to premature labour or premature rupture of membranes. Early detection is thus import ant because maternal physiological alterations and the presence of a fetus may hamper the diagnosis and the management of such infections. Antepartum treatment of lower genital tr act infections or bacterial colonization has been found to reduce the incidence of preterm births . OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of education and socio-economic background, to assess diagnostic efficacy in pregnancy, to study the effect of intervention on the outcome of pregnan cy and finally, to study the appropriate trimester for taking a cervicovaginal swab in pregna nt women. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Our case study was a prospective study involving 100 pregnant women following up in the outpatient department of a community hospital from 200 8-2010 with respect to their cervicovaginal microbial growth in each trimester. Patients were divided into culture positive and negative groups and treated accordingly RESULTS – In our study, we found that streptococcus, candida and staphylococcus were the mo st commonly prevalent among all the microorganisms isolated. Out of 100 women, 27 were swab positive in the 1 st trimester with an increasing trend of 1% in swab positivity in subsequ ent trimesters. Among swab positive cases, 51.85%(1 st , 50%(2 nd and 51.72%(3 rd landed up in preterm labour with or without PROM. CONCLUSION – There was a very high positive correlation between the incidence of a positive swab culture and preterm events. We found that the best time for a cervicovaginal swab was during the 3 rd trimester. Our study had a high negative predictiv e value i.e. absence of growth were best in predicting that cases would not go in t o

  19. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

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    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  20. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (United States)

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M


    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  1. The Physical Properties of a Lavage Mixture of Pulmonary Surfactant, Perfluorodecaline, and Methylprednisolone (Perfactant Lavage) (United States)


    surfactant , perfluorodecaline, and methylprednisolone (perfectant lavage) Timothy F. Haley, MD, LTC, MC Timothy F. Haley, MD, LTC, MC, USA Division...release: distribution unlimited Purpose: To characterize the physical properties of a lavage mixture of pulmonary surfactant , perfluorocarbon and...MIXTURE OF PULMONARY SURFACTANT , PERFLUORODECALINE AND METHYLPREDNISOLONE (PERFACTANT LAVAGE) INVESTIGATOR: Timothy F. Haley, MD, LTC, MC, USA


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The phenotypic cellular profile of bronchial lavage (BL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was studied in 7 single early (SR) and 10 dual asthmatic responders (DR). Lavage was performed, after previously having determined bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine and the response to house dust mite

  3. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N


    secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... for repeated use in humans. 4. The nasal lavage technique adopted allowed the return of 99.2% (median value) of the instilled volume. The area irrigated was visualized on a gamma-camera, and was demonstrated to cover an area larger than the area reached by challenge from a pumpspray, i.e. a large part...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  4. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J;


    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe...

  5. Detection, quantification and genotyping of Herpes Simplex Virus in cervicovaginal secretions by real-time PCR: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad-Sancho Angels


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. Conventional methods for detecting HSV tend to be slow and insensitive. We designed a rapid PCR-based assay to quantify and type HSV in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL fluid of subjects attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM clinic. Vaginal swabs, CVL fluid and venous blood were collected. Quantitative detection of HSV was conducted using real time PCR with HSV specific primers and SYBR Green I. Fluorogenic TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB probes designed around a single base mismatch in the HSV DNA polymerase I gene were used to type HSV in a separate reaction. The Kalon test was used to detect anti-HSV-2 IgG antibodies in serum. Testing for HIV, other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and related infections was based on standard clinical and laboratory methods. Results Seventy consecutive GUM clinic attendees were studied. Twenty-seven subjects (39% had detectable HSV DNA in CVL fluid; HSV-2 alone was detected in 19 (70% subjects, HSV-1 alone was detected in 4 (15% subjects and both HSV types were detected in 4 (15% subjects. Eleven out of 27 subjects (41% with anti-HSV-2 IgG had detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL fluid. Seven subjects (10% were HIV-positive. Three of seven (43% HIV-infected subjects and two of five subjects with GUD (40% were secreting HSV-2. None of the subjects in whom HSV-1 was detected had GUD. Conclusion Quantitative real-time PCR and Taqman MGB probes specific for HSV-1 or -2 were used to develop an assay for quantification and typing of HSV. The majority of subjects in which HSV was detected had low levels of CVL fluid HSV, with no detectable HSV-2 antibodies and were asymptomatic.

  6. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J;


    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe......, but sensitivity dropped markedly with this system. A further 33 patients had both induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage performed and the induced sputum was analysed using PCR and routine microbiological methods. The PCR sensitivity on induced sputum was equal to that of routine methods. At present...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  7. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín


    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  8. Virtual Specimens (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.


    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  9. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Mishra


    Full Text Available The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient′s fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx. She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally.

  10. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Saini, Suwa Ram; Nanda, Sakshi; Choudhary, Sumesh; Roy, Priyankur; Singh, Tanvir


    The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient's fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx). She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method) along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally. PMID:28216917

  11. Microbubble-enriched lavage fluid for treatment of experimental peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rakhorst, G.; Engels, E.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Ploeg, R. J.


    Background: Relaparotomies and closed postoperative peritoneal lavage (CPPL) are performed to treat persistent peritonitis. This experimental animal study compared open abdominal lavage with CPPL, and evaluated the potential of microbubble-enriched lavage fluids to improve the efficiency of CPPL and

  12. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception


    Fichorova, Raina N.; Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine


    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HI...

  13. Inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology is associated with disease activity in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Febronio, M V; Pereira, R M R; Bonfa, E; Takiuti, A D; Pereyra, E A G; Silva, C A A


    To evaluate cervicovaginal cytology in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and to compare them to controls. Fifty-two female adolescents with JSLE (ACR criteria) were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls. All Pap smears were evaluated by the same cytopathologist blinded to gynecology examination (Bethesda 2001). The mean age of JSLE patients and controls were similar (16.17 +/- 1.94 versus 16.13 +/- 2.16 years, P = 0.92). The cervicovaginal cytology was found to be similar in both groups, although sexual intercourses in the last month were less frequent in JSLE than controls (23% versus 59.6%, P = 0.0003). Only one patient (2%) with JSLE versus two controls (4%) had cervical dysplasia (LGSIL) and human papilomavirus (P = 1.0). Candida spp vaginitis was observed in seven JSLE (14%) versus none in controls (P = 0.012) and was associated with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.01) and high dose of prednisone (P = 0.002). Of interest, inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology was observed in 21 (60%) of patients with SLEDAI > or = 4 and only four (23%) of those with SLEDAI < 4 (P = 0.001). Likewise, a higher frequency of inflammatory changes was also observed in virgin JSLE (57% versus 8%, P = 0.005). Our findings supports the notion that female genital tract may be a potential target organ in SLE since cervical inflammation is associated to disease activity independently of sexual activity.

  14. The Influence of Cervicovaginitis Agents on Epithelial Cell Changes: Comparison of Mardin City's Data with the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık İkbal BARIŞ


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper was to observe the reactive changes of epithelial cells exposed to the influence of cervicovaginitis agents that play an important role in the cytology practice and may cause an exaggerated appearance.Material and Method: 378 cases with cervicovaginitis caused by a specific agent were compared with 100 control cases. It was recorded if the inflammation had concomitant cellular changes and atypia or not. After treatment, control smears were examined. The reactive and atypical situations of the cells were considered after the treatment. With the aid of the previous data, the answer to the following question was searched: Is epithelial atypia a real event or a reactive atypia that accompanies an existing cervicitis agent?Results: In the first interpretation, Candida group had the most frequent reactive and ASC-US (Atypic Squamous cells of Undetermined Significance changes (56,4% and 59,5% respectively. The bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis groups showed ASC-US rates of 25% and 9,5% respectively while in control group the rate was 6,0%. After treatment, the number of cases of ASC-US decreased from 50 to 11. Similarly, the number decreased from 21 to 10 in the bacterial vaginosis group.Conclusion: Cervicovaginitis agents need more attention because of their outcomes. Being aware of the cervicovaginitis agents during interpretation is essential for preventing a false positive diagnosis and unnecessary anxiety especially where cellular atypia is concerned.

  15. Laparoscopic Lavage for Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Bisgaard, Thue


    BACKGROUND: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis has traditionally been treated with open colon resection and stoma formation with risk for reoperations, morbidity, and mortality. Laparoscopic lavage alone has been suggested as definitive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare laparoscopic...

  16. Laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis: a population analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogers, Ailín C


    Laparoscopic lavage has shown promising results in nonfeculent perforated diverticulitis. It is an appealing strategy; it avoids the complications associated with resection. However, there has been some reluctance to widespread uptake because of the scarcity of large-scale studies.

  17. Anaesthetic management of bilateral alveolar proteinosis for bronchopulmonary lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit R


    Full Text Available The most hazardous manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is progressive hypoxia for which bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL is the single most effective treatment. Unfortunately this procedure under general anesthesia itself increases the risk of hypoxia due to the need for one lung ventilation. It was therefore considered interesting to report the successful anaesthetic management of a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis for Bronchopulmonary lavage.

  18. Urine culture - catheterized specimen (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  19. Evaluation of the relationship between fungal infection, neutrophil leukocytes and macrophages in cervicovaginal smears: Light microscopic examination (United States)

    Demirezen, Şayeste; Dönmez, Hanife Güler; Özcan, Merve; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan


    Background: Right after opportunistic fungi become pathogenic, they face immune system cells including macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes. Although the relationship between fungi and immune cells are being widely studied by using animal models and culture techniques, cervicovaginal smears have not been used to evaluate this interaction yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between fungal infection, macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes in cervicovaginal smear. Materials and Methods: Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears from 2307 women, aged between 18 and 73 years, were examined by light microscopy. Periodic acid–Schiff stain was also used to confirm the presence of fungal cell walls. Results: Fungal infections were detected in 239 of 2307 patients (10.4%), and these cases were taken as the study group. Cases without any infectious agents (n = 1800, 78%) were considered as the control group. When the study and control groups were statistically compared in view of macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes, a significant relationship between presence of fungal infection, macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes was detected (P 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that macrophages and neutrophils may play a determining role in host defense against fungal infection together, but neither yeast nor filamentous forms affect the presence of neutrophil leukocytes and macrophages. As a result of this, both yeast and filamentous forms may have pathogenic effects. PMID:26229242

  20. Cervicovaginal Fluid Acetate: A Metabolite Marker of Preterm Birth in Symptomatic Pregnant Women (United States)

    Amabebe, Emmanuel; Reynolds, Steven; Stern, Victoria; Stafford, Graham; Paley, Martyn; Anumba, Dilly O. C.


    Changes in vaginal microbiota that is associated with preterm birth (PTB) leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) using metabolomics techniques. In this study, we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL) by both 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly, and in combination, with current clinical screening tools – cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN) and ultrasound cervical length (CL). CVF was obtained by high-vaginal swabs from 82 pregnant women with intact fetal membranes presenting between 24 and 36 weeks gestation with symptoms of threatened, but not established, PTL. Dissolved CVF samples were scanned with a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Acetate and other metabolites were identified in the NMR spectrum, integrated for peak area, and normalized to the total spectrum integral. To confirm and validate our observations, acetate concentrations (AceConc) were also determined from a randomly-selected subset of the same samples (n = 57), by spectrophotometric absorption of NADH using an acetic acid assay kit. CVF FFN level, transvaginal ultrasound CL, and vaginal pH were also ascertained. Acetate normalized integral and AceConc were significantly higher in the women who delivered preterm compared to their term counterparts (P = 0.002 and P = 0.006, respectively). The 1H-NMR-derived acetate integrals were strongly correlated with the AceConc estimated by spectrophotometry (r = 0.69; P 0.53 g/l), and of delivery within 2 weeks of the index assessment (acetate integral: AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.58–0.96; AceConc: AUC = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.5–0.9). The predictive accuracy of CVF acetate was similar to CL and FFN. The combination of CVF acetate, FFN, and ultrasound CL in a binary logistic

  1. Cervicovaginal fluid acetate: a metabolite marker of preterm birth in symptomatic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Amabebe


    Full Text Available Changes in vaginal microbiota that are associated with preterm birth (PTB leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF using metabolomics techniques. In this study we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL by both 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly and in combination with current clinical screening tools – cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN and ultrasound cervical length (CL.CVF was obtained by high-vaginal swabs from 82 pregnant women with intact fetal membranes presenting between 24 and 36 weeks (wks gestation with symptoms of threatened, but not established, PTL. Dissolved CVF samples were scanned with a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Acetate and other metabolites were identified in the NMR spectrum, integrated for peak area, and normalized to the total spectrum integral. To confirm and validate our observations, acetate concentrations (AceConc were also determined from a randomly selected subset of the same samples (n=57, by spectrophotometric absorption of NADH using an acetic acid assay kit. CVF FFN level, transvaginal ultrasound CL, and vaginal pH were also ascertained.Acetate normalized integral and AceConc were significantly higher in the women who delivered preterm compared to their term counterparts (P=0.002 and P=0.006 respectively. The 1H-NMR-derived acetate integrals were strongly correlated with the AceConc estimated by spectrophotometry (r=0.69; P0.53 g/l, and of delivery within 2 weeks of the index assessment (acetate integral: AUC=0.77, 95% CI=0.58-0.96; AceConc: AUC=0.68, 95% CI=0.5-0.9. The combination of CVF acetate, FFN and ultrasound CL in a binary logistic regression model improved the prediction of PTB compared to the 3 markers individually. Elevated CVF acetate in women with

  2. Whole lung lavage in comparison with bronchoscopic lobar lavage using the rigid bronchoscope in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Is it time to change strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Alkady


    Conclusion: Whole-lung lavage is more efficient than bronchoscopic lobar lavage in treating PAP as it provides larger lavage volumes in shorter time periods and is also associated with lower rate of recurrence of symptoms and the need of relavage.

  3. Cervico-vaginal immunoglobulin G levels increase post-ovulation independently of neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrein Schaefer

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is often higher in females than in males. Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist. An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig G in cervico-vaginal secretions. We show here that in the mouse, IgG accumulation was enhanced approximately 5-fold post-ovulation, and was accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the FRT. To determine whether these two events were causally related, we performed short-term neutrophil depletion experiments at individual stages throughout the estrous cycle. Our results demonstrate that neutrophils were not necessary for cycle-dependent tissue remodeling and cycle progression and that cycle-dependent IgG accumulation occurred independent of neutrophils. We thus conclude that neutrophil influx and IgG accumulation are independent events that occur in the FRT during the reproductive cycle.

  4. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa (United States)

    Cole, Amy Liese; Cole, Alexander M.


    The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa. PMID:27025760

  5. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Liese Cole


    Full Text Available The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa.

  6. Comparison of Murine Cervicovaginal Infection by Chlamydial Strains: Identification of Extrusions Shed In vivo (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer H.; Behar, Amanda R.; Snider, Timothy A.; Allen, Noah A.; Lutter, Erika I.


    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and preventable blindness. Untreated, asymptomatic infection as well as frequent re-infection are common and may drive pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. In vivo models of chlamydial infection continue to be instrumental in progress toward a vaccine and further elucidating the pathogenesis of this intracellular bacterium, however significant gaps in our understanding remain. Chlamydial host cell exit occurs via two mechanisms, lysis and extrusion, although the latter has yet to be reported in vivo and its biological role is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether chlamydial extrusions are shed in vivo following infection with multiple strains of Chlamydia. We utilized an established C3H/HeJ murine cervicovaginal infection model with C. trachomatis serovars D and L2 and the Chlamydia muridarum strain MoPn to monitor the (i) time course of infection and mode of host cell exit, (ii) mucosal and systemic immune response to infection, and (iii) gross and histopathology following clearance of active infection. The key finding herein is the first identification of chlamydial extrusions shed from host cells in an in vivo model. Extrusions, a recently appreciated mode of host cell exit and potential means of dissemination, had been previously observed solely in vitro. The results of this study demonstrate that chlamydial extrusions exist in vivo and thus warrant further investigation to determine their role in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:28217555

  7. The prevalence of actinomycetes-like organisms found in cervicovaginal smears of 300 IUD wearers. (United States)

    Jones, M C; Buschmann, B O; Dowling, E A; Pollock, H M


    The association of Actinomyces with IUD wearers has been widely documented and the possibility of the recognition of actinomycetes-like organisms in routine Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears has been reported. We conducted a retrospective study of IUD wearers to determine the prevalence and significance of actinomycetes-like organisms found in such smears. Three hundred smears from current IUD wearers were rescreened for actinomycetes-like organisms. Of this group, 200 patients were from a public health family planning clinic, and 100 were private patients. The incidence for the public health group was 25.5% and for the private patient group, 8%. A case history of actinomycosis is included. Findings such as other infectious agents, abnormal cytology and symptoms are also discussed. Although the presence of Actinomyces probably represents an opportunistic infection, the threat of pelvic actinomycosis with serious complications poses a management problem to the clinician when Actinomyces is reported in a routine Papanicolaou smear. Our findings lead us to question the practicality of the earlier recommendations of IUD removal and antibiotic therapy.

  8. Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Gonzales, Elisabeth


    , randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL) to the traditional Hartmann’s Procedure (HP). Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL), re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients...... morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer reoperations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs...... and increased quality of life....

  9. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sharma


    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  10. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter


    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  11. Early experience with laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swank, H.A.; Mulder, I.M.; Hoofwijk, A.G.; Nienhuijs, S.W.; Lange, J.F.; Bemelman, W.A.; Hoeven, J.G. van der


    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic lavage has recently emerged as a promising alternative to sigmoid resection in the treatment of perforated diverticulitis. This study examined an early experience with this technique. METHODS: The files of all patients with complicated diverticulitis were searched in 34 teac

  12. Maxillary antral lavage using inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia. (United States)

    Mochloulis, G; Hern, J D; Hollis, L J; Tolley, N S


    Antral puncture and lavage through the inferior meatus is a minor but common otolaryngological procedure, usually performed under local anaesthesia. We describe a new method of introducing local anaesthetic into the inferior meatus, via the use of a soft intravenous cannula connected to a syringe containing 10 per cent cocaine paste. We have called this new technique inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia (IMCA).

  13. Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Drent (Marjolein)


    textabstractBronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is currently widely applied to sample cells and proteins present in the bronchoalveolar space for subsequent studies. Moreover, this limited invasive technique is a sensitive indicator of infectious and non-infectious inflammatory disorders, such as interstit

  14. Cervicovaginal Neutralizing Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Women Seropositive for HSV Types 1 and 2


    Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Bélec, Laurent; Dalessio, Julie; Legoff, Jérôme; Grésenguet, Gérard; Mayaud, Philippe; Brown, David W.G.; Ashley Morrow, Rhoda


    Antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA isotypes were detected in the cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) of 77 HSV-1- and HSV-2-seropositive but clinically asymptomatic African women by type-specific enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting (ECL-WB). Of the 77 subjects, 34 were HIV negative, shedding HSV-2 DNA in their genital secretions; 20 were HIV positive, shedding HSV-2 DNA; and 23 were HIV negative, not shedding HSV-2 DNA. HSV-sp...

  15. Identification of protein biomarkers for cervical cancer using human cervicovaginal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert A A Van Raemdonck

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cervicovaginal fluid (CVF can be considered as a potential source of biomarkers for diseases of the lower female reproductive tract. The fluid can easily be collected, thereby offering new opportunities such as the development of self tests. Our objective was to identify a CVF protein biomarker for cervical cancer or its precancerous state. METHODS: A differential proteomics study was set up using CVF samples from healthy and precancerous women. Label-free spectral counting was applied to quantify protein abundances. RESULTS: The proteome analysis revealed 16 candidate biomarkers of which alpha-actinin-4 (p = 0.001 and pyruvate kinase isozyme M1/M2 (p = 0.014 were most promising. Verification of alpha-actinin-4 by ELISA (n = 28 showed that this candidate biomarker discriminated between samples from healthy and both low-risk and high-risk HPV-infected women (p = 0.009. Additional analysis of longitudinal samples (n = 29 showed that alpha-actinin-4 levels correlated with virus persistence and clearing, with a discrimination of approximately 18 pg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that CVF is an excellent source of protein biomarkers for detection of lower female genital tract pathologies and that alpha-actinin-4 derived from CVF is a promising candidate biomarker for the precancerous state of cervical cancer. Further studies regarding sensitivity and specificity of this biomarker will demonstrate its utility for improving current screening programs and/or its use for a cervical cancer self-diagnosis test.

  16. In captive rhesus macaques, cervicovaginal inflammation is common but not associated with the stable polymicrobial microbiome.

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    Gregory Spear

    Full Text Available Vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques (RM with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV has been used to study the biology of HIV transmission. Although the results of vaginal SIV transmission experiments could be affected by vaginal inflammation, studies to date have been conducted without regard to levels of pre-existing genital inflammation present in RM. We collected cevicovaginal secretions (CVS from 33-36 RM during the mid menstrual cycle (day 10-20 at 2 time points approximately 8 months apart and characterized the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes. There was extreme variability in the levels of inflammatory mediators (IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF, IL-1b, IP-10, MIG, IL-12 and IL-17. In most animals, the mRNA levels of the inflammatory mediators were similar in the 2 CVS samples collected 8 months apart, suggesting that genital inflammation is stable in a subset of captive female RM. At both time points the cervicovaginal microbiota had low levels of Lactobacillus and was relatively diverse with an average of 13 genera in the samples from the first time point (median 13, range 7-21 and an average of 11.5 genera in the samples from the second time point (median 11, range 5-20. Many of the macaques had similar microbiota in the samples collected 8 months apart. However, we found no correlation between specific bacterial genera and the mRNA or protein levels of the inflammatory mediators in the genital tract of RM in this study. It seems likely that results of published vaginal SIV transmission experiments in RM have been influenced by pre-existing inflammation in the animals used for the experiments.

  17. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone. (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R


    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  18. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s). (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  19. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic lavage for Hinchey Ⅲ diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Gervaz; Patrick Ambrosetti


    Laparoscopic lavage and drainage is a novel approach for managing patients with Hinchey Ⅲ diverticulitis. However, this less invasive technique has important limitations, which are highlighted in this systematic review. We performed a Pub Med search and identified 6 individual series reporting the results of this procedure. An analysis was performed regarding treatment-related morbidity, success rates, and subsequent elective sigmoid resection. Data was available for 287 patients only, of which 213(74%) were actually presenting with Hinchey Ⅲ diverticulitis. Reported success rate in this group was 94%, with 3% mortality. Causes of failure were:(1) ongoing sepsis;(2) fecal fistula formation; and(3) perforated sigmoid cancer. Although few patients developed recurrent diverticulitis in follow-up, 106 patients(37%) eventually underwent elective sigmoid resection. Our data indicate that laparoscopic lavage and drainage may benefit a highly selected group of Hinchey Ⅲ patients. It is unclear whether laparoscopic lavage and drainage should be considered a curative procedure or just a damage control operation. Failure to identify patients with either:(1) feculent peritonitis(Hinchey Ⅳ);(2) persistent perforation; or(3) perforated sigmoid cancer, are causes of concern, and will limit the application of this technique.

  20. Pulse lavage washing in decontamination of allografts improves safety. (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Vuento, R


    We analyzed the bacterial contamination rate of 140 femoral head allografts after rinsing the allografts in different decontamination solutions. Bacterial screening methods and cleansing effect of antibiotics (cefuroxime and rifampicin) and pulse lavage were compared. Swabbing and taking small pieces of bone for culture were the screening methods used. Both methods proved to be quite unreliable. Approximately one-fourth of the results were false negative. Culturing small pieces of bone gave the most accurate and reliable results and, therefore, can be recommended as a bacterial screening method. The use of antibiotics in allograft decontamination is controversial. In prophylactic use antibiotics include risks of allergic reactions and resistant development and our results in the present study show that antibiotics do not improve the decontamination any better than low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution. Therefore, pulse lavage with sterile saline solution can be recommended for allograft decontamination. Our results demonstrate that it decreases bacterial bioburden as effectively as the antibiotics without persisting the disadvantages.

  1. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

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    Rateesh Sareen


    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1 To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage , bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2 To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3 To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4 Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%, followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45% and bronchial brushings (8.19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25% followed by brushings (77.78% and BAL (72.69%. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%, followed by brushings (86.67% and BAL (83.67%. Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5% and highest in BAL (27.3%. Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations

  2. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

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    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  3. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

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    Cao YuPing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  4. Lactobacillus-Deficient Cervicovaginal Bacterial Communities Are Associated with Increased HIV Acquisition in Young South African Women. (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Anahtar, Melis N; Handley, Scott A; Farcasanu, Mara; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Bowman, Brittany A; Padavattan, Nikita; Desai, Chandni; Droit, Lindsay; Moodley, Amber; Dong, Mary; Chen, Yuezhou; Ismail, Nasreen; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Wesemann, Duane R; Mitchell, Caroline; Dong, Krista L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Walker, Bruce D; Virgin, Herbert W; Kwon, Douglas S


    Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities. We identified specific bacterial taxa linked with reduced (L. crispatus) or elevated (Prevotella, Sneathia, and other anaerobes) inflammation and HIV infection and found that high-risk bacteria increased numbers of activated genital CD4(+) T cells in a murine model. Our results suggest that highly prevalent genital bacteria increase HIV risk by inducing mucosal HIV target cells. These findings might be leveraged to reduce HIV acquisition in women living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

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    Crasta Julian


    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  6. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus crispatus 2,029: Homeostatic Interaction with Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells and Antagonistic Activity to Genitourinary Pathogens. (United States)

    Abramov, Vyacheslav; Khlebnikov, Valentin; Kosarev, Igor; Bairamova, Guldana; Vasilenko, Raisa; Suzina, Natalia; Machulin, Andrey; Sakulin, Vadim; Kulikova, Natalia; Vasilenko, Nadezhda; Karlyshev, Andrey; Uversky, Vladimir; Chikindas, Michael L; Melnikov, Vyacheslav


    Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 has surface layers (S-layers), which completely surround cells as the outermost component of their envelope. S-layers are responsible for the adhesion of lactobacilli on the surface of cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Study of interactions between L. crispatus 2029 and a type IV collagen, a major molecular component of epithelial cell extracellular matrix, showed that 125I-labeled type IV collagen binds to lactobacilli with high affinity (Kd = (8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-10) M). Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 consistently colonized epithelial cells. There were no toxicity, epithelial damage and apoptosis after 24 h of colonization. Electronic microscope images demonstrated intimate association between L. crispatus 2029 and epithelial cells. Upon binding to epithelial cells, lactobacilli were recognized by toll-like 2/6 receptors. Lactobacillus crispatus induced NF-κB activation in epithelial cells and did not induce expression of innate immunity mediators IL-8, IL-1β, IL-1α and TNF-α. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 inhibited IL-8 production in epithelial cells induced by MALP-2 and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, maintaining the homeostasis of female reproductive tract. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 produced H2O2 and provided wide spectrum of antagonistic activity increasing colonization resistance to urinary tract infections by bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis associated agents.

  7. Penetrating torso injuries: the role of paracentesis and lavage. (United States)

    Danto, L A; Thomas, C W; Gorenbein, S; Wolfman, E F


    Controversy still exists regarding the proper approach to patients with penetrating torso injuries. Mandatory immediate celiotomy and selective observation both have associated risks. Paracentesis with lavage is a rapid, easily performed and readily available technique which can, with a high degree of accuracy, differentiate on initial evaluation those patients with penetrating visceral injuries from those without such injuries. Complications are minimal. The use of these two procedures in evaluating penetrating torso injuries has led to improved patient care and produced major lowering of medical and socioeconomic costs.

  8. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

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    Ahrens Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark.

  9. Ductal lavage, nipple aspiration, and ductoscopy for breast cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Dooley, William C


    The intraductal approach to breast cancer has been invigorated this year by a series of papers exploring ductal-based screening through nipple aspiration and lavage and ductal exploration through endoscopy. The merging of these efforts to define the earliest biologic changes in the progression toward breast cancer is opening new fields for both bench-translational and clinical research. These techniques have already begun to show value in defining the presence and extent of proliferative disease in high-risk patients, allowing for more informed therapeutic decision making.

  10. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  11. Status Asthmaticus: use of acetylcysteine during bronchoscopy and lavage to remove mucous plugs. (United States)

    Millman, M; Goodman, A H; Goldstein, I M; Millman, F M; Van Campen, S S


    Three patients suffering from severe, chronic, bronchial asthma underwent bronchoscopy and lavage, using in the irrigant fluid acetylcysteine, isoetharine and Solu-Medrol. All patients had a large amount of thick mucus in the tracheobronchial tree which was removed during the lavage. Following the lavage, all three patients were easily treated with conventional allergic measures and were able to lead normal lives, which they could not do before. A discussion of the precautions to be taken by the medical-surgical team in charge of a patient undergoing bronchoscopy and lavage is made. These conclusions were based on the results of two previous reports by the authors in addition to the present communication.

  12. Ductal lavage and ductoscopy: the opportunities and the limitations. (United States)

    Khan, Seema A; Baird, Carol; Staradub, Valerie L; Morrow, Monica


    Two related techniques of breast epithelial sampling have emerged in the past several years: ductal lavage, in which fluid-yielding nipple ducts are cannulated at their orifices and lavaged with saline while the breast is intermittently massaged; and ductoscopy, in which discharging or fluid-yielding duct orifices are dilated, intubated with a microendoscope, and the lumen directly visualized. Both of these techniques have significant potential in terms of allowing the repeated sampling of ductal epithelium over time and, as such, have generated considerable enthusiasm. However, data regarding the impact of these techniques on the detection of significant breast disease is very scant. It is important at the outset of the assessment of this new technology that breast cancer clinicians and clinical researchers think carefully about the standards of evidence that need to be met regarding the benefits of these procedures before they are widely adopted. In this review of the rationale and early results of these procedures, we attempt to define some of these evidentiary requirements.

  13. Genomics and museum specimens. (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W


    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  14. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

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    Vigliotti Veronica S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  15. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections]. (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine


    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi.

  16. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis. (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A


    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  17. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion poisoning include 79% of all poisoning. Usually the first step in management of these patients is gastric lavage, which in most centers is done by tap water (exepct for children below 4 years old. Due to low Na and K of tap water and daily secretion of Na and K in stomach, one of the probable complications of this lavage is lasting the Na and K, and electrolyte imbalance in patients. Methods. This study was done on 100 poisoned patients undergone Gastric lavage. All of patients were more than 4 years old. Poisoning by toxin or drug contain sodium or potassium, cause to exclude patients from study. For all patients Na/K of plasma before and half hour after gastric lavage were measured. After gastric lavage, volume of lavage, Na/K of lavage liquid and Na/K of tap water were recorded. Results. The changes of plasma Na in all patients were from 7 mmol/lit increasing to 12 mmol/Lit decreasing, and for plasma K were from 1 mmol/lit increasing to 1.2 mmol/lit decreasing. Means changes of Na was 2.74 mmol/lit decreasing and mean change of K was 0.33 mmol/Lit. Decreasing in plasma electrolytes in patients with high volume of gastric lavage was predominant but this relation between. volume of lavage and changing of plasma electrolytes was not considerable. Also total Na and K excretion" in all volumes of lavage was nearly equal. Discussion. In patients without underlying disesae, plasma Na/K changes during gastric lavage is not considerable but in patients with underlying disease or old patients can lead to electrolytes disturbance and to be recommended in these patients plasma elcectrolytes to be measured.

  19. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther


    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  20. [Blood Count Specimen]. (United States)

    Tamura, Takako


    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  1. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K


    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...... and a significant increase in the levels of histamine and tryptase. The challenge of subjects not allergic to pollen produced no such response. Azelastine and cetirizine significantly reduced allergen-induced sneezing and the associated increase in histamine and tryptase levels. No significant differences were...

  2. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rennis Davis


    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia.

  3. Specimen Holder For Flammability Tests (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.


    Fixture holds sheet specimens for flammability tests. Frame and clamps designed to minimize local overstress on specimen. Heat capacity of fixture low, interfering less with interpretation of results of test by drawing less heat away from specimen. Accepts films, fabrics, foams, and other sheets, rigid or flexible. Specimens thin or thick, or of variable thickness. Bent to accommodate curved rigid specimens. Also used for such other tests as particle-impact tests.

  4. Laparoscopic lavage is superior to colon resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis-a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angenete, Eva; Bock, David; Rosenberg, Jacob;


    PURPOSE: Perforated diverticulitis often requires surgery with a colon resection such as Hartmann's procedure, with inherent morbidity. Recent studies suggest that laparoscopic lavage may be an alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare re-operations, morbidity, and mort......PURPOSE: Perforated diverticulitis often requires surgery with a colon resection such as Hartmann's procedure, with inherent morbidity. Recent studies suggest that laparoscopic lavage may be an alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare re-operations, morbidity......, and mortality as well as health economic outcomes between laparoscopic lavage and colon resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and Embase were searched. Published randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective cohorts...... compared to colon resection, with overall comparable morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, Hartmann's resection was more costly than laparoscopic lavage. We therefore consider laparoscopic lavage a valid alternative to surgery with resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis....

  5. NASA Biological Specimen Repository (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.


    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  6. The Impact of Pleural Lavage Cytology Before and After Resection on Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ozkan


    Full Text Available Aim: Regardless of pleural effusion, presence of tumor in pleural cavity indicates presence of more aggressive tumor. In this study, we analysed positive tumor results in preoperative pleural lavage in operable malignant cases with no pleural fluid according to the mass and mediastinal lymph node characteristics. Material and Method: Pleural lavage before preoperative dissection and after resection was performed on 199 cases that underwent surgery for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Findings of lavage were statistically evaluated based on gender, lesion shape and size, lymph node involvement in positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT, SUV-max value of lesion, localisation of the lesion, N1 and N2 metastases, local invasion findings, histopathological type of tumor and type of resection. Results: Cases included in this study were followed for four years. Ten of the cases (5% had tumor recurrence and 12 of them (6% had distant organ metastasis. In multivariable analysis, significant correlation was found between the first positive pleural lavage cytology and postoperative distant organ metastasis; the last pleural lavage cytology and tumor recurrence; postoperative distant organ metastasis and lymph node metastasis and the first positive lavage cytology; tumor recurrence and PET-CT lymph node uptake, lymph node metastasis and the last positive pleural lavage cytology. Discussion: Recently there has been an increase in studies on pleural lavage analysis and there is a need for standardization in lavage timing and sampling. We hope that positive lavage cytology, like malign effusion, will be accepted as a prognostic factor in staging as more studies based on wider series are conducted.

  7. Modelling of Specimen Fracture (United States)


    the plate center. An end load of 1.0 MPa was applied. 1 2 3 Modelling of Specimen Fracture – Final Report 11 TR-13-47 Figure 2.5: Crack Geometry Figure...Christopher Bayley DRDC Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory Pacific CFB Esquimalt, Building 199 PO Box 17000, Station Forces Victoria, British Columbia Canada...q The weighting function, q , can be any arbitrary function within the J-integral domain, and must be zero on the domain boundary . An easy function

  8. Labeling of Patient Specimens (United States)


    noted during the event that the number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  9. Modeling of Virion Collisions in Cervicovaginal Mucus Reveals Limits on Agglutination as the Protective Mechanism of Secretory Immunoglobulin A. (United States)

    Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A; Shi, Feng; Wang, Simi; Mucha, Peter J; Harit, Dimple; Forest, M Gregory; Lai, Samuel K


    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a dimeric antibody found in high quantities in the gastrointestinal mucosa, is broadly associated with mucosal immune protection. A distinguishing feature of sIgA is its ability to crosslink pathogens, thereby creating pathogen/sIgA aggregates that are too large to traverse the dense matrix of mucin fibers in mucus layers overlying epithelial cells and consequently reducing infectivity. Here, we use modeling to investigate this mechanism of "immune exclusion" based on sIgA-mediated agglutination, in particular the potential use of sIgA to agglutinate HIV in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and prevent HIV transmission. Utilizing reported data on HIV diffusion in CVM and semen, we simulate HIV collision kinetics in physiologically-thick mucus layers-a necessary first step for sIgA-induced aggregation. We find that even at the median HIV load in semen of acutely infected individuals possessing high viral titers, over 99% of HIV virions will penetrate CVM and reach the vaginal epithelium without colliding with another virion. These findings imply that agglutination is unlikely to be the dominant mechanism of sIgA-mediated protection against HIV or other sexually transmitted pathogens. Rather, we surmise that agglutination is most effective against pathogens either present at exceedingly high concentrations or that possess motility mechanisms other than Brownian diffusion that significantly enhance encounter rates.

  10. The microstructure and bulk rheology of human cervicovaginal mucus are remarkably resistant to changes in pH. (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura M; Zhong, Weixi; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin


    The protective barrier, lubricant, and clearance functions of mucus are intimately coupled to its microstructure and bulk rheology. Mucus gels consist of a network of mucin biopolymers along with lipids, salts, and other proteins and exhibit similar biochemical and physical properties across diverse mucosal surfaces. Nevertheless, mucus is exposed to a broad range of pH values throughout the human body. Protein functions are typically sensitive to small changes in pH, and prior investigations using reconstituted, purified mucin gels suggested mucus undergoes a transition from a low-viscosity liquid at neutral pH to a highly viscoelastic solid at low pH. We sought to determine whether those observations hold for fresh, minimally perturbed human mucus ex vivo by using different-sized muco-inert nanoparticles to probe microstructure and cone-and-plate rheometry to measure bulk rheology. We demonstrate that both the microstructure and bulk rheology of fresh, undiluted, and minimally perturbed cervicovaginal mucus exhibit relatively minor changes from pH 1-2 to 8-9, in marked contrast with the pH sensitivity of purified mucin gels. Our work also suggests additional components in mucus secretions, typically eliminated during mucin purification and reconstitution, may play an important role in maintaining the protective properties of mucus.

  11. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard


    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  12. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Proteomics in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Cuco, Célia Marina; Lavareda, Carla; Miguel, Francisco; Ventura, Mafalda; Almeida, Sónia; Pinto, Paula; de Abreu, Tiago Tavares; Rodrigues, Luís Vaz; Seixas, Susana; Bárbara, Cristina; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Semedo, Júlio; Field, John K.; Mota, Leonor; Matthiesen, Rune


    Lung cancer configures as one of the deadliest types of cancer. The future implementation of early screening methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and low dose computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to current chest imaging based screening will lead to an increased burden on bronchoscopy units. New approaches for improvement of diagnosis in bronchoscopy units, regarding patient management, are likely to have clinical impact in the future. Diagnostic approaches to address mortality of lung cancer include improved early detection and stratification of the cancers according to its prognosis and further response to drug treatment. In this study, we performed a detailed mass spectrometry based proteome analysis of acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples on an observational prospective cohort consisting of 90 suspected lung cancer cases which were followed during two years. The thirteen new lung cancer cases diagnosed during the follow up time period clustered, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data, with lung cancer cases at the time of BAL collection. Hundred and thirty-tree potential biomarkers were identified showing significantly differential expression when comparing lung cancer versus non-lung cancer. The regulated biomarkers showed a large overlap with biomarkers detected in tissue samples. PMID:28169345

  13. Storage alters feline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological analysis. (United States)

    Nafe, Laura A; DeClue, Amy E; Reinero, Carol R


    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collection is a valuable respiratory diagnostic procedure in cats. This study evaluated effects of BALF storage on total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential cell counts (DCC), cell morphology, and cytological diagnosis. Forty-five research cats with neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and mixed inflammation, and healthy controls were enrolled. BALF samples were processed within 1h (baseline) or stored at 4°C (4C24) or room temperature (RT24) for 24h, or 4°C (4C48) or room temperature (RT48) for 48h before processing. Stored BALF at RT48 had decreased TNCC compared to baseline. The RT24 and RT48 samples had greater eosinophil % and the RT24, 4C48, and RT48 samples had decreased neutrophil % compared with baseline. Cellular morphology deteriorated in all stored samples. Storage resulted in a change in cytological diagnosis in up to 57% of stored samples. We conclude that cytological analysis of BALF in cats should be performed promptly for optimal results.

  14. Health economic analysis of laparoscopic lavage versus Hartmann's procedure for diverticulitis in the randomized DILALA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrman, J; Angenete, E; Björholt, I;


    BACKGROUND: Open surgery with resection and colostomy (Hartmann's procedure) has been the standard treatment for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. In recent years laparoscopic lavage has emerged as an alternative, with potential benefits for patients with purulent peritonitis...

