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Sample records for cervicofacial vascular lesions

  1. The role of MRI in diagnostic algorithm of cervicofacial vascular anomalies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular anomalies are usually diagnosed through their clinical picture and history. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of MR imaging in initial assessment of cervicofacial vascular anomalies in children. Twenty pediatric patients with vascular anomalies located in the cervicofacial region underwent MRI examination in our department. Images were evaluated for lesion detectability and its signal characteristics (on T1w, T2w images with fat suppression and contrast enhanced T1w sequences); the extent of the lesions and surrounding tissue involvement were also assessed. In the studied group MR images revealed all anomalies and provided information of their anatomic extent and invasion of surrounding anatomic structures. Nine hemangiomas and six venous malformations were found among studied patients. Two children had multiloculated lesions corresponding to lymphatic malformations. One examination visualized a lesion consisting mainly of dilated vascular channels with an apparent feeding artery, which was consistent with arteriovenous malformation. Two remaining lesions were mixed malformations. Nine patients had lesions limited to subcutaneous tissue. Two masses infiltrated bone structures. There was muscle involvement found in nine cases. MR imaging is a well-established method for detection and monitoring of vascular anomalies in children. With ultrasound used mostly for initial diagnosis and additional flow assessment, angiography viewed as an invasive therapeutic method and computed tomography used only in specific situations due to its high irradiation dose, magnetic resonance is the best imaging method used in differential diagnosis and topographical characterization of vascular malformations and tumors of cervicofacial area in pediatric patients. Noninvasively and without irradiation, it enables evaluation of the extent and characteristics of lesions and planning proper therapeutic strategy

  2. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  3. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  4. Nodal vascularity as an indicator of cervicofacial metastasis in oral cancer: A Doppler sonographic study

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    Ankur Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess nodal vascularity by Doppler sonography and to find out the correlation between clinical and various Doppler sonographic features for the detection of the metastatic nodes in oral cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total number of 55 patients of histopathologically proven oral cancer presenting with enlarged superficial cervicofacial lymph nodes were included in the study. Patients were subjected to clinical examination according to a specially designed proforma and the TNM staging was done. If more than one enlarged nodes were present, then the node with the largest diameter was chosen for further Doppler ultrasonographic examination followed by fine needle aspiration cytology test of the same node. Results: Correlations of patterns of color Doppler flow signals with cytological diagnosis showed that central type of vascular pattern was statistically significant parameter for benign lymph nodes and peripheral type of vascularity was highly significant parameter for malignant lymphadenopathy. It was found that the cut-off value of resistive index 0.6 was statistically significant in the assessment of metastatic node (P < 0.01 with a sensitivity of 45.5% and specificity of 93.9%. On comparison of the clinical features (TNM staging with Doppler sonographic features, it was found that the characteristic features suggestive of malignant lymph nodes on Doppler sonography such as peripheral blood flow and high resistive index were more consistently and frequently associated with the higher sub-stages of T3 and T4 and N2b and N2c of TNM staging system. Conclusion: Nodal vascularity may be used to differentiate benign from malignant lymphadenopathy. Proper judicious use of non-invasive color Doppler ultrasonographic examination provides an opportunity to eliminate the need for biopsy in reactive nodes and provide treatment in a more precise manner.

  5. Laser Treatment of Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Patrick D.; Sonabend, Michael L.; Levy, Moise L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1967, laser therapy has benefited patients and physicians alike. After the first clinical application by Goldman (Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Science 1983;220:524–527), laser therapy has become indispensable in the management of vascular birthmarks. In selecting a proper balance of wavelength, pulse duration, and energy density (fluence), the physician can mold laser energy to effectively manage lesions once considered untreatable. Now, the vast array of lesions amenabl...

  6. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography. PMID:17966782

  7. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

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    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  8. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Sitra, G.; Kayalvizhi, E. B.; Sivasankari, T.; Vishwanath, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection wit...

  9. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  10. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

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    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  11. Current Concepts: Laser Treatment of Adult Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Tomi L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients frequently seek treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions for both medical and cosmetic reasons. Advances in the use of lasers and light sources enable physicians to effectively treat vascular lesions that were previously untreatable. Given the plethora of devices available, selecting the appropriate laser system and treatment parameters can be confusing for the laser surgeon. This article reviews current concepts in the treatment of adult vascular conditions. It highlights the differe...

  12. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitra, G; Kayalvizhi, E B; Sivasankari, T; Vishwanath, R

    2014-12-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection with 30 mg/ml of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) was given, which resulted in local complications with severe inflammatory response including pain, swelling, and surface ulceration that remained for 2 weeks. Sclerotherapy with STS still remain an effective agent in treating benign oral vascular lesions and provides alternative or support for surgical methods. Sometimes it can lead to undesirable complications like allergic reactions, local inflammatory response, etc. PMID:25538471

  13. The role of prenatal ultrasound assessment in management of fetal cervicofacial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Rafał; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound prenatal examination enables one to assess the facial skeleton and the neck from the first weeks of gestation. Cervicofacial tumors detected via prenatal ultrasound are very rarely reported fetal pathologies. They include cystic hygromas, teratomas, epulides, vascular tumors, and thyroid tumors. The tumor category, its location and vascularization pattern allow one to accurately establish a diagnosis which is usually confirmed by clinical examination of the neonate or a pathological examination (surgical specimen, biopsy, autopsy). The prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of cervicofacial tumor in the fetus allows planning of pregnancy management and fetal therapy, preparation of the delivery, and perinatal as well as neonatal treatment. PMID:27478467

  14. Cervicofacial Surgical Emphysema following Tonsillectomy

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    Samir Yelnoorkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient who developed cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema following a routine tonsillectomy. An 18-year-old male with swallowing difficulties underwent a tonsillectomy and developed swelling of the right side of his neck and face 36 hours after surgery. A neck X-ray revealed subcutaneous emphysema. Unlike similar previously published cases, there were no postoperative issues of coughing, straining, or use of positive pressure ventilation. The complication also occurred after a considerable length of time. Further complications may include pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum and these should be excluded.

  15. Categorical course in neuroradiology cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic imaging of acute stroke is primarily directed toward identifying the lesion, characterizing it as either intracranial hemorrhage or ischemia, and assessing the anatomic extent of the lesion. The acute medical or surgical management decisions are best aided by a combination of CT and cerebral angiography, the latter used acutely mostly for intracranial hemorrhage, especially subarachnoid hemorrhage. More complex presentations benefit from MR imaging evaluation as well. After the acute phase, the main goal of treatment, especially for patients who have had reasonable recovery from the acute stroke, is the prevention of recurrent, and perhaps more severe, stroke. Treatments such as aneurysm clipping or arteriovenous malformation removal for hemorrhagic lesions, or anticoagulation or carotid endarterectomy for ischemic lesions, require brain and vascular imaging studies for appropriate treatment planning. Angiography to show the anatomic vascular cause for the bleed or ischemia is therefore usually a requirement. The enlarging experience with MR imaging has contributed greatly to the identification of occult vascular lesions of the brain that may be prone to bleeding and to recognizing blood in the brain accurately. For this purpose MR imaging is sometimes more specific than CT

  16. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  17. Carotid artery rupture and cervicofacial actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Anne; Lhermitte, Benoît; Ödman, Micaela; Grabherr, Silke; Mangin, Patrice; Palmiere, Cristian

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon, progressive infection caused by bacilli of the Actinomyces genus. Actinomyces are common commensal saprophytes in the oral cavity which may have medical importance as facultative pathogens. Subsequent to local injuries to the oral mucosa, they may penetrate the deep tissues and be responsible for suppurative or granulomatous infections. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a tonsillar carcinoma. An ulcerous lesion in the base of the tongue developed and spread to the carotid artery wall. The man died of a massive hemorrhage due to left carotid artery rupture. Postmortem computed tomography angiography performed prior to autopsy allowed the precise localization of the source of bleeding to be detected. Postmortem biochemical investigations confirmed the presence of inflammation associated with local bacterial infection. Histological investigations revealed the rupture of the left carotid artery surrounded by numerous colonies of Actinomyces. Acute and chronic inflammation with tissue necrosis as well as post-actinic, fibrotic changes were also found in the tissues surrounding the ruptured artery wall. PMID:22819527

  18. Lasers for vascular lesions: Standard guidelines of care

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    C R Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lasers are a good therapeutic tool for congenital and acquired vascular lesions. Technological advances in lasers have reduced the adverse effects and increased the efficacy. Machines: Among the various lasers used for treating vascular lesions, pulsed dye laser (PDL has the best efficacy and safety data. The other machines that are widely available are Nd:YAG laser and intense pulse light (IPL. Rationale and scope of guideline: Much variation exists in different machines and techniques, and therefore, establishing standard guidelines has limitations. The guidelines recommended here indicate minimum standards of care for lasers on vascular lesions based on current evidence. Physician Qualification: Laser may be administered by a dermatologist, who has received adequate background training in lasers during post-graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in lasers, or in focused workshops, which provide such trainings. He/she should have adequate knowledge of the lesions being treated, machines, parameters, cooling systems, and aftercare. Facility: The procedure may be performed in the physician′s minor procedure room with adequate laser safety measures. Indications: PWS, hemangioma, facial telangiectasia, rosacea, spider angioma, pyogenic granuloma, venous lakes, leg veins. Contraindications: Absolute: Active local infection, photo-aggravated skin diseases, and medical conditions. Relative: Unstable vitiligo, psoriasis, keloid and keloidal tendencies, patient on isotretinoin, patient who is not cooperative or has unrealistic expectation. Patient Selection: Patient selection should be done after detailed counseling with respect to the course of lesions, different treatment options, possible results, cost, need for multiple treatments, and possible postoperative complications. Treatment Sessions: The number of treatments per lesion varies from 2 to 12 or more at 6-8 week intervals. All lesions may not clear

  19. Complicaciones de la radioterapia cervicofacial. Osteorradionecrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Alaejos Algarra, C.; Sánchez Garcés, Ma. Ángeles; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    1998-01-01

    El tratamiento de los tumores de la cavidad bucal incluye en la mayoría de los casos la combinación de cirugía y radioterapia. Dentro de las secuelas de la radioterapia de la región cervicofacial podemos distinguir efectos agudos como radiodermitis, mucositis e hiposialia,y efectos tardios como necrosis cutánea, mucosa y ósea.La necrosis ósea u osteorradionecrosis es la complicación más severa de la radioterapia cervicofacial, siendo la mandibula la zona de la cavidad bucal que presenta una m...

  20. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  1. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  2. [Cervicofacial actinomycosis: two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Simone; Brunner, Flavio; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases transmitted by actinomycosis species cause severe destructive lesions. This rare and specific infection is mainly found in the orofacial regions. Causes of any hard tissue swelling in the jaw have, thus, to be assessed carefully. When actinomycosis is identified, a surgical intervention with curettement, draining and long-term antibiosis is required. The aim of the current article is to describe two clinical cases and to show the necessity of both, microbiological and histological laboratory diagnostics, to hedge the clinic diagnosis. PMID:19408527

  3. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the κ-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR imaging

  4. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

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    Katase, Shichiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the {kappa}-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR

  5. Cervicofacial Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum, and Pneumothorax Following Dental Extraction: A Case report

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    Adbolreza Malek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event that occurs when air leaks from any part of the lung or airways into the mediastinum. The condition may be caused by traumatic injury or by increased pressure within the lungs or airways such as excessive coughing, vomiting, or repeated bearing down to increase abdominal pressure during delivery or severe constipation. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum may also complicate obstructive airway processes such as asthma or foreign bodies. Subsequently, air along the connective tissue planes and vascular sheaths ascends up to the communicating cervical spaces, producing subcutaneous cervical emphysema in 70 to 90% of cases. In 31% of cases, it has no known precipitating cause. Pneumomediastinum following cervicofacial emphysema is rare. It has been found in the literature after dental extractions, head and neck surgery, or trauma in which the air passes from the air-filled spaces of the head (oral, nasal, and pharyngeal cavities through the neck down to the mediastinum."nHereby we present a 16-year-old man complaining of sudden cervicofacial swelling, dyspnea and chest pain after second molar surgery. In physical examination, periorbital, cervical and thoracic emphysema were detected. Chest x ray showed subcutaneous emphysema in the cervicofacial, thoracic, and axillary regions with no evidence of rib fracture. Thoracic CT scan demonstrated air in the subcutaneous and cervical spaces extending along the anterior mediastinum. A left sided pneumothorax was also observed in the left lung apex. Antibiotic therapy was administered to prevent mediastinitis, and the patient's condition improved."nKeywords: Pneumomediastinum, Pneumothorax, Emphysema, Dental Extraction

  6. Effectiveness of low flow vascular lesions sclerosis with monoethanolamine: report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Miranda, Leonardo de Paula; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Pego, Sabina Pena Borges; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2007-12-01

    Vascular malformations or even hemangiomas need therapeutic intervention if they start to cause clinical symptoms or personal discomfort. Different therapeutic modalities, including cryotherapy, corticosteroids, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, surgery, and/or embolization, can be performed successfully. Sclerotherapy with monoethanolamine is a relatively simple and effective method to treat low flow vascular lesions. We presented a report of six cases of vascular malformations treated with monoethanolamine. There were 3 male and 3 female patients, with an age range of 20 to 68 years. The patients were submitted to applications according to clinical response and/or tolerability. In all cases, low-flow vascular lesions were recorded and submitted to infiltration with 2.5% monoethanolamine, directly into the lesions. The volume applied was approximately the middle of affected area. Vascular lesions were characterized as low-flow due to absence of arterial pulsation and flat consistence. The sclerosis with 2.5% monoethanolamine resulted in complete or partial involution, without severe complications. PMID:17978777

  7. Electrochemical treatment: an effective way of dealing with extensive venous malformations of the oral and cervicofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hao-Yan; Cai, Yu; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Yang, Xin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Ji-Hong

    2016-07-01

    We describe the results of electrochemical treatment of extensive venous malformations in the oral and cervicofacial region in 29 patients. Platinum needles were inserted into the lesions under general or local anaesthesia, the electrode pitch, voltage, current, and quantity of electricity being 1-1.5cm, 5-8V, 40-60mA, and 50-60C/cm(2), respectively. Six months after the treatment, 26 patients had been cured, and in the other three the lesions had decreased by more than 75%. Electrochemical treatment is therefore relatively safe, simple, and highly efficient for the treatment of extensive venous malformations, and leaves no scars. PMID:27130569

  8. Interest of nuclear magnetic. Resonance imaging for the study of vascular lesions of the Thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of vascular lesions of the thalamus using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging has provided two kinds of important informations: precise topographical demarcation on saggital sections and very sensitive detection of small ischemic areas better than with computerized tomography. Particular attention is paid to NMR capabilities to increase the quality of correlation between clinical and radiological data. 4 cases are presented

  9. Migrated foreign body granulomas on mammography after injection in the cervicofacial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the mammographic findings of localized foreign body granulomas in women who were injected with a foreign body in the cervicofacial area to flatten wrinkles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The teaching files of our institutions were searched, and nine mammograms of migrated foreign body granulomas located. The mammograms were analysed, including the location, shape, size, distribution and depth of the high-density nodules. All these cases had undergone sonography. RESULTS: The migrated foreign body granulomas appeared bilateral (n=6), or unilateral (n=3), as oval or round high-density nodules, in the upper inner and/or upper central locations. The average size of the lesions was less than 5 mm in all cases. All nine sonograms showed multiple, round cystic nodules, less than 5 mm in size, with strong posterior shadowing from far upper central to the upper inner breast. Sonography of the lower neck revealed the anatomy could not be visualized due to the strong posterior shadowing in the skin and subcutaneous fat layer. CONCLUSION: Migrated foreign body granulomas appeared on mammograms as localized, multiple oval or round high-density nodules, less than 0.5 cm in size, in the upper inner and/or upper central breast. Breast sonography, including the sonography of the suspected cervicofacial area, is helpful in verifying migrated foreign body granulomas

  10. Endovascular Therapy of Traumatic Vascular Lesions of the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudoaneurysm and fistula formation are well-documented complications of arterial vascular injury and may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the presentation and therapy of patients with traumatic vascular injuries of the head and neck. Eight patients were admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center and diagnostic angiography of the carotid artery and vertebral circulation was performed. The mechanisms of injury included motor vehicle accident, gunshot wound,stab wound and aggravated assault. Cause of trauma, vascular lesion,endovascular therapy and outcome were analyzed retrospectively. The angiographic findings, clinical presentation and hospital course were reviewed. There were eight patients, seven males and one female, aged 17-65. Four patients (50%) had multiple lesions; four had pseudoaneurysms, two with fistula formation and two with active arterial hemorrhage. A total of 17 lesions were embolized using coils,Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), Gelfoam or a combination. Two of the 17 lesions received stents. Six of the eight patients remained clinically improved or stable at varying follow-up intervals. One of the four patients who presented with penetrating trauma and neurological deficits had resolution of right hemiplegia at the 8thmonth follow-up. One of the four patients who sustained blunt trauma and carotid-cavernous fistula presented with a new pseudoaneurysm at the 2-month post-embolization follow-up. The evolution of diagnostics neuroangiogaphic techniques provides opportunities for endovascular therapy of traumatic vascular lesions of the head and neck that are minimally invasive, attractive options in selected cases

  11. Evaluation of a liquid embolization agent (Onyx) for transcatheter embolization for renal vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennert, Janine; Herold, T.; Schreyer, A.G.; Jung, E.M.; Mueller-Wille, R.; Zorger, N. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Banas, B.; Feuerbach, S. [Medizinische Klinik, Nephrologie, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Lenhart, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the therapeutic outcome after endovascular treatment of renal vascular lesions using the liquid embolization agent, Onyx. Materials and methods: between 2004 and 2008 nine patients with renal vascular lesions were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using Onyx. The renal vascular lesions consisted of 4 AV-fistulas, a pseudoaneurysm, bleeding from a single subsegmental artery, diffuse parenchymal bleeding after trauma, septic embolizations and multiple aneurysms in endocarditis. All patients underwent selective angiography of the renal artery. A dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible microcatheter was used and Onyx was injected. The technical and clinical success rate, examination time and procedure-related complications were documented. Results: the overall technical and clinical success rate was 100%. One patient had to be treated twice due to recurrent bleeding after an accidental puncture with a drainage catheter. No loss of viable renal tissue occurred in 4 cases. In 4 patients mild to moderate parenchyma loss was noted. In one patient having diffuse renal bleeding, occlusion of the main renal artery was performed. No procedure-related complications were noted. The mean examination time was 16.17 min when treating with Onyx alone and 60 min when using a combination of Onyx and coils. Within an average follow-up period of 21 months, no recurrent renal bleeding or recurrent AV-fistulas occurred. Conclusion: Onyx is an effective embolization agent for the treatment of renal vascular lesions. It allows controlled and quick application with low complication rates and a short examination time as a standalone agent or in combination with coils. (orig.)