  15. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage. (United States)

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A


    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  16. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow. (United States)

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan


    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  17. Modeling neutralization kinetics of HIV by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in genital secretions coating the cervicovaginal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A McKinley

    Full Text Available Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM represents a promising "first line of defense" strategy to reduce vaginal HIV transmission. However, it remains unclear what levels of bnAb must be present in CVM to effectively reduce infection. We approached this complex question by modeling the dynamic tally of bnAb coverage on HIV. This analysis introduces a critical, timescale-dependent competition: to protect, bnAb must accumulate at sufficient stoichiometry to neutralize HIV faster than virions penetrate CVM and reach target cells. We developed a model that incorporates concentrations and diffusivities of HIV and bnAb in semen and CVM, kinetic rates for binding (kon and unbinding (koff of select bnAb, and physiologically relevant thicknesses of CVM and semen layers. Comprehensive model simulations lead to robust conclusions about neutralization kinetics in CVM. First, due to the limited time virions in semen need to penetrate CVM, substantially greater bnAb concentrations than in vitro estimates must be present in CVM to neutralize HIV. Second, the model predicts that bnAb with more rapid kon, almost independent of koff, should offer greater neutralization potency in vivo. These findings suggest the fastest arriving virions at target cells present the greatest likelihood of infection. It also implies the marked improvements in in vitro neutralization potency of many recently discovered bnAb may not translate to comparable reduction in the bnAb dose needed to confer protection against initial vaginal infections. Our modeling framework offers a valuable tool to gaining quantitative insights into the dynamics of mucosal immunity against HIV and other infectious diseases.

  18. Neutrophil influx measured in nasal lavages of humans exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, D.; Henderson, F.; House, D.


    Neutrophils (PMNs) obtained by nasal lavage were counted to determine if ozone, an oxidant air pollutant, induces an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of humans. Background data were obtained by the nasal lavages from 200 nonexperimentally exposed subjects. Then, using a known inflammatory agent for the URT, rhinovirus-type 39, the induction, peak, and resolution of an acute inflammatory response was shown to be documented by the nasal lavage PMN counts. To determined if ozone induces this response, 41 subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.5 ppm ozone for 4 hr, on 2 consecutive days. Nasal lavages were taken pre-, immediately post each exposure, and 22 hr following the last exposure. Lavage PMN counts increased significantly (p = .005) in the ozone-exposed group, with 3.5-, 6.5-, and 3.9-fold increases over the air-exposed group at the post 1, pre 2, and post 2 time points, respectively. Ozone induces an inflammatory response in the URT of humans, and nasal lavage PMN counts are useful to assay the inflammatory properties of air pollutants.

  19. Improvements in lung lavage to increase its effectiveness in removing inhaled radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Romero, L.M.; Mewhinney, J.A.


    Lung lavage has been shown to be an effective method to remove insoluble radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung, but the treatment has been limited to the effective removal of only about 50% of the retained material. Reported here is change in lavage technique that slightly increases the effectiveness and the addition of high-frequency chest wall oscillation. The latter increased the effectiveness of the lavage procedure but also caused significant physiological complications. These studies were conducted in adult male and female beagles. The aerosol in the first study was {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} heat-treated at 850{degrees}C, obtained as powder from a commercial V-blending process. The dogs briefly inhaled the aerosol per nasi. The tissue content at death and the amount of {sup 239}Pu excreted and in the recovered lung lavage fluid was determined by radiochemical methods{sup 5}. These values were used to reconstruct the initial pulmonary burden of {sup 239} and the amount of {sup 239}Pu removed by lavage. In the second study, with the HFCWO, the aerosol was {sup 85}Sr fused in aluminosilicate particles. The IPB of {sup 85}Sr was determined by whole-body counting. The excreta and recovered lung lavage fluids were also assayed for {sup 85}Sr activity.

  20. Improvements in lung lavage to increase its effectiveness in removing inhaled radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Romero, L.M.; Mewhinney, J.A.


    Lung lavage has been shown to be an effective method to remove insoluble radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung, but the treatment has been limited to the effective removal of only about 50% of the retained material. Reported here is change in lavage technique that slightly increases the effectiveness and the addition of high-frequency chest wall oscillation. The latter increased the effectiveness of the lavage procedure but also caused significant physiological complications. These studies were conducted in adult male and female beagles. The aerosol in the first study was {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} heat-treated at 850{degrees}C, obtained as powder from a commercial V-blending process. The dogs briefly inhaled the aerosol per nasi. The tissue content at death and the amount of {sup 239}Pu excreted and in the recovered lung lavage fluid was determined by radiochemical methods{sup 5}. These values were used to reconstruct the initial pulmonary burden of {sup 239} and the amount of {sup 239}Pu removed by lavage. In the second study, with the HFCWO, the aerosol was {sup 85}Sr fused in aluminosilicate particles. The IPB of {sup 85}Sr was determined by whole-body counting. The excreta and recovered lung lavage fluids were also assayed for {sup 85}Sr activity.

  1. Association between HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral load in semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers of Thai men and women. (United States)

    Chu, Kathryn; Jiamton, Sukhum; Pepin, Jacques; Cowan, Frances; Mahakkanukrauh, Bussakorn; Suttent, Ruengpung; Robinson, Noah J; Deslandes, Sylvie; Frost, Eric; Chaisilwattana, Pongsakdi; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Grosskurth, Heiner; Brown, David; Jaffar, Shabbar


    We studied the association between herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and HIV-1 viralload in plasma, semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers. Forty-seven (68%) men and 57 (80%) women were HSV-2 antibody positive, of whom 12 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20, 32) and five (8%, 95% CI 4, 12), respectively, had HSV-2 genital shedding detected by polymerase chain reaction. The mean HIV-1 seminal and cervico-vaginal viral loads did not differ significantly according to the presence of HSV-2 shedding. Eleven men and 15 women presented with genital ulcers; all ulcers were due to HSV-2. Ten men and nine women were followed up over six days: the mean (95% CI) HIV-1 log viral load copies/mL in the genital ulcers at baseline and final visits were 2.5 (2.3, 2.7) and 3.1 (2.0, 4.2) for men and 3.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) for women. These findings do not support the hypothesis that HSV-2 increases the HIV-1 viral load in genital secretions.

  2. Intravaginal HPV DNA vaccination with electroporation induces local CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects against cervicovaginal tumors. (United States)

    Sun, Y; Peng, S; Qiu, J; Miao, J; Yang, B; Jeang, J; Hung, C-F; Wu, T-C


    Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the progression of an established HPV infection to precancer and cancer lesions by targeting HPV oncoproteins. We have previously developed a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to E7, CRT/E7 DNA vaccine, for use in the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. Since the transfection efficiency of DNA vaccines administered in vivo is typically low, we examined the use of electroporation as well as different routes of administration to enhance antigen-specific tumor control. We tested the effects of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine administered intramuscularly or intravaginally, with or without electroporation, on the generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity and therapeutic antitumor effects in HPV16 E7-expressing cervicovaginal tumor-bearing mice. We found that intravaginal vaccination of CRT/E7 DNA followed by electroporation-induced potent E7-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the cervicovaginal tract, compared with intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice vaccinated intravaginally followed by electroporation had an enhanced survival, antitumor effects and local production of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells compared with those vaccinated intramuscularly with electroporation. Thus, we show that intravaginal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination followed by electroporation generates the most potent therapeutic antitumor effects against an orthotopic E7-expressing tumor model. The current study will have significant clinical implications once a clinically applicable electroporation device for intravaginal use becomes available.

  3. The effect of peritoneal lavage on the postoperative course after colonic anastomosis and perforation in the rat. (United States)

    Arnesjö, B; Breland, U; Petersson, B G


    Peritoneal lavage was given during four days to rats subjected either to transection and re-anastomosis or perforation of the descending part of the colon or caecum. Control rats were treated in the smae way but did not receive peritoneal lavage. The rats which were treated with a colonic anastomosis and peritoneal lavage had significantly less abdominal adhesions, peritonitis and peritoneal fluid observed at autopsy 11 or 60 days after surgery. No rats developed anastomosis insufficiency and all survived. Peritoneal lavage in rats subjected to colonic or caecal perforation increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate, the frequency of adhesions and the signs of peritonitis. An increased frequency of peritoneal adhesions was observed after extensive mobilization of the colon during operation when no peritoneal lavage had been given. The peritoneal lavage catheter per se did not cause adhesions.

  4. Hyperoxygenated solution for improved oxygen supply in patients undergoing lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHOU Hai-yan; XU Pei-hua; WANG Hong-mei; LIN Xian-ming; WANG Xuan-ding


    Background At present,the most effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis(PAP)remains whole-lung lavage in spite of the usually accompanying severe hypoxemia,which is expected to be prevented by hyperoxygenated solution improving oxygen supply during lavage.In this study,the efficacy and safety of the effect of hyperoxygenated solution were evaluated.Methods Five patients underwent whole-lung lavage over a 28-month period.Each lung was lavaged with hyperoxygenated(HO)and normal saline solution(plain lactated Ringer's solution,NO)randomly and alternatively until the reclaimed fluid was clear.Random number was generated by computer before every cycle of lavage.If the number was odd,the patient was assigned to receive a lavage cycle with hyperoxygenated solution(HO group,n=109);if the number was even,normal saline solution was used(NO group,n=115).Data of saturation of peripheral oxygen(SPO2),mean arterial pressure(MAP),central venous pressure(CVP),heart rate(HR)and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2)were taken down at 0,30,60,90,120,150,180,210 and 240 seconds from the beginning of the instillation of solution,and frequency and volume of unilateral lung lavage were also recorded.Time interval between the left and the right lung lavage was 1 week.Results No patient was withdrawn from the study due to low SPO2 or leakage.Oxygen pressure was(730.21±7.43)mmHg in the hyperoxygenated solution against(175.73±5.92)mmHg in the normal saline solution(P<0.01).Compared with baseline,SPO2 increased significantly as the instillation of solution began(P<0.01),leveled for about 30 seconds(P>0.05),and then decreased significantly to the lowest at the time of drainage(compared with 120 seconds or peak,P<0.01).SPO2 was higher in HO group than in NO group(P<0.01).There were no significant differences in MAP,HR,CVP and PETCO2 between HO group and NO group(P>0.05)and also among different time points(P>0.05).Conclusion During the lung lavage for pulmonary

  5. Comparison of Irrigation Times Using Gravity and High-Pressure Lavage. (United States)

    Muscatelli, Stefano; Howe, Andrea; O'Hara, Nathan N; O'Toole, Robert V; Sprague, Sheila A; Slobogean, Gerard P


    The benefits of high-pressure pulsatile lavage for open fracture irrigation have been controversial based on conflicting experimental animal research. Recently published data definitively demonstrated that irrigation pressure does not affect the incidence of reoperation for the treatment of open fractures. However, proponents of pulsatile lavage argue a faster irrigation time is an important benefit of the high-pressure treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in irrigation time between gravity and high-pressure lavage. The experimental setup was designed to mimic clinical practice and compared mean irrigation flow times for high-pressure pulsatile lavage and gravity flow with 2 commonly used tube diameters. Each irrigation setup was tested 5 times at 3 different irrigation bag heights. Analysis of variance and Student's t tests were used to compare the mean flow times of 3 irrigation methods at each height and among the 3 heights for each irrigation method. The mean irrigation flow time in the various experimental models ranged from 161 to 243 seconds. Gravity irrigation with wide tubing was significantly faster than pulsatile lavage or gravity with narrow tubing (P<.001). Increasing irrigation bag height had only a marginal effect on the overall flow times (<9% difference). The difference in mean flow time among the testing techniques was slightly longer than 1 minute, which is unlikely to have a material impact on procedural costs, operating times, and subsequent gains in patient safety. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  6. Cytopathologic diagnosis on joint lavage fluid for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. (United States)

    Mikami, Toshinari; Kumagai, Akiko; Aomura, Tomoyuki; Javed, Fawad; Sugiyama, Yoshiki; Mizuki, Harumi; Takeda, Yasunori


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) are usually diagnosed based on the patient's clinical findings and the results of image investigations; however, understanding of the inflammatory process in TMJ is difficult. In addition, many of the TMJ disease types share common principal symptoms. Therefore, TMJ diseases in the early stage can be misdiagnosed with TMD. It is hypothesized that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids is useful in interpreting the TMD-associated inflammatory process from a cellular aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the TMJ lavage fluid cytopathologically in TMD patients. Thirty-nine patients, clinically diagnosed as TMD, were included in the present study. Clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded. Forty-four samples of TMJ lavage fluid were collected and paraffin-embedded cell sections were made by cell block tissue array method. Cytologic conditions in upper articular cavity of TMJ were cytopathologically diagnosed and were compared with the clinical symptoms of each patient. Cell components were detected in 22 of the 44 analyzed joint lavage fluids. There was a correlation between cytopathologic findings and clinical symptoms. Variety of cytopathology and inflammatory conditions in patients with similar clinical symptoms were also found. The results suggested that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids from TMD patients is helpful for gaining an understanding of the inner local conditions of TMJ at the cellular level.

  7. A Color-Reaction-Based Biochip Detection Assay for RIF and INH Resistance of Clinical Mycobacterial Specimens. (United States)

    Xue, Wenfei; Peng, Jingfu; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shulin; Zhou, Boping; Jiang, Danqing; Chen, Jianbo; Ding, Bingbing; Zhu, Bin; Li, Yao


    The widespread occurrence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis places importance on the detection of TB (tuberculosis) drug susceptibility. Conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a lengthy process. We developed a rapid enzymatic color-reaction-based biochip assay. The process included asymmetric multiplex PCR/templex PCR, biochip hybridization, and an enzymatic color reaction, with specific software for data operating. Templex PCR (tem- PCR) was applied to avoid interference between different primers in conventional multiplex- PCR. We applied this assay to 276 clinical specimens (including 27 sputum, 4 alveolar lavage fluid, 2 pleural effusion, and 243 culture isolate specimens; 40 of the 276 were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria specimens and 236 were M. tuberculosis specimens). The testing process took 4.5 h. A sensitivity of 50 copies per PCR was achieved, while the sensitivity was 500 copies per PCR when tem-PCR was used. Allele sequences could be detected in mixed samples at a proportion of 10%. Detection results showed a concordance rate of 97.46% (230/236) in rifampicin resistance detection (sensitivity 95.40%, specificity 98.66%) and 96.19% (227/236) in isoniazid (sensitivity 93.59%, specificity 97.47%) detection with those of DST assay. Concordance rates of testing results for sputum, alveolar lavage fluid, and pleural effusion specimens were 100%. The assay provides a potential choice for TB diagnosis and treatment.

  8. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  9. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  10. Subjective food hypersensitivity: assessment of enterochromaffin cell markers in blood and gut lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen K


    Full Text Available Kine Gregersen1,2, Jørgen Valeur1,3, Kristine Lillestøl1,3, Livar Frøyland2, Pedro Araujo2, Gülen Arslan Lied1,3, Arnold Berstad1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, 2National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research; 3Department of Medicine, Section for Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Food hypersensitivity is commonly suspected, but seldom verified. Patients with subjective food hypersensitivity suffer from both intestinal and extraintestinal health complaints. Abnormalities of the enterochromaffin cells may play a role in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate enterochromaffin cell function in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity by measuring serum chromogranin A (CgA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in gut lavage fluid.Methods: Sixty-nine patients with subjective food hypersensitivity were examined. Twenty-three patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 35 healthy volunteers were included as comparison groups. CgA was measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gut lavage fluid was obtained by administering 2 L of polyethylene glycol solution intraduodenally. The first clear fluid passed per rectum was collected and 5-HT was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Serum levels of CgA were significantly lower in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity than in healthy controls (P = 0.04. No differences were found in 5-HT levels in gut lavage fluid between patients with subjective food hypersensitivity and the control groups. There was no correlation between serum CgA and gut lavage 5-HT.Conclusion: Decreased blood levels of CgA suggest neuroendocrine alterations in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. However, 5-HT levels in gut lavage fluid were normal.Keywords: food hypersensitivity, chromogranin A, serotonin, gut lavage fluid, liquid chromatography

  11. Peritoneal taurolidine lavage in children with localised peritonitis due to appendicitis. (United States)

    Schneider, Axel; Sack, Ulrich; Rothe, Karin; Bennek, Joachim


    Despite aggressive surgical treatment, rational antibiotic therapy, and modern intensive care, generalised peritonitis remains a major threat in the paediatric age group. Several adjuvant strategies such as peritoneal saline lavage and peritoneal drainage have been utilised. Taurolidine, derived from the amino acid taurine, has bactericidic, antiendotoxic, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been introduced previously for intraoperative peritoneal lavage in treating peritonitis in adults. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of peritoneal taurolidine lavage on the clinical course and serological inflammation markers in children with perforated appendicitis and localised peritonitis. A series of 27 children presenting with appendicitis between January 1999 and July 2001 were included in the study after parental informed consent. All patients underwent open appendectomy. Taurolidine peritoneal lavage was applied in 15 randomly selected children (eight girls and seven boys; mean age 10 years and 10 months). Twelve children received saline peritoneal lavage and served as the control group (six girls and six boys; mean age 9 years and 7 months). Blood was taken preoperatively and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Full blood cell count, C-reactive protein, endotoxin, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and procalcitonin were investigated to evaluate the serological course of inflammation. Both groups initially presented with severe inflammation as evidenced clinically and serologically. The clinical postoperative course was uneventful in 13/15 patients in the treatment group and 10/12 patients in the control group. The remaining patients presented complications: intraperitoneal abscess or early postoperative bowel obstruction. With regard to the serological inflammatory parameters, no significant differences were found between the two groups except for the soluble interleukin-2-receptor on the 7

  12. Ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor-1α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after burn and inhalation injury. (United States)

    Baker, Todd A; Davis, Christopher S; Bach, Harold H; Romero, Jacqueline; Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Gamelli, Richard L; Majetschak, Matthias


    The objective of the study was to determine whether the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 ligands ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after burn and inhalation injury and whether their concentrations in BALF are associated with injury severity, physiological variables, or clinical outcomes. BALF was obtained on hospital admission from 51 patients (48 ± 18 years) with burn (TBSA: 23 ± 24%) and inhalation injury (controls: 10 healthy volunteers, 42 ± 8 years). BALF was analyzed for total protein and for ubiquitin and SDF-1α by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ubiquitin/SDF-1α levels were normalized to total BALF protein content. The extent of inhalation injury was determined during bronchoscopy using a standardized scoring system. Percent TBSA, Baux scores, revised Baux scores, and clinical variables were documented. Ubiquitin and SDF-1α were detectable in 40% of normal BALF specimens. After injury, ubiquitin was detectable in 90% (P patients (P burn and inhalation injury. Increases in BALF ubiquitin after inhalation injury may maintain CXCR4-mediated lung protection and repair processes. The finding that BALF ubiquitin decreased with higher grades of inhalation injury may provide a biological correlate for an insufficient local inflammatory response after severe inhalation injury.

  13. Gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children : a systematic review


    Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel; Léia Damasceno de Aguiar Brotto; Carolina Maia Martins Sales; Eliana Zandonade; Clemax Couto Sant'Anna


    Objetivo: Analisar a padronização da coleta do lavado gástrico para diagnóstico de tuberculose em crianças. Métodos: Estudo de revisão sistemática referente aos anos de 1968 a 2008. O levantamento de artigos científicos foi feito nas bases de dados Lilacs, SciELO e Medline, utilizando-se a estratégia de busca ("gastric lavage and tuberculosis" ou "gastric washing and tuberculosis", com o limite "crianças com idade até 15 anos"; e "gastric lavage and tuberculosis and childhood" ou "gastric was...

  14. Rapid diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using bronchial lavage fluid. (United States)

    Kawazu, Masahito; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Komeno, Yukiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Ohishi, Nobuya; Hirai, Hisamaru


    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detection of Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but it has not yet been able to distinguish infection from contamination. We have established a technique to quantify Aspergillus DNA using a real-time PCR method to resolve this problem, and we report herein a successful application of real-time PCR to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by comparing the amount of Aspergillus DNA in bronchial lavage fluid from an affected area to that from an unaffected area. This novel tool will provide rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  15. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav


    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  16. Comparison of endotracheal aspirate and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit. (United States)

    Yıldız-Atıkan, Başak; Karapınar, Bülent; Aydemir, Şöhret; Vardar, Fadıl


    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occuring in any period of mechanical ventilation. There is no optimal diagnostic method in current use and in this study we aimed to compare two non-invasive diagnostic methods used in diagnosis of VAP in children. This prospective study was conducted in 8 bedded Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Ege University Children´s Hospital. Endotracheal aspiration (ETA) and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in case of developing VIP after 48 hours of ventilation. Quantitative cultures were examined in Ege University Department of Diagnostic Microbiology, Bacteriology Laboratory. Fourty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of study subjects was 47.2±53.6 months. A total of 28 in 82 specimens taken with both methods were negative/negative; 28 had positive result with ETA and a negative result with non-bronchoscopic BAL and both results were negative in 26 specimens. There were no patients whose respiratory specimen culture was negative with ETA and positive with non-bronchoscopic BAL. These results imply that there is a significant difference between two diagnostic methods (p ETA results were compared with this method. ETA's sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 100%, 50%, 100% and 48% respectively. The study revealed the ease of usability and the sensitivity of non-bronchoscopic BAL, in comparison with ETA.

  17. Severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from tuberculosis correlates with bronchoalveolar lavage CXCL-8 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adcock, I.M.; Hashemian, S.M.R.; Mortaz, E.; Masjedi, M.R.; Folkerts, G.


    Tuberculosis (TB) has previously been linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here this study investigates the link between inflammation and TB in ARDS by measuring inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 90 patients with TB or ARDS alone and in

  18. Distribution of endotracheally instilled surfactant protein SP-C in lung-lavaged rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; de Leij, Louis; Curstedt, T; ter Haar, J G; Schoots, Coenraad; Wildevuur, Charles; Okken, Albert


    In lung-lavaged surfactant-deficient rabbits (n = 6) requiring artificial ventilation, porcine surfactant was instilled endotracheally. This resulted in improvement of lung function so that the animals could be weaned off artificial ventilation. The animals were killed 4 1/2 h after surfactant admin

  19. Clinical course and complications following diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients


    Schnabel, R.M.; Velden, K. van der; Osinski, A; Rohde, G.; Roekaerts, P.M.H.J.; Bergmans, D C J J


    Background Flexible, fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have been used for diagnostic purposes in critically ill ventilated patients. The additional diagnostic value compared to tracheal aspirations in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been questioned. Nevertheless, BAL can provide extra information for the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease and good antibiotic stewardship. These benefits should outweigh potential hazards caused by the invasivene...

  20. Elevated peptides in lung lavage fluid associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Stone

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this discovery-level investigation was to use mass spectrometry to identify low mass compounds in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung transplant recipients that associate with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from lung transplant recipients were evaluated for small molecules using ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and correlated to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Peptides associated with samples from persons with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and controls were identified separately by MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: The average bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MS spectrum profile of individuals that developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome differed greatly compared to controls. Controls demonstrated close inter-sample correlation (R = 0.97+/-0.02, average+/-SD while bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome showed greater heterogeneity (R = 0.86+/-0.09, average+/-SD. We identified 89 features that were predictive of developing BOS grade 1 and 66 features predictive of developing BOS grade 2 or higher. Fractions from MS analysis were pooled and evaluated for peptide content. Nearly 10-fold more peptides were found in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome relative to controls. C-terminal residues suggested trypsin-like specificity among controls compared to elastase-type enzymes among those with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has an increase in low mass components detected by mass spectrometry. Many of these features were peptides that likely result from elevated neutrophil elastase activity.

  1. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma


    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  2. [Treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection with colonic lavages. Report of one case]. (United States)

    Quezada, Felipe; Castillo, Richard; Villalón, Constanza; Zúñiga, José Miguel; Manterola, Carla; Molina, María Elena; Bellolio, Felipe; Urrejola, Gonzalo


    A loop ileostomy with intraoperative anterograde colonic lavage has been described as an alternative to colectomy in the management of cases of Clostridium difficile infection refractory to medical treatment. We report a 69 years old diabetic women admitted with a septic shock. An abdominal CAT scan showed a pan-colitis that seemed to be infectious. A polymerase chain reaction was positive for Clostridium Difficile. Due to the failure to improve after full medical treatment, a derivative loop ileostomy and intra-operatory colonic lavage were performed, leaving a Foley catheter in the proximal colon. In the postoperative period, anterograde colonic instillations of Vancomycin flushes through the catheter were performed every 6 hours. Forty eight hours after surgery, the patient improved. A colonoscopy prior to discharge showed resolution of the pseudomembranous colitis.

  3. [Iatrogenic extravasations of cytotoxic or hyperosmolar aqueous solutions. Value of surgical emergency by aspiration and lavage]. (United States)

    Lambert, F; Couturaud, B; Arnaud, E; Champeau, F; Revol, M; Servant, J M


    Iatrogenic extravasations are characterized by their unpredictable course, the possible repercussions of functional, cosmetic and psychological sequelae, and the absence of a therapeutic consensus. The authors present the protocol used in Hôpital Saint-Louis, based on a synthesis of current procedures, consisting of emergency conservative surgical aspiration and lavage, performed in a context of close collaboration with oncolosits, intensive care physicians and radiologists. From 1994 to March 1997, fifteen patients were operated following extravasation during seven chemotherapeutic protocols, three radiographic examinations with injection of contrast agents and five resuscitation procedures. This simple protocol, applied systematically, achieved cure without cutaneous or functional sequelae in all patients. Aspiration-lavage during the first twelve hours therefore constitutes the treatment of choice of iatrogenic extravasation with cytotoxic or hyperosmolar aqueous solutions.

  4. The real contamination of femoral head allografts washed with pulse lavage. (United States)

    Salmela, P Mikael; Hirn, Martti Y J; Vuento, Risto E


    At the Tampere Bone Bank, all the discarded femoral heads from September 1997 to May 2000 were recultured. The grafts had been washed with pulse lavage at harvesting. 48 grafts had been discarded because of a positive culture and 85 with negative cultures because of positive or insufficient serological information. The femoral heads were split into halves, which were recultured as a whole in thioglycolate broth for 14 days. The contamination of previously culture positive and negative femoral heads did not differ. In only 2 cases did we find the same type of bacteria in the primary as in the new culture. Most of the primary contamination proved to be false positive. The real contamination seems to be very low, at least after pulse lavage washing of the femoral head.

  5. Sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma of kidney diagnosed with urine and renal pelvic lavage cytology. (United States)

    Mimura, Akihiro; Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi


    A case of sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of kidney is presented, in which the diagnosis was made cytologically with voided urine and renal pelvis lavage. Cytology of hemorrhagic voided urine revealed highly atypical adenocarcinoma cells with reminiscent ductal structure, which suggested CDC as the most likely diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left renal tumor, and selective lavage of left renal pelvis yielded spindle-shaped, highly atypical cells that indicated sarcomatoid carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal cancer with urine cytology is challenging because of small number of tumor cells in the urine, which are often associated with degeneration. As the urinary cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC have not been reported, the characteristic cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC are described in detail, and the differential diagnoses with diagnostic pitfalls were discussed.

  6. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N;


    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days...... untreated, prechallenge noses was 400 micrograms/L. (3) The ECP level did not increase during the early phase response. (4) There was a late occurring increase in the ECP concentration (6 to 24 hours). (5) This increase was completely inhibited by budesonide pretreatment. (6) The glucocorticoid therapy also...... reduced the prechallenge ECP concentration. In conclusion, allergen provocation in the nose results in a late occurring increase of ECP in nasal lavage fluid, and one of the therapeutic effects of topical glucocorticoid therapy may be an inhibition of the allergen-induced increase of this cytotoxic...

  7. Effect of music on anxiety and pain during joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Ottaviani, Sébastien; Bernard, Jean-Luc; Jean-Luc, Bernard; Bardin, Thomas; Thomas, Bardin; Richette, Pascal; Pascal, Richette


    Joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis is an invasive procedure that can be stressful and painful. We aimed to assess the impact of music therapy on perioperative anxiety, pain and tolerability of the procedure in patients undergoing joint lavage performed with two needles. We randomized all patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis and undergoing joint lavage in our department from November 2009 to October 2010 to an experimental group listening to recorded music or a control group receiving no music intervention. Perioperative anxiety and pain related to the procedure were self-reported on a visual analogic scale (0-100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]), and heart rate and blood pressure were measured during the procedure. Tolerability was assessed on a four-grade scale directly after the procedure. We included 62 patients (31 in each group). Mean age was 68.8 ± 12.6 years (72% females). As compared with the control group, the music group had lower levels of perioperative anxiety (40.3 ± 31.1 vs. 58.2 ± 26.3 mm; p = 0.046) and pain related to the procedure (26.6 ± 16.2 vs. 51.2 ± 23.7 mm; p = 0.0005). Moreover, heart rate was lower in the music group (69.5 ± 11.4 vs. 77.2 ± 13.2; p = 0.043) but not diastolic or systolic blood pressure. Tolerability was higher in the music group (p = 0.002). Music is a simple and effective tool to alleviate pain and anxiety in patients undergoing joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis.

  8. Peritoneal Lavage in the Diagnosis of Acute Surgical Abdomen Following Thermal Injury. (United States)


    disease, others6𔄂-15 have confirmed his Sepsis syndrome 13 findings. Hoffman16 reviewed the literature on the use of Abdominal distension 11 Ileus 7 DPL...developed sepsis, ileus , and abdominal distention 98 Fourteen of the 17 patients died, a mortality rate of 82%. days following injury. Lavage fluid...the greater omentum. The difficulty in diag- whelming pulmonary sepsis or multisystem organ failure, nosing biliary disease with DPL has been

  9. Nonfibrous mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from blast-furnace workers. (United States)

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Delavignette, J P; Baharloo, F; Radermecker, M; Hereng, P; Fransolet, A M; Weber, G; Roelandts, I


    Steelworkers are exposed to many pollutants, and they are at risk for developing lung cancer. We demonstrated previously that steelworkers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the plant environment. In the current study, we further analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of steelworkers by measuring intramacrophagic trace-metal content and nonfibrous mineral particles, using the particle-induced x-ray emission method and electron microscopy, respectively. Forty-seven blast-furnace workers and 45 healthy white-collar workers volunteered for this study. Significantly increased levels of iron, titanium, zinc, and bromine were found in the steelworkers, and levels of lead, chromium, arsenic, and strontium tended to increase in the macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the steelworkers. Nonfibrous particles, including illite, kaolinite, talc, chlorite, amorphous silica, quartz, iron (compounds), and titanium hydroxide, were found in both groups, but the particle number per ml bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (particularly iron hydroxides and silicates) was more pronounced in blast-furnace workers. These elements and particles may act synergistically with other occupational carcinogens and cigarette smoke, the result of which may be an increased incidence of lung cancer in the ironsteel industry.

  10. Cytological analysis of equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Part 1: Comparison of sequential and pooled aliquots. (United States)

    Pickles, K; Pirie, R S; Rhind, S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether initial equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) aliquots were more representative of bronchial cytology that bronchiolar and alveolar cytology. Cell viability and total nucleated (TCC), differential (DCC) and absolute cell counts of cytocentrifuged preparations of 3 sequentially collected BALF aliquots (Aliquots 1-3) were compared with those of pooled BALF (Aliquot 4) to assess whether all aliquots were representative of the lavaged lung segment. BALF samples (n = 21) were collected from control horses (n = 5) or heaves-affected horses (n = 5). There were nonsignificant trends of increasing TCC and absolute macrophage count from Aliquot 1 to Aliquot 3 and significant differences in macrophage (Paliquots of all horses; however, no linear trend in this DCC data was observed. There was a significant decrease in mast cell DCC (PAliquot 1 to Aliquot 3 in control horses. Cell viability did not differ significantly among aliquots. There was no diagnostically significant difference in TCC, DCC, absolute cell counts or cell viability, among sequential and pooled BALF aliquots and, therefore, all aliquots can be considered to represent the cytology of the lavaged lung segment. This indicates that even if BALF recoveries are very low, cytological analysis of samples will be of diagnostic value.

  11. Successful resuscitation of a patient who developed cardiac arrest from pulsed saline bacitracin lavage during thoracic laminectomy and fusion. (United States)

    Greenberg, Steven B; Deshur, Mark; Khavkin, Yevgeniy; Karaikovic, Elden; Vender, Jeffery


    A patient with a history of T12 burst fracture caused by a fall, and with progressive weakness and sensory loss in the left leg, survived a cardiac arrest after pulsed saline bacitracin lavage irrigation during a posterior spinal fusion.

  12. The role of ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage (barbotage in the treatment of calcific tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Niazi


    Conclusion: Ultrasound guided aspiration and lavage (barbotage is a highly effective, less aggressive method of treatment in cases of calcific tendinosis, especially for cases with severe pain that does not respond to other conservative methods.

  13. A comparative study between use of arthroscopic lavage and arthrocentesis of temporomandibular joint based on computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic lavage and arthrocentesis, performed with different inner-diameter lavage needles, are the current minimally invasive techniques used in temporomandibular joint disc displacement (TMJ-DD for pain reduction and functional improvement. In the current study, we aimed to explore the biomechanical influence and explain the diverse clinical outcomes of these two approaches with computational fluid dynamics. Data was retrospectively analyzed from 78 cases that had undergone arthroscopic lavage or arthrocentesis for TMJ-DD from 2002 to 2010. Four types of finite volume models, featuring irrigation needles of different diameters, were constructed based on computed tomography images. We investigated the flow pattern and pressure distribution of lavage fluid secondary to caliber-varying needles. Our results demonstrated that the size of outflow portal was the critical factor in determining irrigated flow rate, with a larger inflow portal and a smaller outflow portal leading to higher intra-articular pressure. This was consistent with clinical data suggesting that increasing the mouth opening and maximal contra-lateral movement led to better outcomes following arthroscopic lavage. The findings of this study could be useful for choosing the lavage apparatus according to the main complaint of pain, or limited mouth opening, and examination of joint movements.

  14. Effect of sodium cromoglycate on light racehorses with elevated metachromatic cell numbers on bronchoalveolar lavage and reduced exercise tolerance. (United States)

    Hare, J E; Viel, L; O'Byrne, P M; Conlon, P D


    Some young horses with clinical signs of small airway disease demonstrate increased metachromatic cell numbers on bronchoalveolar lavage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium cromoglycate treatment on clinical signs, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology and bronchoalveolar lavage histamine parameters in these horses. Twelve racehorses (age: 3.4 +/- 1.6 years) with a history of respiratory embarrassment at exercise, clinical signs of obstructive airway disease and bronchoalveolar lavage metachromatic cell differential greater than 2% were selected. Horses were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mg sodium cromoglycate or saline placebo nebulized twice daily for 7 days. A clinical respiratory score was assigned and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on each animal on days 0 and 7. Measurements were made of the following bronchoalveolar lavage fluid parameters: total nucleated cell concentration, differential cell percentage and concentration, supernatant and lysate histamine concentration, lysate: supernatant histamine ratio and metachromatic cell histamine content. Between the two evaluation periods, sodium cromoglycate treated horses demonstrated an improvement in respiratory score (P = 0.01) and a stabilizing of metachromatic cell histamine content (P = 0.04) when compared with placebo treated horses. We concluded that sodium cromoglycate is effective for the treatment of small airway disease in this population of young racehorses although the pharmacodynamics of this drug in the horse require further investigation.

  15. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.


    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  16. Peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer inhibits the infectivity of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains in primary PBMCs and cervicovaginal histocultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Bon

    Full Text Available Peptide dendrimers are a class of molecules that exhibit a large array of biological effects including antiviral activity. In this report, we analyzed the antiviral activity of the peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer, which is a tetra-branched dendrimer synthetized on a lysine core, in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs that were challenged with reference and wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains. SB105-A10 inhibited infections by HIV-1 X4 and R5 strains, interfering with the early phases of the viral replication cycle. SB105-A10 targets heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs and, importantly, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR assay revealed that SB105-A10 strongly binds gp41 and gp120, most likely preventing HIV-1 attachment/entry through multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of SB105-A10 was also detectable in an organ-like structure of human cervicovaginal tissue, in which SB105-A10 inhibited the HIV-1ada R5 strain infection without altering the tissue viability. These results demonstrated the strong antiviral activity of SB105-A10 and suggest a potential microbicide use of this dendrimer to prevent the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1.

  17. Comparison of concentrations of two proteinase inhibitors, porcine pancreatic elastase inhibitory capacity, and cell profiles in sequential bronchoalveolar lavage samples. (United States)

    Morrison, H M; Kramps, J A; Dijkman, J H; Stockley, R A


    Bronchoalveolar lavage is used to obtain cells and proteins from the lower respiratory tract for diagnosis and research. Uncertainity exists about which site in the lung is sampled by the lavage fluid and what effect different lavage volumes have on recovery of the constituents of lavage fluid. Dilution of alveolar lining fluid by lavage fluid is variable and results are usually expressed as protein ratios to surmount this problem. We have compared cell profiles and the concentrations of two proteinase inhibitors--the low molecular weight bronchial protease inhibitor antileucoprotease and alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor, together with alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor function and its relationship to the cell profile in sequential bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients undergoing bronchoscopy. There was no difference in total or differential cell counts or albumin or alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor concentrations between the first and second halves of the lavage. Both the concentration of antileucoprotease and the ratio of antileucoprotease to albumin were, however, lower in the second half of the lavage (2p less than 0.01 and 2p less than 0.05 respectively). There was no difference in the function of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (assessed by inhibition of porcine pancreatic elastase--PPE) between aliquots (0.28 mole PPE inhibited/mol alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor; range 0-1.19 for the first half and 0.37 mol PPE inhibited/mol alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor; range 0.10-0.80 for the second half). About 60-70% of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor in each half of the lavage fluid was inactive as an inhibitor. The function of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor did not differ between bronchitic smokers and ex-smokers. Alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor function was not related to the number of total white cells, macrophages, or neutrophils in the lavage fluid. Contamination of lavage by red blood cells was found to alter the concentration of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor but not its

  18. Etiología de la infección cérvico vaginal en pacientes del Hospital Juárez de México Etiology of cervicovaginal infection in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Flores-Paz


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la etiología de la infección cérvico vaginal, con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico acertado que permita ofrecer a las pacientes el tratamiento más apropiado. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De enero de 1995 a diciembre de 1999 se realizó un estudio bacteriológico a 6 811 muestras de exudado cérvico vaginal de pacientes del Hospital Juárez de México, de la Ciudad de México, con edades comprendidas entre los 13 y los 65 años, que referían leucorrea, prurito, hiperemia y dolor abdominal bajo. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de infección por cada germen fue G vaginalis, 22.65%, Candida spp, 19.13%, C albicans, 7.8%, T vaginalis, 1.5%, Streptococcus del grupo D, 11.78%, Streptococcus b haemolyticus, 4.59%, E coli, 13.46%, Klebsiella ssp, 2.0%, además de otras enterobacterias menos frecuentes como Citrobacter spp, Enterobacter spp, Pseudomonas spp, M morganii y P mirabilis. El 2.9% presentó anaerobios siempre asociados con G vaginalis. Se aislaron Neisseria spp y N weaveri en 0.15% de las muestras. La N gonorrhoeae no se encontró en ningún caso. Datos comparativos indican que, tanto Streptococcus hemoliticos como E coli tuvieron un marcado incremento en los dos últimos años, siendo el de esta última estadísticamente significativo (pOBJECTIVE: To identify the etiologic agents of cervicovaginal infection in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 1995 to December 1999, bacteriological studies were done in cervical discharge specimens from 6 811 patients aged 13 to 65 years, seen at Hospital Juarez in Mexico City. All patients had leucorrhea, pruritus, hyperemia, and abdominal pain. Statistical significance was assessed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: The frequencies of infectious agents were as follows: G. vaginalis, 22.65%, Candida spp, 19.13%, C. albicans, 7.8%, T. vaginalis, 1.5%, Streptococcus group D, 11.78%, Streptococcus b hemolytic, 4.59%, E. coli, 13

  19. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  20. Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J


    found positive with both methods, but a further 10 were diagnosed with Giemsa indicating that the trophozoite stain is more sensitive. As Giemsa stain is simple, quick, cheap and familiar to most microbiological laboratories it should be used for screening of samples to be examined for Pneumocystis...

  1. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage. (United States)

    Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando


    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism.

  2. Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Jacob


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perforated diverticulitis is a condition associated with substantial morbidity. Recently published reports suggest that laparoscopic lavage has fewer complications and shorter hospital stay. So far no randomised study has published any results. Methods DILALA is a Scandinavian, randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL to the traditional Hartmann's Procedure (HP. Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL, re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients are included when surgery is required. A laparoscopy is performed and if Hinchey grade III is diagnosed the patient is included and randomised 1:1, to either LL or HP. Patients undergoing LL receive > 3L of saline intraperitoneally, placement of pelvic drain and continued antibiotics. Follow-up is scheduled 6-12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A QoL-form is filled out on discharge, 6- and 12 months. Inclusion is set to 80 patients (40+40. Discussion HP is associated with a high rate of complication. Not only does the primary operation entail complications, but also subsequent surgery is associated with a high morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer re-operations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs and increased quality of life. Trial registration British registry (ISRCTN for clinical trials ISRCTN82208287


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Vladimirovna Luchikhina


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of arthroscopic lavage in combination with subsequent injection of hyaluronic acid into the joint cavity at shortand long-term follow-ups. Subjects and methods. Eighty-two patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA were examined in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Group 1 consisted of 40 patients only after arthroscopic lavage; Group 2 comprised 42 patients who were administered hyaluronic acid after arthroscopic lavage. Clinical evaluation encompassed pain while walking, resting, and moving (by a visual analogue scale, limited ability in covering 100 m (by a 5-point scale, general clinical evaluation (by a 5-point ordinal scale, the presence or absence of pain after 100-m walking, as well as resting pain (its presence or absence. Results. The treatment effect evaluated using different indicators was comparably positive in both groups within 3 months. Following 3 months of therapy, its effect remained stable and even better in Group 2. The latter showed a particularly noticeable superiority a year later. Thus, there were excellent and good results in 88 and 47.5% in Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The clinical symptoms of the disease were absent in 58% in Group 2 and in only 15% in Group 1. Moreover, Group 1 showed worsening and 20% of the patients had no effect. This trend was also seen while evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness in different periods. Thus, after therapy, no substantial difference was found in both groups, but 3 months later this difference was as many as 0.8 scores and a year later Group 2 had many points in its favor (1.2 scores. Conclusion. Arthroscopic lavage followed by the administration of hyaluronic acid makes it possible to prevent the negative effect of a washing liquid on the metabolism and structure of the articular cartilage and to achieve a long-term effect against the major clinical symptoms (joint pain and function affecting the quality of life. The

  4. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio


    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  5. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage as treatment for canine pyometra : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.M. De Cramer


    Full Text Available Pyometra is a common post-oestral syndrome in bitches. Classical treatment consists of either ovariohystorectomy or medical intervention. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage via direct trans-cervical catheterisation using a 5% povidone-iodine in saline solution was performed successfully in 8 bitches with pyometra. All bitches conceived and whelped without complications subsequent to this treatment. It is concluded that this method offers an effective alternative treatment for canine pyometra with shorter recovery times as well as good clinical recovery and pregnancy rates in bitches destined for further breeding.

  6. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto


    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  7. Changes of cell factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats exposed to silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in rats exposed to silica dust.Methods Experimental rats were randomly divided into control group and three experimental groups(doses of dust:15,30,and 60mg/ml),with 42 rats in each group.Each rat in the control group was treated with 1 ml of normal saline by intratracheal instillation,while each rat in the experimental groups was exposed to 1

  8. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT..., Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder EC03OC91.036...

  9. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank]. (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike


    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  10. Clinicopathological study of hysterectomised specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana A.


    Full Text Available Background: Hysterectomy is the commonest major surgical procedure performed in gynecology. It can be done by abdominal or vaginal route and with the help of laparoscopy. Hysterectomy is an effective treatment option for many conditions like fibroid, abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease and cancer of reproductive organ when other treatment options are contraindicated or have failed, or if the woman no longer wishes to retain her menstrual and reproductive. The aim and objective of the study was to correlate indications of hysterectomy with histopathological findings in hysterectomised patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried on 113 hysterectomised cases over a period of one year from June 2015 to May 2016. The data regarding the patient’s age, parity, clinical diagnosis, type of hysterectomy and histopathological diagnosis were reviewed by the records and analyzed. Results: A total of 113 cases of hysterectomies were studied. Hysterectomies were distributed over a wide age ranging from 20 years to 75 years. Most common age group was 41-50 years. Among hystectomies majority were done through vaginal route 86 (76.1% and 26 (23% cases were done through abdominal route. Most common clinical diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 44(38.9% cases. Most of the hysterectomies were done for benign conditions. In final histopathological report most common diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 45(39.8% hysterectomy specimens. It was correlated well with clinical diagnosis. Next most common histopathological diagnosis was Adenomyosis. Conclusions: Histopathological analysis correlated well with preoperative clinical diagnosis in majority of cases. The commonest indication and histopathological finding in our study was fibroid uterus. Next most common histopathological finding was Adenomyosis. Most commonly hysterectomies were done through vaginal route in our study.

  11. [Therapy concepts for diffuse peritonitis: When laparoscopic lavage and when open abdomen?]. (United States)

    Güsgen, C; Schwab, R; Willms, A


    Secondary diffuse peritonitis still has a high morbidity and mortality even now; therefore, the various strategies and options for the different surgical therapies are undergoing an evidence-based review. Laparoscopic lavage without resection of the focus of sepsis for example is a profoundly different approach in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis from the damage control-based strategy of surgery with initial laparostomy and deferred anastomosis. The evidential data for minimally invasive therapy are comparatively well-reviewed for appendicitis, cholecystitis and ulcerated perforation of the stomach and duodenum. In contrast, the evidence for laparoscopy and minimally invasive surgery with lavage and deferred anastomosis or damage control in secondary peritonitis has improved but is still low and cannot yet be clearly recommended. This article presents an overview of the currently available therapeutic methods for diffuse peritonitis and a critical consideration of the evidence-based data. The key recommendation is that the decision to use a surgical procedure based on the currently available data depends more on the severity of the abdominal sepsis, the duration, the age of the patient and comorbidities than on the individual technique.

  12. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR for bacterial pathogens applied to bronchoalveolar lavage. (United States)

    Strålin, K; Korsgaard, J; Olcén, P


    The present study assessed the diagnostic usefulness of a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed on 156 hospitalised adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 36 controls. BAL fluid was analysed with bacterial culture and mPCR. By conventional diagnostic methods, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were aetiological agents in 14, 21, 3.2 and 0% of the LRTI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by BAL mPCR in 28, 47, 3.2 and 0.6% of cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities of 86% for S. pneumoniae, 88% for H. influenzae, 100% for M. pneumoniae and 0% for C. pneumoniae, and specificities of 81, 64, 100 and 99% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, respectively. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to bronchoscopy, S. pneumoniae was identified by culture in 2.9% and by mPCR in 31%. Among the controls, mPCR identified S. pneumoniae in 11% and H. influenzae in 39%. In lower respiratory tract infection patients, bronchoalveolar lavage multiplex PCR can be useful for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. The method appears to be particularly useful in patients treated with antibiotics.

  13. Distribution of Major Pathogens from Sputum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Yi Miao; Xiao-Bin Ji; Hai-Wen Lu; Jia-Wei Yang; Jin-Fu Xu


    Objective:Noncystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis remains as a common health problem in Asia.Pathogens' distribution in airways of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis is important for doctors to make right decision.Data Sources:We performed this systematic review on the English language literatures from 1966 to July 2014,using various search terms included "pathogens" or "bacteria" or "microbiology" and "bronchiectasis" or "non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis" or "non-CF bronchiectasis" or "NCFB."Study Selection:We included studies of patients with the confirmed non-CF bronchiectasis for which culture methods were required to sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).Weighted mean isolation rates for Haemophilus influenzae,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Streptococcus pneumoniae,Stapylococcus aureus,Moxarella catarrhails were compared according to different methodology.Results:The total mean bacterial culture positive rates were 63%.For studies using sputum samples,the mean positive culture rates were 74%.For studies using BALF alone or BALF and sputum,it was 48%.The distributions of main bacterial strains were 29% for H.influenzae,28% for P.aeruginosa,1 1% for S.pneumoniae,12% for S.aureus,and 8% for M.catarrhails with methodology of sputum.Meanwhile,the bacterial distributions were 37% for H.influenzae,8% for P.aeruginosa,14% for S.pneumoniae,5% for S.aureus,and 10% for M.catarrhails with methodology of BALF alone or BALF and sputum.Analysis of the effect of different methodology on the isolation rates revealed some statistically significant differences.Conclusions:H.influenzae accounted for the highest percentage in different methodology.Our results suggested that the total positive culture rates and the proportion of P aeruginosa from sputum and BALF specimens had significant differences,which can be used in further appropriate recommendations for the treatment ofnon-CF bronchiectasis.

  14. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens. (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael


    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  15. A simple technique to restore needle patency during percutaneous lavage and aspiration of calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy. (United States)

    Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay


    Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement.

  16. RSB: Research Specimen Banking across the Institution


    Pense, Rick; Grose, Tim; Anderson, Lynn; Lee, H


    Research Specimen Banking (RSB) system is a component of the translational investigations infrastructure at Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute. It was implemented to provide specimen management functions to support basic science cancer research taking place in conjunction with caner clinical trials. RSB handles the receipt and distribution of clinical specimens to the research labs, with identifiers that both mask personal identity and enable linkage of clinical data to correlative re...

  17. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail:; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)


    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  18. [Segmental bronchoalveolar lavage with a flexible probe via a rigid bronchoscope in the diagnosis of mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis]. (United States)

    Faina, A G


    Segmentary bronchial-alveolar lavage with flexible catheter connected to rigid bronchoscope might be used in diagnosis of mediastinal-pulmonary sarcoidosis, according to a method used by the authors. Cytologic examination of the lavage fluid shows, in the cases studied, the great abundance in cells, with lymphocytes increase to 30 +/- 12% (in agreement with other authors) making thus possible the disease diagnosis. On the other hand, polymorphonuclears increased to 20 +/- 10%. These higher values than those noticed up to now, pointed that the fibrosing process in sarcoidosis has a higher level than assumed, and appear since the onset of the disease.

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  20. Determination of copper, zinc and iron in broncho-alveolar lavages by atomic absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Harlyk, C; Mccourt, J; Bordin, G; Rodriguez, A R; van der Eeckhout, A


    Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Fe were measured in 157 broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL), before and after centrifugation, collected at the Leuven University Hospital (Belgium). Zn was measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy, using direct calibration, while Cu and Fe were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, using the method of standard additions. For Fe only 56 samples were measured. Most of the studied elements are present in the liquid phase (supernatant). About 90% of Cu concentrations lie between 0 and 15 micrograms/kg, while 90% of Zn concentrations are lower than 230 micrograms/kg, with 30% between 30 and 70 micrograms/kg, and 50% between 100 and 200 micrograms/kg. There seems to be a reverse relationship between Cu and Zn levels with high Cu going along with low Zn and vice versa.

  1. ICU management of patients with suspected positive findings of diagnostic peritoneal lavage following blunt abdominal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑东元; 金燕; 陈丽英; 魏琪


    Objective: To explore the management for blunt abdominal trauma victims with probable positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) findings. Methods: Data of 76 patients with probable positive DPL findings accepted to ICU in previous 10 years were reviewed. After admission, the patients were evaluated in a settled time according to the protocols of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). Vital signs were continuously monitored and DPL, ultrasound and/or CT scan were repeated when necessary. Results: Eighteen (24%) of 76 patients presented positive DPL findings after repeated DPL. Surgical findings confirmed 7 cases of spleen rupture, 3 hepatorrhexis (infra-Glisson capsule), 4 intestinal perforation, 2 gastric perforation, 1 colon perforation and 1 injured mesentery.

  2. The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung disease - is it really useful? (United States)

    Meyer, Keith C


    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be a very useful tool in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, but BAL must be performed properly and the retrieved BAL fluid adequately processed and analyzed to allow accurate conclusions to be drawn from BAL analysis. A differential cell count of nucleated immune cells can show cell patterns that suggest or support certain diagnoses, and other testing (stains and cultures for infectious pathogens, malignant cell cytology) can be performed on BAL fluid that can also aid in diagnosis. When combined with the results of a careful history, physical examination, thoracic imaging, and other pertinent laboratory testing, the BAL analysis may allow a confident diagnosis of a specific interstitial lung disease to be made without proceeding to more invasive testing (e.g., surgical lung biopsy) that is associated with increased risk of complications.

  3. PAS staining of bronchoalveolar lavage cells for differential diagnosis of interstital lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a useful diagnostic tool in interstitial lunge diseases (ILD. However, differential cell counts are often non specific and immunocytochemistry is time consuming. Staining of glyoproteins by periodic acid Schiff (PAS reaction may help in discriminating different forms of ILD. In addition, PAS staining is easy to perform. BAL cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF (n = 8, sarcoidosis (n = 9, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA (n = 2 were investigated. Cytospins from BAL cells were made and cells were stained using Hemacolor quick stain and PAS staining. Lymphocytic alveolitis was found in sarcoidosis and EAA whereas in IPF both lymphocytes and neutrophils were increased. PAS positive cells were significantly decreased in EAA compared to IPF and sarcoidosis (25.5% ± 0.7% vs 59.8% ± 25.1% and 64.0% ± 19.7%, respectively (P

  4. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V


    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  5. Cell populations recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Gosselin, B.; Aerts, C.


    Studying the cellular products obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage in 81 patients, 77 coal-miners and 4 other subjects exposed to silicotic risks of various origin, the authors could demonstrate the interest of this new method of exploring the peripheral lung tissues. In 57 cases of usual pneumoconiosis and controls matched for the smoking habits, the repartition of the different cellular types was quite similar. On the contrary, the authors observed an increase of the lymphocytes in three cases of accelerated elution of the pneumoconiosis. Moreover various modifications were noticed in cases with morbid associations as conectivitis, sarcoiedosis, allergic alveolitis, and primitive diffuse interstitial fibrosis as well. At the moment they were collected, the alveolar macrophages of the subjects to dust showed the same properties of vitality and adherence capacity as the controls. After 24 hours of survival their vitality and bacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus was clearly diminished.

  6. Pulsatile lavage irrigator tip, a rare radiolucent retained foreign body in the pelvis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archdeacon Michael T


    Full Text Available Abstract Retained foreign bodies after surgery have the potential to cause serious medical complications for patients and bring fourth serious medico-legal consequences for surgeons and hospitals. Standard operating room protocols have been adopted to reduce the occurrence of the most common retained foreign bodies. Despite these precautions, radiolucent objects and uncounted components/pieces of instruments are at risk to be retained in the surgical wound. We report the unusual case of a retained plastic pulsatile lavage irrigator tip in the surgical wound during acetabulum fracture fixation, which was subsequently identified on routine postoperative computed tomography. Revision surgery was required in order to remove the retained object, and the patient had no further complications.

  7. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of pigs by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, A.K.; Runge, M.; Ganter, Martin;


    other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Frus medium......In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification...... inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 10(2) CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11...

  8. Endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis: interchangeable diagnostic modalities in suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia? (United States)

    Scholte, Johannes B J; van Dessel, Helke A; Linssen, Catharina F M; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Roekaerts, Paul M H J; van Mook, Walther N K A


    Authoritative guidelines state that the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be established using either endotracheal aspirate (ETA) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, thereby suggesting that their results are considered to be in accordance. Therefore, the results of ETA Gram staining and semiquantitative cultures were compared to the results from a paired ETA-BALF analysis. Different thresholds for the positivity of ETAs were assessed. This was a prospective study of all patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage for suspected VAP in a 27-bed university intensive care unit during an 8-year period. VAP was diagnosed when ≥ 2% of the BALF cells contained intracellular organisms and/or when BALF quantitative culture revealed ≥ 10(4) CFU/ml of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. ETA Gram staining and semiquantitative cultures were compared to the results from paired BALF analysis by Cohen's kappa coefficients. VAP was suspected in 311 patients and diagnosed in 122 (39%) patients. In 288 (93%) patients, the results from the ETA analysis were available for comparison. Depending on the threshold used and the diagnostic modality, VAP incidences varied from 15% to 68%. For the diagnosis of VAP, the most accurate threshold for positivity of ETA semiquantitative cultures was moderate or heavy growth, whereas the optimal threshold for BALF Gram staining was ≥ 1 microorganisms per high power field. The Cohen's kappa coefficients were 0.22, 0.31, and 0.60 for ETA and paired BALF Gram stains, cultures, and BALF Gram stains, respectively. Since the ETA and BALF Gram stains and cultures agreed only fairly, they are probably not interchangeable for diagnosing VAP.

  9. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen


    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  10. Anaesthesia for serial whole-lung lavage in a patient with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb Stephen T


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare condition that requires treatment by whole-lung lavage. We report a case of severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and discuss a safe and effective strategy for the anaesthetic management of patients undergoing this complex procedure. Case presentation A 34-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. He developed severe respiratory failure and subsequently underwent serial whole-lung lavage. Our anaesthetic technique included the use of pre-oxygenation, complete lung separation with a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube, one-lung ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure, appropriate ventilatory monitoring, cautious use of positional manoeuvres and single-lumen endotracheal tube exchange for short-term postoperative ventilation. Conclusion Patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may present with severe respiratory failure and require urgent whole-lung lavage. We have described a safe and effective strategy for anaesthesia for whole-lung lavage. We recommend our anaesthetic technique for patients undergoing this complex and uncommon procedure.

  11. Acute toxicity of polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenol ether in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, E.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM); Halliwell, W.H.; Henderson, T.R.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.


    Dose-response studies were conducted with Syrian hamsters exposed to polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) via inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage. Syrian hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of Triton X-100 with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 and a concentration of 3.0 mg/liter. Estimated initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 ranged from 800 to 3100 Hamsters were lavaged with concentrations of Triton X-100 ranging from 0.01 to 0.10% in isotonic saline resulting in initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 that ranged from 300 to 3200 The LD50/7 values were 1700 (1300 to 2100, 95% confidence limits) for the inhalation study and 2100 (1900 to 2700) for the lavage study. The difference between the LD50/7 values for the two methods of exposure was not significant. However, histopathological examination revealed differences in the nature and distribution of pathologic changes observed in animals exposed by the two routes of administration. Animals exposed by inhalation died as a result of ulcerative laryngitis and laryngeal edema with only minimal pulmonary pathologic alterations. Animals exposed by lavage, where the larynx was not exposed to Triton X-100, died from pulmonary edema and acute exudative pneumonia. These results demonstrate the need for careful selection of exposure methods to meet the specific objectives of a toxicology study.

  12. High levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennesen, P.; Veerman, E.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van; Jacobs, J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Keijbus, P. van den; Ramsay, G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with those in non-infectious controls, i.e., ventilated ICU patients without VAP, and nonventilated patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in

  13. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002...

  14. Reconstituted Charpy impact specimens. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, J.S.; Wullaert, R.A.; McConnell, P.; Server, W.L.; Fromm, E.O.


    The arc stud welding process was used to produce new, full size Charpy V-notch impact specimens from halves of Charpy specimens which had been previously tested. The apparatus was developed such that it could be used not only for unirradiated specimens, but also so that it could be adapted for in-cell use to produce new reconstituted specimens of irradiated material. The materials studied are of interest in nuclear applications. They include A533B, A36, A516-80, submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal), HY80, cast duplex stainless steel, irradiated A533B, and irradiated submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal). Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were successfully produced and subsequently impact tested. In general, there was excellent agreement when comparing the original curves to the subsequent curves generated with reconstituted specimens. This program has shown that the arc stud welding process is well suited for producing reconstituted specimens at a reasonable cost using either unirradiated or irradiated material.

  15. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques. (United States)

    Dargaville, Peter A


    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  16. Mode-II-Fracture Specimen And Holder (United States)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis; Succop, George


    Test specimen and loading frame developed for fatigue and fracture testing of materials under mode-II (sliding-mode) loading. Assembly placed in compression-testing machine. Loads directed oppositely along centerline cause self-similar crack to propagate. Enables consistently accurate alignment of specimens before insertion of specimen/frame assemblies into compression-testing machine. Makes design attractive for testing in hostile environments in which access to machine or furnace limited. Additional feature, with little or no modification, placed horizontally into impact testing machine and subjected to loading at high speeds.

  17. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.


    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  18. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens. (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M


    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  19. Vickers Microhardness Testing with Miniaturized Disk Specimens


    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kayano, Hideo


    The microhardness technique has been increasingly important for testing irradiated materials because of the necessity of small-scale specimen technology. In order to establish Vickers microhardness testing over a wide temperature range using miniaturized specimens such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks, an apparatus that permits the measurements in the temperature range of well below liquid nitrogen temperature to well above room temperature is developed. Effects of indentation ...

  20. Nasal lavage natural killer cell function is suppressed in smokers after live attenuated influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Haibo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modified function of immune cells in nasal secretions may play a role in the enhanced susceptibility to respiratory viruses that is seen in smokers. Innate immune cells in nasal secretions have largely been characterized by cellular differentials using morphologic criteria alone, which have successfully identified neutrophils as a significant cell population within nasal lavage fluid (NLF cells. However, flow cytometry may be a superior method to fully characterize NLF immune cells. We therefore characterized immune cells in NLF by flow cytometry, determined the effects of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV on NLF and peripheral blood immune cells, and compared responses in samples obtained from smokers and nonsmokers. Methods In a prospective observational study, we characterized immune cells in NLF of nonsmokers at baseline using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Nonsmokers and smokers were inoculated with LAIV on day 0 and serial nasal lavages were collected on days 1-4 and day 9 post-LAIV. LAIV-induced changes of NLF cells were characterized using flow cytometry. Cell-free NLF was analyzed for immune mediators by bioassay. Peripheral blood natural killer (NK cells from nonsmokers and smokers at baseline were stimulated in vitro with LAIV followed by flow cytometric and mediator analyses. Results CD45(+CD56(-CD16(+ neutrophils and CD45(+CD56(+ NK cells comprised median 4.62% (range 0.33-14.52 and 23.27% (18.29-33.97, respectively, of non-squamous NLF cells in nonsmokers at baseline. LAIV did not induce changes in total NK cell or neutrophil percentages in either nonsmokers or smokers. Following LAIV inoculation, CD16(+ NK cell percentages and granzyme B levels increased in nonsmokers, and these effects were suppressed in smokers. LAIV inoculation enhanced expression of activating receptor NKG2D and chemokine receptor CXCR3 on peripheral blood NK cells from both nonsmokers and smokers in vitro but did not induce

  1. Induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage as tools for evaluating the effects of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma. (United States)

    Nocker, R E; Out, T A; Weller, F R; de Riemer, M J; Jansen, H M; van der Zee, J S


    Changes in airway inflammation can be studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, but the widespread use of this procedure is limited by its invasiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of induced sputum as a non-invasive alternative to bronchoalveolar lavage for studying changes in airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Thirty patients were treated for 12 weeks with an inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate (FP), 250 microg twice daily) or a short-acting beta-agonist (salbutamol (Sb), 400 microg twice daily) in a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized parallel group study. Sputum induction with hypertonic saline solution was performed twice before treatment and after 4, 8, 10, and 11 weeks of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid divided into two pools (first 60 mL portion as bronchoalveolar lavage/bronchial wash (BAL/BW) and subsequent 80 mL as bronchoalveoalar lavage (BAL)) was obtained before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Changes in cell differentials and plasma-protein leakage (alpha2-macroglobulin, albumin, and their ratio (relative coefficient of excretion, RCE)) were analyzed in induced sputum and were compared with changes in BAL/BW and BAL. During treatment with FP, the PC20histamine (interpolated concentration of histamine that caused a fall in FEV1 of 20% of the baseline value) increased (P < .0001), and the percentage of eosinophils (P = .004), levels of (alpha2-macroglobulin (P = .09) and RCE (P = .007) decreased in sputum. These changes were different from those in the Sb group (PC20histamine P< .0001, eosinophils P= .004, alpha2-macroglobulin P= .003, RCE P = .01), in which alpha2-macroglobulin showed a significant increase (P = .015). Changes in the percentage of eosinophils and in the levels of alpha2-macroglobulin in sputum were associated with changes in the PC20histamine (Rs = -0.59, P = .007 and Rs = -0.47, P = .03, respectively). These correlations did not reach significance in BAL/BW and BAL fluid. The

  2. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther


    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  3. Peritoneal lavage cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in predicting peritoneal metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Kun Li; Miao Zheng; Chuan-Wen Miao; Jian-Hai Zhang; Guang-Han Ding; Wen-Shen Wu


    AIM: To evaluate the role of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination of peritoneal washes (pCEA) in predicting the peritoneal metastasis and prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer.METHODS: PLC and radioimmunoassay of CEA were performed in peritoneal washes from 64 patients with gastric cancer and 8 patients with benign diseases.RESULTS: The positive rate of pCEA (40.6%) was significantly higher than that of PLC (23.4%) (P<0.05).The positive rates of PLC and pCEA correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). pCEA was found to have a higher sensitivity and a lower false-positive rate in predicting peritoneal metastasis after curative resection of gastric cancer as compared to PLC. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of patients with positive cytologic findings or positive pCEA results were significantly lower than those of patients with negative cytologic findings or negative pCEA results (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that pCEA was an independent prognostic factor for the survival of patients with gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Intraoperative pCEA is a more sensitive and reliable predictor of peritoneal metastasis as well as prognosis in patients with gastric cancer as compared to PLC method.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase levels in diagnostic peritoneal lavage fluid as a predictor of hollow visceral injury. (United States)

    Jaffin, J H; Ochsner, M G; Cole, F J; Rozycki, G S; Kass, M; Champion, H R


    Isolated injuries to hollow viscera may result in equivocal diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) findings. Small bowel injuries cause alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels to increase in DPL effluent. The goal of this study was to better define the role of AP levels in the evaluation of the injured abdomen. We prospectively measured AP levels in 672 patients undergoing DPL. These were retrospectively compared with the clinical findings. All 12 patients with small bowel injuries and three of four with large bowel injuries had an AP level > 10 IU/L. There was one patient with an AP level > 10 IU/L without clinically significant intra-abdominal injury. An AP level > 10 IU/L in the DPL effluent predicted injury requiring laparotomy with a specificity of 99.8% and a sensitivity of 94.7%. We recommend using AP levels only in the management of patients with equivocal findings on DPL who would otherwise not undergo laparotomy. This selective use of AP levels will improve the probability of early diagnosis of bowel injury without increasing the cost of care.

  5. [Fiber bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with asthma. A description of the method]. (United States)

    Pedersen, B; Dahl, R


    Fiber bronchoscopy under local anaesthesia is an examination procedure frequently employed in the remainder of Scandinavia, Europe and USA. It requires only few resources and the costs are considerably less than fiber bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in connection with fiber bronchoscopy is rapidly undertaken but analysis of the material obtained requires considerable time. A method of induction of local anaesthesia, performance of BAL and preparation of the washings obtained is described. Fiber bronchoscopy and BAL are considered to be safe examination procedures in patients with mild asthma in a stable phase. The examination is only associated with slight discomfort for the patients, who will frequently accept repeated investigations, and complications are rare. BAL is a valuable examination procedure in research and the results have increased the knowledge of mechanisms in a series of interstitial pulmonary diseases. Future investigations of the humoral and cellular components in BAL fluid in asthmatic patients will contribute to increase knowledge of the pathological mechanisms in asthmatic disease.

  6. Physiological and lavage fluid cytological and biochemical endpoints of toxicity in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B.E.


    Exposure of the respiratory tract to toxic materials can result in a variety of physiologic disturbances that can serve as endpoints of toxicity. In addition to a brief review of commonly assessed physiologic endpoints, attention is given in the first component of this report to the use of both nose breathing and ``mouth`` breathing rats in toxicity studies that involve measurements of ventilatory functional changes in response to test atmospheres. Additionally, the usefulness of maximum oxygen consumption, or VO{sub 2max}, as a physiologic endpoint of toxicity that uses exercising rats after exposure to test atmospheres is described, along with an introduction to post-exposure exercise as an important behavioral activity that can markedly impact on the severity of acute lung injury caused by pneumoedematogenic materials. The second component of this report focuses on bronchoalveolar lavage and cytological and biochemical endpoints that can be assessed in investigations of the toxicities of test materials. As will be shown herein, some of the biochemical endpoints of toxicity, especially, can sensitively detect subtle injury to the lower respiratory tract that may escape detection by changes in some other conventional endpoints of toxicity, including lung gravimetric increases and histopathological alterations.

  7. Physiological and lavage fluid cytological and biochemical endpoints of toxicity in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B.E.


    Exposure of the respiratory tract to toxic materials can result in a variety of physiologic disturbances that can serve as endpoints of toxicity. In addition to a brief review of commonly assessed physiologic endpoints, attention is given in the first component of this report to the use of both nose breathing and mouth'' breathing rats in toxicity studies that involve measurements of ventilatory functional changes in response to test atmospheres. Additionally, the usefulness of maximum oxygen consumption, or VO[sub 2max], as a physiologic endpoint of toxicity that uses exercising rats after exposure to test atmospheres is described, along with an introduction to post-exposure exercise as an important behavioral activity that can markedly impact on the severity of acute lung injury caused by pneumoedematogenic materials. The second component of this report focuses on bronchoalveolar lavage and cytological and biochemical endpoints that can be assessed in investigations of the toxicities of test materials. As will be shown herein, some of the biochemical endpoints of toxicity, especially, can sensitively detect subtle injury to the lower respiratory tract that may escape detection by changes in some other conventional endpoints of toxicity, including lung gravimetric increases and histopathological alterations.

  8. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.


    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  9. Bronchoalveolar lavage for evaluation and management of scleroderma disease of the lung. (United States)

    Behr, J; Vogelmeier, C; Beinert, T; Meurer, M; Krombach, F; König, G; Fruhmann, G


    Fibrosing alveolitis (FA) is a frequent and often fatal complication of systemic sclerosis (SSC). Alveolar inflammation has been recognized as a primary event in the pulmonary manifestation of SSC. To evaluate the significance of the alveolitis in SSC, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and correlated the generated data with changes in lung function over time. Seventy nine SSC patients with pulmonary involvement were followed for 56.8 +/- 3.1 wk (mean +/- SEM) with a repeat lung function test at the end of the follow-up period. During follow-up, 38 patients were treated with a systemic immunosuppressive regimen. For evaluation, patients were assigned to two groups according to whether their BAL cell differential was normal (inactive BAL) or abnormal (active BAL: i.e., polymorphonuclear leukocytes > 5% and/or lymphocytes > 15%). Active BAL was associated with more severe lung function impairment than was inactive BAL, and patients with active BAL deteriorated during follow-up if untreated. In contrast, treated patients with active BAL stabilized or improved. In summary, active alveolitis as characterized by BAL is associated with progressive pulmonary disease in SSC patients, and a significant positive effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the course of pulmonary disease was observed in patients with active BAL.

  10. Occult exposure to asbestos in steel workers revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corhay, J.-L.; Delavignette, J.-P.; Bury, T.; Saint-Remy, P.; Radermecker, M.-F. (CHU, Liege (Belgium))

    To investigate the asbestos burden in a steelplant environment, we counted asbestos bodies (ABs) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 65 steel workers who had retired during the previous 5 y. They had worked for at least 15 y in the same area of the plant (coke oven or blast furnace) as maintenance or production workers. On the basis of occupational anamnesis, 28 had occasional past professional exposure to asbestos; the remaining 37 workers denied any contact with asbestos. A total of 54 white-collar workers who had no occupational exposure to asbestos were included in the study as controls. An increased prevalence and concentration of ABs was found in the BALF of steel workers. Electron microscopy and EDAX analysis of AB from steel workers revealed that the core fibers were mainly amphiboles. More ABs were found in the BALF of maintenance workers than in production workers. However, the BALF from steel workers who denied any contact with asbestos revealed an increased AB burden v. controls. This demonstrates that steel workers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the steelplant environment.

  11. Mycological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage in cats with respiratory signs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Leme, L R P; Schubach, T M P; Santos, I B; Figueiredo, F B; Pereira, S A; Reis, R S; Mello, M F V; Ferreira, A M R; Quintella, L P; Schubach, A O


    Twenty-three cats with respiratory signs who had domiciliary contact with cats with sporotrichosis were studied. Sneezing was the predominant extracutaneous sign. Twelve cats had no skin lesions and 11 had ulcerated skin lesions. Mycological culture of material obtained from the nasal cavity, oral cavity, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and skin lesions, when present, was performed for all cats. In the case of autopsy, lung fragments were cultured. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from four of the 12 cats without skin lesions: BAL (one cat) and oral and/or nasal cavity (three cats). The latter three animals developed nasal and distant skin lesions within the following 2-4 weeks. The cat with S. schenckii isolated from BAL did not develop skin lesions or lower respiratory tract symptoms during the 6 months of follow-up. S. schenckii was isolated from one or more biological samples of all 11 cats with skin lesions: oral cavity (five), nasal cavity (eight), BAL fluid (four), skin lesions (eight), and blood culture (one). No yeast-like structures were observed upon BAL cytology in any of the 23 cats. The results suggest that S. schenckii can cause infection of skin contiguous to the natural facial orifices through colonisation of the mucosal surfaces of the upper airways.

  12. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients. (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D


    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo.

  13. Cellular changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in hyperoxia-induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbiao HE; Wei ZHAO


    It is well known that high concentration oxy-gen exposure is a model of acute lung injury (ALI). However, controversy exists over the mechanism. This study was designed to clarify the cellular characteristics in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and body weight loss of rats exposed to oxygen(>90%). Young male Wistar rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into three groups: (1) room air group (exposed to room air, n=22); (2) hyperoxia < 48 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for less than 48 h, n=18); (3) hyperoxia 66-72 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for 66-72 h group, n=7). Compared to the room air group, the total cell counts in the hyperoxia 66-72 h group decreased, whereas the neu-trophils increased significantly. The body weights of the rats exposed to room air continued to increase. However, the body weights of oxygen-exposed rats increased slightly on the first day and weight loss was seen from the second day. All rats were noted to have bilateral pleural effusion in the hyperoxia 66-72 h group. The data suggests that (1) an increase in neutrophil count is an evident feature of hyperoxia-induced lung injury; (2) high concentration oxygen exposure can give rise to anorexia and malnutri-tion, which may play a role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Blocking neutrophil influx into lung tissue in the early phase and improving malnutrition are two effective methods to reduce hyperoxic lung injury.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage alterations during prolonged ventilation of patients without acute lung injury. (United States)

    Tsangaris, I; Lekka, M E; Kitsiouli, E; Constantopoulos, S; Nakos, G


    Mechanical ventilation deteriorates previously injured lung, but little is known about its effect on healthy human lung. This work was designed to assess the effect of prolonged mechanical ventilation on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid composition of patients without acute lung injury. Twenty-two ventilated patients (tidal volume 8-10 mL x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure 3-5 cmH2O) without lung injury, who did not develop any complication from the respiratory system during the 2-week study period, were studied. They were subjected to three consecutive BALs, the first during 36 h from intubation, the second at the end of the first week of mechanical ventilation and the third at the end of the second week of mechanical ventilation. Total BAL protein increased during mechanical ventilation (148 +/- 62, 381 +/- 288, 353 +/- 215 microg x mL(-1) BAL for the first, second and third BAL, respectively). In contrast, BAL phospholipids decreased (2.7 +/- 1.1, 1.4 +/- 0.6, 1.2 +/- 0.7 microg x mL(-1) BAL, respectively). Large surfactant aggregates were reduced and inflammatory markers, such as platelet activating factor (PAF), PAF-acetylhydrolase and neutrophils, significantly increased after 1 week, but partially remitted after 2 weeks of mechanical ventilation. In summary, this study demonstrates that prolonged mechanical ventilation even of patients without acute lung injury is associated with the presence of inflammatory markers and surfactant alterations.

  15. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Immunoallergologic tests and bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid content. (United States)

    Nicolet-Chatelain, G; Prevost, M C; Escamilla, R; Migueres, J


    Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary toxicity but with a main underlying pulmonary disease, and four healthy volunteers. Daily and cumulative doses or duration of treatment were similar in the first two groups. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, CO-diffusing capacity, arterial blood gases), roentgenographic examinations, pulmonary biopsies or immunoallergologic tests (skin reaction, lymphoblastic transformation test and human basophile degranulation test) did not provide any discriminatory element. In APT+, we observed an increased cellularity of the bronchoalveolar lavage. Neither the differential cell count nor the presence of foamy macrophages were distinguishable between APT+ and APT-. The phospholipid composition of BAL fluid showed a decreased total phospholipid and phospholipid/protein ratio in all patients compared to normal subjects. These changes reflect more the severity of pulmonary disease than the specificity of the causative agent. However, we observed that the unique PL which decreases in APT- and remains normal in APT+ is phosphatidyl-serine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI). This has to be confirmed and should be evaluated at different stages of the disease to determine an eventual specific element. We conclude that there are no data currently available to establish the diagnosis of APT except perhaps for the analysis of BAL PL content.

  16. Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis cytokine profiles: indistinguishable in bronchoalveolar lavage but different in blood.

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    Muhunthan Thillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical, radiological and pathological similarities between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis can make disease differentiation challenging. A complicating factor is that some cases of sarcoidosis may be initiated by mycobacteria. We hypothesised that immunological profiling might provide insight into a possible relationship between the diseases or allow us to distinguish between them. METHODS: We analysed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid in sarcoidosis (n = 18, tuberculosis (n = 12 and healthy volunteers (n = 16. We further investigated serum samples in the same groups; sarcoidosis (n = 40, tuberculosis (n = 15 and healthy volunteers (n = 40. A cross-sectional analysis of multiple cytokine profiles was performed and data used to discriminate between samples. RESULTS: We found that BAL profiles were indistinguishable between both diseases and significantly different from healthy volunteers. In sera, tuberculosis patients had significantly lower levels of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4 than those with sarcoidosis (p = 0.004. Additional serum differences allowed us to create a linear regression model for disease differentiation (within-sample accuracy 91%, cross-validation accuracy 73%. CONCLUSIONS: These data warrant replication in independent cohorts to further develop and validate a serum cytokine signature that may be able to distinguish sarcoidosis from tuberculosis. Systemic Th2 cytokine differences between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis may also underly different disease outcomes to similar respiratory stimuli.

  17. [Data on the etiology of the liquid of broncho-alveolar lavage in mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Mahé, C; Amouroux, J; Turbie, P; Battesti, J P


    The cell population of the liquid of broncho-alveolar lavage of 44 cases of mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis was compared to that of 12 normal controls, of 14 controls with a localized pulmonary affection, who underwent lavage in healthy contro-lateral segment, and of 33 patients with various diffuse interstitial pneumopathies, except hypersensitivity ones. In sarcoidosis, the total number of cells is significantly higher than in controls; such is the case for neutrophils. It is also higher for lymphocytes in sarcoidosis: 21.8, than in controls: 7.8, or in patients with other diffuse interstitial pneumopathies: 10.3. It is independent of the disease radiological stage, but closely related to its degree of activity; it showed important variations, going from 3 to 50%. The observation of a normal level of lymphocytes is not enough to exclude the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  18. Fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings, bronchoscopic brushing and post bronchoscopic sputum along with cytological examination in cases of suspected tuberculosis

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    Vijay Kumar Bodal


    Full Text Available Objectives: Ever since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1882, many diagnostic methods have been developed. However "The gold standard" for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is still the demonstration of acid fast Bacilli (AFB by microscopic examination of smear or bacteriological confirmation by culture method. Materials and Methods: In suspected 75 patients with active pulmonary TB, the materials obtained bronchoscopically, were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, bronchial brushings, bronchial washings and post bronchoscopic sputum. Four smears were made from each of the specimen. Fluorescent Staining, Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN, Pap and May Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stains were carried out for cytological examination. Results: Fluorescent stain yielded maximum AFB positivity in all the methods, that is 36 (48% in post fibre-optic bronchoscopy (FOB sputum and 19 (25.33% by fluorescence microscopy in both bronchial brushings and bronchial washings. Maximum yield of AFB with ZN staining 12 (16% was equal to the post FOB sputum and bronchial brushings samples. It was followed by 6 cases (8% in BAL and 4 (5.3% in bronchial washings. The cytological examination was suggestive of TB in only 8 (10.66% cases in bronchial washings and 6 (8% cases in post FOB collection. It was equal in BAL and Bronchial brushings each that is 5 (6.67%. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic tool and fluorescent microscopy is more sensitive than ZN and cytology. On X-ray examination, other diseases like malignancy or fungus can also mimick TB. So apart from ZN staining or fluorescence microscopy, Pap and MGG stain will be worthwhile to identify other microorganisms.