  12. Ways of improving three-dimensional CT angiography images of cervical and cerebral vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated various ways of improving the image clarity of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) for the diagnosis of cervical and cerebral vascular disease in sixty-seven patients (36 males and 31 females). The mean age was 61.4 years, with a rang of 17 to 89 years. The patients were examined with a helical CT scanner (TCT-X vision GX) after intravenous bolus injection of 90 ml nonionic contrast medium (300 mgI/ml) at the rate of 3 ml/sec. Intracranial and cervical 3D-CTA were performed 60 and 12 times, respectively. Our findings were as follows: Reduction of the pre-scanning delay time from 18 to 10 sec after the injection of the contrast medium eliminates much of the cavernous sinus from the image and makes it easier to distinguish the intracavernous internal carotid artery in intracranial 3D-CTA. In cervical 3D-CTA, reduction of the pre-scanning delay time from 15 to 9 sec delays imaging of the jugular vein and makes it easy to distinguish the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A subtraction image on 3D-CTA is useful for detecting of vascular lesions adjacent to bone, such as lesions on the internal carotid artery. By producing a stereo picture, a closer three-dimensional relationship between the vascular lesion and the vessel circumference organization can be recognized. Vascular lesions can be clearly visualized from inside the artery using a 3D-CT endoscopic image. We were able to obtain a great deal of detailed information from 3D-CTA images with these modifications and we believe they enhance diagnostic accuracy of the technique. (author)

  13. Lower cranial nerve motor function in unilateral vascular lesions of the cerebral hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, E W; Anderson, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    Motor function subserved by cranial nerves V, VII, X, XI, and XII was assessed in 100 patients with hemiparesis due to a unilateral vascular lesion of the cerebral hemisphere. Several of the findings were not described clearly in many of the standard textbooks of neurology. Weakness of sternomastoid when present was always contralateral to the hemiparesis. This emphasises the principle that the cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the body parts in or towards the contralateral half of the...

  14. TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE TP53 MUTATIONS IN ATYPICAL VASCULAR LESIONS OF THE BREAST SKIN FOLLOWING RADIOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Santi, Raffaella; Cetica, Valentina; Franchi, Alessandro; Pepi, Monica; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Miracco, Clelia; Paglierani, Milena; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Delfino, Chiara; Difonzo, Elisa Margherita; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Bianchi, Simonetta; Sardi, Iacopo; Santucci, Marco; Massi, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Atypical vascular lesions (AVL) occurring at the site of radiotherapy represent an uncommon but well-documented complication in the setting of breast-conserving therapy for breast carcinoma. Although the biological behavior of AVL has been regarded to be benign, it has been suggested that AVL may represent a precursor of angiosarcoma. A better understanding of the biology of AVL is essential in order to assess appropriate patient management. The purpose of the present s...

  15. Evaluation of a liquid embolization agent (Onyx) for transcatheter embolization for renal vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate the therapeutic outcome after endovascular treatment of renal vascular lesions using the liquid embolization agent, Onyx. Materials and methods: between 2004 and 2008 nine patients with renal vascular lesions were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using Onyx. The renal vascular lesions consisted of 4 AV-fistulas, a pseudoaneurysm, bleeding from a single subsegmental artery, diffuse parenchymal bleeding after trauma, septic embolizations and multiple aneurysms in endocarditis. All patients underwent selective angiography of the renal artery. A dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible microcatheter was used and Onyx was injected. The technical and clinical success rate, examination time and procedure-related complications were documented. Results: the overall technical and clinical success rate was 100%. One patient had to be treated twice due to recurrent bleeding after an accidental puncture with a drainage catheter. No loss of viable renal tissue occurred in 4 cases. In 4 patients mild to moderate parenchyma loss was noted. In one patient having diffuse renal bleeding, occlusion of the main renal artery was performed. No procedure-related complications were noted. The mean examination time was 16.17 min when treating with Onyx alone and 60 min when using a combination of Onyx and coils. Within an average follow-up period of 21 months, no recurrent renal bleeding or recurrent AV-fistulas occurred. Conclusion: Onyx is an effective embolization agent for the treatment of renal vascular lesions. It allows controlled and quick application with low complication rates and a short examination time as a standalone agent or in combination with coils. (orig.)

  16. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and hi-tech evaluation of vascular skin lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Marta; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Rossari, Susanna; Gori, Alessia; Oranges, Teresa; Longo, Anna Sara; Lotti, Torello; Bencini, Pier Luca; De Giorgi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Vascular skin lesions comprise a wide and heterogeneous group of malformations and tumors that can be correctly diagnosed based on natural history and physical examination. However, considering the high incidence of such lesions, a great number of them can be misdiagnosed. In addition, it is not so rare that an aggressive amelanotic melanoma can be misdiagnosed as a vascular lesion. In this regard, dermoscopy and confocal laser microscopy examination can play a central role in increasing the specificity of the diagnosis of such lesions. In fact, the superiority of these tools over clinical examination has encouraged dermatologists to adopt these devices for routine clinical practice, with a progressive spread of their use. In this review, we will go through the dermoscopic and the confocal laser microscopy of diagnosis of most frequent vascular lesions (i.e., hemangiomas angiokeratoma, pyogenic granuloma, angiosarcoma) taking into particular consideration the differential diagnosis with amelanotic melanoma. PMID:22950556

  17. Pediatric cervicofacial actinomycosis disclosing an underlying congenital dermoid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Santwana Verma; Ghanshyam Kumar Verma; Vinay Shanker; Anil Kanga; Gagandeep Singh; Neelam Gupta; Geeta Ram Tegta; Jatin Sharma; Aarti Garg

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cervicofacial actinomycosis is a rare occurrence consequent to dental infections and manipulations or maxillofacial trauma. The clinical presentation ranges from multiple draining sinuses to swellings resembling tumors and cysts. The present unusual case had congenital dermoid cyst of mid upper lip with Actinomyces israelii infection identified on microscopy, culture, and histopathology. A successful outcome in the present case was obtained using combination of medical and surgical ...

  18. Lesiones vasculares abdominales: El desafío del cirujano de trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Asensio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones vasculares abdominales presentan los mayores índices de mortalidad y morbilidad de entre todas las lesiones que puede sufrir un enfermo traumático. Método: Revisión de la clínica, diagnóstico, vías de abordaje y tratamiento de los pacientes con lesiones vasculares intraabdominales, basada en la experiencia en el manejo de 302 enfermos. Resultados: Las heridas penetrantes abdominales constituyen entre el 90%-95% de las lesiones que afectan a los vasos abdominales. La lesión abdominal multiorgánica es frecuente. Los hallazgos clínicos compatibles con hemoperitoneo o peritonitis y la ausencia de pulsos femorales son tributarios de laparotomía. En los pacientes que presentan paro cardio-respiratorio, se debe realizar toracotomía de urgencia para masaje cardiaco abierto y pinzamiento aórtico. La mortalidad global es del 54%, la exsanguinación representa el 85% de la misma. El síndrome compartimental en el abdomen y en las extremidades, así como el círculo vicioso de la acidosis, la hipotermia y la coagulopatía son las principales complicaciones. Conclusiones: Las lesiones vasculares abdominales presentan una alta mortalidad y morbilidad. El conocimiento anatómico del retroperitoneo y de las vías de abordaje de los vasos así como una exploración clínica adecuada ayudaran a disminuir las complicaciones y la mortalidad de estos pacientes.Aim: Abdominal vascular injuries have a very high mortality and morbidity rates among trauma patients. Methods: This is a clinical review of the diagnosis, surgical procedures, and treatment of patients with abdominal vascular injuries, based on the clinical experience from 302 patients presenting this type of injury. Results: Penetrating injuries account for 90% to 95% of all abdominal vascular injuries. Mutiple organ injuries are frequent. The clinical sings of a hemoperitoneum and or peritonitis and the absence of femoral pulses are indications for laparatomy. In the

  19. Fibulin-2 is present in murine vascular lesions and is important for smooth muscle cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ström, A.; Olin, A. I.; Aspberg, A.;

    2006-01-01

    and is upregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation in cell culture. Moreover, treatments with peptides that block the interaction between versican and fibulin-2 inhibit SMC migration in vitro. Conclusions: Fibulin-2 can be produced by SMC as a response to injury and may participate in the ECM organisation......Objective: The vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion, migration and proliferation-events that are important during the atherosclerotic process. Fibulin-2 is a member of the ECM protein family of fibulins and has been found to cross-link versican....../hyaluronan complexes, an ECM network that has been suggested to be important during tissue repair. In this study we have analysed the presence of fibulin-2 in two different models of murine vascular lesions. We have also examined how the fibulin-2/versican network influences SMC migration. Methods: Presence of fibulin...

  20. Association of reduced Connexin 43 expression with retinal vascular lesions in human diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Thomas; Muto, Tetsuya; Zhang, Joyce; Sohn, Elliott H; Mullins, Robert F; Roy, Sayon

    2016-05-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) downregulation promotes apoptosis in retinal vascular cells of diabetic animal models; however, its relevance to human diabetic retinopathy has not been established. In this study, we investigated whether diabetes alters Cx43 expression and promotes retinal vascular lesions in human retinas. Diabetic human eyes (aged 64-94 years) and non-diabetic human eyes (aged 61-90 years) were analyzed in this study. Retinal protein samples and retinal capillary networks were assessed for Cx43 level by Western blot (WB) analysis and immunostaining. In parallel, retinal capillary networks were stained with hematoxylin and periodic acid Schiff to determine the extent of pericyte loss (PL) and acellular capillaries (AC) in these retinas. Cx43 protein expression was significantly reduced in the diabetic retinas compared to non-diabetic retinas as indicated by WB analysis (81 ± 11% of control). Additionally, a significant decrease in the number of Cx43 plaques per unit length of vessel was observed in the diabetic retinas compared to those of non-diabetic retinas (62 ± 10% of control; p diabetic retinas and Cx43 reduction is associated with increased vascular cell death. These findings suggest that diabetes decreases retinal Cx43 expression and that the development of PL and AC is associated with reduced Cx43 expression in human diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26738943

  1. Characterization of vascular lesions in pigs affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, A R; Segalés, J

    2015-05-01

    Vascular lesions and their association with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were evaluated in multiple organs from 10 pigs affected with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). Animals had vascular lesions in multiple organs, consisting of lymphohistiocytic lymphangitis and/or phlebitis, mild to severe necrotizing arteritis, and thrombosis within splenic arterioles and choroid plexus capillaries. Variable amounts of PCV2 nucleic acid detected by in situ hybridization were present within endothelial cells, tunica media myocytes, and perivascular and/or intralesional inflammatory cell infiltrates. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected within endothelial cells of both lymphatic and blood vessels without lesions in the associated tissues. Necrotizing arteritis was principally present in lymph nodes and kidney and consisted of degeneration, necrosis, and pyknosis of myocytes, often with intracytoplasmic, brightly eosinophilic inclusion bodies that were strongly positive for PCV2 nucleic acid. Segmental or circumferential fibrinoid necrosis was mainly present in vessels of the lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus and was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. Severe lymphangitis associated with strong intralesional PCV2 labeling was frequently detected within the mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the ileum. In most tissues, medium and large lymphatics and/or veins often had disruption of the intima and mild mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration that was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. The present study indicates that vasculitis is a frequent finding in natural cases of PCV2-SD and that PCV2 may have a direct cytopathic effect on tunica media myocytes of small- and medium-sized arteries as well as endothelium. PMID:24963088

  2. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration FTLD-tau: preclinical lesions, vascular, and Alzheimer-related co-pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; von Arnim, Christine A F; Griffin, W Sue T; Mrak, Robert E; Walker, Lauren; Attems, Johannes; Arzberger, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with τ pathology (FTLD-tau) is one of a group of neurodegenerative diseases that manifests with cognitive decline. Alzheimer (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions are commonly noted in the brains of most elderly individuals, begging the question as to whether (a) coexisting AD and vascular pathology or age contribute to the development of FTLD-tau disorders and vice versa and (b) FTLD-tau-like pathology can be found in non-diseased individuals. We studied brains of FTLD-tau cases exhibiting (a) argyrophilc grain disease (AGD), (b) progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), (c) corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or (d) Pick's disease (PiD) for coexisting AD and vascular pathology for comparison with that of non-diseased individuals and AD patients. We confirmed that AGD lowered the threshold for AD pathology to cause dementia. Such an effect was not seen in PSP, CBD, or PiD. In PiD, white matter degeneration and demyelination was observed in the frontal and temporal lobes in association with small vessel disease (SVD)-related changes in white matter arteries. Age at death varied among the four types of FTLD-tau. PiD cases were youngest at death followed by CBD, PSP, and finally AGD. In 9.8% of non-diseased controls, we found grains, coiled bodies, and/or τ-positive astrocytes mimicking an AGD-like pattern. Moreover, the prevalence of FTLD-tau pathology in non-diseased individuals increased with age. In summary, this study demonstrates that age impacts of the diversity of neuropathological changes in FTLD-tau. The age-related coexistence of AD-related pathology is, thereby, associated with AGD but not with PSP, CBD, and PiD. Moreover, severe SVD and white matter demyelination is associated with PiD indicating a role of vascular copathology in this type of FTLD-tau. Finally, our finding that FTLD-tau-related pathological lesions occur in non-diseased individuals suggests that preclinical stages of FTLD-tau exist. As such, our results indicate

  3. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  4. Vascular lesions and pneumonia in a pig fetus infected by porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, Levente; Cságola, Attila; Dán, Ádám; Dencső, László

    2015-06-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive disease was diagnosed in a herd containing only gilts. A single case of abortion occurred and no other disorder was evident in the herd. PCV2 antigen and/or DNA were detected in two aborted fetuses. One of the fetuses, revealing both PCV2 DNA and antigen, presented multinucleated giant cells, severe vascular lesions (intramural oedema, fibrinoid necrosis, mild lympho-histiocytic vasculitis, fibrin thrombi) and mild non-suppurative inflammation in the lungs. Other abortifacient infections were not found. This is the only report of PCV2-induced abortion in Hungary since 1999, when PCV2-associated disease was first discovered in the country. PMID:26051260

  5. 111-Indium labelled platelets for studies on vascular wall lesions following contrast venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate vascular wall lesions following contrast venography. 111In labelled autologous platelets and the measuring hook-up of the I-fibrinogen test were employed for this purpose. In 50 patients normal ranges were determined for the activity ratios. They were found to be 0.78 to 1.22 and 0.81 to 1.19 (means of measurements on 6 days) for the thigh and calf, respectively. In 35 patients with unilateral varicosis platelet deposition was investigated before and after contrast application. Of these, 29 showed a definite increase in activity ratios, which persisted for more than 72 hours in 20 cases. Repeat scintigraphy and directed repeat phlebography in 8 cases showed evidence of fresh thrombi. Experience available sofar suggests this method to be useful for detecting small venous thromboses. Its major indication seems to be in the assessment of the efficacy of treatment to prevent thrombosis. (Author)

  6. Head and Neck Vascular Lesions: Characterization of the Flow Pattern by the Use of Three-Phase CT

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Chang-Woo; Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Sang Joon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jeoung Hyun; Ha, Hong Il; Suh, Dae Chul

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of three-phase CT to characterize the hemodynamics of vascular lesions in the head and neck area. Materials and Methods We analyzed vascular malformations of head and neck regions in 21 patients with the use of three-phase CT, including pre-contrast phase, vascular phase (scan delay: 20-35 seconds after intravenous contrast material injection) and equilibrium phase (scan delay: 3-5 minutes) imaging. The flow characteristic of each l...

  7. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE

  8. Intense pulsed light for skin rejuvenation, hair removal, and vascular lesions: a patient satisfaction study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Lucian; Carmi, Nurit; Fodor, Adriana; Ramon, Ytzhack; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2009-04-01

    There are very few studies in the English literature that evaluate the patient satisfaction after treatment using intense pulsed light (IPL) and there is no reported study comparing the results of the three major IPL applications: rejuvenation, hair removal, and treatment of small vascular lesions. This study was designed to compare results after IPL treatment for skin rejuvenation, hair removal, and vascular lesions. Three groups of 30 consecutive patients having skin rejuvenation, hair removal, and small vascular lesions were selected and treated with the same IPL system. The evaluation was performed 1 year after the last treatment for the following parameters: age, sex, skin type, satisfaction, willingness to continue the treatment, willingness to recommend the treatment, and complications. Most of the minor complications occurred in the rejuvenation group (86.6%). No complications were recorded for 67% of patients having hair removal and for 75% having vascular lesion treatment. There was no significant difference in the level of satisfaction between the 3 groups (Kruskal Wallis test; P = 0.257). No difference regarding satisfaction was recorded in this study, but complications were more frequently encountered after rejuvenation. The findings of this study are useful when discussing IPL treatments with patients considering IPL procedures. PMID:19325333

  9. Vascular lesions of the lumbar epidural space: magnetic resonance imaging features of epidural cavernous hemangioma and epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Júnior Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features in two cases with respectively lumbar epidural hematoma and cavernous hemangioma of the lumbar epidural space. Enhanced MRI T1-weighted scans show a hyperintense signal rim surrounding the vascular lesion. Non-enhanced T2-weighted scans showed hyperintense signal.

  10. The versatile application of cervicofacial and cervicothoracic rotation flaps in head and neck surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fa-yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large defects resulting from head and neck tumour surgeries present a reconstructive challenge to surgeons. Although numerous methods can be used, they all have their own limitations. In this paper, we present our experience with cervicofacial and cervicothoracic rotation flaps to help expand the awareness and application of this useful system of flaps. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients who underwent repair of a variety of defects of the head and neck with cervicofacial or cervicothoracic flaps in our hospital from 2006 to 2009 were retrospectively analysed. Statistics pertaining to the patients' clinical factors were gathered. Results Cheek neoplasms are the most common indication for cervicofacial and cervicothoracic rotation flaps, followed by parotid tumours. Among the 12 patients with medical comorbidities, the most common was hypertension. Defects ranging from 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm to 7 cm × 6 cm were reconstructed by cervicofacial flap, and defects from 3 cm × 2 cm to 16 cm × 7 cm were reconstructed by cervicothoracic flap. The two flaps also exhibited versatility in these reconstructions. When combined with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, the cervicothoracic flap could repair through-and-through cheek defects, and in combination with a temporalis myofacial flap, the cervicofacial flap was able to cover orbital defects. Additionally, 95% patients were satisfied with their resulting contour results. Conclusions Cervicofacial and cervicothoracic flaps provide a technically simple, reliable, safe, efficient and cosmetic means to reconstruct defects of the head and neck.