  19. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P


    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  20. Fungi, β-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure



    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL...

  1. Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a patient with stubborn pulmonary symptoms. (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Sun, Yi; Man, Yanru; Huang, Xiaochun; Qin, Qin; Zhou, Daoyin; Deng, Anmei


    We report a case involving coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) and Aspergillus found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of an elderly male patient who had a medical history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and who was treated with prednisone therapy 6 months previously. The patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs because of Aspergillus invasion and mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in his BALF that provided diagnostic proof.

  2. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng


    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  3. An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

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    Belgin Samurkaşoğlu


    Full Text Available As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV. During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP. A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right MBALs were 325 and 275 minutes, respectively. Despite increased shunt fraction, oxygenation was within acceptable limits during OLV. The trachea was extubated in the operating room uneventfully after each MBAL. The patient’s clinical and laboratory findings were evidently improved. Consequently, if proper conditions are provided, MBAL is safe and beneficial despite its risks and the long duration.

  4. Analysis of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during pulmonary edema resulting from nitrogen dioxide and cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Dethloff, L.A.; Lehnert, B.E.


    We have developed a new HPLC method by which quantitative measurements can be made on the biochemical constituents of the extracellular fluid lining of the lung as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine of the fractions are proteins, two are phospholipids, and two fractions remained unidentified. Rats were subjected to the intrapulmonary deposition of cadmium, a treatment model known to induce pulmonary edema and cause a translocation of blood compartment proteins into the lung's alveolar space compartment. Resulting pulmonary edema was hallmarked by /approximately/25-fold increases in three major blood compartment-derived HPLC protein fractions, two of which have been identified as albumin and immunoglobulin(s). Analysis of lavage fluid from rats exposed to 100 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 15 min, an exposure regimen which also produces pulmonary edema, indicated that the three blood compartment proteins in the lavage fluids were elevated 35- to 72-fold over controls 24 h after exposure. These results demonstrate that HPLC can be used to provide a highly sensitive method for detection and quantitation of pulmonary edema that can occur in acute lung injuries resulting from environmental insults.

  5. Lobar flexible fiberoptic lung lavage: therapeutic benefit in severe respiratory failure in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and influenza A H1N1 pneumonia

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    Antonello Nicolini


    Full Text Available Lobar fiberoptic lung lavage is a well-known procedure used in primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP; the use of this procedure has increased in the recent years. This procedure has also been used in other pulmonary diseases such as desquamative interstitial pneumonia with good results. We describe a case of extremely severe respiratory failure due to concurrence of PAP and Influenza A H1N1 virus pneumonia which resolved with the help of this procedure. The patient, a 41- year-old woman, needed less mechanical ventilation after undergoing lobar fiberoptic bronchoscopic lavage. Moreover, a rapid and progressive improvement in the computed tomography of the lungs was observed. Flexibile fiberoptic bronchoscopic lobar lavage is a simple, safe procedure used not only in milder disease, but also in particular severe cases in which the physiological derangement of whole lung lavage would not be tolerated by patient or when extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation is not available.

  6. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens. (United States)


    ... indicate membership in the collective organization. (5) A certification mark specimen must show how a... of a union or other organization performed the work or labor on the goods or services. (c) A... be a digitized image in .jpg or .pdf format....

  7. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branley, Howard M. [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, W12 OHS London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Bois, Roland M. du [Royal Brompton Hospital, SW3 6NP London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, SW3 6NP London (United Kingdom); Jones, Hazel A. [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, W12 OHS London (United Kingdom)


    Introduction: PK11195 is a ligand with high affinity for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs), which are present in large numbers in macrophages. PBRs play a role in antioxidant pathways and apoptosis, key factors in control of lung health. Intrapulmonary PBRs, assessed in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), are decreased in interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite increased macrophage numbers. We wished to ascertain whether the observed decrease in in vivo expression of PBRs in the PET scans could be accounted for by a reduction in PBRs per cell by saturation-binding assays of R-PK11195 in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods: We performed receptor saturation-binding assays with [{sup 3}H]-R-PK11195 on a mixed population of cells recovered by BAL to quantify the number of R-PK11195 binding sites per macrophage in 10 subjects with ILD and 10 normal subjects. Results: Receptor affinity [dissociation constant (Kd)] was similar in ILD patients and controls. However, R-PK11195 binding sites per cell [(maximal binding sites available (B {sub max})] were decreased in macrophages obtained by BAL from subjects with ILD compared to normal (P<.0005). Microautoradiography confirmed localization of R-PK11195 to macrophages in a mixed inflammatory cell population obtained by BAL. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that in vitro PBR expression per cell on macrophages obtained by BAL is reduced in patients with ILD indicating a potentially functionally different macrophage phenotype. As PBRs are involved in the orchestration of lung inflammatory responses, this finding offers further insight into the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of ILDs and offers a potential avenue for pharmacological strategy.

  8. Expression of survivin mRNA in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振宁; 徐惠绵; 姜莉; 周欣; 鲁翀; 张学


    Background Peritoneal dissemination is the most common pattern of metastasis in advanced gastric carcinoma with serosal invasion. In the present study, we reported the clinical relevance of a new diagnostic method involving RT-PCR, using survivin as the target gene, for the detection of free cancer cells in peritoneal washes.Methods Intraoperative peritoneal washes were obtained from 48 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. RT-PCR analysis with primers specific for survivin and conventional cytological examinations were both performed.Results Survivin mRNA was not detected in any peritoneal wash samples from patients with benign disease, but was detected in 28 of 48 samples taken from patients with gastric cancer and in all metastastic nodules. Survivin expression in the peritoneal cavity significantly correlated with depth of cancer invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. There were 92% of clinically evident peritoneal metastasis cases showed detectable survivin expression. The combination of survivin RT-PCR and cytological examination yielded positive results in 66.7% (32/48) of patients with gastric cancer, much higher than the results produced by cytological method alone. Conclusions Survivin mRNA detected in peritoneal lavage fluid might indicate the presence of free cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity. The high sensitivity of the RT-PCR-based survivin assay suggests that survivin serves as a molecular marker for detecting peritoneal micrometastasis. Its ubiquitous expression in peritoneal cancer cells and metastatic nodules also suggests a promising future therapeutic strategy based on survivin inhibition for cases of gastric cancer involving peritoneal metastasis.

  9. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

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    Maciej Ciebiada


    Full Text Available Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05 and LTB4 (p < 0.05 in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively. Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy.

  10. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

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    Shuzhen Zhang


    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  11. Airborne Fungi in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Maxillary Sinus Lavage at Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang

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    Iriana Maharani


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis has a significant impact on the quality of life and health of adult population. Role of airborne fungi remains a controversy and have become the source of discussion for decades. Objective to know the prevalence of airborne fungi in the chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps patients and to know the possible effect of airborne fungi on chronic rhinosinusitis inflammation. Methods: This is a cross sectional research in the Saiful Anwar Public Hospital Malang, there were 29 patients involved. We examine fungi culture, H&E staining and DNA fungi by using PCR from sinus lavage sample. From the blood serum we examine allergen specific IgE, IgG3, IL-13 and IL-5. Results: Fungi culture there were 31,03 % of sample growth but only matches the PCR result in 3 samples (10,34 %. From PCR examinations we found all sample were positive with 2-5 species fungi, Alternaria alternata was found positive in 24,13% samples. There was an increment of IgE allergen specific and IL-5, a decrement of IL-13 and IgG3 in all of our samples regardless presence of nasal polyps and species of fungi found in PCR. Conclusions: PCR is a more reliable method compare to fungal culture. The presence of fungi in all of our samples could indicate fungi contribution to the disease pathophysiology. The increased level of Il-5 was not followed by IL-13; it may happen through PRR pathway. 

  12. Inflammatory and repair pathways induced in human bronchoalveolar lavage cells with ozone inhalation.

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    Pascale Leroy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway inflammation and epithelial injury.To examine the responses of airway cells to ozone-induced oxidative injury, 19 subjects (7 with asthma were exposed to clean air (0ppb, medium (100ppb, and high (200ppb ambient levels of ozone for 4h on three separate occasions in a climate-controlled chamber followed by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL 24h later. BAL cell mRNA expression was examined using Affymetrix GeneChip Microarray. The role of a differentially expressed gene (DEG in epithelial injury was evaluated in an in vitro model of injury [16HBE14o- cell line scratch assay].Ozone exposure caused a dose-dependent up-regulation of several biologic pathways involved in inflammation and repair including chemokine and cytokine secretion, activity, and receptor binding; metalloproteinase and endopeptidase activity; adhesion, locomotion, and migration; and cell growth and tumorigenesis regulation. Asthmatic subjects had 1.7- to 3.8-fold higher expression of many DEGs suggestive of increased proinflammatory and matrix degradation and remodeling signals. The most highly up-regulated gene was osteopontin, the protein level of which in BAL fluid increased in a dose-dependent manner after ozone exposure. Asthmatic subjects had a disproportionate increase in non-polymerized osteopontin with increasing exposure to ozone. Treatment with polymeric, but not monomeric, osteopontin enhanced the migration of epithelial cells and wound closure in an α9β1 integrin-dependent manner.Expression profiling of BAL cells after ozone exposure reveals potential regulatory genes and pathways activated by oxidative stress. One DEG, osteopontin, promotes epithelial wound healing in an in vitro model of injury.

  13. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study. (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L


    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  14. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

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    Cowart Beverly J


    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  15. Alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during ischemia-induced acute hepatic failure in the pig. (United States)

    Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Routsi, Christina; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Lekka, Marilena E; Kitsiouli, Eirini; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Nakos, George


    The objective of this controlled experimental animal study was to evaluate whether acute hepatic failure (AHF) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and to investigate possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. Seventeen domestic pigs were randomly assigned to AHF and sham groups. AHF was induced by surgical devascularization of liver in 10 animals. Seven animals were sham operated. Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, extravascular lung water (EVLW), and intracranial pressure, blood gas, liver function tests, and serum endotoxin levels were measured. Cells count, total protein, and phospholipids and phospholipases A(2) were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Measurements were obtained after the insertion of central lines and 4 hours and 7 hours after the completion of the surgical procedure. Hemodynamic, biochemical, neuromonitoring, and histologic data confirmed the development of liver failure. Seven hours after devascularization, EVLW was higher in AHF (13.7 +/- 1.8 mL/kg) compared with the sham group (5.9 +/- 0.7 mL/kg) (P <.05); in AHF, increase of neutrophils (5% +/- 8% to 25% +/- 8%, P <.001), total protein (6.2 +/- 3.7 to 11.2 +/- 6.5 microg/mL, P <.048), and phospholipase A(2) (1.43 +/- 0.56 to 2.38 +/- 1.38 nmoL/mL/h, P <.03) and decrease in PAF-acetylhydrolase (0.114 +/- 0.128 to 0.039 +/- 0.038 nmol/mL/h, P <.01) compared with baseline were observed; total phospholipids decreased in AHF and increased in the sham model. Histologic examination confirmed lesions compatible with acute lung injury. In conclusion, AHF due to hepatic devascularization induced acute lung injury, confirmed by the increase of inflammatory cells in the alveoli as well as by histologic findings. The decreased PAF-AcH and the increased phospholipase A(2) may play a significant role in the perpetuation of inflammation accompanied by surfactant disorders.


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    Yuliya Modna


    Full Text Available The acute destructive pneumonias (ADP occupy up to 80% of the total number of pneumonias. They require constant improvement of treatment strategy. Nowadays the use of surfactants is a part of most treatment protocols. The aim was to study the features of the solid phase bronchoalveolar lavage in children with the ADPs in the dynamics of complex treatment with exogenous surfactant.Material and methods: We examined 39 patients of contaminated surgery. We identified 2 groups of patients. The patients of first group (n=27 had pulmonary pleural form of ADP, the second group (n=12 had pulmonary form of ADP. All patients got classical treatment and the earlier draining of pleural cavity. We used as an antiseptic reamberin 1.5% by 10 ml/kg and endobronchially injected exogenous surfactant Bl in dose12 mg/kg body weight a day, 6 mg/kg every 12 hours. All the children were made a bronchoscopy to obtain BAL to study the crystallization properties. The solid phase of BAL was studied by method of cuneal dehydration.Results: All facies before treatment were divided into two groups according to classification of facies of biological fluids. Only the facies of the second and the third types were detected there. It was revealed that the sizes of the zones of the facies were different in the comparison groups before treatment and after. And the level of crystalline structures and amorphous aggregates were different in the groups with different degrees of inflammation.Conclusion: So, we can assume that the change in surfactant system is characterized by changes in the morphological structure of solids phases of BAL. And the morphological structure of BAL depends on the chemical composition of BAL.

  17. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens. (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K


    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  18. "Rapid Detection of Pneumocystis Carini in Spiratory Specimens of Rats by Calcofluor White Staining"

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    M Mohebali


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for evaluation of calcoflour white staining (CWS as a rapid method for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens of rats as an animal model for human infection. A total of 35 Spraque – Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group1 (20 rats received increasing doses of dexamethasone subcutaneously, and Group 2(15 ratsas control group that received no immunosuppressive drugs. After immunosuppressant, all of the rats were killed and necropsy was performed. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL and impression smears from the lungs prepared and stained by CWS .The results were compared with a few standard staining methods which have already been used for P.carinii. The calcofluor white staining was found to have more validity (sensitivity and specificity than other staining methods such as Geimsa , Modified Geimsa and Toluidine blue O ( TBO .The study showed the CWS to be more valid , faster and easier to perform for detecting of P. carinii rganism.

  19. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

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    Horn CL


    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  20. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.


    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed...... and constraint conditionsquantified. The role of the notch shape is comprehensively examined from both triaxiality and notchfabrication perspectives. Afterwards, a methodology is presented to extract the micromechanical-basedductile damage parameters from the load-displacement curve of notched SPT samples...

  1. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

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    Agida S Adoga


    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  2. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin


    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  3. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  5. Prospective randomized comparison of oral sodium phosphate and polyethylene glycol lavage for colonoscopy preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Lin Hwang; William Tzu-Liang Chen; Koung-Hong Hsiao; Hong-Chang Chen; Ting-Ming Huang; Chien-Ming Chiu; Ger-Haur Hsu


    AIM: To compare the effectiveness, patient acceptability, and physical tolerability of two oral lavage solutions prior to colonoscopy in a Taiwanese population. METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients were randomized to receive either standard 4 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 90 mL of sodium phosphate (NaP) in a split regimen of two 45 mL doses separated by 12 h, prior to colonoscopic evaluation. The primary endpoint was the percent of subjects who had completed the preparation. Secondary endpoints included colonic cleansing evaluated with an overall assessment and segmental evaluation, the tolerance and acceptability assessed by a selfadministered structured questionnaire, and a safety profile such as any unexpected adverse events, electrolyte tests, physical exams, vital signs, and body weights. RESULTS: A significantly higher completion rate was found in the NaP group compared to the PEG group(84.2% vs 27.5%, P<0.001). The amount of fluid suctioned was significantly less in patients taking NaP vs PEG (50.13±54.8 cc vs 121.13±115.4 cc, P<0.001),even after controlling for completion of the oral solution(P = 0.031). The two groups showed a comparable overall assessment of bowel preparation with a rate of "good" or "excellent" in 78.9% of patients in the NaPgroup and 82.5% in PEG group (P = 0.778). Patients taking NaP tended to have significantly better colonic segmental cleansing relative to stool amount observedin the descending (94.7% vs 70%, P = 0.007) andtransverse (94.6% vs 74.4%, P = 0.025) colon. Slightly more patients graded the taste of NaP as "good" or "very good" compared to the PEG patients (32.5% vs 12.5%;P = 0.059). Patients' willingness to take the same preparation in the future was 68.4% in the NaP compared to 75% in the PEG group (P = 0.617). There was a significant increase in serum sodium and a significant decrease in phosphate and chloride levels in NaP group on the day following the colonoscopy without any clinical sequelae. Prolonged (

  6. Multiplex protein profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

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    Willems Stijn


    Full Text Available Context: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by a mixture of inflammation and fibrosis, leading to lung destruction and finally death. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare different pathophysiological mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, fibrosis, tissue repair, inflammation, epithelial damage, oxidative stress, and matrix remodeling, in both disorders using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Methods: At diagnosis, patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL and were divided into three groups: Control ( n = 10, HP ( n = 11, and IPF ( n = 11, based on multidisciplinary approach (clinical examination, radiology, and histology: Multiplex searchlight technology was used to analyze 25 proteins representative for different pathophysiological processes: Eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb, fibronectin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, interleukine (IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-17, IL-23, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, myeloperoxidase (MPO, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8, MMP-9, active plasminogen activating inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, pulmonary activation regulated chemokine (PARC, placental growth factor (PlGF, protein-C, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES, surfactant protein-C (SP-C, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, tissue factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: All patients suffered from decreased pulmonary function and abnormal BAL cell differential compared with control. Protein levels were increased in both IPF and HP for MMP-8 ( P = 0.022, MMP-9 ( P = 0.0020, MCP-1 ( P = 0.0006, MDC ( P = 0.0048, IL-8 ( P = 0.013, MPO ( P = 0.019, and protein-C ( P = 0.0087, whereas VEGF was decreased ( P = 0.0003 compared with

  7. Detection of disseminated pancreatic cells by amplification of cytokeratin-19 with quantitative RT-PCR in blood, bone marrow and peritoneal lavage of pancreatic carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katrin Hoffmann; Christiane Kerner; Wolfgang Wilfert; Marc Mueller; Joachim Thiery; Johann Hauss; Helmut Witzigmann


    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA for the detection of disseminated tumor cells in blood, bone marrow and peritoneal lavage in patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 37), chronic pancreatitis (n = 16), and non-pancreatic benign surgical diseases (n = 15, control group)were included in the study. Venous blood was taken preoperatively, intraoperatively and at postoperative d 1 and 10. Preoperative bone marrow aspirates and peritoneal lavage taken before mobilization of the tumor were analyzed. All samples were evaluated for disseminated tumor cells by CK-19-specific nested-PCR and quantitative fluorogenic RT-PCR.RESULTS: CK-19 mRNA expression was increased in 24 (64%) blood samples and 11 (30%) of the peritoneal lavage samples in the patients with pancreatic cancer.In 15 (40%) of the patients with pancreatic cancer,disseminated tumor cells were detected in venous blood and bone marrow and/or peritoneal lavage. In the peritoneal lavage, the detection rates were correlated with the tumor size and the tumor differentiation. CK-19 levels were increased in pT3/T4 and moderately/poorly differentiated tumors (G2/G3). Pancreatic cancer patients with at least one CK-19 mRNA-positive sample showed a trend towards shorter survival. Pancreatic cancer patients showed significantly increased detection rates of disseminated tumor cells in blood and peritoneal lavage compared to the controls and the patients with chronic pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Disseminated tumor cells can be detected in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by CK-19 fluorogenic RT-PCR. In peritoneal lavage, detection rate is correlated with tumor stage and differentiation. In the clinical use, CK-19 is suitable for the distinction between malignant and benign pancreatic disease in combination with other tumor-specific markers.

  8. The Effect of Thermal Double Distilled Water on Gastric Cancer Cell Line and Its Effect in Peritoneal Lavage During Radical Gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJunqing; XUHuimian; 等


    Objective:To evaluate the effect andindications of radical gastrectomy combined with peritoneal lavage with thermal double distilled water(DDW)or DDW plus chlorthexidine acetate.Methods:On the bases of the study on the killing effect of 43℃ DDW on human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 and its inhibiting effect on ascitic tumor of SY86B morse,500 cases of gastric cancer who underwent radical gastectomy from January 1986 to December 1995 were divided into three groups:group A(n=198) subject to radical gastrectomy and peritoneal lavage for 10min with 4000ml DDW at 43℃ ;group B(n=89)subject to radical gastrectomy and peritoneal lavage for 4min with 4000ml DDW plus 0.6g chlorthexidine acetate,and grup C(n=213) subject to radical gastrectomy and peritoneal lavage for 4 min with 4000ml normal saline at room temperature as control.Results Human gastric cancer cells MGC-803 could be completely killed by treatment of either 43℃ DDW for 10min or DDW plus 0.015ml/L chlorhexidine acetate for 4 min.Clinical trials proved group A and group B(called lavage group as a whole)had almost the same curative effects.The 1-year survival rate and 3-year survival rate were similar in different stages among the groups.The 5-year survival rate was 63.8% in the lavage group and 51.2% in the control group respectively.Most of the cases with good effect were at the mid-stage (Ⅱand Ⅲ stage).Conclusion Radical gastrectom combined with peritoneal peritoneal lavage before closing the abdomen has satisfying effect on patients with gastric cancer at stage Ⅱ and stage ⅢA.

  9. Technical note: Bacterial diversity and fermentation end products in rumen fluid samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula. (United States)

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Browne-Silva, J; Horvath, M B


    A study was conducted to determine if sampling rumen contents via a ruminal cannula or oral lavage tube would yield similar denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial community. Two species of ruminally cannulated animals were used for this study (cattle, n = 2; sheep, n = 3). All animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed. Cattle were fed baled unprocessed sorghum-sudan hay (12% CP, 68% NDF; DM basis), whereas sheep were maintained on chopped alfalfa (18% CP, 40% NDF; DM basis). Ruminal fluid was collected (approximately 20 mL) once per week for 3 wk from each animal using a poly tube equipped with a suction strainer with a hand-held suction pump through the rumen cannula or oral cavity. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrates that yield of bacterial diversity was not different between the 2 sampling methods (P = 0.73). When samples were grouped according to band pattern similarity, groups were most stable according to individual animal and species rather than sampling method. Total VFA and molar proportions of individual VFA did not differ by sampling method (P > 0.40). Additionally, rumen ammonia concentrations were similar for both sampling methods (19.3 vs. 19.1 mM +/- 8.0 for cannula vs. lavage, respectively; P = 0.98). These data indicate that rumen samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula yield similar results. This knowledge will allow sample collection from a greater population of animals and an ability to maintain the value of research livestock that can be lost due to the surgical implantation of a ruminal cannula.

  10. Clinical significance of telomerase activity in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric cancer and its relationship with cellular proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Xu Da; Xiao-Ting Wu; Tian-Kang Guo; Zi-Guang Zhao; Ting Luo; Kun Qian; Ming-Ming Zhang; Jie Wang


    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of telomerase activity assay and peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) examination in peritoneal lavage fluid for the prediction of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer patients, and to explore the relationship between telomerase activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression.METHODS: Telomeric repeated amplification protocol (TRAP)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to measure the telomerase activity in 60 patients with gastric cancer and 50 with peptic ulcer. PLC analysis of the 60 patients with gastric cancer was used for comparison. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in gastric carcinoma was immunohistochemically examined.RESULTS: The telomerase activity and PLC positive rate in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric cancer was 41.7% (25/60), and 25.0% (15/60), respectively. The positive rate of telomerase activity was significantly higher than that of PLC in the group Of pT4 (15/16 vs 9/16, P < 0.05), P1-3 (13/13 vs 9/13, P < 0.05) and diffuse type (22/42 vs 13/42, P < 0.05). The patients with positive telomerase activity, peritoneal metastasis, and serosal invasion had significantly higher levels of average PCNA proliferation index (PI), (55.00 ± 6.59 vs 27.43 ± 7.72, 57.26 ± 10.18 vs 29.15 ± 8.31, and 49.82 ± 6.74 vs 24;65 ± 7.33, respectively, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: The TRAP assay for telomerase activity is a useful adjunct for cytologic method in the diagnosis of peritoneal micrometastasis and well related to higher proliferating activity of gastric cancer. The results of this study also suggest a promising future therapeutic strategy for treating peritoneal dissemination based on telomerase inhibition.

  11. Detection of anorectal and cervicovaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infections following azithromycin treatment: prospective cohort study with multiple time-sequential measures of rRNA, DNA, quantitative load and symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determination of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct treatment success is hampered by current assessment methods, which involve a single post-treatment measurement only. Therefore, we evaluated Ct detection by applying multiple laboratory measures on time-sequential post-treatment samples. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was established with azithromycin-treated (1000 mg Ct patients (44 cervicovaginal and 15 anorectal cases. Each patient provided 18 self-taken samples pre-treatment and for 8 weeks post-treatment (response: 96%; 1,016 samples. Samples were tested for 16S rRNA (TMA, bacterial load (quantitative PCR; Chlamydia plasmid DNA and type (serovar and multilocus sequence typing. Covariates (including behavior, pre-treatment load, anatomic site, symptoms, age, and menstruation were tested for their potential association with positivity and load at 3-8 weeks using regression analyses controlling for repeated measures. FINDINGS: By day 9, Ct positivity decreased to 20% and the median load to 0.3 inclusion-forming units (IFU per ml (pre-treatment: 170 IFU/ml. Of the 35 cases who reported no sex, sex with a treated partner or safe sex with a new partner, 40% had detection, i.e. one or more positive samples from 3-8 weeks (same Ct type over time, indicating possible antimicrobial treatment failure. Cases showed intermittent positive detection and the number of positive samples was higher in anorectal cases than in cervicovaginal cases. The highest observed bacterial load between 3-8 weeks post-treatment was 313 IFU/ml, yet the majority (65% of positive samples showed a load of ≤ 2 IFU/ml. Pre-treatment load was found to be associated with later load in anorectal cases. CONCLUSIONS: A single test at 3-8 weeks post-treatment frequently misses Ct. Detection reveals intermittent low loads, with an unknown risk of later complications or transmission. These findings warrant critical re-evaluation of the clinical management of single dose

  12. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.


    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  13. Change of serum and colon lavage fluid related indicators after probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen


    Objective:To explore the expression change of serum and colon lavage fluid related indicators after probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children.Methods:80 cases of children with diarrhea treated in our hospital were selected. According to clinical symptoms, routine blood and stool test, they were all diagnosed with persistent diarrhea and randomly divided into control group and experimental group, 40 cases in each group. Control group received basic treatment and zinc preparations (zinc gluconate tablets) therapy; experimental group, based on treatment of control group, received probiotics (Siliankang) combined with zinc preparations treatment. Fasting serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups were collected before and after treatment to detect IL-6, IL-8, NO, MDA and SOD expression levels, and differences between two groups were compared.Results:After treatment, IL-6 and IL-8 expression levels in serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups decreased significantly than those before treatment, and those of experimental group decreased more significantly; after treatment, NO, MDA and SOD expression levels in serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups were significantly improved than those before treatment, and those of experimental group were closer to the normal levels than those of control group.Conclusions:Probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children has obvious curative effect; it effectively reduces expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors in serum and colon lavage fluid, and is worth popularization in future clinical treatment.

  14. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). (United States)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise; Andreassen, Helle; Clementsen, Paul; Thim, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our aim was to explore their presence in pulmonary secretions and to investigate whether they are up-regulated in pulmonary diseases characterized by mucin hypersecretion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 92 individuals referred to bronchoscopy. The patients were grouped according to diagnosis and pulmonary function. The concentrations of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 were measured by ELISA. All three peptides were detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had concentrations two to three times above the levels in the healthy reference group, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases.

  15. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  16. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive pluronic-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose hydrogel containing the mini-CD4 M48U1 is a promising efficient barrier against HIV diffusion through macaque cervicovaginal mucus. (United States)

    Bouchemal, Kawthar; Aka-Any-Grah, Armelle; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Martin, Loïc; Lievin-Le-Moal, Vanessa; Le Grand, Roger; Nicolas, Valérie; Gibellini, Davide; Lembo, David; Poüs, Christian; Koffi, Armand; Ponchel, Gilles


    To be efficient, vaginal microbicide hydrogels should form a barrier against viral infections and prevent virus spreading through mucus. Multiple particle tracking was used to quantify the mobility of 170-nm fluorescently labeled COOH-modified polystyrene particles (COOH-PS) into thermosensitive hydrogels composed of amphiphilic triblock copolymers with block compositions EOn-POm-EOn (where EO refers to ethylene oxide and PO to propylene oxide) containing mucoadhesive hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). COOH-PS were used to mimic the size and the surface charge of HIV-1. Analysis of COOH-PS trajectories showed that particle mobility was decreased by Pluronic hydrogels in comparison with cynomolgus macaque cervicovaginal mucus and hydroxyethylcellulose hydrogel (HEC; 1.5% by weight [wt%]) used as negative controls. Formulation of the peptide mini-CD4 M48U1 used as an anti-HIV-1 molecule into a mixture of Pluronic F127 (20 wt%) and HPMC (1 wt%) did not affect its anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with HEC hydrogel. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.53 μg/ml (0.17 μM) for M48U1-HEC and 0.58 μg/ml (0.19 μM) for M48U1-F127-HPMC. The present work suggests that hydrogels composed of F127-HPMC (20/1 wt%, respectively) can be used to create an efficient barrier against particle diffusion in comparison to conventional HEC hydrogels.

  17. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina


    and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS...... in serum were substantially higher at all time-points than those in a control group of women who had cleared a natural HPV infection in another trial. In women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS, good correlation was seen between HPV-16/18 antibody levels at all time-points (Pearson......This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...

  18. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhardt Wolfram


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation (Lavaged-Gas, n = 5 or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 (Lavaged-PF5080, n = 5. For control, 10 healthy animals with gas (Healthy-Gas, n = 5 or PF5080 filled lungs (Healthy-PF5080, n = 5 were studied. A design-based stereological approach was used for quantification of lung parenchyma and the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool at the light and electron microscopic level. Results Compared to Healthy-lungs, Lavaged-animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. The fraction of alveolar epithelial surface area covered with surfactant and total intraalveolar surfactant content were significantly smaller in Lavaged-animals. Compared with Gas-filled lungs, both PF5080-groups had a significantly higher total lung volume, but no other differences. Conclusion After BAL-induced alveolar surfactant depletion the amount of intracellularly stored surfactant is about half as high as in healthy animals. In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition.

  19. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær


    % ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...... in museums where DNA analyses of archived specimens are performed. Wasted time and resources can be avoided through the detection of formalin-fixed specimens because these specimens yield low-quality, damaged DNA. In addition to the screening method, it is shown that formalin-preserved specimens can...

  20. Reheating of zinc-titanate sintered specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.


    Full Text Available The scope of this work was observing dimensional and heat transfer changes in ZnTiO3 samples during heating in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Interactions of bulk specimens with gaseous surrounding induce microstructure changes during heating. Sintered ZnTiO3 nanopowder samples were submitted to subsequent heating. Dilatation curves and thermogravimetric with simultaneous differential thermal analysis TGA/DTA curves were recorded. Reheating was performed in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Reheated samples obtained at different characteristic temperatures in air were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Microstructures obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of reheated sintered samples are presented and compared. Reheating in a different atmosphere induced different microstructures. The goal was indicating possible causes leading to the microstructure changes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172057 i br. III45014

  1. A new specimen management system using RFID technology. (United States)

    Shim, Hun; Uh, Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Young Ro


    The specimen management system with barcode needs to be improved in order to solve inherent problems in work performance. This study describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which is the solution for the problems associated with specimen labeling and management. A new specimen management system and architecture with RFID technology for clinical laboratory was designed. The suggested system was tested in various conditions such as durability to temperature and aspect of effective utilization of new work flow under a virtual hospital clinical laboratory environment. This system demonstrates its potential application in clinical laboratories for improving work flow and specimen management. The suggested specimen management system with RFID technology has advantages in comparison to the traditional specimen management system with barcode in the aspect of mass specimen processing, robust durability of temperature, humidity changes, and effective specimen tracking.

  2. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction (United States)

    Iizuka, Takashi


    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  3. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  4. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.


    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  5. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens. (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.

  6. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others


    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  7. The CAS Bio-specimen Centers in Sound Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liangqian; QIAO Gexia; YAO Yijian


    @@ Bio-specimen centers, including herbaria and zoological museums, are the most integrated places for the storage of specimens, which are real samples and the most important vouchers for taxonomic and biodiversity studies.The information carried by the specimens is of substantial reference for research on species distribution, history, status, phylogeny and evolution, etc.

  8. Lavagem traqueobrônquica por sondagem nasotraqueal em bezerros Tracheobronchial lavage in calves using a nasotracheal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a técnica de lavagem traqueobrônquica por sondagem nasotraqueal e caracterizou-se a população celular em 10 bezerros clinicamente sadios. Após a contenção dos animais em decúbito lateral e auxílio de sonda guia, foi introduzida uma sonda de menor diâmetro até a bifurcação da traquéia, para produzir tosse e obter o lavado traqueobrônquico. A média de células totais nas amostras de lavado foi de 133.750 células/ml. À citologia, foram observados na contagem diferencial: 77,2% macrófagos, 14,9% células epiteliais cilíndricas, 6,0% neutrófilos e 1,8% linfócitos. Das células epiteliais cilíndricas, 79,0% eram do tipo ciliadas e 21,0% não-ciliadas. A média de contagem de macrófagos binucleados foi de 78,5 células/lâmina, a de macrófagos trinucleados de 20,5/lâmina e a de células gigantes 28,5/lâmina. Concluiu-se que o método de colheita por sondagem nasotraqueal é eficiente para caracterizar a citologia do lavado traqueobrônquico de bezerros clinicamente sadios.Tracheobronchial lavage through nasotracheal via was performed in 10 clinically health calves. They were maintained in lateral recumbence to perform the procedure. A small tube inserted into a guide tube was introduced until the tracheal bifurcation, producing cough, facilitating the collection of the lavage fluid. The mean number of total cells present in the samples was 133,750 cells/ml. The differential counting was represented by 77.2% of macrophages, 14.9% of cylindrical epithelial cells, 6.0% of neutrophils, 1.8% of lymphocytes. The cylindrical ciliated cells represented 79.0% of the sample and the nonciliated cells represented 21.0%. The mean number of macrophages was 78.5 of binucleated cells, 20.5 of trinucleated cells, and 28.5 of giant cells per smear. The tracheobronchial lavage obtained by this technique was an efficient method to characterize the cytological population of the lungs of clinically health calves.

  9. Butyrylcholinesterase in guinea pig lung lavage: a novel biomarker to assess lung injury following inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX. (United States)

    Graham, Jacob R; Wright, Benjamin S; Rezk, Peter E; Gordon, Richard K; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P


    Respiratory disturbances play a central role in chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) induced toxicity; they are the starting point of mass casualty and the major cause of death. We developed a microinstillation technique of inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX and assessed lung injury by biochemical analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Here we demonstrate that normal guinea pig BALF has a significant amount of cholinesterase activity. Treatment with Huperzine A, a specific inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), showed that a minor fraction of BALF cholinesterase is AChE. Furthermore, treatment with tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA), a specific inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), inhibited more than 90% of BChE activity, indicating the predominance of BChE in BALF. A predominance of BChE expression in the lung lavage was seen in both genders. Substrate specific inhibition indicated that nearly 30% of the cholinesterase in lung tissue homogenate is AChE. BALF and lung tissue AChE and BChE activities were strongly inhibited in guinea pigs exposed for 5 min to 70.4 and 90.4 microg/m3 VX and allowed to recover for 15 min. In contrast, BALF AChE activity was increased 63% and 128% and BChE activity was increased 77% and 88% after 24 h of recovery following 5 min inhalation exposure to 70.4 microg/m3 and 90.4 mg/m3 VX, respectively. The increase in BALF AChE and BChE activity was dose dependent. Since BChE is synthesized in the liver and present in the plasma, an increase in BALF indicates endothelial barrier injury and leakage of plasma into lung interstitium. Therefore, a measure of increased levels of AChE and BChE in the lung lavage can be used to determine the chronology of barrier damage as well as the extent of lung injury following exposure to chemical warfare nerve agents.

  10. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci


    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  11. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.


    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  12. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A


    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  13. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling


    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...... of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, only 2/39 samples from HIV-infected patients without evidence of KS were positive (p = 0.007). Detection of HHV-8 in BAL cells of patients with pulmonary KS was highly specific (95%), with a sensitivity of 58% and a positive predictive value of 78%. In conclusion, HHV-8 is associated with pulmonary KS...

  14. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study. (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhang, Kai-Yuan; Li, Jiao; Lu, Hao; Xie, Wan-Ling; Liao, Sheng-Tao; Chen, Dong-Feng; Zeng, Deng-Feng; Lan, Chun-Hui


    This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL) solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT) for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n = 102) or CHT (n = 94) groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  15. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.;


    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  16. Clinical experiences of treating septic arthritis in the equine by repeated joint lavage: a series of 39 cases. (United States)

    Meijer, M C; van Weeren, P R; Rijkenhuizen, A B


    The condition of septic arthritis was treated in 12 foals with 21 affected joints (Group I) and in 27 adult horses. The adult horses were divided into three groups, based on aetiology of the condition: haematogenous (Group II, n = 6), iatrogenic (Group III, n = 6), and perforating trauma (Group IV, n = 15). The treatment consisted of an initial systemic antibiotic that anticipated the microbial agents that were considered most likely per group, repeated through-and-through joint lavages every other day and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The antibiotics were adjusted to the results of bacteriological culture and susceptibility tests. Joint lavages were continued until the white blood cell count dropped below 15 G/l and bacteriological culture was negative, after which a single dose of a short-acting corticosteroid was administered intra-articularly. Joint recovery rate in group I was 71%. Patient recovery rate of the foals, however, was lower (42%). Three foals were killed for reasons other than arthritis; one foal because of an arthritis-related problem and three foals because of persistent arthritis. Overall joint recovery rate, equalling patient recovery rate, in the adult horses was 81%. The expected predominance of Streptococcus spp. in haematogenous arthritis in adult horses was not confirmed, indicating that in these cases also, an initial antibiotic treatment with a broad-spectrum combination is preferable. It is concluded that with intensive treatment, the prognosis of septic arthritis in the adult horse can be classified as fair to even good. Results in the foals are not as good, but this seems to be more due to the specific problems surrounding the equine neonate than to unresponsiveness to the treatment.

  17. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage. (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M


    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  18. Evaluation of hybrid composite materials in cylindrical specimen geometries (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.


    Static and fatigue properties of three composite materials and hybrids were examined. The materials investigated were graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, PRD-49 (Kevlar 49)/epoxy, and hybrids in angle-ply configurations. A new type of edgeless cylindrical specimen was developed. It is a flattened tube with two flat sides connected by curved sections and it is handled much like the standard flat coupon. Special specimen fabrication, tabbing, and tab region reinforcing techniques were developed. Axial modulus, Poisson's ratio, strength, and ultimate strain were obtained under static loading from flattened tube specimens of nine laminate configurations. In the case of graphite/epoxy the tubular specimens appeared to yield somewhat higher strength and ultimate strain values than flat specimens. Tensile fatigue tests were conducted with all nine types of specimens and S-N curves obtained. Specimens surviving 10 million cycles of tensile loading were subsequently tested statically to failure to determine residual properties.

  19. Adequacy of urine cytology specimens: an assessment of collection techniques. (United States)

    Hundley, Andrew F; Maygarden, Susan; Wu, Jennifer M; Visco, Anthony G; Connolly, AnnaMarie


    The objective of this study was to determine whether the method of urine collection impacts the adequacy and cell counts of cytology specimens in a low-risk population. Voided, post-cystometrogram (CMG), and bladder irrigant specimens were collected and evaluated for cytologic adequacy and average cell count by a single cytopathologist masked to the source of each sample. Data were analyzed to detect differences in specimen adequacy and cell counts based on method of collection. Both the voided and post-CMG specimens (97.3%, 93.7% respectively) were significantly more likely to be adequate compared to the bladder irrigant specimen (11.7%, p urine dipstick (p = 0.03). No cytologic abnormalities were diagnosed. Whereas both spontaneously voided and post-CMG specimens were consistently adequate for interpretation, spontaneous voided specimens were optimal with regard to maximizing cell count/hpf.

  20. Recording and submitting specimen history data (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.


    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  1. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (USA))


    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease.