  11. Comparison of the treatment of vascular lesions with the copper-vapor laser and flashlamp-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Waner, Milton; McGrew, Ben; Colvin, G. B.; Montague, Donna

    1992-08-01

    Vascular lesions such as port-wine stains and telangiectases are sometimes treated with carbon-dioxide lasers, argon lasers or argon-pumped dye lasers; however these lasers are non- specific in their thermal effect on tissues and as a result often cause significant scarring. Recently, evidence has accumulated that the flashlamp-pumped dye (585 nm) and copper- vapor (578 nm) lasers, which produce pulsed light that is efficiently absorbed by hemoglobin, are more selective in coagulating abnormal vascular tissue and as a result give a superior clinical result. It is not yet clear what the most important physical and biological mechanisms are during the light-tissue interaction mediated by these two lasers. The post-treatment sequence of events is different for tissue irradiated by each laser; most significantly, the flashlamp-pumped dye laser causes significant transient purpura, whereas the copper vapor laser causes blanching and eschar formation. The clinical outcome, that is regression of the lesion, is equally successful with either laser although some evidence has accumulated showing that the flashlamp-pumped dye laser is best suited to the treatment of small vessel disease while the copper-vapor laser is better for the treatment of large vessel disease. In this paper, we will discuss our observations of the treatment of vascular lesions on humans with the copper-vapor and flashlamp-pumped dye lasers using empirically derived efficacious treatment parameters. Mathematical models of light and heat propagation and in vivo experiments involving mice ears and rat skin flaps will be used to elucidate what we feel are the important underlying mechanisms of this vascular lesion laser therapy.

  12. Assessment of T2- and T1-weighted MRI brain lesion load in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous cross-sectional studies in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) have shown little or no correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability, which could be due to the low specificity of T2-weighted MRI. Recent studies have indicated that T1-weighted MRI may be more specific than T2-weighted MRI for severe tissue destruction. We studied 37 patients with a diagnosis of SVE and 11 normal controls with standardised T1- and T2-weighted MRI. All patients underwent detailed clinical assessment including a neuropsychological test battery and computerised gait analysis. Both the T2- and T1-weighted total MRI lesion loads different between patients and controls different, particularly T1. The ratio of T2-/T1-weighted lesion load was lower in controls than in patients. There was no overall correlation of T1- or T2-weighted lesion load with clinical disability, but group comparison of patients with severe and mild clinical deficits showed different lesion loads. We suggest that T1- and T2-weighted MRI lesion loads demonstrate relevant structural abnormality in patients with SVE. (orig.)

  13. Number and function of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis children with different degrees of renal vascular lesions

    OpenAIRE

    DANG, XI-QIANG; HE, XIAO-JIE; CHEN, HAI-XIA; HE, QING-NAN; Yi, Zhu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between different degrees of renal vascular lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and changes in progenitor cell number and function in peripheral blood. Forty-eight HSPN patients were divided into three groups, mild, moderate and severe, according to the degree of renal vascular lesions. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were identified by immunof...

  14. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco; Aurélio; Lumertz; Saffi; Mariana; Vargas; Furtado; Carisi; Anne; Polanczyk; Márlon; Munhoz; Montenegro; Ingrid; Webb; Josephson; Ribeiro; Cassio; Kampits; Alex; Nogueira; Haas; Cassiano; Kuchenbecker; R?sing; Eneida; Rejane; Rabelo-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease.

  15. An unusual infection of cervicofacial area caused by dental pathology: flesh-eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdinc, Serife; Unlu, Ebru; Oruc, Oya; User, Nese Nur; Karakaya, Zeynep

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the cervicofacial area is highly rare, but physicians should be familiar with the presentation of this situation owing to the suddenness of its beginning, the rapidness of its spread, and ending with high mortality and morbidity. In this article, 5 patients with NF admitted to emergency department with dental pathology history were discussed with a review of the literature. The purpose of this case series is to raise awareness about NF of the cervicofacial area caused by dental pathologies. Five patients admitted to our emergency department between January 2012 and March 2015 and diagnosed as having cervicofacial NF were identified. All patients had dental pathologies. The parameters of the study were patients' age, sex, complaints, self- and family histories, physical examinations' findings, routine laboratory-computed tomographic findings, treatment, and complications. Two of the patients were older than 70 years. One of the patients was healthy but he lost time because of an inappropriate treatment. These 3 patients died. The remaining patients were discharged at the end of the prolonged and intensive treatment. Necrotizing fasciitis should always be remembered in the diagnosis of the infection of the cervicofacial area. Because of difficulty in its diagnosis, a delay in the treatment may result in a horrific outcome. PMID:26298055

  16. [Cervico-facial cellulitis during pregnancy: about a series of 10 cases in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumbia-Singare, K; Timbo, S K; Keita, M; Ag Mohamed, A; Guindo, B; Soumaoro, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the predisposing factors, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of cervico-facial cellulitis on pregnancies and to determine maternal-fetal prognosis. We conducted a longitudinal observational descriptive study from January 2011 to March 2013 including records from pregnant women with cervicofacial cellulitis treated at the Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) and cervico-facial surgery department at Gabriel Touré Hospital in Bamako. Ten women met our inclusion criteria. The median age was 23 years. The entry way was dental in all cases. Three women had taken antibiotics and 3 others antibiotics associated with non steroidal anti-inflammatory. The medico-surgical treatment had permitted to cure 8 cases. Two cases of death were recorded and 4 cases of stillbirths. The cervico-facial cellulitis during pregnancy is a serious pathology that can be life-threatening to the mother and or child. Prevention is based on the control of dental status and informing women about the importance of dental hygiene. PMID:25304000

  17. Use of the Vascularized Iliac-Crest Flap in Musculoskeletal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tonoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss was in the past treated by several methods, such as bone distraction and the use of nonvascularized or tissue-bank bone grafts. With the advent of modern microsurgical techniques, the vascularized bone flap has been used with good results; it resolves local nutritional problems, repairs soft tissue that is often damaged by severe trauma, and treats bone loss due to tumors, pseudarthroses, and osteomyelitis. This paper reports the authors’ experience with the use of vascularized iliac-crest flaps to treat orthopedic pathologies in five patients with traumatic bone loss (<10 cm, three with osteomyelitis, and three with atrophic nonunion. In all cases, the same surgeon obtained a vascularized iliac-crest flap with a pedicle based on the deep iliac circumflex artery. All flaps consolidated within a mean period of 3 months. These findings demonstrate that the use of an iliac-crest flap is a treatment option in cases of bone loss and that it is associated with good functional results and minimal donor-site morbidity.

  18. Doxycycline ameliorates the susceptibility to aortic lesions in a mouse model for the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briest, Wilfried; Cooper, Timothy K; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Krawczyk, Melissa; McDonnell, Nazli B; Talan, Mark I

    2011-06-01

    The vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS), a rare disease with grave complications resulting from rupture of major arteries, is caused by mutations of collagen type III [α1 chain of collagen type III (COL3A1)]. The only, recently proven, preventive strategy consists of the reduction of arterial wall stress by β-adrenergic blockers. The heterozygous (HT) Col3a1 knockout mouse has reduced expression of collagen III and recapitulates features of a mild presentation of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether changing the balance between synthesis and degradation of collagen by chronic treatment with doxycycline, a nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, could prevent the development of vascular pathology in HT mice. After 3 months of treatment with doxycycline or placebo, 9-month-old HT or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to surgical stressing of the aorta. A 3-fold increase in stress-induced aortic lesions found in untreated HT mice 1 week after intervention (cumulative score 4.5 ± 0.87 versus 1.3 ± 0.34 in WT, p animals there was normalization to the levels observed in WT mice. Doxycycline treatment inhibits the activity of tissue MMP and attenuates the decrease in the collagen content in aortas of mice haploinsufficient for collagen III, as well as prevents the development of stress-induced vessel pathology. The results suggest that doxycycline merits clinical testing as a treatment for vEDS. PMID:21363928

  19. The role of white matter lesions in cognitive impairment of vascular origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormalities involving the cerebral white matter, in particular the centrum semiovale, are a subject of great current interest. Partly this is because modern neuroimaging methods detect white matter changes with increasing frequency in persons older than 60 years and also because these abnormalities may be associated with specific neuro behavioral deficits, including cognitive impairment. The significance of these changes, as well as their pathophysiological background is incompletely understood. The aim of this paper is to critically review the existing knowledge about the role of the white matter lesions, based on the critical analysis of over 100 publications (most appearing in the last decade). (author)

  20. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  1. Study on the relationship between plasma expressions of certain vascular endothelial dysfunction related markers (ET-1, vWF and PAI-1) and development of macro-vascular lesions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the plasma expression of certain vascular endothelial dysfunction related markers (ET-1, vWF, PAI-1) and development of macrovascular lesions in patients with DM2. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PTI-1), von willebrand factor, vWF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 65 DM2 patients complicated with macro-vascular lesions, 54 DM2 patients without macro-vascular lesions and 46 controls. The blood triglyceride (TG) total cholesterol (TH) and fasting sugar (fBG) levels were also measured with biochemistry. Fasting insulin levels were measured with MEIA method. Results: The plasma levels of ET-1, vWF and PAI-1 in all the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P0.05), but the fBI, fBG levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction related markers increased more in diabetics with vascular lesions (ET-1 significantly, the other two increased but not significantly). (authors)

  2. Expression of apolipoprotein serum amyloid A mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions and cultured vascular cells: implications for serum amyloid A function.

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, R L; Urieli-Shoval, S.; Benditt, E. P.

    1994-01-01

    Altered lipoprotein metabolism and vascular injury are considered to be major parts of the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of acute-phase reactants found residing mainly on high density lipoproteins (HDL) in the circulation. Several functions for the SAAs have been proposed that could be important in atherosclerosis. These include involvement in cholesterol metabolism, participation in detoxification, depression of immune responses, and interference ...

  3. Headache, migraine, and structural brain lesions and function: population based Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the association of overall and specific headaches with volume of white matter hyper-intensities, brain infarcts, and cognition. Design: Population based, cross sectional study. Setting: Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing study, Nantes, France. Participants: 780 participants (mean age 69, 58.5% women) with detailed headache assessment. Main outcome measures: Brain scans were evaluated for volume of white matter hyper-intensities (by fully automated imaging processing) and for classification of infarcts (by visual reading with a standardised assessment grid). Cognitive function was assessed by a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination. Results: 163 (20.9%) participants reported a history of severe headache and 116 had migraine, of whom 17 (14.7%) reported aura symptoms. An association was found between any history of severe headache and increasing volume of white matter hyper-intensities. The adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest third for total volume of white matter hyper-intensities was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.1, P for trend 0.002) for participants with any history of severe headache when compared with participants without severe headache being in the lowest third. The association pattern was similar for all headache types. Migraine with aura was the only headache type strongly associated with volume of deep white matter hyper-intensities (highest third odds ratio 12.4, 1.6 to 99.4, P for trend 0.005) and with brain infarcts (3.4, 1.2 to 9.3). The location of infarcts was predominantly outside the cerebellum and brain stem. Evidence was lacking for cognitive impairment for any headache type with or without brain lesions. Conclusions: In this population based study, any history of severe headache was associated with an increased volume of white matter hyper-intensities. Migraine with aura was the only headache type associated with brain infarcts. Evidence that headache of any type by itself or in

  4. Desarrollo y organizacion de la confluencia cervicofacial con miras aplicativas: un estudio especial sobre tabiques aponeuroticos

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Altemir, Francisco; Escolar García, José

    2011-01-01

    Hemos estudiado con ilusión investigadora y aplicativa la embriología y la anatomia embrionaria de la región cervicofacial para obtener información sobre: Complejidades compartimentales; Observamos embriones de 21, 40 y 130 mm.; De ellos estudiamos entre otros el glomus, el compartimento submandibular y faríngeo; De la misma manera base de cráneo, etc; Esbozamos sobre la aparición de quistes, fístulas relacionadas con los primeros arcos branquiales; También sobre malformaciones de la base del...

  5. Actinomicose do sistema nervoso central: uma rara complicação da actinomicose cervicofacial

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Ferraz; C. V. M. Melo; E. L. R. Pereira; J. N. Stávale; R.G. Nogueira; A. A. Gabbai; S.M.F. Malheiros; M. N. Prandini; F. M. Braga

    1993-01-01

    A actinomicose do sistema nervoso central (SNC) é afecção rara, caracterizada pela formação de abscesso único e de evolução crônica. Os autores descrevem o caso de um paciente jovem, imunocompetente, com actinomicose cerebral oriunda de foco primário cervicofacial, submetido a ressecção cirúrgica e antibioticoterapia. Ressalta-se a importância do conhecimento da entidade e de suas principais formas de acometimento, como a base do diagnóstico precoce dessa enfermidade potencialmente curável e ...

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of MR angiography in the detection of intracranial occlusive vascular lesions and usefulness of MR angiography in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-nine patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and twenty-six with central nervous system lesions were evaluated with three-dimensional Fourier transformation time-of-flight MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). MRA and DSA were compared at the C1-C4 of the internal carotid artery (lCA), the M1-proximal site of M2 of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and the P1-P3 of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Regarding to the sensitivity of MRA to occlusive vascular lesions, the overall sensitivity was satisfactory (85.7%), although sensitivity to the PCA was slightly inferior to that of MCA and ICA. Specificity was high, reaching 95% overall. Occlusive lesions were frequently detected in C2, (C3), M1, P2 (and P3). False positive findings were observed in 17 arteries; these were frequently observed in (C2), C3, (M1), the bifurcation of MCA, P2 and P3. False negative findings were observed in 5 arteries; these were observed in C2-C4, P2 and P3. Occlusive lesions were detected in 18 (36.7%) of the patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and MRA was sensitive in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients and specific in 27 of 31 (87.1%) patients. Although the sensitivity to the PCA was inferior to that of MCA and ICA, the overall sensitivity was 25 of 30 (83.3%), and was considered satisfactory. There was no significant difference in specificity among ICA, MCA and PCA. The overall specificity was high at 245 of 259 (94.6%). MRA seemed to have relatively high reliability in detecting occlusive vascular lesions around the circle of Willis. Occlusive lesions were frequently detected in C2 (and C3), M1, P2 (and P3), but special attention should be paid to interpreting MRA, because false positive and false negative findings may be observed at flexed sites. (K.H.)

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of MR angiography in the detection of intracranial occlusive vascular lesions and usefulness of MR angiography in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoroki, Koji [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-05-01

    Forty-nine patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and twenty-six with central nervous system lesions were evaluated with three-dimensional Fourier transformation time-of-flight MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). MRA and DSA were compared at the C1-C4 of the internal carotid artery (lCA), the M1-proximal site of M2 of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and the P1-P3 of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Regarding to the sensitivity of MRA to occlusive vascular lesions, the overall sensitivity was satisfactory (85.7%), although sensitivity to the PCA was slightly inferior to that of MCA and ICA. Specificity was high, reaching 95% overall. Occlusive lesions were frequently detected in C2, (C3), M1, P2 (and P3). False positive findings were observed in 17 arteries; these were frequently observed in (C2), C3, (M1), the bifurcation of MCA, P2 and P3. False negative findings were observed in 5 arteries; these were observed in C2-C4, P2 and P3. Occlusive lesions were detected in 18 (36.7%) of the patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and MRA was sensitive in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients and specific in 27 of 31 (87.1%) patients. Although the sensitivity to the PCA was inferior to that of MCA and ICA, the overall sensitivity was 25 of 30 (83.3%), and was considered satisfactory. There was no significant difference in specificity among ICA, MCA and PCA. The overall specificity was high at 245 of 259 (94.6%). MRA seemed to have relatively high reliability in detecting occlusive vascular lesions around the circle of Willis. Occlusive lesions were frequently detected in C2 (and C3), M1, P2 (and P3), but special attention should be paid to interpreting MRA, because false positive and false negative findings may be observed at flexed sites. (K.H.)

  8. Positive Vascular Remodeling in Culprit Coronary Lesion is Associated With Plaque Composition: An Intravascular Ultrasound-Virtual Histology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung Seop; Seo, Young Hoon; Yang, Dong Ju; Kim, Ki Hong; Park, Hyun Woong; Yuk, Hyung Bin; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Wan-Ho; Kwon, Taek-Geun; Bae, Jang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The relationship between the positive remodeling (PR) of a coronary artery and plaque composition has been studied only in a relatively small number of study population or non-culprit lesion. We evaluated the association between coronary plaque composition and coronary artery remodeling in a relatively large number of culprit lesions. Subjects and Methods The study population consisted of 325 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease that underwent intravascu...

  9. Intracisternal ziconotide infusion. Clinical case of an inoperable pharynx cancer patient with severe cervico-facial pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Mameli; Giovanni Maria Pisanu; Angela Maria Pili; Maura Carboni

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical case of a patient suffering from severe cervico-facial pain syndrome with great incident component from inoperable pharynx cancer. The patient that was poorly responding to systemic therapy with high doses of opioids, benefi ted from intrathecal administration of ziconotide in combination with morphine and bupivacaine. After a long period of effectiveness (16 months), the patient complained of pain recurrence.The increase of ziconotide dose caused a ser...

  10. Internal jugular vein thrombosis complicating cervicofacial infection of dental origin. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos DENDRINOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Septic thrombosis of the internal jugular vein or Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare form of metastatic septic thromboembolitis, typically involving superinfection with Fusobacterium Necrophorum, internal jugular vein thrombosis and remote septic emboli.CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was referred for a painful cervicofacial swelling on the left, obliteration of the buccal sulcus, as well as swelling of both the soft and hard palate and the floor of the mouth ipsilaterally, accompanied by severe trismus and difficulty in swallowing. The patient underwent intraoral and extraoral incisions and drainage of the affected anatomical spaces and tracheotomy. The patient’s clinical condition was steadily improving; following examination with CT scan,9 days post-op, internal jugular vein thrombosis was diagnosed. The patient was put on anticoagulants. The postoperative course continued uneventfully, and the patient was discharged. One month post-operatively the vessel was normal and anticoagulant treatment was discontinued.CONCLUSION: Since Lemierre’s syndrome is not only rare but also tends to be underdiagnosed when there is no obvious cause of sepsis, it should be included in the differential diagnosis if the patient’s general contition deteriorates in spite of the treatment.