  2. Quantification of matrix metalloprotease-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by selected reaction monitoring with microfluidics nano-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prely, Laurette M.; Paal, Krisztina; Hermans, Jos; van der Heide, Sicco; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Bischoff, Rainer


    Quantitative protein analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used to quantify matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9; similar to 90 kDa) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients having undergone lung transplantatio

  3. Immune responses in mice to oral administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing Helicobacter pylori urease B subunit by a lavage technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-feng; LIU Chang-jiang; HU Jia-lu; JIA Ai-qin; SUN Zi-qin


    Objective:To determine whether attenuated Salmonella typhimurium producing Helicobacter pylori (Hp) urease subunit B(UreB)can elicit specific immune responses against Hp in mice tested by a lavage technique. Methods: Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium producing Hp UreB immunized orally Balb/c mice twice at a 3-week interval. After 12 weeks,mice intestinal secretions were obtained without harm by administering a lavage solution intragastrically.The mice intestinal secretions of immune group were also directly washed out after the mice were killed. The antibody responses were evaluated by using serum and intestinal fluid with ELISA assay. Results: The multiple oral immunizations with SL3261/pTC01 UreB induced significantly Hp-specific mucosal IgA response as well as serum IgG response. The IgA was also consistently higher in the intestinal fluid obtained by the lavage solution than by direct washout. In addition, no obvious side effects and changes in gastric inflammation were observed in mice.Conclusion: The attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing Hp UreB may be used as an oral vaccine against Hp infection. And the lavage technique is an ideal method in the study of mucosal immune responses.

  4. 初探神经网络在电动洗胃中的应用%Preliminary Study on Application of Neural Network in Electric Gastric Lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A method is proposed for intelligent gastric lavage design in this paper. The microprocessor collects and computes gastric lavage pressure and its rate of change, liquid level and its rate of change, turbidity, and PH signals in the analogue stomach lavage test, which are processed by neural network algorithm, and then infer gastric lavage work status. Pipe plug, incomplete pipe plug, fault, normal operating, clean etc can be distinguished by neural network. Neural network algorithm can be used for flexible airtight container cleaning.%提出一种智能洗胃的设计方案.利用微处理器采集和计算模拟洗胃试验中的洗胃压力、压力变化率、液位、液位变化率、浑浊度和PH值等信号,通过神经网络算法对信号进行处理,判断洗胃工况.采用神经网络算法能区分管路堵塞、不完全堵塞、故障、洗胃正常和清洁等运行状态.神经网络算法可用于柔性密闭容器的清洗工作.

  5. 改良洗胃法对新生儿洗胃的探讨%Investigation on the modification of gastric lavage in newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜金花; 周娟


    目的 探讨一种新生儿洗胃方式,提高洗胃效果,减轻伤害.方法 将104例咽下综合征新生儿随机分成3组,即时照组、观察1组、观察2组;对照组即采用传统洗胃法;观察1组插入时、洗胃后2h进行非营养性吸吮,长度为前额发际至剑突;观察2组插入时、洗胃后2h进行非营养性吸吮,长度为前额发际至脐部.结果 3组患儿一次性插管成功率、合作性、洗胃效果差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 新生儿洗胃时增加插入胃管长度,以前额发际至脐部并伴操作中、操作后非营养性吸吮,能提高洗胃的效果,减轻患儿的痛苦,减少临床操作时间.%Objective To explore a neonatal gastric lavage method to improve gastric lavage effect and reduce the damage. Methods 104 newborn with swallowing syndrome randomly divided into 3 groups, namely the control group, observation group 1, observation group 2. The control group namely useded the traditional gastric lavage method; observation group 1 namely carried on the non-trophism suction when feeding tube was being inserted and after 2h of the gastric lavage, and the inserted length was from the forehead hair edge to xiphoid; observation group 2 namely carried on the non-trophism suction when feeding tube was being inserted and after 2h of the gastric lavage, and the inserted length was from the forehead hair edge to navel. Results There were significant differences in one-time success rate of intubation, cooperation, gastric lavage effect among the three groups of newborn(P <0.05 ). Conclusion The effect of gastric lavage can be improved, pain be relieved, the clinical operation time be reduced by increasing the stomach tube length (from the forehead hair edge to navel) and associating non-nutritive sucking during and after operation.

  6. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.


    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  7. High-frequency ultrasonic imaging of thickly sliced specimens (United States)

    Miyasaka, Chiaki; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Chandraratna, Premindra A. N.


    It has been reported that a mechanical scanning reflection acoustic microscope (hereinafter called simply "SAM"), using high frequency ultrasonic tone-burst waves, can form a horizontal cross-sectional image (i.e., c-scan image) showing a highly resolved cellular structure of biological tissue. However, the tissue prepared for the SAM has been mostly a thinly sectioned specimen. In this study, the SAM images of specimens thickly sectioned from the tissue were analyzed. Optical and scanning acoustic microscopies were used to evaluate tissues of human small intestine and esophagus. For preparing thin specimens, the tissue was embedded in paraffin, and substantially sectioned at 5-10μm by the microtome. For optical microscopy, the tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and affixed onto glass substrates. For scanning acoustic microscopy, two types of specimens were prepared: thinly sectioned specimens affixed on the glass substrate, wherein the specimens were deparaffinized in xylene, but not stained, and thickely sectioned specimens. Images of the thick specimens obtained with frequency at 200 MHz revealed cellular structures. The morphology was very similar to that seen in the thinly sectioned specimens with optical and scanning acoustic microscopy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the images of biological tissue. An acoustic lens with frequency at 200 MHz permitted the imaging of surface and/or subsurface of microstructures in the thick sections of small intestine and esophagus.

  8. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.


    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes....... The analysis facilitates selection of the appropriate geometry for the MMB sandwich specimen to promote debond failure. An experimental study is performed using MMB sandwich specimens with a H100 PVC foam core and E-glass–polyester faces. The results reveal that debond propagation is successfully achieved...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  9. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.


    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  10. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  11. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer. (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Motohiko; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Kosaka, Takashi; Makino, Hirochika; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Endo, Itaru


    Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA) samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) samples, and culture supernatants (CM) of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270) with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  12. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiko Tokuhisa

    Full Text Available Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF samples, and culture supernatants (CM of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270 with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  13. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.


    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  14. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Stupina, T A


    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  15. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature. (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N


    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations.

  16. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cao


    Full Text Available This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n=102 or CHT (n=94 groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P>0.05. These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  17. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. (United States)

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver


    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  18. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases (United States)

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko


    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  19. Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study (United States)

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Paulo; Guimaraes, Fernando; Natânia De Souza-Araujo, Caroline; Maria Boldrini Leite, Lidiane; Cristina Senegaglia, Alexandra; Nishiyama, Anita; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando


    Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms behind its cellular trafficking and its role in disease development is restricted to studies in animal models. In this study, we aimed to compare the human NK cell subset (CD56bright or dim) levels in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of sepsis patients. We conducted a case-control study with a sample size consisting of 10 control patients and 23 sepsis patients enrolled at the Hospital Cajuru (Curitiba/PR, Brazil) from 2013 to 2015. Although we were able to confirm previous observations of peripheral blood lymphopenia, no significant differences were detected in NK cell levels in the BAL fluid of these patients. Overall, these findings strengthened the evidence that peripheral blood lymphopenia is likely to be associated with cell death as a consequence of sepsis. PMID:28287491

  20. The characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage from a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Nakos, G; Kitsiouli, E; Maneta-Peyret, L; Cassagne, C; Tsianos, E; Lekka, M


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics as well as the occurrence and specificity of antiphospholipid antibodies in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a patient with both antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome (APS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Proteins, lipids, cells and autoantibodies were determined. Immunoglobulins were purified with affinity chromatography. Autoantibody identification was assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with electrophoresis, followed by immunoblotting and revelation with antihuman IgG-peroxidase conjugate. Antiphospholipid antibodies were found to be present in the BAL fluid as well as in the serum from a patient with APS. Specifically, antiphosphatidylserine and antiphosphatidic acid IgG antibodies in the BAL fluid and antiphosphatidylcholine and anticardiolipin IgG antibodies in the serum were detected at high levels. BAL fluid protein and the percentage of neutrophils were found to be increased. A quantitative as well as qualitative deficiency of surfactant phospholipids was also observed. Antibodies directed against surfactant phospholipids could cause surfactant abnormalities and an inflammatory reaction. These disorders may be one of the causes of the ARDS or a factor in the perpetuation of the inflammation.

  1. [Role of bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy in the diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with organ transplantation]. (United States)

    Arnedillo Muñoz, A; Lopez Moya, M E; de Lucas Ramos, P; Puente Maestu, L; Sanchez Juanes, M J; Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro, J M; Garcia de Pedro, J; Rodriguez de Guzman, M C


    Pneumonia in patients with organ transplantation constitutes a very frequent cause of mortality, as a result precocious aetiologic diagnosis is indispensable. The bronchoscopic techniques, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBB), constitute fundamental procedures for these diagnoses. We begin this study with the aim of evaluating the profitability obtained with these procedures. 36 bronchoscopies were performed on 29 patients with organ transplantation, in all of them we realized BAL and in 20 TBB. We confirm the presence of pneumonia in 30 (in 15 of them we had performed TBB), the BAL was diagnostic in 20 cases (66.6%) and the TBB in 7 (46.6%). With both, BAL and TBB, we obtained a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 75%. We isolated 10 bacteria, 8 Citomegalovirus (CMV), 6 Pneumocystis carinii and 2 Aspergillus fumigatus. The BAL and the TBB contributed significantly in the aetiologic diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with organ transplantation, consequently we consider them basic tools in the management of these infections.

  2. Effect of hydrogen sulfide emissions on cement mortar specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idriss, A. F. [Alberta Environment, Science and Technology Branch, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Negi, S. C.; Jofriet, J. C.; Haywoard, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Guelph, ON (Canada)


    Six different cement mortar specimens used in animal buildings, where they were exposed to hydrogen sulfide generated from anaerobic fermentation of manure during a period of one year, were investigated. Primary interest was on comparing the corrosion resistance of different cement mortar specimens under long term exposure to hydrogen sulfide. The impressed voltage technique was used to test the specimens in the laboratory. Results revealed that test specimens made with eight per cent silica fume cement replacement performed best and similar Portland cement mortar specimens with a water-cement ratio of 0.55 (PC55) the poorest. All other treatments, (Portland cement with a water to cement ratio of 045, Portland cement Type 50, Portland cement with fibre mesh and Portland cement Type 10 coated with linseed oil) all with water-cement ratios of 0.45, were less effective in preventing corrosion than silica fume replacement.

  3. [The effect of vaporization with thermal sulfurous water on phospholipids in the broncho-alveolar lavage solution following hypobaric hypoxia in the rat]. (United States)

    Prévost, M C; Montastruc, P; Douste-Blazy, L


    We have studied, in the rat, the action of a vaporization with sulphurous water from Bagnères de Luchon on the surfactant modifications caused by hypoxia. The phospholipase activity, subordinate to hypoxia, decreased by 1/5 compared to its value without treatment and the phospholipid composition of the broncho-alveolar lung lavage remained unchanged whereas after hypoxia without treatment the phosphatidylcholines level decreases by 26%. We demonstrated by a dose-response study that this protective action decreased with the thermal water dilution. We also showed that this effect could not be due to the only action of reduced sulphur: different concentrations of sulphur solutions had no action on the phospholipase A activity subordinate to hypoxia. So we can conclude that a vaporization with sulphurous water had a protective action against hypoxia on the broncho-alveolar lavage of rat lung.

  4. Validade da citologia cervicovaginal na detecção de lesões pré-neoplásicas e neoplásicas de colo de útero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Adriana de Araujo


    Full Text Available Introdução: O exame colpocitológico ou teste de Papanicolaou permite o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de colo do útero. O êxito no rastreamento desta doença dependerá, além de outros fatores, da acuidade diagnóstica do exame colpocitológico. Objetivos: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da citologia cervicovaginal na detecção de lesões cervicais através da comparação citoistopatológica. Material e métodos: Avaliou-se o grau de concordância entre os exames citológico e histopatológico de 373 pacientes atendidas em um hospital universitário no período de 1990 a 1997 e foram calculados os indicadores: sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e as taxas de falsos positivos e falsos negativos do exame. Resultados: A taxa bruta de concordância citoistopatológica foi de 65,1%. A sensibilidade do exame foi alta (96,0%, no entanto sua especificidade foi baixa (51,5%, significando a inclusão de muitos resultados falsos positivos. A taxa de falsos positivos foi de 48,4%, enquanto a de falsos negativos foi de 4%. Discussão: Apesar de a sensibilidade do teste ser alta, sua especificidade é baixa, significando que muitas mulheres seriam falsamente diagnosticadas como doentes, levando a um número elevado de resultados falsos positivos e custos desnecessários, além do potencial caráter iatrogênico que esta ação poderia assumir. No entanto, um exame altamente sensível é o teste de escolha para programas de rastreamento de câncer cervical na população feminina. Conclusões: Para garantir a acuidade diagnóstica do teste de Papanicolaou são essenciais atividades de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios, tanto do procedimento colpocitológico quanto do histopatológico, permitindo, assim, o êxito na detecção precoce e no tratamento das lesões cervicais.

  5. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

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    Thamires Marques de Lima


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  6. Effects of respiratory rate, plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure on PaO2 oscillations after saline lavage. (United States)

    Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Doebrich, Marcus; Otto, Cynthia M


    One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits after saline lavage. Using pressure-controlled ventilation with oxygen, ventilator settings were varied in random order over three levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory rate (RR), and plateau pressure minus PEEP (Delta). Dependence of the amplitude of PaO2 oscillations on PEEP, RR, and Delta was modeled by multiple linear regression. Before lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 3 to 22 mm Hg. After lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 5 to 439 mm Hg. Response surfaces showed markedly nonlinear dependence of amplitude on PEEP, RR, and Delta. The large PaO2 oscillations observed provide evidence for cyclic recruitment in this model of lung injury. The important effect of RR on the magnitude of PaO2 oscillations suggests that the static behavior of atelectasis cannot be accurately extrapolated to predict dynamic behavior at realistic breathing frequencies.

  7. Coleta de lavado gástrico para diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar infantil: revisão sistemática Colecta de lavado gástrico para diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar infantil: revisión sistemática Gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review

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    Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel


    tuberculosis" with the restriction of "children aged up to 15 years;" "gastric lavage and tuberculosis and childhood" or "gastric washing and tuberculosis and childhood." There were retrieved 80 articles and their analysis was based on information on the gastric lavage protocol for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: preparation of children and fasting; time of gastric aspiration; aspiration of gastric residues; total volume of aspirate; solution used for aspiration of gastric contents; decontaminant solution; buffer solution; and time for forwarding samples to the laboratory. After a thorough analysis, 14 articles were selected. RESULTS: No article detailed the whole procedure. Some articles had missing information on: amount of gastric aspirate; aspiration before or after solution injection; solution used for gastric aspiration; buffer solution used; and waiting time between specimen collection and laboratory processing. These results showed inconsistencies of gastric lavage protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Although gastric lavage is a secondary diagnostic approach used only in special cases that did not reach the diagnostic scoring as recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, there is a need to standardize gastric lavage protocols for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.

  8. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from clinical specimens by cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR. (United States)

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Toyotome, Takahito; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Kamei, Katsuhiko


    We developed new cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR assays for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum that were designed to detect the gene encoding N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), which we previously identified as an H. capsulatum antigen reacting with sera from patients with histoplasmosis. Both assays specifically detected the DNAs of all H. capsulatum strains but not those of other fungi or human DNA. The limited of detection (LOD) of the real-time PCR assay was 10 DNA copies when using 10-fold serial dilutions of the standard plasmid DNA and 50 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA. The nested real-time PCR improved the LOD to 5 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA, which represents a 10-fold higher than that observed with the real-time PCR assay. To assess the ability of the two assays to diagnose histoplasmosis, we analyzed a small number of clinical specimens collected from five patients with histoplasmosis, such as sera (n = 4), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (n = 4), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n = 1). Although clinical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was insufficiently sensitive (33%), the nested real-time PCR assay increased the clinical sensitivity (77%), suggesting it has a potential to be a useful method for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in clinical specimens.

  9. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

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    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL; Thoms, Kenneth R [ORNL


    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density

  10. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: case report and review of the literature%浅表宫颈阴道肌纤维母细胞瘤临床病理学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海波; 牛俊扬


    Objective : To study the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma( SCVM ), with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Methods: One case of SCVM in the vingina was evaluated by lightmicroscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results : An asymptomatic anterior vaginal mass was presented in a 48 years old female during a physical examination. The clinical diagnosis was cyst. The tumor presented as a well - circumscribed mass measuring 3. 3cm × 2. 5cm × 2cm, with a tremelloid appearance on cut surface. Histologically , the tumor was composed of a relatively uniform spindle and stellate - shaped cells, and arranged in variety of growth patterns, mostly in fascicles or storiform. No evident of cytologically atypical and rare mitotic figures (< 1/10HPF ), there was no necrosis. A mild inflammatory infiltrate, chiefly comprising mast cells. Thin - walled blood vessels were ohserved, especially towards the centre of the lesion. There was no aggregation of cells around the vessels, and no vessel walls were hyalinized. The tumor cells were showed strong immunostaining with vimentin, desmin, ER, PR and CD34. Other maker including α - smooth muscle actin ( α - SMA ), S100, HMB45 , CD31, CD57 and CK were all negative. Electron microscopic study showed myofihroblastic differentiation. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after complete local excision in half year follow - up. Conclusion : SCVM is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor arising within the lower female genital tract . About one third patients had a link with tamoxifen or hormone - replacement therapy. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies suggested a myofibroblastic differentiation. Histologically, SCVM should be differentiated from lots of spindle cell neoplasm.%目的:探讨浅表宫颈阴道肌纤维母细胞瘤(superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma,SCVM)的临床病理学特点、免疫表型

  11. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation. (United States)

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E


    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF

  12. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

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    Shiney George


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  13. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  14. Repeatability of and relationship between potential COPD biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsies, serum, and induced sputum.

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    Stefan Röpcke

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily affecting the airways. Stable biomarkers characterizing the inflammatory phenotype of the disease, relevant for disease activity and suited to predict disease progression are needed to monitor the efficacy and safety of drug interventions. We therefore analyzed a large panel of markers in bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsies, serum and induced sputum of 23 healthy smokers and 24 smoking COPD patients (GOLD II matched for age and gender. Sample collection was performed twice within a period of 6 weeks. Assays for over 100 different markers were validated for the respective matrices prior to analysis. In our study, we found 51 markers with a sufficient repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.6, most of these in serum. Differences between groups were observed for markers from all compartments, which extends (von-Willebrand-factor and confirms (e.g. C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6 previous findings. No correlations between lung and serum markers were observed, including A1AT. Airway inflammation defined by sputum neutrophils showed only a moderate repeatability. This could be improved, when a combination of neutrophils and four sputum fluid phase markers was used to define the inflammatory phenotype.In summary, our study provides comprehensive information on the repeatability and interrelationship of pulmonary and systemic COPD-related markers. These results are relevant for ongoing large clinical trials and future COPD research. While serum markers can discriminate between smokers with and without COPD, they do not seem to sufficiently reflect the disease-associated inflammatory processes within the airways.

  15. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P


    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  16. Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Sodium Phosphate Solution versus Polyethylene Glycol-Based Lavage: A Multicenter Trial

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    S. Schanz


    Full Text Available Background: Adequate bowel preparation is essential for accurate colonoscopy. Both oral sodium phosphate (NaP and polyethylene glycol-based lavage (PEG-ELS are used predominantly as bowel cleansing modalities. NaP has gained popularity due to low drinking volume and lower costs. The purpose of this randomized multicenter observer blinded study was to compare three groups of cleansing (NaP, NaP + sennosides, PEG-ELS + sennosides in reference to tolerability, acceptance, and cleanliness. Patient and Methods: 355 outpatients between 18 and 75 years were randomized into three groups (A, B, C receiving NaP = A, NaP, and sennosides = B or PEG-ELS and sennosides = C. Gastroenterologists performing colonoscopies were blinded to the type of preparation. All patients documented tolerance and adverse events. Vital signs, premedication, completeness, discomfort, and complications were recorded. A quality score (0–4 of cleanliness was generated. Results: The three groups were similar with regard to age, sex, BMI, indication for colonoscopy, and comorbidity. Drinking volumes (L (A = 4.33 + 1.2, B = 4.56 + 1.18, C = 4.93 + 1.71 were in favor of NaP (P = .005. Discomfort from ingested fluid was recorded in A = 39.8% (versus C: P = .015, B = 46.6% (versus C: P = .147, and C = 54.6%. Differences in tolerability and acceptance between the three groups were statistically not significant. No differences in adverse events and the cleanliness effects occurred in the three groups (P = .113. The cleanliness quality scores 0–2 were calculated in A: 77.7%, B: 86.7%, and C: 85.2%. Conclusions: These data fail to demonstrate significant differences in tolerability, acceptance, and preparation quality between the three types of bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Cleansing with NaP was not superior to PEG-ELS.

  17. Reconstitution of CD4 T Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy▿ (United States)

    Knox, Kenneth S.; Vinton, Carol; Hage, Chadi A.; Kohli, Lisa M.; Twigg, Homer L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Zwickl, Beth; Waltz, Jeffrey; Goldman, Mitchell; Douek, Daniel C.; Brenchley, Jason M.


    The massive depletion of gastrointestinal-tract CD4 T cells is a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV infection. In contrast, the depletion of the lower-respiratory-tract mucosal CD4 T cells as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is more moderate and similar to the depletion of CD4 T cells observed in peripheral blood (PB). To understand better the dynamics of disease pathogenesis and the potential for the reconstitution of CD4 T cells in the lung and PB following the administration of effective antiretroviral therapy, we studied cell-associated viral loads, CD4 T-cell frequencies, and phenotypic and functional profiles of antigen-specific CD4 T cells from BAL fluid and blood before and after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The major findings to emerge were the following: (i) BAL CD4 T cells are not massively depleted or preferentially infected by HIV compared to levels for PB; (ii) BAL CD4 T cells reconstitute after the initiation of HAART, and their infection frequencies decrease; (iii) BAL CD4 T-cell reconstitution appears to occur via the local proliferation of resident BAL CD4 T cells rather than redistribution; and (iv) BAL CD4 T cells are more polyfunctional than CD4 T cells in blood, and their functional profile is relatively unchanged after the initiation of HAART. Taken together, these data suggest mechanisms for mucosal CD4 T-cell depletion and interventions that might aid in the reconstitution of mucosal CD4 T cells. PMID:20610726

  18. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study (United States)

    Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier


    Summary Purpose: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: a 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusion: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25767776

  19. Evaluation of PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: a bivariate metaanalysis and systematic review.

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    Wenkui Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR is emerging as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool. PCR assays on serum have the potential to be a practical diagnostic tool. However, PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF has not been well established. We performed a systematic review of published studies to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCR assays on BALF for invasive aspergillosis (IA. METHODS: Relevant published studies were shortlisted to evaluate the quality of their methodologies. A bivariate regression approach was used to calculate pooled values of the method sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall performance. We calculated the post-test probability to evaluate clinical usefulness. Potential heterogeneity among studies was explored by subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Seventeen studies comprising 1191 at-risk patients were selected. The summary estimates of the BALF-PCR assay for proven and probable IA were as follows: sensitivity, 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.79-0.96; specificity, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87-0.96; positive likelihood ratio, 11.90 (95% CI, 6.80-20.80; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.04-0.24. Subgroup analyses showed that the performance of the PCR assay was influenced by PCR assay methodology, primer design and the methods of cell wall disruption and DNA extraction. CONCLUSIONS: PCR assay on BALF is highly accurate for diagnosing IA in immunocompromised patients and is likely to be a useful diagnostic tool. However, further efforts towards devising a standard protocol are needed to enable formal validation of BALF-PCR.

  20. Fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage of greenhouse workers and their relation to occupational exposure. (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V


    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and β-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and β-glucan. The content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of β-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently.

  1. TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases and high-resolution computed tomography score

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    Artur Szlubowski


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs, growth factors, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, are responsible for cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis, and also for the production and secretion of some components of the extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate correlations in DPLDs between TGF-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT score. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 31 DPLD patients in whom a selection of lung segments with high and low intensity of abnormalities was estimated by HRCT score. All patients underwent BAL with TGF-β1 measured by an enzyme immunoassay in BAL fluid and video-assisted thoracic surgery lung biopsy from both selected segments. RESULTS: All 31 patients were diagnosed, and based on histopathology, they were classified into 2 groups: idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (usual interstitial pneumonia – 12, nonspecific interstitialpneumonia – 2, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia – 2, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia – 1 and granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis – 7, extrinsic allergic alveolitis – 5, and histiocytosis X – 2. The final analysis was performed in 28 patients who showed nonhomogenous distribution on HRCT. TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the areas with high intensity of abnormalities assessed by HRCT score (P = 0.018, analysis of variance. These levels were not different between the groups, but a trend towards higher levels in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that TGF-β1 may be a good but not specific marker of fibrosis in DPLDs. A significant positive correlation between TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid and the HRCT score was observed.

  2. [Study of cellular inflammatory response with bronchoalveolar lavage in allergic asthma, aspirin asthma and in extrinsic infiltrating alveolitis]. (United States)

    Muiño, Juan C; Garnero, Roberto; Caillet Bois, Ricardo; Gregorio, María J; Ferrero, Mercedes; Romero-Piffiguer, Marta


    The asthmatic inflammatory responses present different type of cells involved in this process, such as: Lymphocytes and Eosinophils. In experienced hands the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-tolerated and valuable tool for investigation of basic mechanisms in asthma and other immunological respiratory diseases. The purpose of this work was to study the different cells involved in asthmatic inflammatory responses in allergic and aspirin sensitivity patients and compared with Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis patients (EAA) by BAL procedure. We studied 27 asthmatic patients. This group was divided by etiological conditions in: allergic asthmatic patients (a) (n: 19), (9 male and 10 female) demonstrated by reversible fall of FEV 1 (3) 20% and 2 or more positive skin test for common aeroallergens. The aspirin asthmatic patients (b) (n: 8) (5 male and 3 female) demonstrated by progressive challenge with aspirin and fall of FEV 1 (3) 20%. The third group with compatible symptoms and signs of EAA, demonstrated by lung biopsy, (n: 9) (8 male and 1 female) (c). We determined in all patients: Total IgE serum level by ELISA test. BAL was performed by standard procedure in all patients. The cells count were performed in BAL and were separated in Eosinophils, T lymphocytes defined by monoclonal anti CD 3 antibody, Lymphocytes CD 4 and CD 8 by monoclonal anti CD 4 and CD 8 antibodies respectively. The B lymphocytes defined by surface immunoglobulin isotypes IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE. The IgE level was in (a) 630 +/- 350 kU/L, in (b) it was 85 +/- 62 kU/L and in EAA (c) 55 +/- 23 kU/L, p allergic asthmatic patients as well as in aspirin sensitivity asthmatic patients. The LBA cellular profile of E.AA patients presented eosinophilia and CE8+ Lymphocite predominance when compared with both asthmatic cellular profile.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Surkova


    Full Text Available Abstract. Progressive obstruction and lung tissue remodeling comprise an important feature of the airways in COPD patients. The main processes involved in tissue remodeling in COPD are protease/antiprotease, oxidant/antioxidant imbalances, like as inflammatory and fibrotic events that contribute to development or progression of disease. TGFβ is a multifunctional growth factor that regulates synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, primarily collagen and fibronectin, thus inducing fibrosis of respiratory ways. The aim of our study was to determine levels of TGFβ in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of COPD patients. All the patients with COPD had increased levels of TGFβ in serum, as compared with subjects without COPD (p < 0.01, but there was no difference in TGFβ concentration between patients at different stages of disease. Increased phagocytic activity of blood monocytes was found in 81% of COPD patients, as compared to controls. Phagocytosis of apoptotic T­cells and bacterial infection of monocytes leads to increased secretion of TGFβ and it may cause higher levels of TGF β in peripheral blood. TGFβ concentration in BALF of patients at stage III of disease was higher than in the patients at stage II (p < 0.05. The level of TGFβ in BALF directly correlates with number of alveolar macrophages (r = 0.39; р = 0.03. These data indicate that TGFβ is involved in chemotaxis of macrophages in COPD patients’ airways. We conclude that increased secretion of TGFβ by peripheral blood monocytes may be a result of their high phagocytic activity. Hence, TGFβ mediates interactions between the two main components underlying lung tissue remodeling, i.e. fibrosis of respiratory airways, and development of emphysema in COPD.

  4. Functional and phenotypical comparison of myofibroblasts derived from biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma and scleroderma

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    Hansson Lennart


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc. We have studied the motility for BALF derived fibroblasts in patients with SSc that may explain the presence of these cells in the airway lumen. Furthermore, we have compared phenotypic alterations in activated fibroblasts from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc that may account for the distinct fibrotic responses. Methods Fibroblasts were cultured from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc. The motility was studied using a cell migration assay. Western Blotting was used to study the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, ED-A fibronectin, and serine arginine splicing factor 20 (SRp20. The protein expression pattern was analyzed to reveal potential biomarkers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and sequencing dual matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF. The Mann-Whitney method was used to calculate statistical significance. Results Increased migration and levels of ED-A fibronectin were observed in BALF fibroblasts from both groups of patients, supported by increased expression of RhoA, Rac1, and the splicing factor SRp20. However, these observations were exclusively accompanied by increased expression of α-SMA in patients with mild asthma. Compared to BALF fibroblasts in mild asthma, fibroblasts in SSc displayed a differential protein expression pattern of cytoskeletal- and scavenger proteins. These identified proteins facilitate cell migration, oxidative stress, and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix observed in patients with SSc. Conclusion This study demonstrates a possible origin for fibroblasts in the airway lumen in patients with SSc and important differences between fibroblast

  5. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.


    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  6. Simulation Analysis of Standard Metal Specimen Tension Experiment by Fem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Some standard metal rod-shaped, plate-shaped or pipe-shaped specimens usually are used to be tensioned to acquire the material properties such as tensional ductility, contractibility ratio on breaking section,

  7. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.


    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  8. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Dragonfly Vouchered Specimens 2005 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains a list of dragonflies and photographs of them collected in 2005 from the refuge complex. These were verified by Steve Krotzer and specimens retained...

  9. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  10. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique. (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy


    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Gray, Mr. Sean [University of Michigan


    The influence of scale factor (tensile specimen geometry and dimensions) on mechanical test results was investigated for different widely used types of small specimens (SS-1, SS-2, SS-3, and SS-J3) and a set of materials. It was found that the effect of scale factor on the accurate determination of yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and uniform elongation values was weak; however, clear systematic differences were observed and should be accounted for during interpretation of results. In contrast, total elongation values were strongly sensitive to variations in specimen geometry. Modern experimental methods like digital image correlation allow the impact of scale factor to be reduced. Using these techniques, it was shown that true stress true strain curves describing strain-hardening behavior were very close for different specimen types. The limits of miniaturization are discussed, and an ultra-miniature specimen concept was suggested and evaluated. This type of specimen, as expected, may be suitable for SEM and TEM in situ testing.

  12. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Sohei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of

  13. Microwave applications to rock specimen drying in laboratory (United States)

    Park, Jihwan; Park, Hyeong-Dong


    Microwave heating is the process in which electromagnetic wave with 300 MHz - 300 GHz heats dielectric material. Although in the beginning microwave was mainly used in food industry to cook or heat the food, it soon became clear that microwave had a large potential for other applications. It was thus introduced in geological fields of investigation like mineral processing, oil sand and oil shale extraction, soil remediation, waste treatment. However, the drying techniques using microwave was rarely treated in geology field. According to the ISRM suggested methods, experimental rock specimens in laboratory test were dried in 105°C oven for a period of at least 24 hours. In this method, hot air transmits heats to material by means of thermal conduction, and the heat was transferred from the surface to the inside of the rock specimens. The thermal gradient and moisture gradient can deteriorate the specimens, and energy can be wasted in bulk heating the specimens. The aim of our study was to compare physical property, microstructural property, and energy efficiency between microwave drying method and conventional oven drying method, and to suggest new method for rock drying. Granite, basalt, and sandstone were selected as specimens and were made in cylinder shape with 54 mm diameter. To compare two different methods, one set of saturated specimens were dried in 105°C conventional oven and the other set of saturated specimens were dried in microwave oven. After dried, the specimens were cooled and saturated in 20°C water 48 hours. The saturation-drying were repeated 50 cycles, and the physical property and microstructural property were measured every 10 cycles. Absorption and elastic wave velocity were measured to investigate the change of physical property, and microscope image and X-ray computed tomography image were obtained to investigate the change of microstructural property of rock specimens. The electricity consumption of conventional oven and microwave oven

  14. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 9, 24105, Kiel (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Gross, W.L. [Department of Clinical Rheumatology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt, Bad Bramstedt (Germany)


    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, {kappa} score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD{+-}20.9%); r=-0.54; p<0.001) and very weak with vital capacity and FEV1 (mean values 92.2% (SD{+-}18.3%); r=-0.27; p<0.05 and 89.8% (SD{+-}17.5%); r=-0.31; p<0.01). In patients with GGO, BAL differentials tended towards neutrophilia ({kappa}=0.39; p=0.04; McNemar test p>0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis ({kappa}=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side

  15. Changes in coagulation-fibrinolysis function in alveolar lavage fluid of endotoxemic dogs after partial removal of peripheral leukocytes

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    Shun-gang ZHOU


    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of partial removal of peripheral leucocytes on the coagulation-fibrinolysis function of alveolar lavage fluid(ALF in endotoxemic dogs,and explore the influence and mechanisms of activated leucocytes on lung injury in endotoxemic dogs.Methods Thirty male mongrel dogs were involved in present study and randomly divided into 3 groups(10 each: LPS group(group L,sham leukocytapheresis group(group S and leukocytapheresis group(group T.Endotoxemic model was reproduced in group L by administration of LPS(2mg/kg,but the animals did not receive leukocytapheresis.Animals in group T received leukocytapheresis using a continuous-flow blood cell separator 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.Animals in group S received sham leukocytapheresis(the end products were transfused back into the dogs at 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.At 36h after administration of LPS,the lung tissues were harvested to obtain ALF,and the levels of neutrophil elastase(NE,soluble thrombomodulin(sTM,activated protein C(APC and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1 in ALF were determined,the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was observed by immunohistochemical staining,while the routine pathological examination and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were performed.Results The APC level in ALF was significantly higher,while the NE,sTM and PAI-1 levels in ALF and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were significantly lower in group T than in group L and group S(P < 0.05.Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was higher in group T than in group L and group S.No significant difference was found between group L and group S in the indexes mentioned above.Pathological observation showed the incidence of acute lung injury was significantly lower in group T(2/10 than in group L(7/10 and group S(8/10,P < 0.05.Conclusion Partial removal of peripheral leukocytes may lower the level of NE in ALF

  16. The impact of surfactant protein-A on ozone-induced changes in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome

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    Floros Joanna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ozone is a major component of air pollution. Exposure to this powerful oxidizing agent can cause or exacerbate many lung conditions, especially those involving innate immunity. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A plays many roles in innate immunity by participating directly in host defense as it exerts opsonin function, or indirectly via its ability to regulate alveolar macrophages and other innate immune cells. The mechanism(s responsible for ozone-induced pathophysiology, while likely related to oxidative stress, are not well understood. Methods We employed 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, a discovery proteomics approach, coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF to compare the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL proteomes in wild type (WT and SP-A knockout (KO mice and to assess the impact of ozone or filtered air on the expression of BAL proteins. Using the PANTHER database and the published literature most identified proteins were placed into three functional groups. Results We identified 66 proteins and focused our analysis on these proteins. Many of them fell into three categories: defense and immunity; redox regulation; and protein metabolism, modification and chaperones. In response to the oxidative stress of acute ozone exposure (2 ppm; 3 hours there were many significant changes in levels of expression of proteins in these groups. Most of the proteins in the redox group were decreased, the proteins involved in protein metabolism increased, and roughly equal numbers of increases and decreases were seen in the defense and immunity group. Responses between WT and KO mice were similar in many respects. However, the percent change was consistently greater in the KO mice and there were more changes that achieved statistical significance in the KO mice, with levels of expression in filtered air-exposed KO mice being closer to ozone-exposed WT mice than to filtered air-exposed WT mice. Conclusion We postulate that SP-A plays a role

  17. Clinical significance of quantifying Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA by using real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from immunocompromised patients. (United States)

    Botterel, Françoise; Cabaret, Odile; Foulet, Françoise; Cordonnier, Catherine; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane


    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is more sensitive than microscopy for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We therefore developed a qPCR assay and compared the results with those of a routine immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and clinical data. The assay included automated DNA extraction, amplification of the mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA gene and an internal control, and quantification of copy numbers with the help of a plasmid clone. We studied 353 consecutive BAL fluids obtained for investigation of unexplained fever and/or pneumonia in 287 immunocompromised patients. No qPCR inhibition was observed. Seventeen (5%) samples were both IFA and qPCR positive, 63 (18%) were IFA negative and qPCR positive, and 273 (77%) were both IFA and qPCR negative. The copy number was significantly higher for IFA-positive/qPCR-positive samples than for IFA-negative/qPCR-positive samples (4.2 ± 1.2 versus 1.1 ± 1.1 log(10) copies/μl; P < 10(-4)). With IFA as the standard, the qPCR assay sensitivity was 100% for ≥2.6 log(10) copies/μl and the specificity was 100% for ≥4 log(10) copies/μl. Since qPCR results were not available at the time of decision-making, these findings did not trigger cotrimoxazole therapy. Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and IFA-negative/qPCR-positive BAL fluid had a worse 1-year survival rate than those with IFA-negative/qPCR-negative results (P < 10(-3)), in contrast with solid-organ transplant recipients (P = 0.88) and patients with hematological malignancy (P = 0.26). Quantifying P. jirovecii DNA in BAL fluids independently of IFA positivity should be incorporated into the investigation of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The relevant threshold remains to be determined and may vary according to the underlying disease.

  18. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid related cytokines in patients with IPF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chun Shi


    Objective:To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) related cytokines in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Methods: A total of 60 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg•d), continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg•d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg•d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb,ie. ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. ELISA was used to detect the levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of serum HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN. The pulmonary function detector was used to measure TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT.Results:After treatment, TNF-α level in the control group was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05), while HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN levels in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:EGb combined with prednisone can effectively enhance the levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γin BALF in patients with IPF, and improve the pulmonary

  19. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  20. Cervicovaginal Infections during Third Trimester of Pregnancy

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    Sakine Moaiedmohseni


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of different cervicovaginalinfections during pregnancy.Materials and methods: Totally 110 healthy pregnant women with complaints of vaginal symptoms intheir third trimester of pregnancy were checked for vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginaltrichomoniasis, streptococcus β hemoliticus, gonorrhea, syphilis, and infection by chlamydia trachomatisand HIV.Results: Among 110 studied women and mostly nullipara, the mean age was 25.2 years. All of them hadat least one symptom including discharge, itching or burning of vagina. Among them 39(35.5% hadvaginal and endocervical infection identified by laboratory tests including candidiasis 26.4%, bacterialvaginosis 8% and streptococcus β hemoliticus 5.3 %. Gonorrhea and trichomoniasis were not seen.Three of the patients had positive IgG antibody for chlamydia trachomatis. None of them had serologicalpositive test for syphilis and HIV.Conclusion: Symptomatic pregnant women need to be actively searched for infections. Besidesspeculum examination as an easy to carry out clinical test and if needed laboratory exams must be usedto choose the best treatment.

  1. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis in interval appendectomy specimens of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hakan Çavuşoğlu


    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is common in interval appendectomy specimens in adults, but it is unusual in children. Histopathologic specimens of interval appendectomy, within an 8-year period, were reevaluated to assess the true incidence. A computer search of the hospital database of all appendectomies was performed between January 2008 and June 2015 to identify all interval appendectomy cases. A total of 2694 patients underwent appendectomies. Of these, 13 were interval appendectomies. After pathologic evaluation, 2 (15.4% of the specimens were reported as xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA. Histopathologic examination of these interval appendectomy specimens, granulomas (59%, xanthogranulomatous inflammation (36% and Crohn-like changes (50% were common in adults. However, XA is a particularly rare clinical entity among children. Two cases of XA were reported in children in the English literature. One was a 12-year old boy that underwent interval appendectomy 6 weeks after an episode of acute appendicitis. The other was an 11-year old boy with acute (non-interval appendicitis, but the complete blood count was suggestive of an acute suppurative inflammation. These two cases are the 3rd and 4th cases of XA reported in children in the English literature, and both were managed by interval appendectomy. Thus, XA may be encountered in interval appendectomy specimens and association with IBD has to be ruled out.