  11. USE OF AUTOLOGOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE DERIVED STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION IN TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CHONDRAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. It can be caused by aging, heredity and injury from trauma or disease. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, containing large amount of stem cells and other regenerative cells, can be easily obtained from loose connective tissue that is associated with adipose tissue. Here we evaluated safety and clinical efficacy of freshly isolated autologous SVF cells in patients with grade 2 - 4 degenerative osteoarthritis (OA. A total of 31 patients underwent standard liposuction under local anesthesia and SVF cells were isolated and prepared for application into joints. A total of 61 joints, mainly knee and hip joints, were treated with a single dose of SVF cells. 19 patients were fol lowed for minimum 6 weeks for safety and efficacy. Modified KOOS Clinical Score was used to evaluate clinical effect and was based on pain, non - steroid analgesic usage, limping, extent of joint movement, and stiffness evaluation before and at pre - operative , 1 week post - op, 1 month and 6 weeks after the treatment. No serious side effects, systemic infection or cancer was associated with SVF cell therapy. All patients improved after the treatment. Average KOOS score improved from pre - operative 37.5 to post - op erative 6 week average 66.6. All sub scale parameter for pain, symptoms, activity of living & quality of life are also improved. Higher grade of OA were associated with slower healing. In conclusion, here we report a novel and promising treatment approach for patients with degenerative OA that is safe, cost - effective, and relying only on autologous cells, and can be used as one of the minimal invasive treatment modality for osteoarthritis

  12. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  13. Intracisternal ziconotide infusion. Clinical case of an inoperable pharynx cancer patient with severe cervico-facial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mameli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the clinical case of a patient suffering from severe cervico-facial pain syndrome with great incident component from inoperable pharynx cancer. The patient that was poorly responding to systemic therapy with high doses of opioids, benefi ted from intrathecal administration of ziconotide in combination with morphine and bupivacaine. After a long period of effectiveness (16 months, the patient complained of pain recurrence.The increase of ziconotide dose caused a serious adverse effect (psychosis, which led to the suspension of the drug. After four weeks washout, lower doses of the drug (1/4 administered at cervical segmental level; the patient achieved again a good pain relief.

  14. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA. Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  15. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Prasad PVS; Prasanna K; Rao L

    1994-01-01

    A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA). Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  16. Actinomicose cervicofacial na infância - apresentação de um caso clínico e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bononi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Enfatizar aspectos importantes para o diagnóstico e manejo clínico de pacientes com actinomicose cervicofacial na infância. Casuística e método: O presente estudo é um relato de caso de actinomicose na forma cervicofacial, acompanhando de revisão da literatura dos últimos anos através dos bancos de dados Lilacs e Medline. Resultados: Paciente do sexo masculino acompanhado na enfermaria de moléstias infecciosas pediátricas por actinomicose cervicofacial. O diagnóstico foi realizado através de biópsia de nódulo cervical e isolamento da bactéria. O antibiótico utilizado foi a penicilina específica para o actimomices, por 14 dias. Alta após diminuição do nódulo, com orientação de amoxicilina por mínimo de 6 meses e acompanhamento ambulatorial. Conclusão: O diagnóstico precoce da actinomicose resulta em tratamento adequado e imediato, evitando-se o acometimento de áreas nobres em SNC, face e pescoço.

  17. Macrophages Are Alternatively Activated in Patients with Endometriosis and Required for Growth and Vascularization of Lesions in a Mouse Model of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, Monica; Capobianco, Annalisa; Monno, Antonella; Cottone, Lucia; Di Puppo, Francesca; Camisa, Barbara; Mariani, Margherita; Brignole, Chiara; Ponzoni, Mirco; Ferrari, Stefano; Panina-Bordignon, Paola; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms that sustain endometrial tissues at ectopic sites in patients with endometriosis are poorly understood. Various leukocytes, including macrophages, infiltrate endometriotic lesions. In this study, we depleted mouse macrophages by means of either clodronate liposomes or monoclonal antibodies before the injection of syngeneic endometrial tissue. In the absence of macrophages, tissue fragments adhered and implanted into the peritoneal wall, but endometriotic lesions failed to organ...

  18. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  20. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  1. Endovascular treatment of traumatic vascular lesions of the head and neck%血管内介入治疗头颈部创伤性血管损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗中华; 秦勉; 张学昕; 何华; 贺洪德; 孙立军; 宦怡

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估血管内介入治疗颈部外伤性血管损伤的治疗效果.方法 回顾血管内介入治疗外伤性颈动脉或椎动脉损伤16例,分析其临床及影像表现,血管内介入治疗(栓塞或支架植入)和预后.结果 16例患者中,男性14例,女性2例,年龄17~46岁.血管损伤的原因有车祸,摔伤,刀伤和斗殴.2例(12.5%)有多处损伤;12例假性动脉瘤,5例动静脉瘘,2例动脉破裂有活动性出血.共20处病变中,行栓塞治疗14处,支架植入6处.随访一年内,临床改善或稳定14例,1例支架完全闭塞,1例动静瘘复通.结论 合理采用血管内介入治疗头颈部创伤性血管损伤是安全、有效的治疗方法.%Objective To evaluate the endovascular therapy of patients with traumatic vascular injuries of the head and neck. Methods Sixteen patients with traumatic vascular lesions of the head and neck were admitted to our hospital and diagnostic angiography of the carotid artery and vertebral circulation was performed and endovascular therapy (embolization and stent planting) and outcome were analyzed retrospectively. The angiographic findings, clinical presentation and hospital course were reviewed. Results There were sixteen patients, fourteen males and two females, aged 17~46. The mechanisms of injury included motor vehicle accident, stab wound in a fall aggravated assault. Two patients (12. 5%) had multiple lesions; twelve had pseudoaneurysms, five with fistula formation and two with active arterial hemorrhage. A total of 20 lesions were treated. Fourteen of 20 lesions were embolized by coils and six were received stents. In one year follow-up, fourteen of the eighteen patients remained clinically improved or stable at varying follow-up intervals in one year. One patient presented completely occluded stent at the 2th month follow-up. One patients had a reopened arteriovenous fistula at the 2-week post-emboiization follow-up. Conclusion Endovascular therapy of traumatic vascular

  2. A 19-year-old man with relapsing bilateral pneumothorax, hemoptysis, and intrapulmonary cavitary lesions diagnosed with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and a novel missense mutation in COL3A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Bjørg J; Kulseth, Mari Ann; Paus, Benedicte

    2015-05-01

    A 19-year-old sportsman experienced a right-sided pneumothorax and hemoptysis after having had an intermittent cough and blood-tinged sputum for 2 months. A chest CT scan revealed small cavitary lesions in both lungs. The relapsing pneumothorax was treated with a chest tube twice, as well as surgically after the second relapse. Two months after surgery, the patient developed a cough, fever, and high C-reactive protein levels. At that time, large consolidations had developed in the right lung, while the left lung subsequently collapsed due to pneumothorax. The patient's physical appearance and anamnestic information led us to suspect a genetic connective tissue disease. A sequencing analysis of the COL3A1 gene identified a novel, de novo missense mutation that confirmed the diagnosis of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). This atypical presentation of vascular EDS with intrathoracic complications shows that enhanced awareness is required and demonstrates the usefulness of the genetic analyses that are clinically available for several hereditary connective tissue disorders. PMID:25940258

  3. [Lateral trapezius flap in cervico-facial surgery. Apropos of 89 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberchicot, F; Barthelemy, I; Phan, E; Michelet, V; Pinsolle, J

    1995-04-01

    Described since 1976, the lateral trapezius flap is not very used in cervico facial reconstructive surgery because of its dissection which is considered as difficult and because of the variability of its vascular pedicle. This latter problem can be removed by the systematic use of preoperative arteriography. We present our retrospective experience of 89 flaps (70 cases of tumors and 19 cases of balistic pathology. We can conclude that the lateral trapezius flap owns specific indications: cutaneous and mucous defects of lips and cheeks, defects of pharyngeal area, defects of floor of the mouth considering of its thin thickness, mandibular defects where it takes place between reconstructive plates and revascularized bone transplants especially for the symphysis area. PMID:7574390

  4. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  5. MR imaging of soft-tissue vascular lesons: pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of vascular lesions, MR can be used to distinguish slow- from high- flow lesions on the basis of the observed spin-echo MR signal characteristics. MR imaging can also represent features of the static tissues of the vascular lesions that are composed of fibrofatty components, as well as thromboses, phleboliths and muscle atrophy. This paper illustrates the MR findings of various vascular lesions, correlating them with the pathologic specimen and emphasizing on the static tissues

  6. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  7. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. Material/Methods A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies a...

  8. VASCULAR MALFORMATION OF CHEEK: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions are among the most common congenital and neonatal abnormalities. Most of the congenital vascular malformations are often misdiagnosed and left untreated. These lesions are the result of an embryonic abnormality of the vascular system. This is a case report of 13 year male patient who came with a chief complaint of swelling on the right side of face since birth. It was diagnosed as vascular malformations of buccal mucosa of right side. It is emphasized that the management of these cases requ ires a multidisciplinary approach. Laser therapy, embolization followed by surgical excision is the favourable treatment modalities.

  9. Effects of JPEG data compression on magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of small vessels ischemic lesions of the brain; Efeitos da compressao de dados JPEG na avaliacao de lesoes vasculares cerebrais isquemicas de pequenos vasos em ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Paulo Eduardo de Aguiar; Abdala, Nitamar; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: paulokuriki@gmail.com

    2006-01-15

    Objective: to establish the maximum achievable JPEG compression ratio without affecting quantitative and qualitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of ischemic lesion in small vessels of the brain. Material and method: fifteen DICOM images were converted to JPEG with a compression ratio of 1:10 to 1:60 and were assessed together with the original images by three neuro radiologists. The number, morphology and signal intensity of the lesions were analyzed. Results: lesions were properly identified up to a 1:30 ratio. More lesions were identified with a 1:10 ratio then in the original images. Morphology and edges were properly evaluated up toa 1:40 ratio. Compression did not affect signal. Conclusion: small lesions were identified ( < 2 mm ) and in all compression ratios the JPEG algorithm generated image noise that misled observers to identify more lesions in JPEG images then in DICOM images, thus generating false-positive results.(author)

  10. MRI evaluation of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicheng Liu; Hongxing Zhang; Wei Huang; Wenjun Wan; Hongfen Peng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTTVE: To explain the association between vascular dementia and the cranial MRI manifestations, and recognize the value of cranial MRI in the early diagnosis of vascular dementia and the assessment of disease conditions.DATA SOURCES: Pubmed database was searched to identify articles about the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia published in English from January 1992 to June 2006 by using the key words of "MRI, vascular dementia". Others were collected by searching the name of journals and title of articles in the Chinese full-text journal database.STUDY SELECTTON: The collected articles were primarily checked, those correlated with the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia were selected, while the obviously irrelative ones were excluded, and the rest were retrieved manually, the full-texts were searched.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 255 articles were collected, 41 of them were involved, and the other 214 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: MRI can be taken as one of the effective methods for the early diagnosis and disease evaluation of vascular dementia. White matter lesions are the important risk factors of vascular dementia.Vascular dementia is accompanied by the atrophy of related brain sites, but further confirmation is needed to investigate whether there is significant difference. MRI can be used to quantitatively investigate the infarcted sites and sizes of patients with vascular dementia after infarction, but there is still lack of systematic investigation on the association of the infarcted sites and sizes with the cognitive function of patients with vascular dementia.CONCLUSTON: Cranial MRI can detect the symptoms of vascular dementia at early period, so that corresponding measures can be adopted to prevent and treat vascular dementia in time.

  11. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  12. Oral vascular malformations: laser treatment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.

  13. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  14. Cerebral white matter lesions and depressive symptoms in elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, Jan Cees; de Leeuw, Frank; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Jolles, Jellemer; Breteler, Monique; Hofman, Albert

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is evidence for a vascular cause of late-life depression. Cerebral white matter lesions are thought to represent vascular abnormalities. White matter lesions have been related to affective disorders and a history of late-onset depression in psychiatric patients. Their relation with mood disturbances in the general population is not known. We investigated the relation between white matter lesions and the presence of depressive symptoms or a history of depression i...

  15. Vascular MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project investigates cardiac gated gradient echo pulses sequences for vascular MR imaging. These pulse sequences have been used to acquire and display MR projection angiograms. The authors have applied these methods in two distinct populations of patients for evaluation and comparison with standard angiography. Twenty patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms, and 35 patients with aortoiliac atherosclerotic disease or peripheral vascular disease were investigated using this method and the results are presented

  16. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O. V. Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment ...

  17. Vulvar vascular tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 85 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalas, John A; Sangueza, Omar P; Puri, Puja K; Robboy, Stanley J; Selim, Maria A

    2013-02-01

    The subepidermal hormonally sensitive tissue of the vulva is anatomically unique and may give rise to a wide variety of vascular tumors. As a consequence, classifying vulvar vascular lesions has been challenging due both to the wide variety of lesions that may be encountered and the heterogeneity in reporting across several disciplines. The purpose of this study is to present an institutional experience of vulvar vascular lesions. Overall, 85 patients were identified over a 26-year period. Vascular lesions belonging to the following classes included (n, %total) benign vascular tumors (32, 38%), dilatations of preexisting vessels (31, 36%), hyperplasia/reactive (7, 8%), tumors with significant vascular component (11, 13%), malformations (3, 4%), and malignant vascular tumors (1, 1%). Two reaction patterns based on vulvar lymphatic pathology were identified: one is a stromal dominant pattern and the other is a vascular dominant pattern. Vulvar vascular malformations and true vascular malignancies, although rare, may have associated high morbidity. To accurately classify vulvar lymphatic lesions, the pathologist must carefully consider the patient's clinical history taking into account features such as preexisting lymphedema. PMID:23348141

  18. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions – A Pictorial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhara, S.H.; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  19. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions - A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhara, S H; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  20. Imaging Vascular Disease and Amyloid in the Aging Brain: Implications for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) are well known risk factors for Alzheimer’ disease. These vascular risk factors lead to vascular brain injuries, which also increase the likelihood of dementia. The advent of amyloid PET imaging has helped establish that vascular risk factors also lead to Alzheimer’s disease via pathways that are independent from vascular brain injuries, at least, when vascular brain injuries are measured as white matter lesions and infarcts...

  1. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease. PMID:26442438

  2. Tendon lesion and VEGF-111 injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Janssen, Lauriane; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon lesion is one of the most frequent pathology in sports and by physical workers. This pathology often becomes chronic. For this reason, it is of interest to develop new treatments. Injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a promising one by releasing growth factors (GF) locally. Among all the GF released by activated platelets, the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is known to induce positive effects on vascular function and angiogenesis, and could b...

  3. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  4. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  5. Biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury is an issue of concern because there are no obvious diagnostic markers for pre-clinical or clinical monitoring and there is an intellectual gap in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. While vasodilatation and increased shear stress appear to play a role, the exact mechanism(s) of injury to the primary targets, smooth muscle and endothelial cells are unknown. However, evaluation of novel markers for potential clinical monitoring with a mechanistic underpinning would add value in risk assessment and management. This mini review focuses on the progress to identify diagnostic markers of drug-induced vascular injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), released upon perturbation of endothelial cells, is transiently increased in plasma prior to morphological evidence of damage in dogs or rats treated with vascular toxicants. Therefore, vWF might be a predictive biomarker of vascular injury. However, vWF is not an appropriate biomarker of lesion progression or severity since levels return to baseline values when there is morphological evidence of injury. A potential mechanistically linked biomarker of vascular injury is caveolin-1. Expression of this protein, localized primarily to smooth muscle and endothelial cells, decreases with the onset of vascular damage. Since vascular injury involves multiple mediators and cell types, evaluation of a panel rather than a single biomarker may be more useful in monitoring early and severe progressive vascular injury

  6. Pattern formation by vascular mesenchymal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Alan; Tintut, Yin; Petrasek, Danny; Boström, Kristina; Demer, Linda L.

    2004-01-01

    In embryogenesis, immature mesenchymal cells aggregate and organize into patterned tissues. Later in life, a pathological recapitulation of this process takes place in atherosclerotic lesions, when vascular mesenchymal cells organize into trabecular bone tissue within the artery wall. Here we show that multipotential adult vascular mesenchymal cells self-organize in vitro into patterns that are predicted by a mathematical model based on molecular morphogens interacting in a reaction-diffusion...

  7. Lymphangiosarcoma complicating extensive congenital mixed vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhaybi, Rola; Agoumi, Mehdi; Powell, Julie; Dubois, Josée; Kokta, Victor

    2010-09-01

    Pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma is a very rare malignant vascular tumor. A few cases have shown pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma occurring on a background of preexisting vascular lesions. We report the case of a newborn girl who presented extensive limbs and upper trunk cutaneous mixed vascular malformations at birth. These malformations were associated with thrombocytopenia. Cutaneous biopsies revealed complex vascular malformations with a significant lymphatic component. Compressive body suit therapy led to regression of the limbs' cutaneous vascular malformations. At the age of 9 months, the patient presented multiple heterogeneous hepatosplenic nodules. Aggressive treatment with prednisone, vincristine, and hepatosplenic embolizations resulted in initial improvement of the hepatosplenic lesions for few months, followed by an increase of the lesions with failure of response to treatment despite adding alpha-interferon-2b to treatment. The patient died at the age of 19 months. The autopsy's pathological examination revealed a hepatic-based angiosarcoma with plurimetastatic dissemination to the spleen, lungs, peritoneum, pleura, mesenteric linings as well as the serosa of the stomach and small intestine. Multiple cutaneous and visceral complex capillaro-lymphatico-venous malformations were also identified. We hypothesize that these multiple extensive mixed vascular malformations were associated with chronic lymphedema which probably predisposed to the development of the angiosarcoma in our patient. PMID:20863270

  8. Vascular malformations of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are rare diseases. Possible symptoms may consist in a transient neurological deficit, a progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion or an acute para- or tetraplegia. Damage to the spinal cord occurs by bleeding, space-occupying effects and venous congestion, rarely by steal effects. Classification of the true inborn malformations differentiates between arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), cavernomas and capillary teleangiectasias. The more frequent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) of the elderly patient is a probably acquired lesion which is presented in a separate paper. Capillary teleangiectasias are mostly incidental findings but may cause differential diagnostic problems. Cavernomas are important causes of hemorrhage and may initially be obscured within the bleeding. MRI is the most relevant imaging procedure in the early diagnostic workup. In case of an AVM selective spinal angiography is required to define the type of the lesion and to decide about the appropriate therapy which may be endovascular-interventional, neurosurgical, combined or attentive. (orig.)

  9. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  10. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  11. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  12. Management of extensive intraparotid vascular malformation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Anesti; Zachary Moaveni; Heng-Yi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of large soft tissue vascular lesions remains one of the greatest challenges in modern plastic surgery. The extent of the disease and the involved structures, but also the expectations of the patients are important in determining the way of treatment. The effective management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck requires a team approach, in order to understand the biologic behavior of the lesion, complete the diagnostic studies necessary to define the area ...

  13. Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population Prevalência de hemangioma, malformação vascular e variz de boca numa população brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Henriques Corrêa; Lara Cristina Caldeira Nunes; Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann; Maria Cássia Ferreira de Aguiar; Ricardo Santiago Gomez; Ricardo Alves Mesquita

    2007-01-01

    Hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix are benign vascular lesions, common in the head and neck regions. Studies about the prevalence of these lesions in the oral cavity are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and to obtain clinical data on oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population. Clinical data on those lesions were retrieved from the clinical forms from the files of the Oral Diagnosis Service, School of Dentistry, Federal Un...