  2. Standard Guide for Reconstitution of Irradiated Charpy-Sized Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide covers procedures for the reconstitution of ferritic pressure boundary steels used in nuclear power plant applications, Type A Charpy (Test Methods E 23) specimens and specimens suitable for testing in three point bending in accordance with Test Methods E 1921 or E 1820. Materials from irradiation programs (principally broken specimens) are reconstituted by welding end tabs of similar material onto remachined specimen sections that were unaffected by the initial test. Guidelines are given for the selection of suitable specimen halves and end tab materials, for dimensional control, and for avoidance of overheating the notch area. A comprehensive overview of the reconstitution methodologies can be found in Ref (1). 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard...

  3. Evaluation of specimen preservatives for DNA analyses of bees (United States)

    Frampton, M.; Droege, S.; Conrad, T.; Prager, S.; Richards, M.H.


    Large-scale insect collecting efforts that are facilitated by the use of pan traps result in large numbers of specimens being collected. Storage of these specimens can be problematic if space and equipment are limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of various preservatives (alcohol solutions and DMSO) on the amount and quality of DNA extracted from bees (specifically Halictidae, Apidae, and Andrenidae). In addition, we examined the amount and quality of DNA obtained from bee specimens killed and stored at -80 degrees C and from specimens stored for up to 24 years in ethanol. DNA quality was measured in terms of how well it could be PCR-amplified using a set of mitochondrial primers that are commonly used in insect molecular systematics. Overall the best methods of preservation were ultra-cold freezing and dimethyl sulfoxide, but these are both expensive and in the case of ultra-cold freezing, somewhat impractical for field entomologists. Additionally, dimethyl sulfoxide was shown to have adverse effects on morphological characters that are typically used for identification to the level of species. We therefore recommend that the best alternative is 95% ethanol, as it preserves bee specimens well for both morphological and molecular studies.

  4. Effects of nasal saline lavage on pediatric sinusitis symptoms and disease-specific quality of life: a case series of 10 patients. (United States)

    Lin, Sandra Y; Baugher, Katherine M; Brown, David J; Ishman, Stacey L


    We conducted a prospective study to assess (1) the effects of daily nasal irrigation in children with chronic sinonasal symptoms and (2) the impact that treatment had on disease-specific quality of life as assessed by a validated instrument, the five-item Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5), and by an overall nasal quality-of-life (NQL) score based on a 10-point faces scale. Our patient population was made up of 10 children-7 girls and 3 boys, aged 3 to 9 years (mean: 6.1)-who had presented with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis for more than 3 months and who had not responded to previous medical management. Patients were administered nasal saline lavage daily for 1 month. These patients and/or their caregivers completed an SN-5 questionnaire upon entry into the study and at the completion of treatment. At study's end, a comparison of pre- and post-treatment scores with paired Student t tests showed that the mean total SN-5 score improved significantly over baseline, falling 45% from 21.4 to 11.7 (p = 0.0002). Moreover, significant overall improvement was seen in each of the five subcategories of the SN-5 survey (p = 0.0009 to 0.038). The NQL scores also improved significantly from 4.7 to 7.7 (p = 0.0034). Compliance with nasal lavage was generally good among the 10 patients, as 8 of them used at least 75% of the recommended quantity of saline at least once a day. During a follow-up period that ranged from 2 to 23 months (mean: 10.4), only 1 patient required an adenoidectomy for symptom control. The results of this pilot study suggest that nasal saline lavage may significantly alleviate chronic sinonasal symptoms and improve disease-specific quality of life in children with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis.

  5. Repeated lung lavage with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treating severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to nasogastric tube malposition for enternal nutrition: a case report. (United States)

    Kao, Xiaoming; Yu, Wenkui; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou


    Enternal nutritional support, a frequently applied technique for providing nutrition and energy, played a pivotal role in the treatment of high risk patients. However, severe complications induced by malposition of nasogastric tube caused great danger and even death to the patients. In this case report, we present a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by bronchopleural fistula (BPF) due to malposition of nasogastric tube. Repeated lung lavage combined with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed after transferring to the ICU of our hospital. Finally, the patient recovered and discharged 7 days after admission.

  6. T*{sub {epsilon}} integral analysis of fracture specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y.; Ma, L.; Kobayashi, A.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others


    T*{sub {epsilon}} integral values associated with stable crack growth in thin 2024-T3 aluminum compact (CT) specimens and A606 HSLA steel single edge notched (SEN) specimens were determined directly from the crack tip displacement field obtained by moire interferometry. Stable crack growth in the SEN specimen was also simulated by an elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model which was driven by the experimentally determined boundary conditions. T*{sub {epsilon}} obtained experimentally and by FE were in reasonable agreements with each other. Unlike the vanishing J integrals with crack extension, T*{sub {epsilon}} reached steady state values with stable crack growth. Thus, for a given integration contour, {Gamma}{sub {epsilon}}, near the crack tip, T*{sub {epsilon}} can be used as a stable crack growth as well as a ductile fracture criteria.

  7. Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens. (United States)

    Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A


    DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.

  8. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf


    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens....... The methodology is based on minimizing the errorbetween the average surface pressure obtained from the experimental measurements of the force and displacement and thatobtained from the slab method of analysis of metal plasticity.Three different friction models based on Coulomb friction, the constant friction...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...

  9. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf


    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...... in the determination of the material flow curve. Comparison with the flow curves determined without friction compensation shows the viability of the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology is a simple and effective alternative to other solutions available in the literature and the pseudo-code supplied inthe...

  10. Curvature behaviour of multilayer specimens of thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, G.; Bruenings, S.E.; Steinbrech, R.W.; Singheiser, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe und Verfahren der Energietechnik


    The impact of residual stresses on the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited thermal barrier systems was studied. In particular, multilayer specimen strips composed of plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia, oxidation resistant NiCoCrAlY bond-coat and Ni-based superalloy substrate were tested. The experiments focused on the in-situ observation of specimen curvature during thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 C. The mechanical response of specimens with different layer thickness was analyzed with a thermoelastic model to derive elastic modulus and thermal expansion of the ceramic top coat, both parameters as a function of temperature. With the thermoelastic data of all three layers, the residual stress distribution could be calculated analytically. The results of the two coating variants are compared. The deviation from thermoelastic behavior at higher temperature is discussed in terms of stress relaxation in the bond coat due to plastic deformation. (orig.)

  11. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico


    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  12. The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, M.J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account. 64 refs. The thesis includes also four previous publications by author.

  13. Study on Thickness Effect of Three-Point-Bend Specimen (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masanori; Ishihara, Takehito

    The thickness effect of a three-point-bend (3PB) specimen on dimple fracture behavior is studied experimentally and numerically. At first, fracture toughness tests were conducted using 3PB specimens of different thicknesses. Fracture toughness values and R-curves are obtained, and the thickness effect is discussed. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dimple fracture surfaces are observed precisely. It is found that the thickness effect appears clearly in the void growth process. Finite element (FEM) analyses are conducted based on these experimental data. Using Gurson’s constitutive equation, the nucleation and growth of voids during the dimple fracture process are simulated. The distribution patterns of stress triaxiality and the crack growth process are obtained. The results show a good agreement with experimental ones qualitatively. The effects of specimen thickness on R-curves are explained well on the basis of these numerical simulations.

  14. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B


    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  15. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  16. Dual-Energy CT of Rectal Cancer Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Madsen, Gunvor;


    %; specificity, 88%; and accuracy, 91%), and 4) iodine concentration at 2.58 μg/mL (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 92%; and accuracy, 89%). LIMITATIONS: The investigation is conducted on isolated surgical specimens from rectal cancer operations. CONCLUSIONS: Dual-energy CT can be performed on rectal specimens......BACKGROUND: An accurate method to assess malignant lymph nodes in the mesorectum is needed. Dual-energy CT scans simultaneously with 2 levels of energy and thereby provides information about tissue composition based on the known effective Z value of different tissues. Each point investigated...

  17. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia


    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  18. Dust buildup tests of heliostats and mirror specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, J.B.


    Reflectivity variation data are presented for full-scale heliostats and sixty mirror specimens that were tested in a desert environment. Factors investigated included weather, site location, mirror type, and storage position. A method of obtaining reflectivity data for heliostats and specimens under field conditions is presented. Reflectivity degradation rates are determined for different storage positions and compared with weather conditions. Time-averaged reflectivity values are determined. Natural cleaning effectiveness of rain, snow, and frost is discussed. Heliostat operational procedures which appear to decrease reflectivity losses due to dust buildup are described.

  19. Pathology handling of pancreatoduodenectomy specimens: Approaches and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María; del; Carmen; Gómez-Mateo; Luis; Sabater-Ortí; Antonio; Ferrández-Izquierdo


    Pancreatic cancer, with a 5% 5-year survival rate, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Western countries. Unfortunately, only 20% of all patients benefit from surgical treatment. The need to prolong survival has prompted pathologists to develop improved protocols to evaluate pancreatic specimens and their surgical margins. Hopefully, the new protocols will provide clinicians with more powerful prognostic indicators and accurate information to guide their therapeutic decisions. Despite the availability of several guidelines for the handling and pathology reporting of duodenopancreatectomy specimens and their continual updating by expert pathologists, there is no consensus on basic issues such as surgical margins or the definition of incomplete excision(R1) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This article reviews the problems and controversies that dealing with duodenopancreatectomy specimens pose to pathologists, the various terms used to define resection margins or infiltration, and reports. After reviewing the literature, including previous guidelines and based on our own experience, we present our protocol for the pathology handling of duodenopancreatectomy specimens.

  20. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.


    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  1. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens (United States)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.


    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  2. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens. (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G


    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  3. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens



    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  4. New and improved molecular sexing methods for museum bird specimens. (United States)

    Bantock, Tristan M; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Lee, Patricia L M


    We present two new avian molecular sexing techniques for nonpasserine and passerine birds (Neognathae), which are more suitable for use with museum specimens than earlier methods. The technique for nonpasserines is based on a new primer (M5) which, in combination with the existing P8 primer, targets a smaller amplicon in the CHD1 sex-linked gene than previously. Primers targeting ATP5A1, an avian sex-linked gene not previously used for sex identification, were developed for passerines. Comprehensive testing across species demonstrated that both primer pairs sex a range of different species within their respective taxonomic groups. Rigorous evaluation of each method within species showed that these permitted sexing of specimens dating from the 1850s. For corn bunting museum specimens, the ATP5A1 method sexed 98% of 63 samples (1857-1966). The M5/P8 CHD1 method was similarly successful, sexing 90% of 384 moorhen specimens from six different museum collections (1855-2001). In contrast, the original P2/P8 CHD1 sexing method only identified the sex of less than half of 111 museum moorhen samples. In addition to dried skin samples, these methods may be useful for other types of material that yield degraded or damaged DNA, and are hence potential new sexing tools for avian conservation genetics, population management and wildlife forensics.

  5. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L


    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  6. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.


    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  7. Dynamic triaxial compression experiments on Cor-Tuf specimens (United States)

    Mondal, Alex B.

    A set of dynamic triaxial compression experiments at 50 MPa, 100 MPa, and 200 MPa confinement have been conducted with a modified Kolsky bar on cylindrical ultra high strength concrete Cor-Tuf specimens of diameter 19 mm and length of 12.7 mm. The experiment is composed of a hydrostatic phase which occurs at a quasi-static strain rate followed by a dynamic shear phase which occurs at a high strain rate. A set of 28 experiments were conducted at strain rates of 100 s-1 and 200 s-1. The experiments show that the fracture strength of the material increases under the test conditions. The specimens showed higher strength in the dynamic confined experiments than both the quasi-static TXC tests and the unconfined dynamic tests. The strength increase was attributed to specimen size difference and not a strain rate or confinement effect. Although the trend towards brittle ductile transition is observed the specimens were not tested in a high enough confinement for the phase change to occur.

  8. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies. (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  9. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens (United States)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak


    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  10. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri infection from eschar swab specimens. (United States)

    Myers, Todd; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Dent, Mike; Jiang, Ju; Daly, Patrick L; Maguire, Jason D; Richards, Allen L


    The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical diagnosis of the condition is usually made by analysis of blood samples. We describe a more sensitive, noninvasive means of obtaining a sample for diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri.

  11. Biobanking metastases and biopsy specimens for personalized medicine


    Liu, Angen; Collins,Charles; Diemer,Stephanie


    Angen Liu, Charles C Collins, Stephanie M Diemer Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Metastasis often develops in cancer patients despite improvements in surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Biopsy specimens of metastatic lesions are extremely valuable materials for monitoring disease progression, assessing therapeutic outcome, and delivering personalized medicine. Biobanking high-quality human metastas...

  12. Microstructural changes of sandstone specimens during CO2 injection (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Son, J.; Oh, M.; Park, H. D.


    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology to isolate CO2 from atmosphere, by capturing it from sources, transporting it to injection area, and injecting it into suitable geological formation, ocean, or mineral carbonation plant. Geological storage of carbon dioxide is the most effective and economical method, and until now a lot of demonstration projects were carried out successfully such as Sleipner, Weyburn, and In Salah. In Republic of Korea, small-scale CO2 injection demonstration project is now under investigation in offshore Pohang Basin with sandstone reservoir and the mudstone caprock. When CO2 is injected in target site, the rock around injection well can be deteriorated because of extreme change of temperature and pressure. In this study supercritical CO2 was injected in sandstone specimen and the initiation and propagation of fracture inside the specimens were observed using X-ray computed tomography (CT). X-ray CT method is a computer technology to observe inner density of target object in three dimensional image. Because of its non-destructivity and high resolution, it is suitable for consistent observation of the same specimen. Porosity and permeability of the specimens were measured using X-ray CT images and both of them were increased after injection. P- and S-wave velocity were also measured to assess the change of mechanical property and both of them were decreased after injection because of growth of inner fractures. The data from this research can be used as input data of CCS site.

  13. 50 CFR 31.12 - Sale of wildlife specimens. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of...

  14. Fracture Mechanics Analysis of a Modified TSD Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.


    The Tilted Sandwich Debond (TSD) specimen has been recognized as a viable candidate for characterization of the face/core fracture resistance. Analysis, however, shows that the range of phase angles that can be realized by altering the tilt angle is quite limited. A parametric study however shows...

  15. [Respective roles of gastric lavage, haemodialysis, haemoperfusion, diuresis and hepatic metabolism in the elimination of a massive meprobamate overdose (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Pontal, P G; Bismuth, C; Baud, F; Galliot, M


    A case of massive meprobamate intoxication (100 g) is reported. On admission, 8 hours later, the plasma meprobamate level was 460 mg/l. The initial shock (hours 8-12) was successfully treated with blood volume expansion and dobutamine. The plasma meprobamate level, which was 340 mg/l when haemodialysis and haemoperfusion were started, fell to 110 mg/l at the end of the treatment. Recovery was uneventful. The amounts of drug eliminated by each method were as follows: (a) gastric lavages at 8 and 26 hours: 66 g; (b) haemodialysis (18-29 hours): 8.5 g; (d) haemoperfusion on Hemopur-charcoal (20-28 hours): 7.5 g (as measured by elution); (e) diuresis (26 hours): 2 g. It may be concluded from these data that sizeable amounts of drug can be extracted by haemodialysis and haemoperfusion, that gastric lavage remains the least invasive and most rewarding method of elimination, and that the role of hepatic metabolism in detoxication has to be taken into account.

  16. Legionella pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients suffering from severe respiratory infections: Role of age, sex and history of smoking in the prevalence of bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faradonbeh Fatemeh Alaei


    Full Text Available Introduction. Legionella pneumophila is the most commonly detected cause of legionellosis, which is an acute respiratory tract infection with high morbidity and mortality rates. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of L. pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavages and study the role of sex, age and history of smoking as risk factors for susceptibility to the bacterium. Methods. One hundred bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected from the Iranian health centers and immediately transferred to laboratory. The samples were cultured and those that were L. pneumophila positive were subjected to PCR method with respect to the 16S rRNA gene. Results. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive for L. pneumophila (12%. Patients older than 70 years had the highest incidence of L. pneumophila (17.77%. Prevalence of L. pneumophila in male and female patients was 14.81% and 8.69%, respectively. Total incidence of L. pneumophila in patients with and without history of smoking was 18% and 6%, respectively. There were significant differences in the incidence of bacterium between groups of our study. Conclusion. Sex, age and history of smoking are predominant risk factors for the occurrence of L. pneumophila. However, more studies should be undertaken to confirm these results.

  17. Chronic calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder-therapy by percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage: a prospective open study of 62 shoulders. (United States)

    Pfister, J; Gerber, H


    In an open study the therapeutic value of percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage performed in local anaesthesia under image intensifier control in patients with chronic calcifying shoulder tendinitis was investigated. 60 patients (62 shoulders) were included in the study. The average age was 48 years, and the median duration of shoulder pain and calcification was 24 months and 7 months respectively. The right shoulder was affected in 34 and the left in 24 patients; two patients had painful calcifications in both shoulders. In 47% X-ray showed calcium deposits in the contralateral shoulder. 77% of the painful deposits projected on the supraspinatus tendon and in most cases image intensifier examination showed multiple calcifications. Calcareous material could be removed by needle aspiration and lavage in 76% of all cases. There was no correlation regarding the preferred working hand and the side of calcifying tendinitis. X-ray controls performed after 2 months revealed a significant reduction of the size of calcifications. The clinical follow-up 2 and 6 months after needling showed a significant reduction of global pain intensity. There were also significant improvements in the areas of pain on movement, pain at night and impairment of sleep. Clinical success was independent of the radiological aspect of the calcifications.

  18. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation. (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V


    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  19. Influence of refractory ceramic fibres - asbestos substitute - on the selected parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage 6 months after intratracheal instillation to W-rats. (United States)

    Hurbánková, Marta; Cerná, Silvia; Gergelová, Petra; Wimmerová, Sona


    Industrial fibrous dusts are applied in many industrial branches and represent adverse factors in occupational and environmental area. Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) - amorphous alumina silicates - are used as one kind of asbestos substitutes. Because RCFs are relatively durable and some RCFs are respirable, they may present a potential health hazard by inhalation. The aim of present work was to find out the subchronic effect of RCFs on selected parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in W-rats, confirm the biopersistence of RCFs after 6 month instillation and contribute to the understanding of the pathomechanism of lung injury after fibrous dust exposure. Wistar rats were intratracheally instilled with 4 mg/animal of RCFs - exposed group and with 0.4 ml saline solution/animal - control group. Animals were sacrificed after 6 month exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and selected BAL parameters (mainly inflammatory and cytotoxic) were examined. After treatment with RCFs the following changes were observed: statistically significant increase in proportion of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclears as well as in % of immature alveolar macrophages (AM) and phagocytic activity of AM; statistically significant decrease in viability of AM and proportion of AM (from the differential cell count) in comparison with the control group. The results of this study indicated that RCFs even 6 months after intratracheal instillation very significantly changed the majority of examined BAL parameters. The presence of inflammatory and cytotoxic response in lung may signalize beginning or developing disease process.

  20. Femur chondrosarcoma misdiagnosed as acute knee arthritis and osteomyelitis--further developing a hitherto unreported complication of tumor embolic ischemic ileal perforation after arthroscopic lavage. (United States)

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung


    The differentiation between osteomyelitis and bone tumor may be difficult due to their overlapping clinical and radiological features. A 25-year-old lady presented with left knee pain and joint effusion associated with redness and hotness. A sub-optimally taken plain radiograph showed mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesion in the left lower femur with surrounding soft tissue swelling. Since the clinical diagnosis was acute osteomyelitis and arthritis, arthroscopic lavage was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The removed loose bodies and fibrinous tissue showed pathological features suspicious of chondrosarcoma. Subsequent MRI revealed an infiltrative tumor eroding through the cortex and joint cartilage. En bloc excision of the left lower femur, upper tibia including the knee joint and patella was performed, and the final diagnosis was grade 2 chondrosarcoma. The patient developed bilateral pulmonary metastasis 33 months after operation. Five months later, she suffered from a hitherto undescribed complication of ischemic perforation of the terminal ileum secondary to tumor embolic arterial obstruction with no macroscopic intestinal or peritoneal tumor deposit. The patient developed multiple brain metastases and died 43 months after initial presentation. Our case illustrates that malignant bone tumor as a differential diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis and arthritis merits recognition and exclusion before arthroscopic lavage, which may enhance tumor dissemination and in our patient results in embolic ischemic ileal perforation.

  1. Changes of Tumor Necrosis Factor, Surfactant Protein A, and Phospholipids in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in the Development and Progression of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To evaluate the alterations of biomarkers in the development and progression of coal workers'pneumoconiosis (CWP). Methods The type and number of cells, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),pulmonary surfactant protein, phospholipids and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assayed in 14 health active coal miners, 21 coal miners without CWP and 13 miners with CWP of 0/1 to 1/1. Results Compared to active coal miners without CWP (8.23 μg/mL), TNF-α concentration was gradually decreased when dust exposure was stopped (5.90 μg/mL).Elevated surfactant protein A (SP-A) level and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to phosphatidylinositol (PI) ratio were found in miners actively exposed to coal dust (6528 ng/mL for SP-A and 10. for PG/PI), and both parameters decreased when CWP progressed from CWP (0/1) (3419 μg/mL for SP-A and 5.9 for PG/PI) to CWP (1/1) (1654 μg/mL for SP-A and 5.5 for PG/PI).Conclusion Biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid can be used to screen coal miners at high risk of developing coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

  2. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  3. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 1: specimen handling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaratunga, H.; Montironi, R.; True, L.; Epstein, J.I.; Griffiths, D.F.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kwast, T. van der; Wheeler, T.M.; Srigley, J.R.; Delahunt, B.; Egevad, L.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.


    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the handling and processing of radical prostatectomy specimens were coordinated by wo

  4. Degenerative spine disease : pathologic findings in 985 surgical specimens. (United States)

    Pytel, Peter; Wollmann, Robert L; Fessler, Richard G; Krausz, Thomas N; Montag, Anthony G


    A number of pathologic changes have been reported in spinal surgery specimens. The frequency of many of these is not well defined. We retrospectively reviewed the histologic features of 985 extradural spinal surgery specimens. Of the cases, 1.6% were identified clinically as synovial cysts. In addition, synovial tissue was seen in another 5.3% of cases, often embedded within disk material. Neovascularization of disk tissue was present in 8.1% of cases, chondrocyte clusters in 18.3%, and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in 2.8%, predominantly within disk material. With the exception of crystal deposits, all of these changes were significantly more common in the lumbar spine. A better understanding of cell-based degenerative changes will become essential with increasing research into cell-based therapies for spinal disk disease. We report data on the frequency of different pathologic changes and describe synovial metaplasia as a reactive change not previously reported.

  5. Design and Realization of Geographic Information System for Plant Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenran Gao


    Full Text Available The thesis research work is based on adopting the combination of theory and technology research. For the unique characteristics of bambusoideae in yunnan province, analyses the characteristics, value and the present situation of resources of bambusoideae plant resources in yunnan province. According to the system requirements of the specimen of bambusoideae in Yunnan province, by Microsoft. Net framework platform, a collection of Web services and ASP.NET technology, based on the data of Microsoft SQL Server2008 and ADO.NET technology support, selecting desktop GIS Arc GIS platform (Arc GIS Desktop and server (Arc GIS Server as a system of GIS secondary development of GIS, and using developed tools of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Visual, Finally, the information system of plant specimen which based on GIS integration development of bambusoideae is finished .

  6. Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaïg G. Hemery


    Full Text Available This circumpolar dataset of the comatulid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Carpenter, 1888 from the Southern Ocean, documents biodiversity associated with the specimens sequenced in Hemery et al. (2012. The aim of Hemery et al. (2012 paper was to use phylogeographic and phylogenetic tools to assess the genetic diversity, demographic history and evolutionary relationships of this very common and abundant comatulid, in the context of the glacial history of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic shelves (Thatje et al. 2005, 2008. Over one thousand three hundred specimens (1307 used in this study were collected during seventeen cruises from 1996 to 2010, in eight regions of the Southern Ocean: Kerguelen Plateau, Davis Sea, Dumont d’Urville Sea, Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, East Weddell Sea and Scotia Arc including the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bransfield Strait. We give here the metadata of this dataset, which lists sampling sources (cruise ID, ship name, sampling date, sampling gear, sampling sites (station, geographic coordinates, depth and genetic data (phylogroup, haplotype, sequence ID for each of the 1307 specimens. The identification of the specimens was controlled by an expert taxonomist specialist of crinoids (Marc Eléaume, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris and all the COI sequences were matched against those available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD: This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, Antarctic and/or crinoid diversity (species richness, distribution patterns, biogeography or habitat / ecological niche modeling. This dataset is accessible through the GBIF network at

  7. Non-occurrence of Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical specimens. (United States)

    Samra, Z; Borin, M; Bukowsky, Y; Lipshitz, Y; Sompolinsky, D


    Five hundred and thirteen clinical specimens, mainly from patients with urogenital inflammations, were examined for Ureaplasma urealyticum and mycoplasmas, including cultures for Mycoplasma genitalium. The study yielded 95 isolates of Ureaplasma urealyticum, 37 isolates of Mycoplasma hominis and two isolates of Mycoplasma fermentans, but no growth of Mycoplasma genitalium was obtained. It was concluded that Mycoplasma genitalium is a relatively rare inhabitant of the human urogenital tract in Israel.

  8. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  9. SQA specimen papers 2013, national 5, physics and model papers

    CERN Document Server



    Practise for your exam on the official National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority . This book also includes additional model papers and extra revision guidance, making it an essential purchase for any student. - Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners. - Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections. - Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips

  10. Finite strain analyses of deformations in polymer specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Analyses of the stress and strain state in test specimens or structural components made of polymer are discussed. This includes the Izod impact test, based on full 3D transient analyses. Also a long thin polymer tube under internal pressure has been studied, where instabilities develop...... viscoplastic flow on the indentation response. Also, the ability of the simpler expanding spherical cavity model to reproduce the trends from the 3D finite element solutions has been assessed....

  11. Processing and Quality Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing Monolayer Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wendt


    Full Text Available Although its importance has increased significantly, Additive Manufacturing is not yet a fully accepted industrial manufacturing process for load-carrying parts. The future success of the process group depends on its standardization. This work proposes a methodology for the design, manufacturing, and quality evaluation of specimens manufactured by Fused Layer Modeling that are composed of only one layer (so-called monolayers. The processing methodology and properties of monolayers have not been studied systematically yet. A first systematic design of monolayers for mechanical testing is presented. Rectangular and circular monolayers adapted to the loads of tensile and compression testing are manufactured using different trajectory strategies. Frequently occurring macro- and microgeometrical defects are evaluated and categorized in order to optimize the part quality. This work also studies the effect of some manufacturing parameters such as the gap between print head and machine bed, trajectory strategy, bed leveling, and temperatures on part quality. The most suitable specimens are tested mechanically in tensile or compression tests. In the case of study, tensile strength values are only 8.6% lower than the values for reference tests on the unextruded filament. However, the properties deviate more strongly for compression tests which may be due to the selected specimen geometry.

  12. Potential and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control. (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef


    Alternative specimens (e.g., hair and saliva) are well established in forensic toxicology and provide significant benefits as noninvasive, inexpensive alternatives to blood with access to improved long-term retrospection. Based on these experiences, the question of potential applications and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control arose. Compounds prohibited at all times (e.g., clenbuterol, β(2) agonists, estrogen-receptor modulators) may be successfully tested and clearly interpreted in alternative specimens. In contrast, prohibition of certain compounds in sport are limited to time ranges (e.g., stimulants are only prohibited in-competition), dosages or administration routes (e.g., systemic uptake of glucocorticosteroids). This cannot be properly differentiated by semiquantitative tests (e.g., hair analyses), but may be distinguished in saliva. Similarly, proof of external administration of endogenous steroids (e.g., testosterone) only seems to be achievable by quantitative analysis of saliva. Moreover, the retrospective monitoring of the relevance of social drugs or upcoming (unapproved) substances represents promising applications of hair tests in doping control.

  13. Antarctic environmental specimen bank. A tool for chemical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soggia, F.; Dalla Riva, S.; Abelmoschi, M.L.; Frache, R. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale


    The work illustrates the project on Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank (BCAA), which is an integral part of the Italian project on the micropollutants chemistry (sector on chemical contamination of the Italian Antarctic Research program, PNRA), begun in 1994 when the BCAA was installed in the department of chemistry and industrial chemistry (Genoa University, Italy). Its objective underlines an emphasis on environmental chemistry and the establishment of baselines similar to the approaches followed by the other environmental specimen banks, begun at the end of Sixties with the aim of long-term storage of representative environmental specimens in order to study the presence and the evolution of dangerous substances, but focus on the chemical characterization of samples. [Italian] Il lavoro illustra le finalita' del Progetto su una Banca Campioni Ambientali Antartici (BCAA), che e' parte integrante del progetto Chmica dei microinquinannti del Settore Contaminazione chimica del Programma Nazionale di ricerche in Antartide (ONRA), nata nel 1994 presso il dipartimento di chimicia e chimica industriale dell'universita' di Genova. A differenza di altri progetti internazionali che enfatizzano gli aspetti biologici, ecologici e medici, il progetto BCAA enfatizza la chimica ambientale.

  14. Measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of nonuniform temperature specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmin Dai; Chunsuo Kin; Xiaowa He


    A new technique is developed to measure the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of C/C composite material at high temperature. The measuring principle and components of the apparatus are described in detail. The calculation method is derived from the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient. The apparatus mainly consists of a high temperature environmental chamber, a power circuit of heating, two high-speed pyrometers, and a laser scanning system. A long solid specimen is resistively heated to a steady high-temperature state by a steady electrical current. The temperature profile of the specimen surface is not uniform because of the thermal conduction and radiation. The temperature profile and the total expansion are measured with a high-speed scanning pyrometer and a laser slit scanning measuring system, respectively. The thermal expansion coefficient in a wide temperature range (1000 - 3800 K) of the specimen can therefore be obtained. The perfect consistency between the present and previous results justifies the validity of this technique.

  15. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.


    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  16. Inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage among school-age children from urban and rural areas in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Eduardo Santos Galvão

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Some studies have shown that inflammatory processes in the nasal air passages may reflect or affect those in the lower airways. We decided to indirectly assess the inflammatory status of the nasal airways in two groups of children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens. OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory activity in the nasal airways, through the determination of mediators in nasal lavage fluid in two distinct populations. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two public elementary schools, one in an urban setting and the other in a rural setting of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of 40 elementary school children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens were formed. Samples of nasal lavage fluid were assessed for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP and tryptase. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of ECP were observed among students living in the urban area than those in the rural area (p < 0.05. No significant difference in the tryptase levels was observed. Also, the urban children who were sensitized to aeroallergens presented higher levels of ECP in nasal mucosa than the non-sensitized children, while this difference was not observed among the rural children. DISCUSSION: The lack of mast cell activity and increased eosinophil degranulation revealed a chronic inflammatory state in the nasal air passages. The higher eosinophil activity in the urban area, coinciding with higher sensitization to aeroallergens, suggests that there must be some factors in the urban area that can modulate airway inflammation by influencing the activation of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there was no difference in the concentrations of tryptase in nasal lavage fluids between the two studied groups. However, the children from the urban area presented with higher concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein than did those

  17. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons characterizes bacterial composition in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XJ


    Full Text Available Xiao-Jun Yang,1,* Yan-Bo Wang,2,3,* Zhi-Wei Zhou,4,* Guo-Wei Wang,2 Xiao-Hong Wang,1 Qing-Fu Liu,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,4 Zhen-Hai Wang2,3 1Department of Intensive Care Unit, 2Neurology Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Ningxia, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a life-threatening disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity and likely mortality, placing a heavy burden on an individual and society. Currently available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for VAP treatment are limited, and the prognosis of VAP is poor. The present study aimed to reveal and discriminate the identification of the full spectrum of the pathogens in patients with VAP using high-throughput sequencing approach and analyze the species richness and complexity via alpha and beta diversity analysis. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from 27 patients with VAP in intensive care unit. The polymerase chain reaction products of the hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene in these 27 samples of VAP were sequenced using the 454 GS FLX system. A total of 103,856 pyrosequencing reads and 638 operational taxonomic units were obtained from these 27 samples. There were four dominant phyla, including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. There were 90 different genera, of which 12 genera occurred in over ten different samples. The top five dominant genera were Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Limnohabitans, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, and the most widely distributed genera were Streptococcus, Limnohabitans, and Acinetobacter in these 27 samples. Of note, the mixed profile of causative pathogens was observed. Taken

  18. Application of the C18-Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method to Recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Ruminant Tissue Specimens


    Thornton, Charles G.; MacLellan, Kerry M.; Judith R Stabel; Carothers, Christine; Whitlock, Robert H.; Passen, Selvin


    The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from rumin...

  19. Increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography postbronchoalveolar lavage: a potential cause of radiologic misinterpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum


    Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is used for lung cancer diagnosis. We describe a patient with a history of rectal carcinoma who presented with a new lung mass. BAL was performed, with positron emission tomography-computed tomography the following day. There was mildly increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in areas of the lung parenchyma with new ground-glass opacification. This created ambiguity in staging, clarified 2 weeks later by a computed tomography showing complete resolution of the ground-glass opacity. Clinicians should be aware that BAL may cause increased pulmonary fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, making accurate radiologic interpretation problematic. We suggest that to optimize positron emission tomography-computed tomography, studies should not be performed within 24 hours of BAL.

  20. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples. (United States)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G


    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection rates. In this study the diagnostic sensitivity of P. jirovecii real time PCR on DNA isolated from fresh bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples versus that from matched FFPE derived DNA is analyzed. Our results indicate that when targeting a small DNA fragment P. jirovecii PCR can be performed on FFPE BAL samples with acceptable sensitivity (up to 83.3%). This is considerably higher than the 33.3% positives observed by classical staining of these samples.

  1. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Tobias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  2. 持续灌洗引流治疗慢性骨髓炎护理分析%Continuous lavage drainage treatment of chronic osteomyelitis nursing analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察分析持续灌洗引流治疗慢性骨髓炎护理对术后恢复情况的影响,为临床治疗提供可靠依据。方法随机选取2012年—2014年分析30例慢性骨髓炎患者资料,本组患者均是先行病灶彻底清除手术,关闭创面之后进行敏感抗生素的持续灌洗引流。结果30例慢性脊髓炎经过持续灌洗引流之后,康复情况良好,并且对护理的满意度较高。结论在持续灌洗引流期间进行良好的护理,可以有效降低引流导管堵塞的概率,减少患者治疗时间,对患者康复具有积极意义。%Objective To observe the analysis of continuous irrigation drainage for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis nursing effect on postoperative recovery, to provide reliable basis for clinical treatment.Methods Randomly selected from 2012-2014 to analyze the data of 30 cases of chronic osteomyelitis patients, all patients in the group is the first complete focal cleaning operation,continuous lavage closed wound drainage after the sensitive antibiotics.Results 30 cases of chronic inflammation of the spinal cord after continuous drainage,recovering well, and higher satisfaction with care.Conclusion Good nursing care during continuous lavage drainage, can effectively reduce the probability of the drainage catheter jam,reduce patient treatment time,the patient rehabilitation has a positive meaning.

  3. Expression of NKp46 Splice Variants in Nasal Lavage Following Respiratory Viral Infection: Domain 1-Negative Isoforms Predominate and Manifest Higher Activity (United States)

    Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Kundu, Kiran; Shemesh, Avishai; Brusilovsky, Michael; Yossef, Rami; Meshesha, Mesfin; Solomon-Alemayehu, Semaria; Levin, Shai; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Campbell, Kerry S.; Porgador, Angel


    The natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor NKp46/NCR1 plays a critical role in elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells. The NCR1 gene can be transcribed into five different splice variants, but the functional importance and physiological distribution of NKp46 isoforms are not yet fully understood. Here, we shed light on differential expression of NKp46 splice variants in viral respiratory tract infections and their functional difference at the cellular level. NKp46 was the most predominantly expressed natural cytotoxicity receptor in the nasal lavage of patients infected with four respiratory viruses: respiratory syncytia virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, or influenza A. Expression of NKp30 was far lower and NKp44 was absent in all patients. Domain 1-negative NKp46 splice variants (i.e., NKp46 isoform d) were the predominantly expressed isoform in nasal lavage following viral infections. Using our unique anti-NKp46 mAb, D2-9A5, which recognizes the D2 extracellular domain, and a commercial anti-NKp46 mAb, 9E2, which recognizes D1 domain, allowed us to identify a small subset of NKp46 D1-negative splice variant-expressing cells within cultured human primary NK cells. This NKp46 D1-negative subset also showed higher degranulation efficiency in term of CD107a surface expression. NK-92 cell lines expressing NKp46 D1-negative and NKp46 D1-positive splice variants also showed functional differences when interacting with targets. A NKp46 D1-negative isoform-expressing NK-92 cell line showed enhanced degranulation activity. To our knowledge, we provide the first evidence showing the physiological distribution and functional importance of human NKp46 splice variants under pathological conditions. PMID:28261217

  4. Determination of pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) prepolymers by bronchoalveolar lavage in acute rat inhalation studies according to TRGS 430. (United States)

    Ma-Hock, L; Gamer, A O; Deckardt, K; Leibold, E; van Ravenzwaay, B


    Pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of two hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI)-based prepolymers (I: polymeric emulsfier modified and II: oligomeric allophanate modified) were determined in acute inhalation studies according to TRGS 430 (Dangerous Substances Technical Rule, isocyanates, Germany), based on benchmark extrapolation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total protein. It was also investigated if the method is robust enough to be transferred to an independent laboratory. Five male Wistar rats per group were exposed nose-only to the test substances as liquid aerosols to concentrations of 0, 0.5, 3, 15 mg/m(3) for both test substances with an additional test group at 50 mg/m(3) for test substance I. The duration of the exposure was 6h, followed by serial sacrifices 1 day, 3 days and 7 days post exposure. BALF was analyzed for biochemical and cytological markers indicative for injury of the bronchoalveolar region. The exposure of rats to test substance I and II caused dose depended lung irritation with BALF total protein concentration being the most sensitive indicator of pulmonary effects. The extrapolated no observed adverse effect level of test substance I was 1.1 mg/m(3) and that of test substance II 2.3 mg/m(3). The acute pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations were found to be similar to those reported by [Pauluhn, J., 2004. Pulmonary irritant potency of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage. J. Appl. Toxicol. 24, 231-247] for HDI-homopolymers and other HDI-based polyisocyanates, and were at least 30 times higher than the MAK (occupational exposure limit) value for the HDI monomer (0.035 mg/m(3)). Thus the EBW (exposure assessment value) for these two HDI-based prepolymers can be established at 10x MAK, i.e. at 0.35 mg/m(3).

  5. Effects of crack depth and specimen size on ductile crack growth of SENT and SENB specimens for fracture mechanics evaluation of pipeline steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 1a, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China); Zhang, Z.L., E-mail: zhiliang.zhang@ntnu.n [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 1a, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ostby, E.; Nyhus, B. [SINTEF, Materials and Chemistry, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Sun, D.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)


    A strong geometry dependence of ductile crack growth resistance emerges under large scale yielding. The geometry dependence is associated with different levels of crack tip constraint conditions. However, in a recent attempt to identify appropriate fracture mechanics specimens for pipeline steels, an 'independent' relationship between the crack growth resistance curves and crack depths for SENT specimens has been observed experimentally. In this paper, we use the complete Gurson model to study the effects of crack depth and specimen size on ductile crack growth behavior. Crack growth resistance curves for plane strain, mode I crack growth under large scale yielding conditions have been computed. SENB and SENT specimens with three different specimen sizes, each specimen size with three different crack depths, have been selected. It has been found that crack tip constraint (Q-parameter) has a weak dependence on the crack depth for specimens in the low constraint regime.

  6. Influence of Gastric Lavage on Blood Rheology of Patients with Oral Poisoning%洗胃对口服中毒患者血液流变学指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲月霞; 赵丽文; 王亚婷; 张周良


    探讨洗胃对口服中毒患者血液流变学指标的影响。方法测定11例口服中毒患者洗胃前后血液流变学指标的变化,并以18例健康体检者做为正常对照。结果洗胃后多项血液粘滞度指标显著下降,红细胞刚性指数明显升高。结论中毒患者常规洗胃后血液处于低粘状态,是易于出现并发症的原因之一。%Objective To investigate the influence of gastric lavage on blood rheology of patients with oral poisoning. Methods Blood theology of 11 patients with oral poisoning was determined before and after gastric lavage. Eighteen healthy people were used as control. Results Blood viscosity,hematocrit and fibrinogen were remarkably decreased after gastric lavage. Conclusion Routine gastic lavage may result in decreased blood viscosity, posing likelihood of developing complications.