  14. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and find out! Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine August 2016 The Vascular Laboratory More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

  15. The clinical effectiveness of reflectance optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of oral lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diana VMessadi; Fariba SYounai; Hong-Hu Liu; Gao Guo; Cun-Yu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy devices are being developed and tested for the screening and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer lesions. This study reports a device that uses white light for detection of suspicious lesions and green-amber light at 545 nm that detect tissue vascularity on patients with several suspicious oral lesions. The clinical grading of vascularity was compared to the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific biomarkers. Such a device, in the hands of dentists and other health professionals, could greatly increase the number of oral cancerous lesions detected in early phase. The purpose of this study is to correlate the clinical grading of tissue vascularity in several oral suspicious lesions using the IdentafiH system with the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific vascular markers. Twenty-one patients with various oral lesions were enrolled in the study. The lesions were visualized using IdentafiH device with white light illumination, followed by visualization of tissue autofluorescence and tissue reflectance. Tissue biopsied was obtained from the all lesions and both histopathological and immunohistochemical studies using a vascular endothelial biomarker (CD34) were performed on these tissue samples. The clinical vascular grading using the green-amber light at 545 nm and the expression pattern and intensity of staining for CD34 in the different biopsies varied depending on lesions, grading ranged from 1 to 3. The increase in vascularity was observed in abnormal tissues when compared to normal mucosa, but this increase was not limited to carcinoma only as hyperkeratosis and other oral diseases, such as lichen planus, also showed increase in vascularity. Optical spectroscopy is a promising technology for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities;however, further investigations with a larger population group is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from

  16. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  17. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  18. IATROGENIC BILIARY LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schiappa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic bile duct injury carries a high rate of morbidity. After the introduction of laparoscopiccholecystectomy the incidence of these injuries has at least doubled, and even after the learningcurve, the incidence has remained of about 0.5%. Etiology of the iatrogenic biliary injuries is theresult of the anatomical conditions (biliary or vascular anomalies, pathology (acute cholecystitis,adhesions, technical equipment, surgeon (the lerning curve. The type of the injuries, thediagnostic procedures and therapeutic approach are discussed. Most of the minor bile duct injuries,including cystic duct leaks and bile duct strictures, are well treatable with endoscopic techniques,whereas most of the major injuries require operative treatment, which at optimal circumstancesgives good results. Interdisciplinary cooperation and early referral to an experienced center iscrucial in the management of these iatrogenic lesions. The best „treatment” for this iatrogenicpathology is prevention: surgical access adapted to morphology, good exposure of the hepatoduodenalspace, good identification of structures before tying, appropriate dissection, selectivecholangiography, great care with the use of electrosurgery.

  19. Molecular signal transduction in vascular cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of genetically programmed cell death, which plays a key role in regulation of cellularity in a variety of tissue and cell types including the cardiovascular tissues. Under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, various biophysiological and biochemical factors, including mechanical forces, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines, growth factors, oxidized lipoproteins, etc., may influence apoptosis of vascular cells. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. Abnormal expression and dysfunction of these apoptosis-regulating genes may attenuate or accelerate vascular cell apoptosis and affect the integrity and stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Clarification of the molecular mechanism that regulates apoptosis may help design a new strategy for treatment of atherosclerosis and its major complication, the acute vascular syndromes.

  20. Laser therapy and sclerotherapy in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Bogdan; BǎciuÅ£, Mihaela; BǎciuÅ£, Grigore; Crişan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Moldovan, Iuliu; Vǎcǎraş, Sergiu; Mitre, Ileana; Barbur, Ioan; Magdaş, Andreea; Dinu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Hemangioma and vascular malformations in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery is a pathology more often found in recent years in patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the laser photocoagulation performed with a diode laser (Ga-Al-As) 980 nm wavelength in the treatment of vascular lesions which are located on the oral and maxillofacial areas, using color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of the results. We also made a comparison between laser therapy and sclerotherapy in order to establish treatment protocols and recommendations associated with this pathology. We conducted a controlled study on a group of 92 patients (38 male and 54 female patients, with an average age of 36 years) having low flow hemangioma and vascular malformations. Patients in this trial received one of the methods of treatment for vascular lesions such as hemangioma and vascular malformations: laser therapy or sclerotherapy. After laser therapy we have achieved a reduction in size of hemangioma and vascular malformations treated with such a procedure, and the aesthetic results were favorable. No reperfusion or recanalization of laser treated vascular lesions was observed after an average follow-up of 6 to 12 months. In case of sclerotherapy a reduction in the size of vascular lesions was also obtained. The 980 nm diode laser has been proved to be an effective tool in the treatment of hemangioma and vascular malformations in oral and maxillofacial area. Laser therapy in the treatment of vascular lesions was more effective than the sclerotherapy procedure.

  1. 存在血管危险因素的老年人脑白质损害与认知功能障碍的关系%Relationship between cerebral white matter lesions and cognitive function disorder in old people with vascular risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈树红; 王少石; 张会军; 宋彦彦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions(WML)of different severity and the cognitive impairment in old people with vascular risk factors. Methods According to WML score,195 participants with WML were divided into mild WML group,medium WML group and severe WML group. The control group (n = 70) consisted of healthy old people without WML. All participants underwent neuropsychological tests including Mini Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Logical Memory Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Stroop Colour-Word Test, Trail Making Test,Similarity Test,Animals Category Fluency Test,Digital Span Test,Belling Test and Clock Drawing Test. Results The vascular risk factors increased as WML extent aggravated (P < 0. 05). Mild WML group had apparent decline in the memory score,attention score and part of the performance function score compared with the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P <0. 05,F<0. 01). The severe WML group had dramatic decline in all cognitive function scores compared with other groups, the differences were statistically significant. All of the cognitive function scores were inversely correlated with severity of WML (P < 0. 01). Conclusion Vascular risk factors could aggravate WML. Mild WML could impair cognitive function, while severe WML showed extensive cognitive impairment. Degree of cognitive impairment was positively correlated to severity of WML in old people with vascular risk factors.%目的 探讨存在血管危险因素老年人不同程度脑白质损害(WML)与认知障碍的关系.方法 选择WML患者195例,根据WML程度分为轻度组(54例),中度组(63例),重度组(78例),另选健康体检者70例作为对照组.所有受试者行神经心理学测试,包括简易智能状态检查量表、蒙特利尔认知评估量表、听觉词语记忆、逻辑记忆、复杂图形记忆、Stroop色词测验、连线测验B、相

  2. Orthopedic issues in vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Samantha A; Sorger, Joel

    2014-08-01

    Vascular malformations impact the musculoskeletal system depending on the tissue involved (skin, subcutis, muscle, cartilage, or bone), the extent of involvement, and the type of anomalous vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins, or lymphatics). These malformations can cause a multitude of musculoskeletal problems for the patient and their Orthopedic Surgeon to manage. Leg-length discrepancy, intra-articular involvement, muscular lesions, and primary or secondary scoliosis are just to name a few. All of these problems can cause pain, deformity, and a range of functional limitations. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment plans both have a role in the care of these patients. Patients with vascular malformations may also suffer from life-threatening cardiovascular and hematologic abnormalities. For those patients who undergo surgery, thromboembolic risk is elevated, wound breakdown and infection are much more common, and bleeding risk continues well into the postoperative course. Because of the complex nature of these disorders, the clinician must have a full understanding of the types of lesions, their natural history, appropriate diagnostic studies, associated medical problems, indications for treatment, and all the treatment options. For severe malformations, especially syndromes such as CLOVES and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, interdisciplinary team management is essential for the best outcomes. PMID:25241103

  3. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  4. [Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael

    2009-04-20

    Vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited disease with an autosomal dominant trait. The mutation of the COL3A1 gene which encodes type III collagen, is responsible of early vascular (spontaneous arterial rupture or dissection), digestive (perforation) and obstetrical events (uterine and arterial rupture). Diagnosis of the disease is primarily clinical, especially in case of characteristic morphologic features. Diagnostic certainty is obtained by evidencing the mutation of the COL3A1 gene. Some arterial lesions are suggestive of the disease, as dissecting aneurysms of the internal carotid, of the iliac arteries, and of the anterior visceral aortic branches, fusiform aneurisms of the splenic artery, and the occurrence of a non traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistula. The occurrence of a spontaneous peritonitis or of an extensive perineal tear after delivery should also draw physician's attention. Because of the unpredictability of arterial or organ rupture, any patient diagnosed with vascular type EDS presenting with an acute pain syndrome should be considered as a trauma situation and be investigated straightaway by CT-scan or MRI testing, in order to eliminate a life threatening complication. PMID:19462862

  5. Imaging Spectrum of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations of the Head and Neck in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions of the head and neck region in children constitute an interesting group of lesions that benefit immensely from imaging techniques. Imaging is essential for identification, characterization, and delineation of the extent of lesion and subsequent follow-up. Infantile hemangiomas, which are vascular tumors with a specific evolution pattern, constitute a large majority of these lesions. On the other hand, there are vascular malformations, which are anomalies of the vascular system, consisting of a range of vascular tissues associated with various flow patterns. When diagnosis is clinically evident, imaging should utilize non-radiation techniques and address the issues necessary for management. Timing and interpretation of imaging methods employed in assessing childhood vascular lesion should also take into consideration the natural history so that imaging is performed to address a specific question. This review highlights the typical appearance of a hemangioma and a group of vascular malformations of the head and neck. For descriptive purpose, an attempt has been made to group lesions into specific subsites, with each one having specific clinical significance. Cases included illustrate the spectrum of the disease ranging from classical form in young children to slightly differing manifestations of the disease in adolescents and adults. The illustrations also provide a novel way of presenting image data using volume-rendering techniques of 3D data. Multi-modality team interaction and management strategies of these complex lesions are also emphasized.

  6. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many of many ...

  7. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branch of medicine that focuses on the cardiovascular system. ... Circulatory system; Vascular system; Cardiovascular system ... to diagnose, monitor or treat diseases of the circulatory and vascular system include: Cardiac CT for calcium scoring Cardiac MRI ...

  8. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  9. Vascular malformations of the mandible (intraosseous haemangiomas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert-Tranier, F.; Piton, J.; Caille, J.M.; Riche, M.C.; Merland, J.J.

    1982-11-01

    Haemangiomas of the mandible are relatively rare arteriovenous malformations: 85 cases have been described since 1849. The severe risk of bleeding during tooth extraction or biopsy led us to describe the radiological and angiographic features of this condition. The afferent vessles are the inferior dental, the lingual and the facial arteries. Preoperative embolization reduces the risk of bleeding at operation. Surgical treatment must assure the complete removal of the lesion. Radiotherapy and vascular ligatures are useless and dangerous.

  10. Vascular malformations of the mandible (intraosseous haemangiomas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemangiomas of the mandible are relatively rare arteriovenous malformations: 85 cases have been described since 1849. The severe risk of bleeding during tooth extraction or biopsy led us to describe the radiological and angiographic features of this condition. The afferent vessles are the inferior dental, the lingual and the facial arteries. Preoperative embolization reduces the risk of bleeding at operation. Surgical treatment must assure the complete removal of the lesion. Radiotherapy and vascular ligatures are useless and dangerous. (orig.)

  11. The current approach to the diagnosis of vascular anomalies of the head and neck: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goei, Sinny; Singh, Aarti; Ghosh, Sujoy; Gupta, Sunta [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, Delhi (India); Gupta, Swati; Prakash, Anjali [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Lok Nayak Jaiprakash Hospital, Delhi (India); Narang, Poonam [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Throughout the years, various classifications have evolved for the diagnosis of vascular anomalies. However, it remains difficult to classify a number of such lesions. Because all hemangiomas were previously considered to involute, if a lesion with imaging and clinical characteristics of hemangioma does not involute, then there is no subclass in which to classify such a lesion, as reported in one of our cases. The recent classification proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA, 2014) has solved this problem by including non-involuting and partially involuting hemangioma in the classification. We present here five cases of vascular anomalies and discuss their diagnosis in accordance with the ISSVA (2014) classification. A non-involuting lesion should not always be diagnosed as a vascular malformation. A non-involuting lesion can be either a hemangioma or a vascular malformation depending upon its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics.

  12. The current approach to the diagnosis of vascular anomalies of the head and neck: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the years, various classifications have evolved for the diagnosis of vascular anomalies. However, it remains difficult to classify a number of such lesions. Because all hemangiomas were previously considered to involute, if a lesion with imaging and clinical characteristics of hemangioma does not involute, then there is no subclass in which to classify such a lesion, as reported in one of our cases. The recent classification proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA, 2014) has solved this problem by including non-involuting and partially involuting hemangioma in the classification. We present here five cases of vascular anomalies and discuss their diagnosis in accordance with the ISSVA (2014) classification. A non-involuting lesion should not always be diagnosed as a vascular malformation. A non-involuting lesion can be either a hemangioma or a vascular malformation depending upon its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics

  13. Ultrasonic diagnosis of hepatic focal lesions; comparison with radioisotope scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors analyzed ultrasonographic findings and compared the detectability of ultrasonography and RI scintigraphy of the 140 hepatic focal lesion, provened histologically or clinically. The results were as follows: 1. Hepato ma cases were 69 cases. 2. Metastatic Ca cases were 42 cases most frequently originated from stomach and pancreas. Small multiple lesions with hyper echoic or mixed echo pattern was predominant finding with relatively even distribution in the both lobe. 3. There was no apparent association between sonographical echogenecity and angiographic vascularity. 4. Sensitivity of the sonography for the detection of focal lesions was 90%, while RI scintigraphy was 82%. False negative lesions in the ultrasonography were frequently located in right lobe lateral and peripheral aspect. While in the RI scintigraphy, those lesions were frequently in the right lobe central aspect with close correlation with size of the lesion

  14. Solitary mesenteric vascular anomaly presenting as acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thambidorai C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old girl with a solitary vascular anomaly of the mesentery presented with acute lower abdominal pain. Despite the use of ultrasound, computed tomography scan and image-guided core biopsies, the lesion was initially mistaken for an inflammatory intra-abdominal mass. The correct diagnosis was made at laparotomy. Solitary vascular anomaly of the mesentery is rare and its presentation as an acute abdomen has not been reported before.

  15. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  16. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  17. Estrogen Stimulates Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endometriotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Nenicu, Anca; Nickels, Ruth M; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into microvessels contributes to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions. Herein, we analyzed whether this vasculogenic process is regulated by estrogen. Estrogen- and vehicle-treated human EPCs were analyzed for migration and tube formation. Endometriotic lesions were induced in irradiated FVB/N mice, which were reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein) 287 Sato mice. The animals were treated with 100 μg/kg β-estradiol 17-valerate or vehicle (control) over 7 and 28 days. Lesion growth, cyst formation, homing of green fluorescent protein(+)/Tie2(+) EPCs, vascularization, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by high-resolution ultrasonography, caliper measurements, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Numbers of blood circulating EPCs were assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro, estrogen-treated EPCs exhibited a higher migratory and tube-forming capacity when compared with controls. In vivo, numbers of circulating EPCs were not affected by estrogen. However, estrogen significantly increased the number of EPCs incorporated into the lesions' microvasculature, resulting in an improved early vascularization. Estrogen further stimulated the growth of lesions, which exhibited massively dilated glands with a flattened layer of stroma. This was mainly because of an increased glandular secretory activity, whereas cell proliferation and apoptosis were not markedly affected. These findings indicate that vasculogenesis in endometriotic lesions is dependent on estrogen, which adds a novel hormonally regulated mechanism to the complex pathophysiology of endometriosis. PMID:27315780

  18. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF CONGENITAL VASCULAR ANOMALIES WITH N BUTYL CYANOACRYLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Prasad; Biswajit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital vascular malformation is stressful both to the patient and the treating physician. Use of sclerosing agent followed by surgical excision has been used by many. In our study we have used percutaneous injection of N - butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in such lesions to make these lesions a menable to easy excision. N Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a rapidly hardening liquid adhesive often referred to as glue. The substance polymerizes immediately...

  19. Arteriographic evaluation, in the perispheric vascular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    136 patients were angiographically studied under the suspicion of perispheric vascular lesion submitted to the radiology department of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital (H.U.S.VP.) Medellin Colombia. The majority of the patients were young with wounds caused by gunshots (79.4%). the must frequent angiographic indication was the proximity of the wound to a vascular path (44.5%). 63% of the patients with angiography indicative of abnormality needed surgery from which 21% were because of the proximity of the wound to a vascular path and 76% because of the mayor findings when admitted to the hospital. the possible complications as a result of the angiographic procedure were revised only find inc two mayor reactions to the contrast media. there were no late complications. Angiography is highlighting sensitive (100%) specific (98.5%) and secure in the evaluation of patients with perispheric vascular trauma. Due to the high number of false negatives when the physical examination is performed, every patient with a wound near a vascular path must be evaluated angiographically

  20. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  1. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  2. CT rim effects in various head and neck lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated various head and neck lesions seen from April 1988 through March 1990 both by plain and enhanced CT, examined the incidence of rim effect (or rim enhancement), classified these effects, and discussed underlying mechanisms. The subjects were 177 patients with primary tumors (28 benign and 49 malignant tumors), lymphadenopathy associated with malignancy (9), inflammatory lesions (20), cystic lesions (12), other lesions (7), and 22 without abnormal findings. Among these 177, rim effects were observed in 22 cases (12%). These effects were analyzed and classified. The incidences of rim effect according lesion type are as follows; cervical lymphadenopathy associated with malignancy 5/9 (56%), primary tumors 8/77 (10%), inflammatory lesions none, cystic lesions 7/12 (58%), and others 3/7 (43%). The highest incidence was seen with cystic lesions including mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses and cervical cysts. Rim effects were classified as follows; Type 1: cystic pattern, Type 2: parenchymatous pattern, Type 3: vascular pattern and Type 4: others. Type 1 was seen in 15 cases (68%), Type 2 in 3 cases (14%), Type 3 in 3 cases (14%), and Type 4 in 1 case (5%). Type 1 included 6 cystic lesions, 3 malignant lymphadenopathies, 3 benign tumors and others. Type 2 included 2 malignant lymphadenopathies and 1 benign tumor, and Type 3, 2 jugular thromboses and 1 carotid atheroma. There was only one Type 4, a cystic lesion. Of interest is the mode of incidences among cervical lymphadenopathies associated with malignancy. Accessory chains showed rim effects in 3/7, all Type 1, and jugular chains in 2/13, all Type 2. The mechanism underlying the rim effects was discussed and the vascularity of the peripheral rims of the lesions appeared to be the most important factor in addition to technical artifacts inherent in CT. (author)

  3. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.)