  7. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens. (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung


    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  8. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens. (United States)

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura


    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  9. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment (United States)

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar


    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  10. Image reconstruction of simulated specimens using convolution back projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Farhan Manzoor


    Full Text Available This paper reports about the reconstruction of cross-sections of composite structures. The convolution back projection (CBP algorithm has been used to capture the attenuation field over the specimen. Five different test cases have been taken up for evaluation. These cases represent varying degrees of complexity. In addition, the role of filters on the nature of the reconstruction errors has also been discussed. Numerical results obtained in the study reveal that CBP algorithm is a useful tool for qualitative as well as quantitative assessment of composite regions encountered in engineering applications.

  11. Automatic Optical Crack Tracking for Double Cantilever Beam Specimens (United States)


    and Member, R.G., ‘‘Path Planning For Machine Vision Assisted , Teleoperated Pavement Crack Sealer,’’ Journal of Transportation Engineering 124:137...TECHN ICAL ART IC LE Automatic Optical Crack Tracking for Double Cantilever Beam Specimens B. Krull1,2, J. Patrick2,3, K. Hart2,4, S. White2,4, and N...Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 3 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of

  12. Ductile fracture assessment using parameters from small specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talja, H. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The topic of this thesis is the computational aspects in the assessment of ductile failure in metals. The first part briefly describes the micromechanics of ductile crack growth and methods for assessing it. The `classic` approach to describe material behaviour using fracture mechanics is summarised. The limitations of the one parameter approach based on the stress intensity factor K or the J- integral are described. Attempts to extend the application field of fracture mechanics parameters by introducing triaxility or constraint parameters are also presented. Different local approach methodologies are summarised. Special attention is paid to the modified Gurson model, which is based on micro-mechanical studies of void initiation, growth and coalescence. The main part of the work consists of numerical analyses with the modified Gurson model. The parameters of the model are first determined by matching tensile test results by finite element analysis, and then applied to J-R curve prediction. This methodology is applied to several reactor pressure vessel materials: A533B, 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and austenitic VVER 440 cladding. As a result, the applicability of different specimen types for the parameter determination of the modified Gurson model has been evaluated. Because a combination of experimental and numerical work is needed, it proved to be most feasible to use specimens which can be simulated with two-dimensional or axisymmetric finite element models. Further, a practical way to treat anisotropic material behaviour using the modified Gurson model by using separate parameter sets for different orientations has been proposed and verified. The correspondence between the observed scatters in tensile and fracture mechanical test results has been examined. Best agreement was obtained fitting the scatter of tensile tests by varying the values of initial parameters. Reasons for apparently higher ductility measured from sub-sized than standard size tensile specimens were

  13. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole;


    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...... effect of vacuum sealing was observed with respect to cellular morphology, detection of immunohistochemical epitopes, or RNA integrity. In contrast, storage at 4°C was shown to preserve tissue to a higher degree than storage at room temperature for all included endpoints, independently of whether...

  14. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

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    Nunes Cáris Maroni


    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  15. Application of Dellson Fluid-Based Thin-Preparation Cytologic in the Diagnosis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) Cytology%Dellson膜式超薄技术在肺泡灌洗液细胞学诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其春; 何磊


    目的 探讨Dellson膜式超薄细胞学制片技术(DTC)在肺泡灌洗液细胞学检查中的应用.方法 将临床送检的灌洗液,加处理液等系列处理后,用自动液基细胞制片机制片.同时用传统方法制作涂片,两者同步做瑞氏染色或HE染色,镜检观察.结果 通过对106例肺泡灌洗液标本用两种制片方法的对比观察,液基薄层细胞制片的优良率达90.5% (96/106),而传统制片仅为61.3% (65/106);液基薄层细胞制片癌细胞阳性率为46.2% (49/106),可疑癌细胞5.7% (6/106);传统制片的癌细胞阳性率为24.5% (26/106),可疑癌细胞2.8% (3/106).结论 Dellson膜式超薄细胞学制片技术(DTC)用于肺泡灌洗液细胞学检查,涂片质量及癌细胞检测的阳性率明显高于传统涂片.%Objective To investigate the application of production technology of liquid-based cytology in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology diagnosis. Methods Plus digestive to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, remove the mucus and other substance, the precipitate was transferred to preservation solution. Smear was made with automatic liquid-based cell production machine. Mean while smears were made by traditional methods. They were both dyed by Wright' s staining or hematoxylin eo-sin staining (HE). The effect of the smears was observed under microscope. Results By comparative study of 106 cases of clinical specimens of two kinds of production methods, the good rate of production of liquid-based cytology was 90.5% (96/106),and the traditional production was only 61. 3% (65/106) ;the positive rate of cancer cells in production of liquid-based cytology was 46. 2% (49/106) ,the suspected cancer was 2.8% (3/106) ;the positive rate of traditional production was 24.5% (26/106) .the suspected cancer was 2. 8% (3/106). Conclusion Production technology of liquid-based cytology can be used for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology diagnose,smears quality and detection of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Thyroid neoplasms represent the most common malignancies of the endocrine system. They are known to occur in association with benign lesions of the thyroid, like multinodular goitre and Hashimoto thyroiditis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the neoplasms of thyroid and their peritumoral morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All thyroidectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, RRMCH over a period of three years from June 2011 to May 2014 were included in the study. Thyro idectomies for non - neoplastic lesions were also extensively sampled and morphologically studied, with focus on peritumoral morphology, in neoplasms. RESULTS : Of the one hundred and fifty four thyroidectomy specimens received over three years, one hundred a nd thirteen (73.4% were non - neoplastic, and forty one were neoplastic (26.6%. Colloid goitre and lymphocytic infiltrate were the most common features in the peritumoral thyroid tissue, followed by multinodular goitre . Hashimoto thyroiditis and Hurthle cell change were noted in 11.5% of cases. Tumors were multicentric in 11.5% of cases. Malignancy was detected in eight of the fifty nine thyroidectomies performed for multinodular goitre . Of the thirty four surgeries for Hashimoto thyroiditis, four were reported as malignant on histopathology. CONCLUSION : All thyroidectomies, including those operated for benign lesions, need to be extensively sampled and morphology studied due to the possibility of occult malignancy. Larger series need to be st udied to find a causal association between the two.

  17. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.


    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  18. The management of incidental findings of reduction mammoplasty specimens. (United States)

    Goodwin, Jessica T; Decroff, Chantelle; Dauway, Emilia; Sybenga, Amelia; Mahabir, Raman C


    Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in plastic surgery. Occasionally, there are findings reported by pathologists that are unfamiliar to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present study was to determine the types of pathologies encountered in reduction mammoplasty specimens. From this list of diagnoses, a best practice guideline for management will be organized to better assist plastic surgeons in the management of patients with incidental findings on pathology reports. A total of 441 pathology reports from patients who underwent bilateral or unilateral reduction mammoplasty in the past three years were identified. A list of 21 different pathologies was generated from the pathology reports, along with supplemental data from recent texts and articles. Occult carcinomas were encountered in two cases (0.45%) and high-risk lesions were found in three cases (0.68%) at the authors' institution. An algorithm was then constructed to organize the pathologies according to risk of malignancy and assign them to a management guideline. There are many different lesions encountered incidentally in reduction mammoplasty specimens that may or may not confer some cancer risk. It is important for plastic surgeons to know which lesions need closer follow-up to provide the best care for their patients.

  19. Correlations between Standard and Miniaturised Charpy-V Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Puzzolante, J.-L.; Verstrepen, A.; Vosch, R.; Van de Velde, L


    A total of 565 instrumented impact tests (232 performed on full-size and 333 on sub-size Charpy-V specimens) have been analysed in order to derive meaningful assumptions on the correlations existing between test results obtained on specimens of different size. Nine materials (pressure vessel steels) have been considered, in both as-received and irradiated state, for a total of 19 conditions examined. For the analysis of data, conventional as well novel approaches have been investigated; former ones, based on a review of the existing literature, include predictions of USE values by the use of normalization factors (NF), shifts of index temperatures related to energy/lateral expansion/shear fracture levels, and a combination of both approaches (scaling and shifting of energy curves). More original and recent proposals have also been verified, available in the literature but also proposed by SCK-CEN in the frame of enhanced surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the applicability and reliability of these methodologies, and recommendations have been given for future developments of the activities on this topic.

  20. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens (United States)

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen


    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  1. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuruskan Hakan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  2. Immunohistochemistry of Programmed Cell Death in Archival Human Pathology Specimens

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    Takami Matsuyama


    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes in RA, gastric fundic glandular epithelia, or nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL cells suggests anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cell differentiation and in oncogenesis such as the induction of survivin. Enzymatically pretreated and ultra-super sensitive detection of beclin-1 in synoviocytes in RA and gastric fundic glandular epithelia suggests enhanced autophagy. The deposition of beclin-1 in fibrinoid necrosis in RA and expression of beclin-1 in detached gastric fundic glandular cells suggest that enhanced autophagy undergoes autophagic cell death (ACD. NKTCL exhibited enhanced autophagy through LC3 labeling and showed densely LC3 labeled cell-debris in regions of peculiar necrosis without deposition of beclin-1, indicating massive ACD in NKTCL and the alternative pathway enhancing autophagy following autophagic vesicle nucleation. Autophagy progression was monitored by labeling aggregated mitochondria and cathepsin D. The cell-debris in massive ACD in NKTCL were positive for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting DNA oxidation occurred in ACD. Immunohistochemical autophagy and PCD analysis in archival human pathology specimens may offer new insights into autophagy in humans.

  3. Application of the C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine specimen processing method to recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue specimens. (United States)

    Thornton, Charles G; MacLellan, Kerry M; Stabel, Judith R; Carothers, Christine; Whitlock, Robert H; Passen, Selvin


    The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue samples. The BACTEC 12B liquid culture system was used but was supplemented with 1% egg yolk emulsion, 4 microg of mycobactin J, and 0.5% pyruvate (12B/EMP) for use in conjunction with this method. The final concentration of antibiotics used was 10 microg of vancomycin, 30 microg of amphotericin B, and 20 microg of nalidixic acid (VAN) per ml. A 7H10-based solid medium was also used that included mycobactin J, pyruvate, and VAN but excluded the egg yolk emulsion (7H10/MPV). Several M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates were examined during the evaluation of this processing method. It was observed that treatment with lytic enzymes stimulated the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis; however, the growth of one isolate was markedly inhibited due to the presence of vancomycin. Subsequently, the vancomycin concentration in the VAN formulation was reduced to 2 microg/ml. A blinded panel of 60 previously characterized tissue samples from bovine and bison were then processed and analyzed by smear and culture. Historically, 31 and 37 specimens were classified as positive by histology and culture, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of smear relative to culture following CB-18 processing were 97.6 and 89.5%, respectively. The 12B/EMP/VAN liquid culture system recovered M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from 39 specimens, whereas 7H10/MPV and Herrold's egg yolk media recovered M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from 26 and 16 specimens, respectively

  4. Effect of specimen size on the fracture toughness of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huaxin


    J-R curves were generated using the single specimen unload-compliance technique on four specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti to determine the effect of specimen dimensions on the fracture behavior. Ductile crack initiation and growth was observed in the 6.35 mm thick specimens but not in the 12.70 mm thick specimens. The J-R curves determined from these tests were not valid per ASTM validity criteria so quantitative measures of the resistance to ductile crack initiation and growth were not obtained. These data suggests that standard fracture toughness tests were performed with small-scale DCT specimens may also not be valid.

  5. [Is it allowed to have a public open exhibition of human plastinated specimens in Japan?]. (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Yohro, T


    This survey was conducted to know what inhibits the public open exhibitions of human anatomical specimens. Questionnaires were handed to 1,035 visitors to the public open exhibition of plastinated specimens at the University of Tokyo between March 30 and April 4, 1995. Five hundred and twenty-two responses were analyzed. The survey revealed following responses of medial and non-medical visitors. 1) Over 90 percent of the visitors welcomed to the public open exhibition of human anatomical specimens. 2) Visitors concerned about the aim of the exhibition and hoped explanations of exhibited specimens. They thought it is necessary to pay attention to the privacy of the cadavers and their families. 3) The most impressive specimens to the visitors were whole body silicone specimens and a series of slices of a whole body for both medical and non-medical visitors. 4) Medical visitors evaluated specimens high for medical education to understand three dimensional structures. On the contrary, non-medical visitors are astonished to encounter the whole body specimens not the dissected ones, and found the identity and human beings in the specimens. 5) Some anatomists strongly stand against the public open exhibitions of anatomical specimens because the plastinated specimens are quite different from ordinary hormaline fixed specimens and they expect that non-medical people must get upset about the specimens.

  6. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Escudero Duch

    Full Text Available Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8% than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915, pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species

  7. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens. (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia


    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  8. Spectrum of histological lesions in 185 consecutive prostatic specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B


    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty five consecutive prostate specimens were studied. The predominant lesion noted was benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H. (92.97%. The incidence of carcinoma was low, (7.02%. Conditions which can mimic and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinoma, like basal cell hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and atrophy associated hyperplasia were noted in 10, 4 and 3 cases of B.P.H. respectively. None of these cases showed evidence of carcinoma. Corpora amylacea were noted in 38.91% of the cases of B.P.H. and were conspicuously absent in cases of carcinoma. Chronic prostatitis was frequently encountered (58% and metaplastic changes were seen in 11% of the cases.

  9. Mini-tensile specimen application for sheets characterization (United States)

    Džugan, J.; Rund, M.; Prantl, A.; Konopík, P.


    There are many cases when there is a shortage of the experimental material for detailed analysis and then small size specimens techniques becomes essential. The current paper deals with investigations of mini-tensile tests (MTT) application to metal sheets characterization. In the case of metal sheets assessment the most common are tensile tests for Lankford parameters and strain hardening determination. As most of the processes are not quasi-static and constant strain rate processes, thus assessment of strain rate hardening is also crucial part of the characterization. Previously developed and verified testing procedure of M-TTs for bulk materials is applied here for steel sheet made of DC01 characterization. Tests under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions are carried out in order to describe above mentioned properties at room temperature. Accurate strain measurement is carried out with digital image correlation systems and results obtained with M-TTs are going to be confronted with standard size specimens’ results.

  10. Tracking plant, fungal, and bacterial DNA in honey specimens. (United States)

    Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania


    Consuming honey can result in adverse effects owing to poisoning by bacterial (botulism) or plant toxins. We have devised a method to extract polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifiable DNA of up to c. 400 bp in length based on dialysis of a 15-mL honey sample for 18 h against deionized water followed by sequential extraction using phenol, phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, and ether. Sequence analysis of PCR products obtained using "universal" plant, fungal, and bacterial primers targeted to the ribosomal RNA genes has allowed us to identify six different orders of plants (Apiales, Fabales, Asterales, Solanales, Brassicales, and Sapindales), two orders of fungi (Entylomatales and Saccharomycetales), and six orders of bacteria (Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Actinomycetales, and Bifidobacteriales) in a single honey specimen.

  11. Mechanical Analysis of Concrete Specimen under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; NIU Changren; R D Hooton


    In order to quantify the development of the tensile stresses and obtain a reliable estimation of the cracking risk, the concrete was subjected to restrained conditions. The fully restrained condition was achieved by keeping the length constant of a concrete specimen. Comparing the free shrinkage with the restrained shrinkage,tensile creep could be discriminated from shrinkage. The testing method was introduced in details, and the mechanical behaviors under tensile load were analyzed. Results show that concrete exhibits a pronounced viscoelasticity. Under restrained condition, the self induced tensile stress increases with time. The lower the water to cement ratio, the larger the tensile stress at the same age. The tensile creep of hardening concrete is much larger than that of hardened concrete. The relationships among autogenous shrinkage under free condition, elastic strain and creep under restrained condition are described, and the mathematical model for the calculation of elastic strain and creep is proposed.

  12. Study of two tantalum Taylor impact specimens using experiments and stochastic polycrystal plasticity simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We compare the experimentally obtained response of two cylindrical tantalum Taylor impact specimens. The first specimen is manufactured using a powder metallurgy (P/M) process with a random initial texture and relatively equiaxed crystals. The second is sectioned from a roundcorner square rolled (RCSR) rod with an asymmetric texture and elongated crystals. The deformed P/M specimen has an axisymmetric footprint while the deformed RCSR projectile has an eccentric footprint with distinct corners. Also, the two specimens experienced similar crystallographic texture evolution, though the RCSR specimen experienced greater plastic deformation. Our simulation predictions mimic the texture and deformation data measured from the P/M specimen. However, our RCSR specimen simulations over-predict the texture development and do not accurately predict the deformation, though the deformation prediction is improved when the texture is not allowed to evolve. We attribute this discrepancy to the elongated crystal morphology in the RCSR specimen which is not represented in our mean-field model.

  13. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)


    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  14. Study on Temperature Distribution of Specimens Tested on the Gleeble 3800 at Hot Forming Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Gao; Long Ma; Xiao-Guo Peng


    Taking Ti-6Al-4V specimens into consideration, the coupled thermal-electrical finite element model has been developed in Abaqus/Explicit to simulate the heating process in Gleeble 3800 and to study the temperature history and distribution in the specimen. In order to verify the finite element (FE) results, thermal tests are carried out on Gleeble 3800 for a Ti-6Al-4V specimen with a slot to in the centre of the specimen. The effects of the specimen size, heating rate, and air convection on the temperature distribution over the specimen have been investigated. The conclusions can be drawn as: the temperature gradient of the specimen decreases as the specimen size, heating rate, and vacuuming decrease.

  15. Problems of laser vibrometry of temporal bone specimens (United States)

    Zahnert, Thomas; Vogel, Uwe; Hofmann, Gert; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd


    Laser vibrometry became a well-established method for vibration detection of solids. By the means of laser Doppler interferometry it is possible to obtain information about displacement and velocity of the system under test. This approach allows the non-contact measurement of small vibrations, and is therefore capable of investigating vibration response of the middle ear ossicles or tympanic membrane due to sound simulation. There have been investigated 20 fresh human temporal bone specimens. Various components related to the sound transmission due to acoustic or mechanic stimulation have been measured by a commercial laser vibrometer (OFV3000 + OFV302/Polytec). Data acquisition, signal processing and test signal generation have been provided by a signal analyzer B&K3550/Bruel&Kjaer or integrated into a Notebook PC. The samples became prepared to allow laser beam access to the regions of interest. Generally our experiments show the capability of laser vibration measurements of the temporal bone specimen for middle ear sound transmission investigations. But the complexity is limiting that method unfortunately. 1D detection could represent insufficient information about the acoustic transmission characteristics only. The request of possibly 3D scanning is limited by anatomic conditions, e.g., according to the narrowness of the tympanic cavity. Nevertheless, for specific problems, e.g., investigation of spatially resolved tympanic membrane vibration characteristics, laser vibrometry performs a unique and high-sensitive approach. After removing the external ear canal different, well-defined points of the tympanic membrane surface have been manually scanned by the open laser beam. Particular care has been taken of the problem of perpendicular beam incidence, in order to detect identical vector components of the vibration amplitude. Laser vibrometry becomes suitable for functional investigation of the vibrating system `ear' influenced by boundary condition changes too

  16. Topographic mapping of biological specimens: flexure and curvature characterization (United States)

    Baron, William S.; Baron, Sandra F.


    Shape quantification of tissue and biomaterials can be central to many studies and applications in bioengineering and biomechanics. Often, shape is mapped with photogrammetry or projected light techniques that provide XYZ point cloud data, and shape is quantified using derived flexure and curvature calculations based on the point cloud data. Accordingly, the accuracy of the calculated curvature depends on the properties of the point cloud data set. In this study, we present a curvature variability prediction (CVP) software model that predicts the distribution, i.e., the standard deviation, of curvature measurements associated with surface topography point cloud data properties. The CVP model point cloud data input variables include XYZ noise, sampling density, and map extent. The CVP model outputs the curvature variability statistic in order to assess performance in the curvature domain. Representative point cloud data properties are obtained from an automated biological specimen video topographer, the BioSpecVT (ver. 1.02) (Vision Metrics, Inc.,). The BioSpecVT uses a calibrated, structured light pattern to support automated computer vision feature extraction software for precisely converting video images of biological specimens, within seconds, into three dimensional point cloud data. In representative sample point cloud data obtained with the BioSpecVT, sampling density is about 11 pts/mm2 for an XYZ mapping volume encompassing about 16 mm x 13.5 mm x 18.5 mm, average XY per point variability is about +/-2 μm, and Z axis variability is about +/-40 μm (50% level) with a Gaussian distribution. A theoretical study with the CVP model shows that for derived point cloud data properties, curvature mapping accuracy increases, i.e. measurement variability decreases, when curvature increases from about 30 m-1 to 137 m-1. This computed result is consistent with the Z axis noise becoming less significant as the measured depth increases across an approximately fixed XY

  17. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology. (United States)

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R


    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  18. 急性有机磷中毒洗胃的护理体会%The experience of nursing for gastric lavage for acute organophosphate poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的探讨并分析对急性有机磷中毒患者进行洗胃的方法及临床效果。方法对于2005年9月至2010年12月间在我院就诊的30例急性有机磷中毒患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。通过随机的方式将30例患者分为试验组和对照组两组,其中试验组患者15例,对照组患者15例。对试验组的患者通过对胃管进行留置进而反复进行洗胃的方法进行洗胃护理,对照组的患者则接受传统方法进行洗胃护理。比较两组护理临床效果。结果试验组患者的护理总有效率高于对照组,且不良反应少于对照组。结论对急性有机磷中毒患者通过留置反复洗胃的方法可以起到良好的临床效果,值得在临床是进一步的研究和应用。%  Objective: To discuss the different methods and clinical effect of nursing for gastric lavage for acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods: Choosed 60 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning from Sep. 2005 to Dec. 2010 to analyze retrospectly. Divided these 30 patients into study group and controled group for 15 in each other. The study group were treated with gastric tuber detaining for repeating gastric lavage, while controled group were treated with routine methods. Compared the clinical effect of these two groups. Results:The total rate of nursing of study group was higher than controled group with less adverse effect. Conclusion: The clinical effect of using repeating organophosphate poisoning is good to extend in clinical.

  19. Specimen Machining for the Study of the Effect of Swelling on CGR in PWR Environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report describes the preparation of ten specimens to be used for the study of the effect of swelling on the propagation of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking cracks. Four compact tension specimens, four microscopy plates and two tensile specimens were machined from a AISI 304 material that was irradiated up to 33 dpa. The specimens had been machined such as to represent the behavior of materials with 3.7%swelling and <2% swelling.

  20. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens



    Abstract The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours ...

  1. Evaluation of Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay in Induced Sputum and Gastric Lavage Samples from Young Children with Suspected Tuberculosis from the MVA85A TB Vaccine Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Wekesa Bunyasi

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is limited by the paucibacillary respiratory samples obtained from young children with pulmonary disease. We aimed to compare accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, an automated nucleic acid amplification test, between induced sputum and gastric lavage samples from young children in a tuberculosis endemic setting.We analyzed standardized diagnostic data from HIV negative children younger than four years of age who were investigated for tuberculosis disease near Cape Town, South Africa [2009-2012]. Two paired, consecutive induced sputa and early morning gastric lavage samples were obtained from children with suspected tuberculosis. Samples underwent Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube [MGIT] culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. We compared diagnostic yield across samples using the two-sample test of proportions and McNemar's χ2 test; and Wilson's score method to calculate sensitivity and specificity.1,020 children were evaluated for tuberculosis during 1,214 admission episodes. Not all children had 4 samples collected. 57 of 4,463[1.3%] and 26 of 4,606[0.6%] samples tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on MGIT culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay respectively. 27 of 2,198[1.2%] and 40 of 2,183[1.8%] samples tested positive [on either Xpert MTB/RIF assay or MGIT culture] on induced sputum and gastric lavage samples, respectively. 19/1,028[1.8%] and 33/1,017[3.2%] admission episodes yielded a positive MGIT culture or Xpert MTB/RIF assay from induced sputum and gastric lavage, respectively. Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 8/30[26.7%; 95% CI: 14.2-44.4] for two induced sputum samples and 7/31[22.6%; 11.4-39.8] [p = 0.711] for two gastric lavage samples. Corresponding specificity was 893/893[100%;99.6-100] and 885/890[99.4%;98.7-99.8] respectively [p = 0.025].Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was low, compared to MGIT culture, but diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF did not differ sufficiently between

  2. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  3. 3D analyses of the effect of weld orientation in Charpy specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.


    of failure in the weld material, base material and heat affected zone (HAZ). For these rotated specimens the location where the notch crosses the thin layer of HAZ, i.e. whether this location is near the center of the specimen or near the free specimen edge, makes a large difference in the response. (C) 2004...

  4. Two Australian Fetuses: Frederic Wood Jones and the Work of an Anatomical Specimen. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Jones, Ross L


    A close analysis of two fetal specimens is used to explore of role of material specimens in anatomical practice of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the significance of Indigenous bodies in that era's quest for an understanding of human difference, and the postcolonial legacies of the global project of creating collections of human specimens.

  5. New impact specimen for adhesives: optimization of high-speed-loaded adhesive joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, A.A.; Guyt, C.B.; Vlot, A.


    A new kind of joint specimen has been developed to load the adhesive in pure shear on impact. The specimen is tested with three adhesives at five layer thicknesses, and at three test speeds. From these tests it can be concluded that the rod-ring specimen is suitable for use in impact tests at high s

  6. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (United States)


    ...) The donor shall initial the identification label(s) on the specimen bottle(s) for the purpose of... donor's specimen identification numbers and seals initialed by the donor. If the involved collector... Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  7. 10 CFR 26.159 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation. (United States)


    ... use aliquots and laboratory internal custody-and-control forms when conducting initial and... technicians are responsible for each urine specimen or aliquot in their possession and shall sign and complete custody-and-control forms for those specimens or aliquots as they are received. (f) If a specimen is to...

  8. [Mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis in children. Clinical study, analysis of data of bronchoalveolar fluid lavage and respiratory function tests, therapeutic trends]. (United States)

    Donato, L; Baculard, A; Boule, M; Boccon-Gibod, L; Grimfeld, A; Tournier, G


    A series of 27 children (mean age: 12 yrs, 5 mos.) presenting with thoracic sarcoidosis is reported. This series, collected from 1961 to 1988 shows the rarity of the disease at that age. However the low rate of asymptomatic forms (22%) suggests that the frequency of the disease is underestimated, as it is not diagnosed. The histological proof is necessary for the diagnosis. When peripheral lesions available for biopsy are lacking, a liver needle biopsy is helpful (93% of positivity). This study shows the frequency of multivisceral types, the intensity of the macrophagic and lymphocytic alveolitis. The therapeutic indications depend on the comparison of the radiological stage, the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT), those of the bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and of the serum granulomatous activity markers, especially concerning angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). When present at the beginning of evolution, several risk factors lead to use a corticosteroid treatment: age of onset before 4 years, multivisceral involvement, presence of functional pulmonary signs, delayed diagnosis and onset of treatment, impaired respiratory function (especially concerning the alveolo-capillary diffusion), PMN cells greater than or equal to 2% in the initial BAL, and IgG proteins greater than 4 SD. Thus sarcoidosis in children differs from that seen in adults as it has a more marked evolutive tendency and leaves severe sequelae in one third of patients.

  9. Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Decrease the Concentrations of Inflammatory Mediators in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Bleomycin-Induced Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Bin Liao; Chen Zhu; Wenjun Wang; Xiaoqin Zhan; Xianming Fan


    It has been demonstrated that alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by releasing a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. In addition, abnormal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation in AMs may play a pivotal role in the process of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transfected STAT1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) into rats by aerosolization, and then investigated the effect of STAT1 ASON on inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Our results showed that STAT1 ASON by aerosolization could enter into lung tissues and AMs. STAT1 ASON could inhibit mRNA and protein expressions of STATI and ICAM-1 in AMs of rat with pulmonary fibrosis, and had no toxic side effect on liver and kidney. Aerosolized STAT1 ASON could ameliorate the alveolitis through inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory mediators in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):219-224.

  10. Cigarette smoking induced liver insult concomitant with inflammatory mediators in serum crevicular fluid and bronchio alveolar lavage of schistosomal diabetic subjects with history of bronchial asthma. (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Samia A; Shafik, Sherine R; Wagih, Ayman; Amir, El-Amir M; Kassem, Gamal K; Atef, Ghada; El-Toukhy, Heba


    Forty five smokers were classified into schistosomal cases with type-2 diabetis mellitus (GI) and with associated history of bronchial asthma (GII) and without T-2 DM (GIII). A control group (GIV) of non-diabetic non schistosomal age matched subjects who quitted smoking for >6 months were included. Assessed parameters included indices of glycemic status (glycated hemoglobin), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) hepatic and bronchoalveolar disposition (Liver function test, metallothionein, serum levels of cotinine, cadmium selenium, copper & zinc) and bronchoalveolar lavage) (BAL) levels of surfactant proteins A & D, zinc and copper oxidative stress and fibrogenesis (total antioxidant capacity thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and vasculopathy (angiotensin converting enzyme, P-selectin, nitrate) and periodontitis (collagenase and elastase in GCF) impact of cigarette smoking associated with trace element disbalance and enzymatic changes in crevicular fluid on altered parameters collaborative out-come. The study reflected the collaborative outcome of immune mediated mechanisms initiated by liver affection, glycemic status and history of predisposed bronchial integrity induced by oxidative stress.

  11. Microbial interaction between a CTXM-15 -producing Escherichia coli and a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage: influence of cefotaxime in the dual-species biofilm formation. (United States)

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Mendes, Ângelo; Gomes, Rita; Curvelo, Sara; Cravo, Sara; Sousa, Emília; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins da Costa, Paulo


    Two isolates, Escherichia coli ella00 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ella01, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage, were found to be closely associated in clusters in agar medium. Escherichia coli ella00 was multidrug resistant and CTXM-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer, while P. aeruginosa ella01 was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. These observations impelled for further studies aimed to understand their microbial interaction. The P. aeruginosa ella01 biofilm-forming capacity was reduced and not affected when it was co-cultured with E. coli ella00 and E. coli ATCC 25922 respectively. Interestingly, the co-culture of ella isolates in the presence of high concentrations, such as 160 μg ml(-1) , of cefotaxime allowed the formation of more biofilm than in the absence of the antibiotic. As revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, in co-culture, P. aeruginosa ella01 survived and subsequently flourished when exposed to this third-generation cephalosporin at a concentration 10 × higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and this was mostly due to β-lactamases production by E. coli ella00. In fact, it was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography that cefotaxime was absent for the culture medium 4 h after application. In conclusion, we demonstrate that bacterial species can interact differently depending on the surrounding conditions (favourable or stressing), and that those interactions can switch from unprofitable to beneficial.

  12. Comparison between dog-bone and Gaussian specimens for size effect evaluation in gigacycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tridello


    Full Text Available Gigacycle fatigue properties of materials are strongly affected by the specimen risk volume (volume of material subjected to a stress amplitude larger than the 90% of the maximum stress. Gigacycle fatigue tests, performed with ultrasonic fatigue testing machines, are commonly carried out by using hourglass shaped specimens with a small risk volume. The adoption of traditional dog-bone specimens allows for increasing the risk volume, even if the increment is quite limited. In order to obtain larger risk volumes, a new specimen shape is proposed (Gaussian specimen. The dog-bone and the Gaussian specimens are compared through Finite Element Analyses and the numerical results are validated experimentally by means of strain gages measurements. The range of applicability of the two different specimens in terms of available risk volume and stress concentration effects due to the cross section variation is determined.

  13. Hepatitis C virus genotype testing in paraffin wax embedded liver biopsies for specimen identification. (United States)

    Ikura, Y; Ohsawa, M; Hai, E; Jomura, H; Ueda, M


    Despite advances in medical technology, careful specimen identification is still a fundamental principle of laboratory testing. If pathological samples are mixed up, especially in the case of extremely small biopsy samples, large amounts of time and energy may be wasted in correctly identifying the specimens. Recently, two liver biopsy specimens were mixed up in this department, and a new pathological technology was used to resolve the issue. Liver biopsy was performed on two patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. During sample transfer or tissue processing, the biopsy specimens were mixed up. Because the ABO blood group of the two patients was identical (type AB), the specimens were subsequently identified by analysing the HCV genotypes. RNA extracted from the paraffin wax embedded liver specimens was examined by a polymerase chain reaction based HCV genotype assay. This enabled the correct identification of the specimens, and each patient received the appropriate treatment on the basis of the accurate diagnosis.

  14. Three-dimensional numerical simulation on plastic damage in small punch specimen of Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Ruomei, E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ling Xiang, E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Small punch test (SPT) technique was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of Zirconium in this paper. The dimension of the disc specimen is phi 10 x 0.5 mm. Plastic damage in small punch specimen of Zirconium was investigated both experimentally and numerically, because it has great influence on small punch specimen. In order to simulate the plastic damage in the small punch specimen of Zirconium, the 3D finite element model incorporated with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) plastic damage constitutive equation was established. Void growth and initiation of ductile crack of the small punch specimen were predicted. Results show that damage occurs on the bottom side of the specimen and grows across the specimen until complete failure, which has good agreement with the observation in the experiment.

  15. Three-Dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens

    KAUST Repository

    De Jonge, Niels


    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2-3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. © 2010 Microscopy Society of America.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL


    The decommissioning of the Zion Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois, presents a special and timely opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, an international nuclear services company, the selective procurement of materials, structures, components, and other items of interest from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), cutting these segments into blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material and machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for microstructural (TEM, SEM, APT, SANS and nano indention) characterization. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models [1].

  17. Performance of genotype-MTBDR test directly on clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Objectives: Most important point for the control and effective treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TBis early diagnosis and rapid determination of the resistance. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of theGenotype-MTBDR assay applied directly on sputum samples and compare the results with those obtained by DNA sequencingand phenotypic susceptibility testing.Materials and methods: Between November 2005 and February 2006, 93 smear and culture positive sputum sampleswere included in the study. Drug susceptibility results for rifampin (RIF and isoniazid (INH, obtained by proportionmethod on L-J medium, Genotype-MTBDR and DNA sequencing were compared.Results: The rate of concordance between the results of the Genotype-MTBDR and DNA sequencing was 93.5% and96.7% for RIF and INH, respectively. Moreover, Genotype-MTBDR detected all the RIF (24 and INH (18 resistant strainsobtained by sequencing (100%. Compared to the DNA sequencing method; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictiveand negative predictive value for RIF and INH were 100%, 91.3%, 80%, 100% and 100%, 96%, 85.7%, 100% respectively.Conclusion: Genotype-MTBDR, one of molecular assays, distinctly shortens the time for diagnosis and detection of resistanceto INH and RIF, essential for management of MDR-TB. The test appears to have good sensitivity and specificitywhen also used directly on sputum specimens. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 135-141Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; drug resistance; genotype-MTBDR.

  18. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network (United States)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman


    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  19. The interaction between rocuronium in lung lavage in recovery of tube drawing application experience%罗库溴铵在肺灌洗术中复苏拔管时的应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖旭; 李光才; 陆英


    Objective:To study the interaction between rocuronium applied in lung lavage in the feasibility of tracheal extubation as soon as possible.Methods:in this paper,our hospital lung lavage in 40 patients with lung lavage,randomly divided into two groups:the interaction between rocuronium group (group A) and vecuronium bromide group (group B) to observe the two groups of patients with postoperative muscle relaxant recovery time. Results:compared with control group,the recovery time is less than group B,group A difference compared with the control group with statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion:the interaction between rocuronium is applied in the lung were muscle relaxant condition satisfied,fast recovery of muscle strength,wake up fast,can be used as lung lavage and muscle relaxants.%目的:探讨罗库溴铵应用于肺灌洗术中尽快气管拔管的可行性。方法:本文对某医院肺灌洗术中肺灌洗患者40例,随机分罗库溴铵组(A组)和维库溴铵组(B组),观察两组患者术后肌松恢复时间。结果:与对照组相比,A组的恢复时间小于B组,与对照组相比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:罗库溴铵应用于肺灌洗术肌松条件满意,术后肌力恢复迅速,苏醒快,可作为肺灌洗术的肌松药。

  20. An improved correlation procedure for subsize and full-size Charpy impact specimen data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The possibility of using subsize specimens to monitor the properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for light-water reactor plant life extension. This potential results from the possibility of cutting samples of small volume form the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of the actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. In addition, plant life extension will require supplemental data that cannot be provided by existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize Charpy V-notch-type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens, and the development of correlations for transition temperature and upper-shelf energy (USE) level between subsize and full-size specimens. Five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and USEs. The effects of specimen dimensions, including notch depth, angle, and radius, have been studied. The correlations of transition temperatures determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimens are presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens is developed. The transformed data are in good agreement with data from full-size specimens for materials that have USE levels less than 200 J.

  1. Cervicovaginal aerobic microflora of women with spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery in Araraquara-Brazil Microbiota aeróbica cérvico-vaginal de mulheres com aborto espontâneo ou prematuridade fetal em Araraquara - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella G. Raddi


    Full Text Available Microbiological routine exams of endocervix and vaginal specimens of 22 women with clinical history of recent spontaneous abortion or premature rupture of membranes were accomplished. Chlamydia trachomatis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were recovered from 54.5% (12 of the women. Ureaplasma urealyticum was frequently isolated (45.5% but 5 out of 22 had U. urealyticum only. Our report stands for the importance of quantitative as well as qualitative investigation on genital microflora in pregnant women, since it is likely to influence on pregnancy outcome.Rotina bacteriológica do conteúdo vaginal e cervical de 22 mulheres com histórico de aborto recente ou ruptura precoce das membranas foi realizada. Chlamydia trachomatis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida sp e Gardnerella vaginalis foram isolados em 54,5% (12 das pacientes. Apesar de Ureaplasma urealyticum ter sido frequentemente encontrado (45,5%, somente em 5 das 22 mulheres foi o único microrganismo presente nos materiais analisados. Esses resultados chamam a atenção para a importância de investigação quantitativa bem como qualitativa da microbiota genital em gestantes, tendo em vista ter consequências na gestação.

  2. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somodi, P.K.; Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Midgley, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Kardynał, B.E. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barnes, C.H.W. [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., E-mail: [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute 5, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)


    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p–n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p–n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations are performed to calculate electrostatic dopant potentials in TEM specimens that contain p–n junctions. • The effect of the electrical state of the specimen surface on the projected potential is assessed for equipotential specimen surfaces. • The step in projected potential is always found to be lower than the step in potential in the bulk device. • The step in projected potential is least sensitive to surface state energy for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. • The depletion width measured from the projected potential has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness.

  3. Giardiasis in North West England: faecal specimen requesting rates by GP practice. (United States)

    Reeve, N F; Fanshawe, T R; Lamden, K; Diggle, P J; Cheesbrough, J; Keegan, T J


    Many cases of giardiasis in the UK are undiagnosed and among other things, diagnosis is dependent upon the readiness of GPs to request a specimen. The aim of this study is to assess the rate of specimens requested per GP practice in Central Lancashire, to examine the differences between GP practices and to estimate the pattern of unexplained spatial variation in the practice rate of specimens after adjustment for deprivation. To achieve this, we fitted a set of binomial and Poisson regression models, with random effects for GP practice. Our analysis suggests that there were differences in the rate of specimens by GP practices (P < 0·001) for a single year, but no difference in the proportion of positive tests per specimen submitted or in the rate of positive specimens per practice population. There was a difference in the cumulative rate of positive specimens per practice population over a 9-year period (P < 0·001). Neither the specimen rate per practice for a single year nor the cumulative rate of positive specimens over multiple years demonstrated significant spatial correlation. Hence, spatial variation in the incidence of giardiasis is unlikely to be confounded by variation in GP rate of specimens.