  4. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  5. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  6. Head and neck vascular malformations: time-resolved MR projection angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyeh, S.; Schumacher, M.; Hochmuth, A.; Klisch, J. [Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Freiburg (Germany); Strecker, R. [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, University of Freiburg (Germany); Roessler, J. [Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Extracranial vascular anomalies can be divided into haemangiomas and vascular malformations. The latter can be subdivided on the basis of the predominant type of vascular channels. Separation of high- and low-flow vascular malformations is of clinical importance. We report preliminary observations on time-resolved magnetic resonance projection angiography (MRPA) of vascular malformations of the head and neck. We examined eight patients with vascular anomalies of the head and neck. On MRPA the time between the early arterial phase and enhancement of the malformation could be used to distinguish high- and low-flow lesions. High-flow arteriovenous malformations showed early, intense enhancement. Venous malformations were either not visible on MRPA or showed late enhancement of veins. One patient was examined after embolisation of an arteriovenous fistula of the mandible. Normal MRPA was taken to indicate absence of a residual lesion. (orig.)

  7. Molecular mechanisms of decreased smooth muscle differentiation marker expression after vascular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Christopher P.; Adam, Paul J.; Madsen, Cort S.; Owens, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    While it is well established that phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the development and progression of vascular lesions, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of phenotypic modulation in vivo. Here we show that vascular injury reduces transcription of VSMC differentiation marker genes, and we identify cis regulatory elements that may mediate this decrease. Using a carotid wire-injury model in mice carrying transgenes for smooth muscle α-...

  8. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Combine with Salvia Injection Cura the Below Knee Vascular Lesion of Diabetic By Pressurize Injection%长球囊联合丹参注射液加压注射治疗糖尿病膝下血管病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路延平; 张健; 张孟增; 王瑞锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察长球囊血管腔内成形术(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,PTA)联合丹参注射液,腔内加压注射治疗糖尿病膝下血管病变的疗效.方法 19例糖尿病患者共23条膝下动脉硬化闭塞肢体,首先采用长球囊开通狭窄、闭塞的血管,再联合丹参注射液腔内加压注射治疗.术后观察踝/肱指数、通畅率、溃疡愈合时间及临床症状的改善.结果 21条患肢得到成功治疗,技术成功率91.3%(21/23).踝/肱指数(ankle brachial index,ABI)由术前的0.31±0.14上升为术后的0.71±0.18,与术前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).术后随访3~10个月,13条患肢(61.9%)间歇性跛行、患肢静息痛等临床症状基本消失,足背或胫后动脉搏动恢复;8条(38.1%)患肢明显缓解.6条肢体术前伴足趾溃疡者,术后创面均愈合;1条足趾坏疽肢体清创换药23天后行截趾术,术后切口愈合良好.术后1、3、6个月通畅率分别为95.2%、85.7%、61.9%.结论 腔内加压注射丹参注射液作为长球囊PTA微创治疗糖尿病合并膝下血管病变的补充,可促进动脉侧支血管生成,改善血供,改善微循环,促进糖尿病足溃疡面愈合,近期疗效好、通畅率高,值得推广.%Objective Review the curative effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty ( PTA) combined with salvia injection to the below knee vascular lesion of diabetic. Methods Collect 19 diabetics with together 23 inferior genicular artery blunting. First, remove obstacles from angusty or obliterative blood vessel by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) , then begin intracavitary pressurize injection used the salvia miltiorrhiza, and observe the ankle brachial index (ABI) ,patency rate, the time of anabrosis healing and the amelioration of clinical symptom. Results The 21 affected limb of them were Curat successfully,the achievement ratio of technique was 91.3% (21/23). ABI ascensus from 0. 31 ± 0. 14 of preoperative to 0. 71

  9. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  10. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation. PMID:26597554

  11. Diode laser treatment and clinical management of multiple oral lesions in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favia, G; Tempesta, A; Limongelli, L; Suppressa, P; Sabbà, C; Maiorano, E

    2016-05-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is rare, and characterised by vascular dysplasia that leads to various symptoms including visceral arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous telangiectatic lesions. Our aim was to describe the clinical features and options for the treatment of multiple oral lesions, and to illustrate the efficacy of the diode laser in the treatment of early (occlusal plates were sometimes used to reduce the incidence of new lesions caused by dental trauma. The treatment of oral telangiectatic lesions is still being debated, and it is important to improve quality of life for patients. Diode laser surgery could be an effective treatment for oral lesions in those with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. PMID:26360009

  12. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  13. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ......Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case......-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability...... correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive...

  14. Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Genevieve M; Duffield, Amy S

    2016-03-01

    Various hematolymphoid lesions involve the sinonasal tract, including aggressive B, T, and NK-cell neoplasms; myeloid sarcoma; low-grade lymphomas; indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations; and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Differentiating aggressive lymphomas from non-hematopoietic neoplasms such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, or sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma may pose diagnostic challenges. In addition, the necrosis, vascular damage, and inflammatory infiltrates that are associated with some hematolymphoid disorders can result in misdiagnosis as infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions. Here, we review hematolymphoid disorders involving the sinonasal tract including their key clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:26472692

  15. Congenital vascular anomalies: current perspectives on diagnosis, classification, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blei F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Francine Blei,1 Mark E Bittman2 1Vascular Anomalies Program, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, 2Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The term "congenital vascular anomalies" encompasses those vascular lesions present at birth. Many of these lesions may be detected in utero. This review serves to apprise the readership of newly identified diagnoses and updated classification schemes. Attention is focused on clinical features, patterns of presentation, clinical manifestations and behavior, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities. It is an invigorating period for this field, with a surge in vascular anomalies-related basic and clinical research, genetics, pharmacology, clinical trials, and patient advocacy. A large number of professional conferences now include vascular anomalies in the agenda, and trainees in multiple specialties are gaining expertise in this discipline. We begin with a summary of classification schemes and introduce the updated classification adopted by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Disease entities are described, with liberal use of photographs, as many diagnoses can be established based on a thorough history and visual appearance and it is thus essential to develop a familiarity with diagnosis-specific physical features. Peripheral (non-central nervous system vascular anomalies are the focus of this review. We focus on those entities in which diagnostic radiology is routinely used and accentuate when histologic confirmation is essential. We also underscore some differences in approach to the pediatric vs adolescent or adult patient. A list of Internet-based resources is included, with hyperlinks to informative sites. References are limited to seminal discoveries and review articles. We hope that our enthusiasm in writing this review will be shared by those who read this review. Keywords: vascular anomalies, hemangiomas, vascular

  16. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author)

  17. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric vascular access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  19. Reversible focal splenial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

  20. Vascular anomalies of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies of the upper extremity are a surgical challenge to the hand surgeons. The treatment modality varies with respect to the presentation, extent of the lesion, progression and their complications. Based on our experience in treating patients with vascular malformations, a protocol has been formulated for their management, which we have found to be very useful and successful. With the use of the tumescent technique and good planning, haemangiomas are best excised in infancy or early childhood. Investigations like contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgery for venous malformations. Embolisation seems to be a safe option in arteriovenous malformations.

  1. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  2. Congenital Vascular Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clots, obstruction of major vessels, causing progressive limb asymmetry by overgrowth, and for cosmetic indications or because ... t he Vascular Disease Foundation (VDF) develops educational information and initiatives for patients, their families and friends, ...

  3. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for short-term use. [ Top ] What is an arteriovenous fistula? An AV fistula is a connection, made by ... to remove and return blood during hemodialysis. An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is a connection, made by a vascular surgeon, ...

  4. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Repair of aneurysms (dilated/enlarged portions) of the aorta and its branches Procedures may also be used ... Nutrition and lifestyle counseling, including smoking cessation and diabetes education Supervised exercise Alternative Names Circulatory system; Vascular ...

  5. Management of Vascular Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita, MD, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Treatment of vascular malformations is an integral part of multidisciplinary approaches. Venous malformations are more frequent in combination surgery, and if there are fewer complications, the patients’ satisfaction increases.

  6. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L;

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...... caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or...... permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  7. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  8. Vascular Effects of Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, Anthony B; Talabi, Olufunke O

    2014-01-01

    Four subtypes of receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) mediate the actions of histamine. In the vascular wall, the effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic neurones. Alterations in vascular responses to histamine are associated with experimental as well as a human form of hypertension, suggesting a role for histanine in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:26196559

  9. Digital vascular imaging (DVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digitization of the video signals from an image intensifier/TV chain, followed by subtraction, contrast enchancement and reconversion to analogue signals, enables high quality angiographic images to be obtained from an intravenous injection of contrast medium. As the examination is basically noninvasive it can be used in outpatients. The possibilities of Digital Vascular Imaging are demonstrated by images obtained from the various vascular regions using a triple-mode 14 in. image intensifier with a Plumbicon. TV tube. (Auth.)

  10. Thrombolysis in vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Thrombolysis is in common use in the treatment of acute forms of vascular disease. It may be used both systemically and locally, in the latter case through an endovascular approach, socalled catheter-directed thrombolysis. The aims of this thesis were to investigate how thrombolysis affects performance-related outcomes pertaining to vascular patency after thrombolysis, and how it affects patient safety and the development of complications. Metho...

  11. [Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cast, Y

    2010-12-01

    In 1991, Carlos Zaidemberg described a new technique to repair scaphoid non-unions with a vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process. An anatomic study based on 30 dissections after colorized latex injection established the constancy of the radial styloid process's artery, while showing that its origin, course and length were subject to variations. In a retrospective series of 38 cases over a period of 10 years, the vascularized bone graft was indicated for: (1) scaphoid non-union with the presence of avascular changes of the proximal fragment (23 cases); (2) failed prior reconstruction with bone graft and internal fixation (nine cases); (3) degenerative styloid-scaphoid arthritis (three cases); (4) fracture on Preiser dystrophy (three cases). The five steps of the simplified operative technique without dissection of the vascular pedicle include: (1) longitudinal dorso-radial approach, identification of the periosteal portion of the radial styloid process artery; (2) incision of the first and second compartments, longitudinal arthrotomy under the second compartment; (3) styloidectomy and transversal resection of the scaphoid non-union and sclerotic bone; (4) elevation of the vascularized bone graft; (5) transversal and radial insertion of the vascularized bone graft, osteosynthesis by two or three K-wire touching the scaphoid's radial edge. Scaphoid union was obtained in 33 cases out of 38. The only postoperative complications were two transient radial paresthesia. The standardized surgical procedure using vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process provides an efficient scaphoid reconstruction. PMID:21087882

  12. Transarterial chemoembolization of liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: TACE is an image-guided, non-surgical procedure that is used to treat malignant lesions in the liver (mostly hepatocellular carcinoma). the procedure uses a catheter to deliver both chemotherapy medication and embolization materials into the blood vessels that lead to the tumor. This allows doctors to treat tumors that are not accessible using conventional surgery or radiation treatments. TACE derives its beneficial effect by two primary mechanisms. Most tumors within the liver are supplied by the proper hepatic artery, so arterial embolization preferentially interrupts the tumor’s blood supply and stalls growth until neovascularization. Secondly, focused administration of chemotherapy allows for delivery of a higher dose to the tissue while simultaneously reducing systemic exposure, which is typically the dose limiting factor. this effect is potentiated by the fact that the chemotherapeutic drug is not washed out from the tumor vascular bed by blood flow after embolization. Effectively, this results in a higher concentration of drug to be in contact with the tumor for a longer period of time. We are presenting our experience with TACE

  13. CT and MR imaging features of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present CT and MR images and compare CT and MRI features of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformation. Material and methods: The clinical materials consisted of nine vascular tumors from nine patients examined by both CT and MR scanners between November 1996 and March 2002. Both CT and MR images were retrospectively evaluated. The following features were evaluated: detectability of the lesion, border of the lesion, tumor margin, inner nature of the lesion, contrast between the lesion and surrounding tissues, degree of CT value or signal intensity of the lesion, enhancement of contrast medium, inner nature of the lesion after contrast medium injection, detectability of phleboliths and detectability of bone resorption. Results: In two patients, we could not detect lesions in any of the CT images because of artifacts from the teeth and/or dental restorations. In contrast, we could detect all lesions on T2-weighted MR images and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MR images. On T2-weighted images with the fat suppression technique, tumors tended to show higher contrast compared to surrounding tissues. Conclusion: T2-weighted images with the fat suppression technique and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images with the fat suppression technique were very useful for the detection of vascular lesions. Observation from optional directions (axial, coronal and sagittal images) seemed appropriate for delineating the extension of the tumor. Phleboliths detectability on CT images was superior to that on MR images

  14. Value of detection of atherosclerotic lesions using autologous labelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinzinger, H.; Silberbauer, K.; Fitscha, P.; Kaliman, J. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kardiologische Abt.; Allgem. Poliklinik, Vienna (Austria). 2. Medizinische Abteilung)

    1982-01-01

    In 44 patients with clinical signs of carotid artery stenosis a positive Doppler-ultrasound was obtained. In all patients the lesions were confirmed by angiography. In the patients labelling of autologous platelets with 111 Indium-oxine-sulphate was done in order to calculate the platelet half-life. In addition we tried to visualize the verified atherosclerotic lesions under a gamma-camera. In all patients the platelet half-life was significantly shortened in comparison to the controls. In none of the patients studied a visualization of the angiographically verified atherosclerotic lesions could be obtained. These findings point out, that only in recently developed and very severe atherosclerotic lesions the number of platelets deposed on the vascular surface is enough to allow gamma-camera imaging.

  15. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  16. Curious Vascular Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal Jghaimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sinusoidal hemangioma is a rare variant of acquired cavernous hemangioma predominantly occurring in females. Very few case reports have been described in the literature. Case Report. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who noticed a slowly growing, cutaneous nodule on the left breast. Local excision of the lesion was performed and histology allowed to find a sinusoidal hemangioma. No recurrence was noticed. Conclusion. The very few reports of such a lesion in the literature reflect either rarity of such lesions or unfamiliarity of this subset among the pathologists.

  17. Production of Experimental Malignant Pleural Effusions Is Dependent on Invasion of the Pleura and Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Permeability Factor by Human Lung Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Seiji; Shinohara, Hisashi; Herbst, Roy S; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Bucana, Corazon D.; Ellis, Lee M.; Isaiah J. Fidler

    2000-01-01

    We determined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (PE) associated with advanced stage of human, non-small-cell lung cancer. Intravenous injection of human PC14 and PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells into nude mice yielded numerous lung lesions. PC14 and PC14PE6 lung lesions invaded the pleura and produced PE containing a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-localized vascular hyperpermeability. ...

  18. Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C; Holtmannspötter, M; Saliou, G; Willinsky, R; Krings, T; Agid, R

    2014-01-01

    Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We...... present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used...

  19. Tratamiento quirúrgico de las malformaciones vasculares Surgical treatment of vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández-Alonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los numerosos avances experimentados en las dos últimas décadas, el manejo de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas continúa siendo uno de los mayores enigmas de la medicina moderna sin que existan criterios claros en cuanto a las indicaciones para tratar, y mucho menos en cuanto a los procedimientos terapéuticos más apropiados para cada tipo de lesión. Los resultados del abordaje estrictamente quirúrgico son desalentadores y hoy se admite que las malformaciones vasculares congénitas deben ser atendidas y tratadas por unidades multidisciplinares aunando los esfuerzos de todos los especialistas implicados en su manejo. En este trabajo se revisan los principios generales del tratamiento quirúrgico de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas sin perder de vista que el papel tradicional de la cirugía aislada en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas ha sido sustituido por el enfoque multidisciplinar de este tipo de lesiones, permitiendo que la integración de la embolización, la escleroterapia y la cirugía mejoren los resultados. La combinación de estas técnicas reduce el riesgo y las complicaciones que existían cuando eran aplicadas de forma aislada. Por tanto, el tratamiento quirúrgico debe considerarse, no como una herramienta de tratamiento independiente sino como un arma terapéutica integrada en el conjunto de medidas encaminadas a mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente con una malformación vascular congénitaIn spite of the numerous advances made over the last two decades, the treatment of congenital vascular malformations continues to be one of the greatest enigmas facing modern medicine. There are no clear criteria concerning the indications to be followed, and even less concerning the most appropriate therapeutic procedures for each type of lesion. The results of a strictly surgical approach are discouraging and today it is accepted that congenital vascular malformations should be

  20. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching; Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  1. Usefulness of CT angiography in patients with intracranial occlusive vascular disease of the circle of willis ; comparison with conventional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the usefulness of CT angiography(CTA) compared with conventional angiography(CA) in the evaluation of intracranial occlusive vascular disease. We evaluated 26 patients with clinically suspected intracranial occlusive vascular disease studied with both CTA and CA. In cases where there was no vascular lesion on CA, we used CTA to retrospectively review the detection rate and size of individual vessels, and compared the findings with those obtained by CA. In cases of occlusive vascular lesion, we evaluated the degree of stenosis on CTA and compared this with the CA findings. We also measured the time taken to use both modalities. Sixteen patients had no vascular lesion and ten patients had occlusive vascular lesions. Compared with CA, CTA detected 97%(124/128) of normal intracranial arteries ; their diameter measured on CTA was slightly smaller than that on CA. On CTA, the degree of stenosis was correctly estimated in eight lesions, underestimated in one and overestimated in one. Examination time ranged between 15 and 20 minutes with CTA and between 40 and 60 minutes with CA. Compared with CA, CTA shows good correlation in the delineation of intracranial normal and occlusive vessels around the Circle of Willis. CTA may be an additional tool for the evaluation of the Circle of Willis in patients with suspected intracranial occlusive vascular disease. CTA may, additionally, be used as a follow-up method in patients with acute cerebral infarctions after thrombolytic therapy

  2. Relations among traumatic subdural lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. S.; Doh, J. W.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and subdural hygroma (SDG) occur in the subdural space, usually after trauma. We tried to find a certain relationship among these three traumatic subdural lesions in 436 consecutive patients. We included all subdural lesions regardless of whether they were main or not. We evaluated the distribution, age incidence and interval from injury to diagnosis of these lesions, and the frequency of new subdural lesions in each lesion. ASD...

  3. Current concepts in the classification, diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernemann, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.ernemann@med.uni-tuebingen.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological Clinic, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Radiological Clinic, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological Clinic, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Rebmann, Hans [Department of Paediatrics, Children' s Hospital, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Breuninger, Helmut [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Zwick, Christine [Department of Hand, Plastic, Reconstructive and Burns Surgery, BG Trauma Clinic Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Hoffmann, Juergen [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Patients with extended vascular anomalies may suffer from significant aesthetic and functional impairment and represent a challenge to therapeutic planning, which is best met by an interdisciplinary concept. In agreement with the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), vascular lesions are classified into haemangiomas as proliferating endothelial tumours on the one hand and congenital vascular malformations on the other. According to the preponderant vascular channels and hemodynamic characteristics, malformations are subdivided into low flow (venous, lymphatic and capillary) lesions and high-flow malformations. Diagnostic imaging should be targeted at the specific structural and functional informations required for treatment planning. The imaging modality of choice to provide these informations is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supplemented by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Treatment indications for haemangiomas depend on the proliferative behaviour of the lesion and comprise {beta}-blockers in order to induce involution as well as cryotherapy, laser and open surgery. Interventional radiological procedures have evolved as an essential element in an interdisciplinary treatment plan for vascular malformations and include percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and OK-432 for venous and lymphatic malformations and transarterial embolization for high-flow lesions.