  4. 急诊洗胃中舒适护理的效果分析%Analysis on the effect of comfortable nursing in the emergency gastric lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of gastric lavage in poisoning patients with comfortable nursing in the emergency department. Methods 122 cases of patients with oral poisoning were selected from May 2010 to June 2012 in our hospital emergency department,they were divided into observation group and control group according to different nursing methods,there were 61 cases in each group, two groups of patients were given routine nursing care, routine care and comfort care. Satisfaction rate, degree of comfort and fit, pain. Of two groups were compared. Results Satisfaction rate and the cooperation degree of observation group were significantly higher than control group, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, restlessness were lower, there were significant differences between two groups(P < 0.05). The proportion of Mild pain patients in the observation group were significantly higher than control group , there were significant differences between two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with poisoning implement comfortable nursing to the psychological and physiological state in good emergency gastric lavage, to eliminate the fear of patients, reduce the discomfort and adverse reaction occurs has important clinical significance to reduce the rate of side effect.%目的探讨对急诊科中毒洗胃患者实施舒适护理后的临床效果。方法收集2010年5月~2012年6月来我院急诊科就诊的口服中毒患者122例,根据不同的护理方法分为观察组及对照组,每组各有61例,两组患者分别实施常规护理、常规护理及舒适护理。比较两组患者的满意率、舒适度及配合度、疼痛情况。结果观察组患者与对照组比较,满意率及配合度明显较高,恶心呕吐、烦躁不安的发生率明显较低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组中轻度疼痛患者所占的比例与对照组比较明显较高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中毒患者在

  5. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients

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    Paolo Cotogni


    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549 exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3 and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6 in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7. 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3 release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined. Results. The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001. The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001 but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01. The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001 as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01, while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

  6. Unique cytokine and chemokine patterns in bronchoalveolar lavage are associated with specific causative pathogen among HIV infected patients with pneumonia, in Medellin, Colombia. (United States)

    Keynan, Yoav; Rueda, Zulma V; Aguilar, Yudy; Trajtman, Adriana; Vélez, Lázaro A


    We wanted to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profile associated with the etiological agents identified in HIV patients. Immunosuppressed patients admitted to two hospitals in Medellin, Colombia, with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia were enrolled in the study. After consent, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected for bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal diagnosis. All patients were followed for a year. A stored BAL sample was used for cytokine/chemokine detection and measurement using commercial, magnetic human cytokine bead-based 19-plex assays. Statistical analysis was performed by assigning cytokine/chemokine concentrations levels into 75 percentile (higher). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were conducted to identify the clustering of cytokines with the various infectious etiologies (fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis - MTB, and bacteria). Average age of patients was 35, of whom 77% were male, and the median CD4 count of 33cells/μl. Of the 57 HIV infected patients, in-hospital mortality was 12.3% and 33% died within a year of follow up. The PCA revealed increased IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, Eotaxin, GCSF, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β concentrations to be associated with MTB infection. In patients with proven fungal infection, low concentrations of IL-1RA, IL-8, TNF-α and VEGF were identified. Bacterial infections displayed a distinct cytokine pattern and were not misclassified using the MTB or fungi cytokine patterns (p-value<0.0001). Our results indicate a unique pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine, allowing differentiation between bacterial and non-bacterial pathogens. Moreover, we found distinct, if imperfectly discriminatory, cytokine/chemokine patterns associated with MTB and fungal infections.

  7. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile


    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (United States)

    Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A


    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative.

  9. Physiological, Biochemical, and Biophysical Characterization of the Lung-Lavaged Spontaneously-Breathing Rabbit as a Model for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (United States)

    Ricci, Francesca; Catozzi, Chiara; Murgia, Xabier; Rosa, Brenda; Amidani, Davide; Lorenzini, Luca; Bianco, Federico; Rivetti, Claudio; Catinella, Silvia; Villetti, Gino; Civelli, Maurizio; Pioselli, Barbara; Dani, Carlo; Salomone, Fabrizio


    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in spontaneously-breathing premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfactant administration techniques compatible with nCPAP ventilation strategy are actively investigated. Our aim is to set up and validate a respiratory distress animal model that can be managed on nCPAP suitable for surfactant administration techniques studies. Surfactant depletion was induced by bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) on 18 adult rabbits. Full depletion was assessed by surfactant component analysis on the BALs samples. Animals were randomized into two groups: Control group (nCPAP only) and InSurE group, consisting of a bolus of surfactant (Poractant alfa, 200 mg/kg) followed by nCPAP. Arterial blood gases were monitored until animal sacrifice, 3 hours post treatment. Lung mechanics were evaluated just before and after BALs, at the time of treatment, and at the end of the procedure. Surfactant phospholipids and protein analysis as well as surface tension measurements on sequential BALs confirmed the efficacy of the surfactant depletion procedure. The InSurE group showed a significant improvement of blood oxygenation and lung mechanics. On the contrary, no signs of recovery were appreciated in animals treated with just nCPAP. The surfactant-depleted adult rabbit RDS model proved to be a valuable and efficient preclinical tool for mimicking the clinical scenario of preterm infants affected by mild/moderate RDS who spontaneously breathe and do not require mechanical ventilation. This population is of particular interest as potential target for the non-invasive administration of surfactant. PMID:28060859

  10. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-β and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis. (United States)

    Matěj, Radoslav; Smětáková, Magdalena; Vašáková, Martina; Nováková, Jana; Sterclová, Martina; Kukal, Jaromír; Olejár, Tomáš


    Sarcoidosis (SARC) and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) share certain markers, making a differential diagnosis difficult even with histopathological investigation. In lung tissue, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is primarily investigated with regard to epithelial and inflammatory perspectives. Varying levels of certain chemokines can be a useful tool for distinguishing EAA and SARC. Thus, in the present study, differences in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) and PAR-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared, using an ELISA method, between 14 patients with EAA and six patients with SARC. Statistically significant higher levels of IL-4R, PAR-2 and the PAR-2/TGF-β1 and PAR-2/TNF-α ratios were observed in EAA patients as compared with SARC patients. Furthermore, the ratios of TNF-α/total protein, TGF-β1/PAR-2 and TNF-α/PAR-2 were significantly lower in EAA patients than in SARC patients. The results indicated a higher detection of PAR-2 in EAA samples in association with TNF-α and TGF-β levels. As EAA and PAR-2 in parallel belong to the Th2-mediated pathway, the results significantly indicated an association between this receptor and etiology. In addition, the results indicated that SARC is predominantly a granulomatous inflammatory disease, thus, higher levels of TNF-α are observed. Therefore, the detection of PAR-2 and investigated chemokines in BALF may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between EAA and SARC.

  11. Lavage with allicin in combination with vancomycin inhibits biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a rabbit model of prosthetic joint infection.

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    Haohan Zhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate, an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. METHODS: A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n = 32. Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL, allicin (4 mg/L, or allicin (4 mg/L plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL. Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. RESULTS: The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups. The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be

  12. Effect of low doses of lipopolysaccharide prior to ozone exposure οn bronchoalveolar lavage. Differences between wild type and surfactant protein A-deficient mice

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    Rizwanul Haque


    Full Text Available SUMMARY. BACKGROUND: Several aspects of the inflammatory response to a single insult, i.e., exposure to 2 ppm of ozone (O3 for 3 h or 6 h, are less pronounced in surfactant protein A deficient (SP-A -/- mice (KO than in wild type mice (WT. It was hypothesized that a mild insult, specifically low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, would adversely affect host defense and differentially potentiate O3-induced injury in WT and KO mice. METHODS: WT and KO mice were treated with different doses of LPS or LPS (2 ng + O3 (2 ppm or filtered air (FA for 3 h, then sacrificed 4 h following exposure (O3, FA or 20 h after LPS treatment alone. Several endpoints of inflammation were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. RESULTS: 1 At 20 h after LPS treatment alone, both WT and KO mice exhibited signs of inflammation, but with differences in the macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 response pattern, total cells (at 0.5 ng LPS and basal levels of oxidized protein and phospholipids; 2 After LPS + O3, KO compared to WT showed decrease in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs and MIP-2 and increase in phospholipids, and after LPS + FA an increase in total cells; 3 WT after LPS + FA showed an increase in SP-A with no further increase after LPS + O3, and an increase in oxidized SP-A dimer following O3 or LPS + O3. CONCLUSIONS: LPS treatment has negative effects on inflammation endpoints in mouse BAL long after exposure and renders KO mice less capable of responding to a second insult. LPS and O3 affect SP-A, quantitatively and qualitatively, respectively. Pneumon 2009; 22(2:131–155.

  13. Molecular analysis of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in a mouse model of influenza reveals markers of disease severity that can be clinically useful in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadunanda Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.

  14. On the analysis of a mixed mode bending sandwich specimen for debond fracture characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.


    The mixed mode bending specimen originally developed for mixed mode delamination fracture characterization of unidirectional composites has been extended to the study of debond propagation in foam cored sandwich specimens. The compliance and strain energy release rate expressions for the mixed mode...... bending sandwich specimen are derived based on a superposition analysis of solutions for the double cantilever beam and cracked sandwich beam specimens by applying a proper kinematic relationship for the specimen deformation combined with the loading provided by the test rig. This analysis provides also...... expressions for the global mode mixities. An extensive parametric analysis to improve the understanding of the influence of loading conditions, specimen geometry and mechanical properties of the face and core materials has been performed using the derived expressions and finite element analysis. The mixed...

  15. Degradation and Stabilization of Peptide Hormones in Human Blood Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizu Yi

    Full Text Available Plasma hormone peptides, including GLP-1, GIP, Glucagon, and OXM, possess multiple physiological roles and potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility as biomarkers in the research of metabolic disorders. These peptides are subject to proteolytic degradation causing preanalytical variations. Stabilization for accurate quantitation of these active peptides in ex vivo blood specimens is essential for drug and biomarker development. We investigated the protease-driven instability of these peptides in conventional serum, plasma, anticoagulated whole blood, as well as whole blood and plasma stabilized with protease inhibitors. The peptide was monitored by both time-course Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-to-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS and Ab-based assay (ELISA or RIA. MS enabled the identification of proteolytic fragments. In non-stabilized blood samples, the results clearly indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV removed the N-terminal two amino acid residues from GLP-1, GIP and OXM(1-37 and not-yet identified peptidase(s cleave(s the full-length OXM(1-37 and its fragments. DPP-IV also continued to remove two additional N-terminal residues of processed OXM(3-37 to yield OXM(5-37. Importantly, both DPP-IV and other peptidase(s activities were inhibited efficiently by the protease inhibitors included in the BD P800* tube. There was preservation of GLP-1, GIP, OXM and glucagon in the P800 plasma samples with half-lives > 96, 96, 72, and 45 hours at room temperature (RT, respectively. In the BD P700* plasma samples, the stabilization of GLP-1 was also achieved with half-life > 96 hours at RT. The stabilization of these variable peptides increased their utility in drug and/or biomarker development. While stability results of GLP-1 obtained with Ab-based assay were consistent with those obtained by MS analysis, the Ab-based results of GIP, Glucagon, and OXM did not reflect the time-dependent degradations revealed by MS

  16. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens]. (United States)

    Compérat, Eva; Camparo, Philippe; Srigley, John; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars


    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens issued recommendations for standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. The conference addressed specimen handling, T2 substaging, prostate cancer volume, extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastases and surgical margins. This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations resulting from the consensus process.

  17. Prediction of multiaxial fatigue life for notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. R.; Li, Z. X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Hu, X. T.; Song, Y. D. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)


    Both the proportional and nonproportional multiaxial fatigue tests were conducted on two kinds of notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4. The multiaxial fatigue critical area of notched specimen is considered as the location experiencing the maximum damage. It is unsatisfactory to predict the multiaxial fatigue life with the local stress and strain in the fatigue critical area. The critical distance concepts are employed in the multiaxial life prediction method for notched specimens. The proposed method was checked by the test data of TC4 notched specimens. The prediction results are almost within a factor of three scatter band of the test results.

  18. Investigation on the Relationship between Specimen Width and Breaking Strength of Geotextile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商欣萍; 储才元


    The tensile properties of geotextile are analyzed with the boundary element method, with special emphasis put on the influence of specimen width on geotextile breaking strength.The theoretical and experimental results showed that narrow specimen would underestimate the tensile strength of the geotextile. During testing procedure, the lateral contraction of the specimen is the main reason that causes the breaking strength to be on the lower side. The theoretical results also indicate that the breaking strength of the geotextile would arrive at a fixed value when the specimen width is increased to a certain extent.

  19. New Technique for Successful Thermal Barrier Coating Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Brickey; Lee


    Reliability of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) hinges on the adhesion of a thermally grown oxide scale to an insulative ceramic topcoat and an underlying metallic bondcoat. The width of the scale and its interfaces makes transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an appropriate tool for its analysis. However, specimen preparation has proven to be a challenging obstacle leading to a dearth of TEM research on TBCs. A new approach to cross-section TBC TEM specimen preparation is described. The principal advantages of this technique are reproducibility, reduced specimen damage, and time savings resulting from decreased ion milling. This technique has been successfully applied to numerous TBC specimens with various thermal histories.

  20. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levan Japaridze


    In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2q0), and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili’s method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear inter-action between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  1. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan Japaridze


    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2θ0, and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili's method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear interaction between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  2. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and Characterization of Mutations Associated with Sulfa Resistance in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects (United States)

    Zingale, Anna; Carrera, Paola; Lazzarin, Adriano; Scarpellini, Paolo


    One hundred ninety-four bronchoalveolar specimens were evaluated by microscopic examination and by amplification of a sequence of a Pneumocystis carinii dihidropteroate synthase gene for identification of mutations linked to sulfa resistance. PCR sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 86.7%, respectively, compared to results of microscopic examination. However, 7 out of 19 microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples were collected from subjects with a clinically high probability of P. carinii pneumonia, suggesting that PCR may be more sensitive than microscopic examination, although the absolute performance of PCR cannot be determined. Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%]). PMID:12791912

  3. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.


    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status.

  4. Kic size effect study on two high-strength steels using notched bend specimens (United States)

    Stonesifer, F. R.


    Five methods are used to calculate plane strain fracture toughness (K sub Q) values for bend-specimens of various sizes from two high-strength steels. None of the methods appeared to satisfactorily predict valid stress intensity factor (K sub IC) values from specimens of sizes well below that required by E399 standard tests.

  5. Strength characterization of tubular ceramic materials by flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Kiesel, Lutz; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;


    capable of loading multiple specimens in controlled environments. The stress field is analyzed in detail with finite element analyses. The validity of the test is found to depend on specimen dimensions and the valid range is established. The methodology is demonstrated by experimental measurements...

  6. Specimen charging on thin films with one conducting layer:Discussion of physical principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Downing, Kenneth H.


    While the most familiar consequences of specimen charging in transmission electron microscopy can be eliminated by evaporating a thin conducting film (such as a carbon film) onto an insulating specimen, or by preparing samples directly on such a conducting film to begin with, a more subtle charging effect still remains. We argue here that specimen charging is in this case likely to produce a dipole sheet rather than a layer of positive charge at the surface of the specimen. A simple model of the factors that control the kinetics of specimen charging, and its neutralization, is discussed as a guide for experiments that attempt to minimize the amount of specimen charging. Believable estimates of the electrostatic forces and the electron optical disturbances that are likely to occur suggest that specimen bending and warping may have the biggest impact on degrading the image quality at high resolution. Electron optical effects are likely to be negligible except in the case of a specimen that is tilted to high angle. A model is proposed to explain how both the mechanical and electron-optical effects of forming a dipole layer would have much greater impact on the image resolution in a direction perpendicular to the tilt axis, a well-known effect in electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals.

  7. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. (United States)


    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows:...

  8. Sem-observation of developing plant organs using deep-frozen specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The SEM-observation of plant material normally requires dehydrated, dry specimens coated with carbon or metal. Unfortunately, the standard drying methods (including the critical-point-drying-technique) often cause shrinking and deformation of the specimen surface; therefore, SEMstudies on plant onto

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection (United States)


    ... for forensic toxicology. B. Specimens requested, in order of preference: a. Blood—20 milliliters or...-Accident Testing Blood/Urine Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised.... Collection of blood and urine specimens is required to be conducted at an independent medical...

  10. Type specimens of amphibians in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasso Miracle, M.E.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Arntzen, J.W.


    The amphibian type specimens held in the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden are listed. A total of 775 type specimens representing 143 taxon names were encountered. The list provides the original name, the original publication date, pagination and illustrations, current name, type locality

  11. The utility of direct specimen detection by Sanger sequencing in hospitalized pediatric patients. (United States)

    Mongkolrattanothai, Kanokporn; Dien Bard, Jennifer


    Direct microbial DNA detection from clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing has been developed to address the innate limitations of traditional culture-based work-up. We report our institution's experience with direct specimen sequencing, its clinical utility, and barriers to effective clinical implementation.

  12. 49 CFR 40.183 - What information do laboratories report to MROs regarding split specimen results? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information do laboratories report to MROs regarding split specimen results? 40.183 Section 40.183 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... § 40.183 What information do laboratories report to MROs regarding split specimen results? (a) As...

  13. Impact energy analysis of HSLA specimens after simulated welding thermal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarždić, I.


    Full Text Available This paper presents impact energy results of specimens made from high strength fine grained steel TStE 420 after thermal cycle simulation. These results are obtained by examining Charpy specimens. Metallographic analysis is performed, hardness is measured and total impact energy is divided into ductile and brittle components.

  14. Detection of pathogenic protozoa in the diagnostic laboratory: result reproducibility, specimen pooling, and competency assessment. (United States)

    Libman, M D; Gyorkos, T W; Kokoskin, E; Maclean, J D


    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

  15. Crack Propagation on ESE(T) Specimens Strengthened with CFRP Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Jensen, Peter Holmstrøm; Dyrelund, Jens;


    In this paper fatigue tests on side notched steel test specimens strengthened with adhesive bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are presented. The specimens are subject to crack growth both in the steel and bond line. Influence of the load ratio and initial crack length on the overall en...

  16. Effectiveness of Plastinated Anatomical Specimens Depicting Common Sports Injuries to Enhance Musculoskeletal Injury Evaluation Education (United States)

    Tamura, Kaori; Stickley, Christopher D.; Labrash, Steven J.; Lozanoff, Scott


    Context: Plastination techniques have emerged as effective methods for preserving human tissue and enabling human specimens to be utilized in a fashion similar to anatomical models with much greater accuracy. Opportunities to observe and experience human specimens in classroom settings should be beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students in…

  17. Identification of bacterial invasion in necrotizing enterocolitis specimens using fluorescent in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, F H; Harmsen, H J M; Timmer, A; Kooi, E M W; Bos, A F; Hulscher, J B F


    OBJECTIVE: Investigation of bacterial invasion into the intestinal wall in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) specimens. STUDY DESIGN: We compared 43 surgical NEC specimens with 43 age-matched controls. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), a universal bacterial probe together with species-

  18. 10 CFR 26.129 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation. (United States)


    ... personnel shall use aliquots of the specimen and licensee testing facility chain-of-custody forms, or other appropriate methods of tracking aliquot custody and control, when conducting validity screening and initial... remain in secure storage. Licensee testing facility personnel may discard specimens and aliquots as...

  19. Whole Lung Lavage Treatment of Chinese Patients with Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis:A Retrospective Long-term Follow-up Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Yue Zhao; Hui Huang; Yong-Zhe Liu; Xin-Yu Song; Shan Li; Zuo-Jun Xu


    Background:Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease,the most common type of which is autoimmune PAP.The gold standard therapy for PAP is whole lung lavage (WLL).Few studies have reported the optimal technique with which to evaluate the response to WLL.In this study,we aimed to identify parameters with which to assess the need for repeat WLL during a long-term 8-year follow-up.Methods:We conducted a retrospective analysis of 120 patients with autoimmune PAP with 80 of whom underwent WLL.Physiologic,serologic,and radiologic features of the patients were analyzed during an 8-year follow-up after the first WLL treatment.Results:Of the 40 patients without any intervention,39 patients either achieved remission or remained stable and only one died of pulmonary infection.Of the 56 patients who underwent WLL for 1 time,55 remained free from a second WLL and 1 patient died of cancer.Twenty-four required additional treatments after their first WLL.The baseline PaO2 (P =0.000),PA-aO2 (P =0.000),shunt fraction rate (P =0.00 1),percent of predicted normal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO%Pred) (P =0.016),6-min walk test (P =0.013),carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (P =0.007),and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (P =0.003) showed significant differences among the three groups.The need for a second WLL was significantly associated with PaO2 (P=0.000),CEA (P =0.050),the 6-minute walk test (P =0.026),and DLCO%Pred (P =0.041).The DLCO%Pred on admission with a cut-offvalue of42.1% (P =0.001) may help to distinguish whether patients with PAP require a second WLL.Conclusions:WLL is the optimal treatment method for PAP and provides remarkable improvements for affected patients.The DLCO%Pred on admission with a cut-off value of 42.1% may distinguish whether patients with PAP require a second WLL.

  20. Respiratory compliance but not gas exchange correlates with changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver: an experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury (United States)

    Henzler, Dietrich; Pelosi, Paolo; Dembinski, Rolf; Ullmann, Annette; Mahnken, Andreas H; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf


    Introduction Atelectasis is a common finding in acute lung injury, leading to increased shunt and hypoxemia. Current treatment strategies aim to recruit alveoli for gas exchange. Improvement in oxygenation is commonly used to detect recruitment, although the assumption that gas exchange parameters adequately represent the mechanical process of alveolar opening has not been proven so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether commonly used measures of lung mechanics better detect lung tissue collapse and changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver as compared to measures of gas exchange Methods In eight anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, acute lung injury was induced by saline lavage and a recruitment maneuver was performed by inflating the lungs three times with a pressure of 45 cmH2O for 40 s with a constant positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O. The association of gas exchange and lung mechanics parameters with the amount and the changes in aerated and nonaerated lung volumes induced by this specific recruitment maneuver was investigated by multi slice CT scan analysis of the whole lung. Results Nonaerated lung correlated with shunt fraction (r = 0.68) and respiratory system compliance (r = 0.59). The arterial partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and the respiratory system compliance correlated with poorly aerated lung volume (r = 0.57 and 0.72, respectively). The recruitment maneuver caused a decrease in nonaerated lung volume, an increase in normally and poorly aerated lung, but no change in the distribution of a tidal breath to differently aerated lung volumes. The fractional changes in PaO2, arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and venous admixture after the recruitment maneuver did not correlate with the changes in lung volumes. Alveolar recruitment correlated only with changes in the plateau pressure (r = 0.89), respiratory system compliance (r = 0.82) and parameters obtained from the pressure-volume curve

  1. Correlation and discriminant analysis between clinical, endoscopic, thoracic X-ray and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology scores, for staging horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). (United States)

    Tilley, P; Sales Luis, J P; Branco Ferreira, M


    As recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is progressive and as medical history is frequently unknown by owners, it's important to suggest a score model to characterize RAO stages for a more accurate diagnosis and treatment. The authors correlated clinical (CS), endoscopic (ES), thoracic X-ray (XRS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALFS) scores in horses with RAO, in an attempt to establish relevance of each factor's contribution for the characterization of RAO stages and to suggest a staging method. Thirty horses with RAO and ten healthy controls were studied. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between CS, ES, XRS and BALFS. Only significant correlation coefficients (>0.60) were considered. One way variance analyses were used to compare the two groups. A discriminant analysis model was adjusted on the RAO staging method suggested. There was a significant correlation coefficient between the CS cough, nostril flare and abdominal lift, all the mucus ES (0.61-0.84), the XRS interstitial pattern, bronchial radiopacity and thickening and tracheal thickening (0.67-0.78) and the BALFS neutrophil percentages (0.63-0.84). These variables (e.g., cough) which presented a significant correlation coefficient were considered relevant and chosen for a score model to characterize RAO stages. The ten healthy controls were attributed stage 0 and the 30 RAO horses were attributed stages 1 (4 horses), 2 (7 horses), 3 (10 horses) and 4 (9 horses). There was also a significant correlation coefficient between all the relevant variables and the RAO stage (0.61-0.89). Furthermore, discriminant analysis of the RAO staging method showed 92.5% of original grouped cases and 85.0% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified, having confirmed major contribution of the same variables that had significant correlation coefficients. Even though further confirmation by lung functional testing is desirable, the significant correlation between relevant variables and RAO stage and

  2. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others


    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  3. Pulmonary toxicity of polyvinyl chloride particles after repeated intratracheal instillations in rats. Elevated CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage. (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Vanhooren, Hadewijch M; Verbeken, Erik; Yu, Lisong; Lin, Yuan; Nemery, Benoit; Hoet, Peter H M


    Occupational exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles has been associated with interstitial lung disease. Our previous study showed that a single intratracheal instillation of emulsion PVC particles, with or without residual additives, induces acute but transient alveolitis in a dose-dependent manner in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pulmonary response after the administration of the same PVC particles (PVC-E3 and PVC-W3) given in the same cumulative doses (10 and 50 mg/kg BW), but fractionated as seven intratracheal instillations (7 x 1.4 and 7 x 7.1 mg/kg BW) in the course of 3 weeks (day 0 to day 21). Pulmonary response was characterized by analysis of lung weight, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, and cell cytology, and a microscopic evaluation of lung tissue. BAL T lymphocyte phenotypes (CD3 + CD4 +, CD3 + CD8+) were analyzed by flow cytometry. On day 28, lung weights, BAL-LDH, cell numbers in BAL, and CD4/CD8 ratios in BAL T lymphocytes were higher in rats that had received the high dose of PVC-E3 or PVC-W3 than in rats that had received the low dose of PVC particles and control rats. On day 90, the pulmonary response had partially regressed towards control values, but there were still microscopically evident lesions in the lungs and greater CD4/CD8 ratio in the high dose groups. There were significant positive correlations between the CD4/CD8 ratio and a histopathology score of the lung (r = 0.36, P = 0.038 on day 28, and r = 0.46, P = 0.006 on day 90). In conclusion, repeated intratracheal instillations of PVC particles yielded similar results as single instillations. The examined PVC particles have the potential of inducing a limited and transient acute inflammatory reaction in the lung, and possibly a more persistent alteration of pulmonary T lymphocyte subsets towards a high CD4/CD8 ratio.

  4. Clinical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage in the treatment of lobar pneumonia in children%支气管肺泡灌洗治疗儿童大叶性肺炎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳芳; 刘凤艳


    Purpose To investigate the clinical value of bronchoalveolar lavage in treatment of children with lobar pneumonia. Method:Randomly selected 50 patients without alveolar lavage of lobar pneumonia (non lavaged group) and 60 cases after bronchoalveolar lavage of lobar pneumonia (lavage group), compared two groups of children with the average hospital stay, average time of using antibiotic and short-term and long-term complications. Result:The treatment group the average hospitalization days and the average time of using antibiotic was shorter than the control group (P<0.01), short term complication rate higher than the treatment group (P<0.05), the long term complication rate of control group was higher than the treatment group P<0.05. Conclusion:Bronchoalveolar lavage for the treatment of lobar pneumonia in children can significantly reduce the average time of hospitalization in children and the use of antibiotics in time, the short-term complication was transient, safe and reliable, and can reduce the long-term complications of lobar pneumonia.%目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗术治疗儿童大叶性肺炎的临床价值。方法:随机抽取50例未进行肺泡灌洗的大叶性肺炎患儿(未灌洗组)和60例经过肺泡灌洗的大叶性肺炎的患儿(灌洗组),对比两组患儿的平均住院日,平均抗生素使用时间及短期及远期并发症发生率。结果:灌洗组患儿的平均住院日及平均抗生素使用时间明显短于非灌洗组(P<0.01),短期并发症发生率灌洗组高于非灌洗组(P<0.05),远期并发症发生率非灌洗组高于灌洗组 P<0.05。结论:支气管肺泡灌洗术治疗儿童大叶性肺炎可明显减少患儿平均住院治疗时间及抗生素使用时间,其短期并发症多呈一过性,安全可靠,同时可减少大叶性肺炎的远期并发症。

  5. Peritoneal lavage fluid′s temperature′s affections to neonate′s abdominal postoperative recovery%腹腔冲洗液温度对新生儿腹部手术术后恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀珍; 纪会娟; 王彦华; 尹维宁; 刘学英; 石磊


    目的:探讨腹腔冲洗液的温度对新生儿腹部手术术后恢复的影响.方法:选择剖腹手术80例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组40例,对照组腹腔冲洗液的温度与室温相同,即22 ~24 ℃,观察组腹腔冲洗液的温度为37 ℃.均用生理盐水1000 ml冲洗,分别记录手术开始前和腹腔冲洗后20 min的肛温、血压、心率以及术后拔出气管插管时间暨完全清醒时间、体温不升、硬肿症的发生情况,进行统计学分析.结果:两组新生儿一般情况比较无明显差异P>0.05.两组患儿不同温度冲洗液治疗后体温、心率比较有明显差异,P<0.05.由于血压受诸多因素的影响,故在此未作比较.对照组患儿术后拔出气管插管时间暨完全清醒时间较实验组延长约21 min,两组比较P<0.01,有明显差异,对照组术后出现体温不升、硬肿的比率明显增加P<0.05有明显差异.结论:腹腔冲洗液加温至37 ℃有利于新生儿术后恢复.%Objective:To explorer the peritoneal lavage fluid's temperature effection on neonatal abdominal postoperative recovery. Methods:80 cases of Lap-arotomy were randomly divided into control group and the experimental group,40 cases in each group. The control group's peritoneal lavage fluid temperature is 22 -24 ℃ ,the same as room temperature. The experimental group's peritoneal lavage fluid's temperature is 37 ℃. Each group used 1000 ml saline to rinse. Each group recorded the rectal temperature, blood pressure, heart rate before surgery and 20 minutes after peritoneal lavage, and recorded postoperative extubation time, awake time, body temperature does not rise, scleredema occurrence, then had statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference of normal status in two groups. The temperature and heart has remarkable differentce of two groups after peritoneal lavage with difference temperature. The control group after surgery ( extubated time ) awake time was delay about 21

  6. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestel, B.J.


    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  7. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited. (United States)

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L


    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition.

  8. Evaluations of the Irwin. beta. /sub Ic/ adjustment for small specimen fracture toughness data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, J.G.


    When small specimens are used to measure the cleavage fracture toughness of pressure vessel steels in the transition range of temperature, specimen thickness size effects and large amounts of data scatter are often observed. The size effects are manifested by an increase in the average value of fracture toughness with decreasing specimen thickness, eventually resulting in a change in fracture mode from cleavage to ductile tearing. It has been shown that a semiempirical adjustment for the interacting effects of specimen thickness, yield stress and toughness originally proposed by Irwin is capable of reducing the calculated values of toughness and data scatter to levels consistent with large specimen test data. This is true for dynamic as well as for static initiation toughness values. The nature of the size effect described by the Irwin ..beta../sub Ic/ equation is illustrated and specific cases are shown in which ..beta../sub Ic/ adjustment has eliminated size effects, for both static and dynamic fracture toughness data.

  9. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small, Highly Insulating Specimens (United States)

    Miller, Robert A (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable.

  10. Modeling and numerical analysis of granite rock specimen under mechanical loading and fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luc Leroy Ngueyep. Mambou; Joseph Ndop; Jean-Marie Bienvenu Ndjaka


    The effect of ISO 834 fire on the mechanical properties of granite rock specimen submitted to uniaxial loading is numerically investigated. Based on Newton’s second law, the rate-equation model of granite rock specimen under mechanical load and fire is established. The effect of heat treatment on the me-chanical performance of granite is analyzed at the center and the ends of specimen. At the free end of granite rock specimen, it is shown that from 20 ?C to 500 ?C, the internal stress and internal strain are weak; whereas above 500 ?C, they start to increase rapidly, announcing the imminent collapse. At the center of specimen, the analysis of the internal stress and internal strain reveals that the fire reduces the mechanical performance of granite significantly. Moreover, it is found that after 3 min of exposure to fire, the mechanical energy necessary to fragment the granite can be reduced up to 80%.

  11. A combined environmental straining specimen holder for high-voltage electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa, E-mail: [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Syo [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)


    A novel specimen holder that enables in situ observation of crack-tip deformation and/or fracture under a controlled environment is developed for a high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM). A window-type environmental cell (EC) that incorporates a uniaxial straining apparatus is built into a side-entry-type single-tilt specimen holder. The gas control in EC, straining apparatus design, limited field of view for crack-tip observation, and specimen preparation for the specimen holder are presented in detail. Experimental results successfully demonstrate that the developed specimen holder is quite useful for the dynamic observation of crack-tip deformation and/or fracture subjected to a hostile environment, such as hydrogen gas.

  12. The mammal type specimens at the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway. (United States)

    Wiig, Oystein; Bachmann, Lutz


    A catalog of mammalian type specimens in the collections of Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway, is presented. All type specimens in the Museum's mammal collection were revisited and the respective label information was compared with the data provided in the original descriptions. Most taxa were described from type series with no specimen particularly assigned to holotype. The compiled catalog of the type specimens is not intended as a taxonomic revision of the respective taxa, which is why we have not designated lectotypes from the collection's type series. Specimens that were clearly marked as "the type" in the original description were considered holotypes. The catalog consists of 19 taxa, with the year of authority corrected for three taxa.

  13. The number of regulatory T cells in transbronchial lung allograft biopsies is related to FoxP3 mRNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and to the degree of acute cellular rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Dorrit; Madsen, Caroline B; Iversen, Martin;


    The transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs) - a subset of T cells known to suppress a wide range of immune responses. These cells are considered to be pivotal for the induction of tolerance to donor antigens in human allografts. We aimed to correlate...... the number of lymphocytes expressing FoxP3 in transbronchial biopsies from lung allografts with the FoxP3 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, we aimed to correlate the number of FoxP3+ cells in transbronchial biopsies with the degree of acute cellular rejection in lung allografts....

  14. Genomic Analysis of Uterine Lavage Fluid Detects Early Endometrial Cancers and Reveals a Prevalent Landscape of Driver Mutations in Women without Histopathologic Evidence of Cancer: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study (United States)

    Camacho, Sandra Catalina; Schumacher, Cassie A.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Belfer, Rachel; Kalir, Tamara; Reva, Boris; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A.


    Background Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Despite the immediate need to detect these cancers at an earlier stage, there is no effective screening methodology or protocol for endometrial cancer. The comprehensive, genomics-based analysis of endometrial cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed many of the molecular defects that define this cancer. Based on these cancer genome results, and in a prospective study, we hypothesized that the use of ultra-deep, targeted gene sequencing could detect somatic mutations in uterine lavage fluid obtained from women undergoing hysteroscopy as a means of molecular screening and diagnosis. Methods and Findings Uterine lavage and paired blood samples were collected and analyzed from 107 consecutive patients who were undergoing hysteroscopy and curettage for diagnostic evaluation from this single-institution study. The lavage fluid was separated into cellular and acellular fractions by centrifugation. Cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were isolated from each lavage. Two targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panels, one composed of 56 genes and the other of 12 genes, were used for ultra-deep sequencing. To rule out potential NGS-based errors, orthogonal mutation validation was performed using digital PCR and Sanger sequencing. Seven patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on classic histopathologic analysis. Six of these patients had stage IA cancer, and one of these cancers was only detectable as a microscopic focus within a polyp. All seven patients were found to have significant cancer-associated gene mutations in both cell pellet and cfDNA fractions. In the four patients in whom adequate tumor sample was available, all tumor mutations above a specific allele fraction were present in the uterine lavage DNA samples. Mutations originally only detected in lavage fluid fractions were later confirmed to be present

  15. 活性炭洗胃应用于百草枯中毒的疗效观察%The Effect Observation on Applying Gastric Lavage in Combination with Activated Charcoal to Paraquat Pois ioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的研究不同的洗胃方法对治疗百草枯中毒疗效的影响.方法在常规治疗的基础上,实验组用活性炭粉末和碳酸氢钠分别加入温水中洗胃;对照组单纯用温水洗胃.结果实验组痊愈率为25%,对照组为6.7%;死亡率实验组为8.3%,对照组为21.6%.肝、肾功能损害的发生率实验组为3.3%,对照组为41.7%.结论活性炭洗胃是影响百草枯中毒患者病情发展的重要因素,并可赢得进一步治疗如血液灌流的最佳时机,从而提高患者的生存率.%  Objective To research the effect of diverse treatments on gastric lavage to paraquat poisioning. Method On the basis of routine therapy, experimental group do gastric lavage with warm water containing activated charocal powder and sodium bicardbonate, while control group merely uses warm water in gastric lavage. Results of experimental group is 25% in comparison with control group's 6.7%. Experimental group's death rate is 8.3% while the rate is 21.6% in control group. The incidence of liver and kindney function lesion in experimental group is 3.3%, but 41.7% in control group. Conclusion Gastric lavage in combination with activated charcoal has foundamental impact on the progress of paraquat poisioning, based on which, the survival rate can be raised for better oppotunity of futher treatment,like hemoperfusion.

  16. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Drinkwater


    Full Text Available At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed.When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  17. Morphine-3-D glucuronide stability in postmortem specimens exposed to bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis. (United States)

    Carroll, F T; Marraccini, J V; Lewis, S; Wright, W


    Medical examiners frequently rely on the finding of free morphine present in postmortem specimens to assist in certifying deaths associated with narcotics. In vitro hydrolysis of morphine-3-D glucuronide (M3DG) to free morphine was studied using variable specimen pH, initial degree of specimen putrefaction, storage temperature and time, and the effectiveness of sodium fluoride (NaF) preservation. Reagent M3DG was added to opiate-free fresh blood and urine and to autopsy-derived blood specimens. Reagent bovine glucuronidase was also added to certain specimens. Freshly collected and refrigerated NaF-preserved blood produced minimal free morphine, whereas four of five autopsy blood specimens produced free morphine from M3DG. Increased storage time, temperature, and initial degree of putrefaction resulted in greater free morphine generation despite the absence of viable bacteria. Hydrolysis occurring during specimen storage can generate free morphine from M3DG and may result in erroneous conclusions in certifying narcotic deaths.

  18. Progress in the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens by ion-beam thinning

    CERN Document Server

    Strecker, A; Kelsch, M; Salzberger, U; Sycha, M; Gao, M; Richter, G; Benthem, K V


    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), often the preparation of samples is the most critical part. Specimens have to have disk geometries of 3 mm diameter laterally, and they have to be transparent for the electron beam vertically. Therefore, a specimen thickness in the range of some 1-10 nm has to be achieved by the preparation process. While shrinking the specimen dimensions, care has to be taken to recover the materials properties in the nm-regime. We report and shortly discuss some TEM specimen preparation techniques mainly used in the Stuttgart TEM specimen preparation laboratory. Furthermore, we demonstrate how more advanced techniques lead to a more reliable preparation of weakly-bonded metal/SrTiO sub 3 interfaces. In addition, the advantage of low-voltage ion-milling is demonstrated by a case study for bulk SrTiO sub 3. As a result, low-voltage ion polishing as a final step in the TEM specimen preparation by conventional ion-thinning turns out to significantly increase the specimen quality. In tu...

  19. 3-D distribution of tensile stress in rock specimens for the Brazilian test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yu; Chunyan Meng


    It is claimed that the formula used for calculating the tensile strength of a disk-shaped rock specimen in the Brazilian test is not accurate, because the formula is based on the 2-dimensional elastic theory and only suitable for very long or very short cylinders. The Matlab software was used to obtain the 2-dimensional distribution of stress in the rock specimen for Brazilian test. Then the 2-dimensional stress distribution in Brazilian disk was analyzed by the Marc FEM software. It can be found that the results obtained by the two software packages can verify each other. Finally, the 3-dimensional elastic stress in the specimen was calculated. The results demonstrate that the distribution of stress on the cross section of the specimen is similar to that in 2-dimension. However, the value of the stress on the cross section varies along the thickness of the specimen and the stress is bigger when getting closer to the end of the specimen. For the specimen with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1 and a Poisson's ratio of 0.25, the tensile strength calculated with the classical 2-D formula is 23.3% smaller than the real strength. Therefore, the classical 2-D formula is too conservative.

  20. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K Avti

    Full Text Available AIMS: In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng to micrograms (µg] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies (histological specimens from implanted tissue engineering scaffolds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Optical-resolution (OR and acoustic-resolution (AR--Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was employed to detect, map and quantify the SWCNTs in a variety of tissue histological specimens and compared with other optical techniques (bright-field optical microscopy, Raman microscopy, near infrared (NIR fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Both optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution PAM, allow the detection and quantification of SWCNTs in histological specimens with scalable spatial resolution and depth penetration. The noise-equivalent detection sensitivity to SWCNTs in the specimens was calculated to be as low as ∼7 pg. Image processing analysis further allowed the mapping, distribution, and quantification of the SWCNTs in the histological sections. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of PAM as a promising imaging technique to detect, map, and quantify SWCNTs in histological specimens, and could complement the capabilities of current optical and electron microscopy techniques in the analysis of histological specimens containing SWCNTs.