  4. Current concepts in the classification, diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with extended vascular anomalies may suffer from significant aesthetic and functional impairment and represent a challenge to therapeutic planning, which is best met by an interdisciplinary concept. In agreement with the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), vascular lesions are classified into haemangiomas as proliferating endothelial tumours on the one hand and congenital vascular malformations on the other. According to the preponderant vascular channels and hemodynamic characteristics, malformations are subdivided into low flow (venous, lymphatic and capillary) lesions and high-flow malformations. Diagnostic imaging should be targeted at the specific structural and functional informations required for treatment planning. The imaging modality of choice to provide these informations is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supplemented by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Treatment indications for haemangiomas depend on the proliferative behaviour of the lesion and comprise β-blockers in order to induce involution as well as cryotherapy, laser and open surgery. Interventional radiological procedures have evolved as an essential element in an interdisciplinary treatment plan for vascular malformations and include percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and OK-432 for venous and lymphatic malformations and transarterial embolization for high-flow lesions.

  5. Early experience of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is prevalent affecting up to 16% of the population aged 55 years or older. Endovascular intervention for the treatment of limb ischemia has become the first line therapy but in Pakistan it is in embryonic stage due to dearth of trained persons and dedicated centres. This study was conducted to evaluate procedural success and early outcome of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A prospective single arm multicentre study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and National Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2014. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study that underwent endovascular treatment. Out of 25 patients 23 (92%) had critical limb ischemia (CLI) as per TASC II classification (A to D) and 2 (8%) had carotid lesion with history of TIA. Patients of acute limb ischemia and stroke were excluded. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was classified as normal (0.9-1.3), mild (0.7-0.9), moderate (0.4-0.69), severe (<0.4). Outcome was taken as immediate success and symptoms, amputation of limb among CLI patients and incidence of stroke in patients with carotid artery lesion at end of six months. Results: Among aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and tibioperoneal lesions, tibioperoneal lesions at six months were found to be more symptomatic 6 (86%) and amputation 4 (57%). Two carotid lesions at follow up were asymptomatic without stroke. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular lesions, i.e., aortoiliac, femoropopliteal tibioperoneal and carotid lesions were satisfactory in immediate outcome. Tibioperoneal lesions were more symptomatic and limb amputation at six months. (author)

  6. Enriched vascularity in ameloblastomas, an indeterminate entity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Hegde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularity is a highly essential element that is required for the growth, development, and functioning of the body and variations in it can cause pathologies. It is one of the prime features of a proliferating lesion, where it aids in the growth of the lesion through its nutrition supply. Highly increased vascularity in a disease can itself affect the prognosis of the lesion, and in malignancies, it can induce tumor seeding and secondaries. Most of the pathologies including tumors, related to blood vessels, and vascularity are well established. There are some conditions, wherein altered vascularity is one of the prime components along with other diagnostic components of an established disease. In such cases, these lesions are diagnosed with special names, with varying biological behavior and prognosis in comparison to that of established entity. However, there still are few similar conditions whose nature is uncertain due to the rarity of the lesion and the insufficient scientific evidence which eludes the diagnostician. Here is the report of two cases of ameloblastoma, an established entity, with significant vascularity whose nature is indeterminate.

  7. Genital lesions following bestiality

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal A; Shenoi Shrutakirthi; Kumar K; Sharma PS

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  8. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  9. Very High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging for Real-Time Quantitative Visualization of Vascular Disruption after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Soubeyrand, Marc; Badner, Anna; Vawda, Reaz; Chung, Young Sun; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by vascular disruption with intramedullary hemorrhage, alterations in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, and perilesional ischemia. A safe and easily applied imaging technique to quantify evolving intraspinal vascular changes after SCI is lacking. We evaluated the utility of very high resolution ultrasound (VHRUS) imaging to assess SCI-induced vascular disruption in a clinically relevant rodent model. The spinal cords of Wistar rats were lesioned at...

  10. Thalidomide inhibition of vascular remodeling and inflammatory reactivity in the quinolinic acid-injected rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J K; Jantaratnotai, N; McLarnon, J G

    2009-10-01

    Effects of thalidomide administration on vascular remodeling, gliosis and neuronal viability have been studied in excitotoxin-injected rat striatum. Intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) caused time-dependent changes (durations of 6 h, 1 and 7 d post-injection) in vascular remodeling. QUIN excitotoxic insult was associated with increased numbers of vessels (laminin or collagen IV markers) demonstrating considerable abnormalities in morphology, including short fragments and vascular loops. Non-lesioned striatum, with injection of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as a vehicle, showed no evidence for vascular remodeling. A maximal extent of vascular remodeling was measured at 1 d post-QUIN and was correlated with marked increases in microgliosis (ED1 marker) and astrogliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] marker) relative to control PBS injection. Double staining of laminin with ED1 and GFAP demonstrated areas of close association of glial cells with blood vessels. Treatment of QUIN-injected animals with the anti-inflammatory compound, thalidomide significantly inhibited vascular remodeling (by 43%) and reduced microgliosis (by 33%) but was ineffective in modifying extents of astrogliosis. Intrastriatal QUIN injection was associated with a marked loss of striatal neurons relative to non-lesioned control with thalidomide treatment exhibiting a significant degree of neuroprotection (24% recovery) against QUIN-induced neurotoxicity. These results suggest close links between microglial-mediated inflammatory responses and vascular remodeling, with inflammatory reactivity associated with, and contributing to, neuronal damage in excitotoxically-lesioned striatum. PMID:19591904

  11. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  12. Plant vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate

  13. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  14. A Prospective Study of Villous Capillary Lesions in Complicated Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Priyadharshini Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascularity of placental tissue is dependent on various factors of which fetomaternal hypoxia plays a major role. Hypoxia can be of different types and each type influences the vascularity of the villi, especially terminal villi, in its own way. In this study, we attempted to identify villous vascular changes in a group of term placentae from mothers with diseases complicating pregnancy. Chorangiosis was the most frequently identified lesion while chorangioma was found in only 2 cases. There were no cases of chorangiomatosis. A few cases had normal villous vasculature. Maternal diseases have a major role in disrupting the placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis by creating a hypoxic environment that may affect the fetus adversely. Hence, such conditions need to be identified early in pregnancy and managed appropriately as it is possible to maintain a normal vasculature and prevent neonatal mortality and morbidity if prompt intervention is done.

  15. Vascular manifestations of Behcet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Georgiyeva Goloeva

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion. Vascular disorders in BD were diagnosed in one fourth of the patients, mainly in young male patients. Severe thromboses with the development of chronic venous insignificance, Budd-Chiari syndrome, pulmonary and iliac artery aneurysms, and arterial thromboses were observed in male patients only. Vascular events were associated with erythema nodosum and epididymitis; in these concomitances, the vascular risk was substantially increased. Vascular death rates were 2,2%.

  16. Management of extensive intraparotid vascular malformation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Anesti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large soft tissue vascular lesions remains one of the greatest challenges in modern plastic surgery. The extent of the disease and the involved structures, but also the expectations of the patients are important in determining the way of treatment. The effective management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck requires a team approach, in order to understand the biologic behavior of the lesion, complete the diagnostic studies necessary to define the area of involvement, and understand the benefits and limitations of interventional radiologic and surgical procedures. The synthesis of this knowledge can help determine the best treatment. The strategic plan and subsequent management of a 34-year-old Maori man with an extensive arteriovenous intraparotid malformation is presented.

  17. Clinical presentations and MRI findings of angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various clinical features as well as MRI findings of AOVM (angiographically occult vascular malformation) were studied. Amongst out patients, since January 1988, there have been 30 cases of symptomatic AOVM (20 males, 10 females) including 4 cases with multiple lesions. The age ranged from 3 to 60 years of age, with a mean of 33.4 years. The locations of symptomatic lesions were in the cerebral hemisphere (15), the thalamus (4), the brain stem (8) and in the cerebellum (3). The initial presentations of these 30 cases were either by hemorrhage (18), convulsive seizure (9) or by progressive neurological deficits (3). The initial presentation was not related to the patient's age and the size of the lesion, but apparently related to the location of AOVM. Most of the lesions in the cerebral hemisphere presented seizures, but all of the lesions in the thalamus, the brain stem and the cerebellum disclosed hemorrhage as an initial presentation. In fact it was noticed that brain stem lesions tend to cause repetitive hemorrhage in a relatively short period. AOVM lesions were clearly visualized with T2-weighted MRI images, consisting of high intensity cores with surrounding low intensity rims. Most of the symptomatic lesions were partially enhanced by Gd-DTPA with varied intensity. Dynamic changes in size and enhancement pattern on MRI were occasionally seen, usually accompanied with episodes such as hemorrhage or neurological deterioration. Although AOVMs were angiographically negative some strands indicating draining veins were observed on MRI in several cases. In contrast, none of the nonsymptomatic lesions (22 lesions) demonstrated enhancement effects with Gd-DTPA. (author)

  18. Escleroterapia con bleomicina en malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo: Experiencia y revisión del tema Bleomycin sclerotherapy for low-flow vascular malformations: our experience and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    F. Lobo Bailón; B. Berenguer Fröhner; B. González Meli; C. Marín Molina; E. De Tomás y Palacios; C. Alonso Bañuelos

    2012-01-01

    Las anomalías vasculares son lesiones típicas de los pacientes pediátricos y se dividen en dos categorías: tumores vasculares y malformaciones vasculares de alto y bajo flujo. Estas últimas pueden tratarse de diversos modos: laserterapia, drenaje, aspiración, cirugía o escleroterapia, dependiendo del tipo de lesión y de su localización. Entre los agentes esclerosantes utilizados, la bleomicina ha demostrado tener buenos resultados en el tratamiento de estas lesiones. En este artículo presenta...

  19. Colposcopy in pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Linking threads of clinical, histopathological and colposcopic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphade Ujwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the degree of abnormality in colposcopic findings can be predicted by the vascular patterns of the lesion, the major advantage of colposcopy is to outline the most suspicious lesion for histologic diagnosis by directed biopsy, which is the mainstay in establishing the correct diagnosis. Colposcopy is valuable in the detection of early cancerous lesions. However the final diagnosis must rely on a meticulous histopathological examination by an expert pathologist.

  20. Angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation after gamma knife surgery for intracranial meningioma: case report and review of literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhiyong; He, Min; Chen, Hongxu; Liu, Yi; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin; Li, Jin; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Gamma Knife has become a major therapeutic method for intracranial meningiomas, vascular malformations and schwannomas with exact effect. In recent years an increasing number of delayed complications after Gamma Knife surgery have been reported, such as secondary tumors, cystic changes or cyst formation. But angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation after Gamma Knife for intracranial lesion has rarely been reported. Here we report the first case of angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst form...

  1. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross sectional clinical observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Martha E.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.; Anderson, John J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated calcium supplements with elevated vascular risk, and therefore these supplements may also relate to the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. This cross sectional clinical observational study examined the association between use of calcium-containing dietary supplements and lesion volumes in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and older). Food and suppleme...

  2. Demyelinative chiamal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, R H; Glaser, J S; Schatz, N J

    1980-12-01

    To clarify the clinical syndrome of demyelinative chiasmal involvement, six case histories were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. This entitity is characterized by especial predilection for women in the third to fifth decades; visual deficites of a chiasmal pattern that may be modest to marked, with a generallly good prognosis for functional recovery; and other signs and symptoms, not necessarily severe, of scattered lesions of the neuraxis. Neuroradiological studies, especially laminography of the sellar area and computerized tomography, must be employed to rule out a suprasellar mass lesion. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroid therapy is moot, but it seems reasonable to use such agents during acute stages, especially where vision is severely reduced on both sides. PMID:7447764

  3. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  4. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2016-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current and...... factors, and baseline WML burden. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic factors contribute little to the progression of age-related WML in middle-aged and older adults. Future research on determinants of WML progression should focus more on environmental, lifestyle, or host-related biological factors....

  5. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo; Rocca, Mara A; Miller, Andrew David; Schmierer, Klaus; Frederiksen, Jette; Gass, Achim; Gama, Hugo; Tilbery, Charles P; Rocha, Antonio J; Flores, José; Barkhof, Frederik; Seewann, Alexandra; Palace, Jacqueline; Yousry, Tarek; Montalban, Xavier; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  6. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  7. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments that document the demographic data in a standardized manner and undertake a systematic effort to identify the underlying aetiology in each case. Increased effort should be targeted towards the concept of and criteria for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Post-Stroke Dementia as well as for genetic factors involved, especially as these categories hold promise for early prevention and treatment.

  8. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity: findings on MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To analyze the findings of intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity on MR imaging and to correlate these findings with histopathologic examination.Design and patients. The findings on MR imaging and the medical records of 14 patients with an intramuscular vascular malformation of the extremity were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgical excision. Diagnoses were based on the results of pathologic examination. Findings on MR imaging were noted and correlated with the histopathologic findings.Results. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity showed multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance on MR imaging. Multi-septate areas correlated with dilated and communicating vascular spaces with flattened endothelium. Honeycomb areas corresponded to vascular spaces with inconspicuous small lumina and thickened vascular walls. Areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images were found in all intramuscular vascular malformations. Infiltrative margins were more commonly seen in intramuscular lymphaticovenous malformations. Adherence to neurovascular structures and orientation of the lesion along the long axis of the affected muscle were more commonly seen in intramuscular venous malformations.Conclusions. Intramuscular vascular malformations showed either a multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance, reflecting the size of the vascular spaces and the thickness of the smooth muscles of the vessel walls. Prediction of the subtype of an intramuscular vascular malformation of an extremity on MR imaging seems to be difficult, although there are associated findings that may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of each subtype. (orig.)

  9. Target lesions and other paintball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbicca, Jennifer A; Hatch, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Paintball is a popular combat game, with more than 5 million participants per year. As it has increased in popularity, the incidence of paintball-related injuries also has increased. The most common injuries are classic, benign skin lesions that are easily recognized if one is aware of them. Devastating eye injuries also may occur if participants do not wear face masks. Other reported injuries include musculoskeletal injuries, solid organ injuries, and vascular pseudoaneurysms. Rarely, paintball-related deaths have been reported. This article is the first to review the full spectrum of paintball injuries; in addition, the article emphasizes the importance of encouraging participants to adhere to appropriate safety measures, particularly wearing an appropriate face mask at all times during the game. PMID:22218634

  10. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Claudia; Duro Giovanni; Iemolo Francesco; Castiglia Laura; Hachinski Vladimir; Caruso Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD) has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments th...

  11. Concentric structure of thalamic lesions in acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANE) is characterized by multiple, symmetrical brain lesions affecting the bilateral thalami, putamina and cerebral white matter, which often show a concentric structure on CT and MRI. To reveal the pathological substrate of this finding, comparison was made between CT and necropsy findings of three fatal cases of ANE. Cranial CT demonstrated a concentric structure of the thalamocerebral lesions in one patient who died 3.5 days after the onset of encephalopathy, but not in the other two patients who died within 30 h. Neuropathological examination of postmortem brains revealed laminar changes of vascular and parenchymal pathology in all the cases. Excessive permeability of blood vessels and resultant vasogenic edema became more prominent with increasing depth from the cerebral surface. The deep portion of the lesions showed severe perivascular hemorrhage, accounting for the central high density on the CT images of one patient. (orig.)

  12. Ischemic and hemorrhagic brain stem lesions mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, T; Segawa, F; Ogawa, K; Kurihara, T; Kinoshita, M

    1995-05-01

    Two patients with diabetes mellitus, one of them with an isolated third cranial nerve palsy and the other with an isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy, are presented. MRI investigations including diffusion-weighted MRI revealed a small ischemic brain stem lesion in the former and a small hemorrhagic brain stem lesion in the latter. In the former case wallerian degeneration of the nerve fascicle within the mesencephalon was also detected. These cases indicate that vascular accidents of the brain stem may masquerade as fascicular or infranuclear disturbance of the oculomotor or abducens nerve; therefore, it is important to include brain stem lesions into the differential diagnosis of isolated ophthalmoplegia. Thorough investigation by MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI is helpful for correct diagnosis. PMID:7656493

  13. Vascular Cambium Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Kaisa; Blomster, Tiina; Helariutta, Ykä; Mähönen, Ari Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Secondary phloem and xylem tissues are produced through the activity of vascular cambium, the cylindrical secondary meristem which arises among the primary plant tissues. Most dicotyledonous species undergo secondary development, among them Arabidopsis. Despite its small size and herbaceous nature, Arabidopsis displays prominent secondary growth in several organs, including the root, hypocotyl and shoot. Together with the vast genetic resources and molecular research methods available for it, this has made Arabidopsis a versatile and accessible model organism for studying cambial development and wood formation. In this review, we discuss and compare the development and function of the vascular cambium in the Arabidopsis root, hypocotyl, and shoot. We describe the current understanding of the molecular regulation of vascular cambium and compare it to the function of primary meristems. We conclude with a look at the future prospects of cambium research, including opportunities provided by phenotyping and modelling approaches, complemented by studies of natural variation and comparative genetic studies in perennial and woody plant species. PMID:26078728

  14. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  15. Hemagiomas and vascular malformation on face and neck - with intralesional bleomycin injection

    OpenAIRE

    Tatulescu, D; Secheli, I; Secheli, M

    2006-01-01

    Bleomycin, an antineoplasic polipeptidic antibiotic, has been recently used in treatment of vascular anomalies, as a sclerosing agent if it is injected intralesional. We report a study of 4 patients with ages between 3 weeks and 12 years, admitted in "Maria Sklodowska Curie" Children Hospital Bucharest in Surgery Department, and treated with Bleomycin intralesional injections, for vascular anomalies inoperable because of the large surfaces involved or volume of the lesions and special locati...

  16. A novel treatment for bone lesions of multifocal epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adrian T; Guo, A Mary; Phillips, Nancy J; Greenberg, David D

    2015-07-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma (ES-H) is a rare, indolent vascular neoplasm with characteristics similar to epithelioid sarcoma. It typically affects young males who present with skin and subcutaneous lesions in the extremities. Bone lesions, occurring in approximately 20% of patients, are often multifocal, seen in conjunction with soft tissue lesions, and usually found in bones of the lower extremities. This report details the case of a 20-year-old male who presented with a 1-year history of painful skin lesions on his left lower extremity. Staging studies revealed bone lesions in the cuboid and calcaneus. Bone and soft tissue pathology was consistent with ES-H. The soft tissue lesions were treated with wide excision and the bony lesions with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The patient had no evidence of recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Treatment of ES-H typically consists of wide excision of all soft tissue lesions and possible adjuvant radiation therapy. Management of bony lesions has included marginal excision, wide excision, amputation, chemotherapy, observation, or a combination of these modalities. ES-H has the potential for distant metastases. There is no consensus regarding the appropriate treatment of multifocal epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma involving bone. A potential treatment strategy of wide excision of soft tissue lesions and RFA of bone lesions is proposed. PMID:25564226

  17. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T2- and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T2-weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author)

  18. Multimodality imaging and interventional management of a complex congenital vascular malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic vascular lesions are not an uncommon finding in children, and represent the most common benign liver tumours to present in infancy. We present a case of a complex vascular malformation with an intrahepatic component suggestive of a venous/arteriovenous malformation as well as a large extrahepatic lesion. The extrahepatic mass was present in both sub- and supra-diaphragmatic locations ,with features of a congenital haemangioma. In view of the clinical presentation and different imaging appearances, this case was felt to be interesting in its radiological workup, management and eventual unusual pathology.

  19. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  20. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  1. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  2. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking. PMID:27056862

  3. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark o...

  4. Structural brain lesions in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can; Dolapcioglu; Hatice; Dolapcioglu

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system(CNS) complications or manifes-tations of inflammatory bowel disease deserve particular attention because symptomatic conditions can require early diagnosis and treatment, whereas unexplained manifestations might be linked with pathogenic me-chanisms. This review focuses on both symptomatic and asymptomatic brain lesions detectable on imaging studies, as well as their frequency and potential mecha-nisms. A direct causal relationship between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and asymptomatic structural brain changes has not been demonstrated, but several possible explanations, including vasculitis, thromboembolism and malnutrition, have been proposed. IBD is associated with a tendency for thromboembolisms; therefore, cerebro-vascular thromboembolism represents the most frequent and grave CNS complication. Vasculitis, demyelinating conditions and CNS infections are among the other CNS manifestations of the disease. Biological agents also represent a risk factor, particularly for demyelination. Identification of the nature and potential mechanisms of brain lesions detectable on imaging studies would shed further light on the disease process and could improve patient care through early diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was used to treat 32 patients with 80%-95% stenoses in vascular bypass grafts and anastomotic stenoses. Eight lesions were in femoropopliteal, three in femorotibial, and one in femorofemoral crossover grafts. Twenty patients had stenoses at the prosimal or distal graft anastomoses. PTA was successful and enabled surgical intervention to be avoided in 29 of the 32 patients. Postdilation angiography demonstrated a substantial increase in luminal diameter and Doppler ankle-arm indexes were improved in all 29 successful cases. Long-term follow-up was available in 26 patients. After an average of 15 months, the graft was occluded in nine (35%) of the 26. In the other 17 patients (65%), the graft remained patent. The dilation of graft stenoses may be controversial and is difficult due to the diversity of underlying causes, such as intimal thickening, fibrotic reaction, and suture scar. The author's experience indicates that PTA is an efficient and safe treatment

  6. Vascular remodeling and mobilization of bone marrow-derived cells in cuff-induced vascular injury in LDL receptor knockout muce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Vascular remodeling is an important pathologic process in vascular injury for various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis,postangioplasty restenosis and transplant arteriopathy.Recently,pathologic change and the role of bone marrow derived cells were wildly studied in atherosclerosis and restenosis.But the manner of lesion formation in neointima and cell recruitment in vascular remodeling lesion in the present of hypercholesterolemia is not Vet fully understood. Methods Double-transgenic mice knockout of LDL receptor gene (LDL-/-) and expressing ubiquitously green fluorescent protein (GFP) were obtained by cross-breeding LDL-/-mice with the GFP-expressing transgenic mice. LDL-/- mice (22-24 weeks of age) fed high fat diet containing 1.25% (w/w) cholesterol were subjected to 9Gy irradiation and received bone marrow (BM) cells from the double-transgenic mice.Four weeks later,a nonconstrictive cuff was Dlaced around the right femoral artery.After another 2 weeks,both right and left femoral arteries were harvested and subjected to histochemical analysis.Apoptosis was analyzed in situ using TUNEL assay.Resuits Two weeks after cuff placement,atherosclerotic lesions developed in the intima consisting of a massive accumulation of foam cells, The tissue stained with anti-α smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody,showed a number of SMA-positive cells in the intimal lesion area.They were also positive for GFP,indicating that BM-derived cells can differentiate to SMCs in the intima in cuff-induced vascular remodeling lesions.Numerous small vessels in the adventitia as well as the endothelial lining of the intima were positive both for CD31 and GFP.The intima and media showed a larae number of TUNEL-positive signals after 2 weeks cuff injury,indicating the presence of apoptosis in vascular remodelina.Conclusions Atherosclerotic lesions in mice can be developed in the intima after 2 weeks of cuff-induced vascular inJury under the hypercholesterolemic conditions

  7. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  8. Microfluidic Technology in Vascular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. van der Meer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cell biology is an area of research with great biomedical relevance. Vascular dysfunction is involved in major diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. However, when studying vascular cell biology in the laboratory, it is difficult to mimic the dynamic, three-dimensional microenvironment that is found in vivo. Microfluidic technology offers unique possibilities to overcome this difficulty. In this review, an overview of the recent applications of microfluidic technology in the field of vascular biological research will be given. Examples of how microfluidics can be used to generate shear stresses, growth factor gradients, cocultures, and migration assays will be provided. The use of microfluidic devices in studying three-dimensional models of vascular tissue will be discussed. It is concluded that microfluidic technology offers great possibilities to systematically study vascular cell biology with setups that more closely mimic the in vivo situation than those that are generated with conventional methods.

  9. Computed tomography of the mediastinal lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Joon; Suh, Jung Hyek; Chun, Byung Hee; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kosin Mediacal College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of mediastinal lesions in surgically or clinically confirmed 37 cases at Kosin Medical College during recent 4 years from September 1979 to August 1983. 1. Among 37 caes, malignant lymphoma were 7 cases, thymoma and vascular lesion or anomaly were 5 cases respectively, benign teratoma and tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenitis and neurogenic tumor were 4 cases respectively, pericardial cyst were 2 cases, bronchogenic cyst, non-specific cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, mesothelioma, Bochdalek hernia was 1 case respectively. 2. The sex ratio between male and female was about 1 : 1 and the majority of the patients with malignant lymphoma and teratoma was under 20 years old. 3. CT findings of the each mediastinal lesion. 1) Primary mediastinal malignant lymphoma. (1) A large, matted, continuous and midline-crossing mass was observed in the superior and the anterior mediastinums in all cases. (2) In 3 cases, irregular lower densities were seen in the center of the mass, representing the tumor necrosis. (3) CT was also able to show involvement of other mediastinal lymph nodes and adjacent structures such as pleura, anterior chest wall and lung parenchyma. (4) Involving pleura, homogeneous band-like shadows were seen along the pleura, appearing denser than the associated pleural effusion. (5) Involving lung parenchyma, irregular- shaped nodules and band-like densities were seen along the courses of the bronchi and the vessels. 2) Thyoma. (1) A discrete, soft tissue mass was seen in the superior and the anterior mediastinums (mainly posterior to manubrium and anterior to aortic arch) replacing the normal mediastinal fat. (2) In benign thymoma, the margin of the mass was smooth and the normal fat plane between the mass and the vascular structures was well preserved, but invasive thymoma showed obliteration of the normal fat plane, irregular and ragged tumor-lung interface, and irregular thickening of pleura and pericardium by

  10. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Martínez Alfonzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  11. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  12. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  13. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  14. Spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  15. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  16. T cells in vascular inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L Lintermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T cells. This expanded population of effector memory T cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells, B cells and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of effector memory T cells in uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic effector memory T cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation.

  17. Mycetoma: Nonvenereal perineal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shweta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the skin, and subcutaneous tissue, which sometimes involves muscle, bones, and neighboring organs. It is characterized by tumefaction, abscess formation, and fistulae with discharge of grains from sinuses. Mycetoma can be caused by various species of fungi (eumycetoma and aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma, which occur as saprophytes in soil or plants. A tentative diagnosis sufficient to initiate treatment may be made on the basis of grain color. For instance, melanoid grains are always caused by fungi and ochroid or pale grains by actinomycetes. Although this is not the thumbrule, there are exceptional reports too. As trauma favors infection, most lesions are on the foot and lower leg but they may occur anywhere on the body mimicking actinomycosis. However, lab investigations and culture are important tool to differentiate apart from the clinical picture. We are reporting atypical case with unusual site of presentation (perineum and thigh of mycetoma.

  18. [Aortic inflammatory lesions in Behçet's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, A-C; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Saadoun, D

    2016-04-01

    The arterial lesions affect about 10% of patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Aortic inflammatory involvement includes predominantly aortic aneurysmal lesions affecting most often the abdominal aorta. They account for the severity of the disease and are a leading cause of death when they hit the aorta or pulmonary arteries. Within the arterial lesions of BD, aortic involvement is, with femoral lesions, the most common site involved (18-28% of patients with vascular disease). Unlike other large vessels vasculitis (i.e. giant cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis) diffuse aortitis is observed in less than 5% of patients with BD. Aortic lesions of BD may be asymptomatic (systematic imaging or occasionally associated with other vascular event) or be revealed by the occurrence of abdominal, thoracic or lumbar pain, or an aortic valve insufficiency. Fever is frequently associated. Increase in acute phase reactants is common in these patients. Histological analysis may show infiltration by lymphocytes, neutrophils and plasma cells in the media and adventitia and a proliferation of the vasa vasorum in the media as well as a fibroblastic proliferation. In the later phase, a fibrous thickening of the media and adventitia is observed as well as a proliferation and thickening of the vasa vasorum. The therapeutic management should always include a medical treatment for the control of inflammation (corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and/or biotherapy) and often an endovascular or surgical treatment if the aneurysm is threatening. The choice between endovascular or surgical treatment is considered case by case, depending on the experience of the team, anatomical conditions and of the clinical presentation. In this review, we provide a detailed and updated review of the literature to describe the aortic inflammatory damage associated with Behçet's disease. PMID:26611428

  19. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    OpenAIRE

    Gürol Açıkgöz; Çağlayan Çağdaş Demirci; Ercan Arca

    2012-01-01

    Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ...

  20. Cystic lesions of the liver

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, E.; J Pereira; Bouchaibi, S; Bali, M

    2014-01-01

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES: To present the CT and MRI features of the cystic liver lesions, with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. BACKGROUND: Cystic liver lesions are a frequent finding in abdominal imaging and may represent a broad spectrum of entities, ranging from benign developmental cysts to malignant neoplasms. Radiological features of various cystic liver lesions frequently overlap. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate imaging with clinical and laboratorial findings. The most imp...

  1. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Tokunaga; Bruno Monguilhott Crozeta; Mariangela Schmitt Bonato; Beatriz Serrato Coelho; Flares Baratto-Filho; Flávia Sens Fagundes Tomazinho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the en...

  2. Effect of hypoxia on the proliferation and expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in keratinocytes obtained from oral lichen planus lesions%缺氧对口腔扁平苔藓角质形成细胞增殖及缺氧诱导因子1α、血管内皮生长因子、基质金属蛋白酶9表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王夏夏; 唐国瑶; 孙红英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hypoxia on the proliferation and expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α),vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) in keratinocytes obtained from oral lichen planus(OLP) lesions.Methods Hypoxia environment was induced by a airtight incubator.Five groups were included,normoxia control group,hypoxia control group(12,24,36,48 h).The effect of different treatment time of hypoxia on cellular proliferation was determined with cell counting kit-8(CCK-8).The mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-lα,VEGF and MMP-9 were analyzed respectively by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green Ⅰ and Western blotting.Results The growth activity of keratinocytes obtained from OLP lesions in the hypoxia groups(0.340±0.002,0.415±0.006,0.546±0.006) was reduced than that in control (0.431±0.001,0.620±0.004,1.022±0.005)(P<0.01).The mRNA levels of VEGF(2.087±0.291,3.189±0.573,5.402±0.563) and MMP-9(2.936±0.500,4.083±0.300,6.374±0.858) were elevated by hypoxia(P<0.05).The protein levels of HIF-lα(0.414±0.093,0.751 ±0.056,0.875±0.040),VEGF(0.393 ±0.046,0.557±0.078,0.767±0.045) and MMP-9(0.250±0.053,0.384±0.038,0.611±0.092) were all remarkably elevated by hypoxia (P<O.05).However,hypoxia had no effect on HIF-1α mRNA expression.The mRNA expression of HIF-1α after hypoxia exposure for 36 h(1.412±0.094) and 48 h(1.417±0.446) was higher than that of control group,however,there was no significant difference.A positive correlation was noted between HIF-1α and VEGF in protein level(r=0.905,P=O.O00),and the same correlation found between HIF-1α and MMP-9(r=0.881,P=0.000).Conclusions Hypoxia conditions may inhibit the proliferation of keratinocytes obtained from OLP lesions.Hypoxia conditions can promote the protein expressions of HIF-1α and both the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and MMP-9 in keratinocytes obtained from OLP lesions exposed to hypoxia

  3. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  4. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  5. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  6. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions, clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up.

  7. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  8. Presence of lymphatics in a rat tendon lesion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Herbert; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Korntner, Stefanie; Lehner, Christine; Kunkel, Nadja; Traweger, Andreas; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Bruckner, Daniela; Krefft, Karolina; Heindl, Ludwig M; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Schrödl, Falk

    2015-04-01

    Tendons lack sufficient blood supply and represent a bradytroph tissue with prolonged healing time under pathological conditions. While the role of lymphatics in wound/defect healing in tissues with regular blood supply is well investigated, its involvement in tendon defects is not clear. We here try to identify the role of the lymphatic system in a tendon lesion model with morphological methods. A rat Achilles tendon lesion model (n = 5) was created via surgical intervention. Two weeks after surgery, animals were killed and lesioned site removed and prepared for polarization microscopy (picrosirius red) and immunohistochemistry using the lymphatic markers PROX1, VEGFR3, CCL21, LYVE-1, PDPN, and the vascular marker CD31. Additionally, DAPI was applied. Untreated tendons served as controls, confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation. At the lesion site, polarization microscopy revealed a structural reintegration while immunohistochemistry detected band-like profiles immunoreactive for PDPN, VEGFR3, CCL21, LYVE1, and CD31, surrounding DAPI-positive nuclei. PROX1-positive nuclei were detected within the lesion forming lines and opposed to each other. These PROX1-positive nuclei were surrounded by LYVE-1- or VEGFR3-positive surfaces. Few CD31-positive profiles contained PROX1-positive nuclei, while the majority of CD31-positive profiles lacked PROX1-positive nuclei. VEGFR3-, PDPN-, and LYVE-1-positive profiles were numerous within the lesion site, but absent in control tissue. Within 2 weeks, a structural rearrangement takes place in this lesion model, with dense lymphatic supply. The role of lymphatics in tendon wound healing is unclear, and proposed model represents a good possibility to study healing dynamics and lymphangiogenesis in a tissue almost completely lacking lymphatics in physiological conditions. PMID:25371325

  9. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  10. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs, the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of і60 ml/min/1.73 m2, signs of renal lesion; 20 with Stages III CKD: a GFR of <60–30 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 11 with Stages VI CKD: a GFR of <30–15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results and discussion. CIs were more common in the patients with Stages III–IV than in those with Stages I–II, as shown by the scores of the mini-mental state examination (p<0.001, the frontal assessment battery (p=0.001, and the regulatory function test (p<0.001. These tests showed that the magnitude of CIs increased with the higher stage of CKD. Stages III–IV CKD is an independent predictor of CIs in persons with predialysis-stage kidney lesion. CIs were found to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, abdominal obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and patient age. The signs of atherosclerotic lesion of the common carotid arteries and the indicators of arterial stiffness were also associated with the incidence and magnitude of CIs in CKD. The detection of CIs in patients with early CKD allows one to timely initiate adequate therapy aimed particularly at improving cerebral circulation, eliminating the impact of risk factors, and slowing down the vascular remodeling. The management tactics for patients with CKD must involve the identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, and duplex scanning of the wall of the common carotid arteries may be used as a noninvasive method to assess the risk of the development and progression of CIs in predialysis CKD. 

  11. Computed-tomographic and conventional linear-tomographic evaluation of tracheobronchial lesions for laser photoresection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser therapy is a new modality for treatment of airway lesions. The authors examined 18 patients prior to laser photoresection of tracheobronchial lesions. Thirteen had cancers involving the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi; five had benign lesions of the middle or proximal trachea. Each patient was examined by conventional linear tomography (CLT) and computed tomography (CT). CT was valuable in patients who had lesions of the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi. Its particular usefulness, and its advantage relative to CLT, consisted in its ability to delineate vascular structures adjacent to the planned area of photoresection. Neither CLT nor CT was helpful in evaluation of benign lesions of the proximal trachea

  12. Static, dynamic and first-pass MR imaging of musculoskeletal lesions using gadodiamide injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five patients with known or suspected musculoskeletal tumors were examined with static and dynamic MR imaging to evaluate the safety, tolerability and diagnostic utility of gadodiamide injection and to assess the diagnostic value of dynamic MR imaging and parametric 'first-pass' (FP) images. The proportion of patients presenting more diagnostic information on the contrast-enhanced compared to the precontrast spin-echo examinations was determined. The dynamic enhancement characteristics were evaluated with time-intensity curves and parametric images of the FP enhancement rate. The tolerance of gadodiamide injection was good. Contrast enhancement was useful for delineating tumour from muscle, and differentiating viable from necrotic tissue and cystic from solid lesions. Malignant tumors showed a significantly higher slope value, earlier onset of enhancement, and higher maximum enhancement than benign lesions. However, slope values could not be used to predict the malignant potential of a lesion, due to overlap between highly vascular benign and low vascular malignant lesions. By displaying highly vascular areas, parametric FP images provided useful information on the most active part in a tumour before biopsy and for assessing the incorporation of bone-chip allografts. Static, dynamic and FP MR imaging using gadodiamide injection appears safe and provides useful information for diagnosis, biospy and follow-up of musculoskeletal lesions. (orig.)

  13. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon entity characterized by a massive growth of lymphoid tissue. There are two types: the hyaline-vascular (HV) type and the plasma cell (PC) type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning of treatment for hyaline-vascular CD. Materials and methods: Fifty-two cases of confirmed hyaline-vascular CD were retrospectively reviewed. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MDCT scans had been performed in all patients, followed by surgery and pathological analysis of the lesion. Original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images were used for image interpretation. Features of the lesion and its adjacent structures were identified. Results: The lesion was present in the thorax of 24 patients and the abdomen in 28. Obvious features of hyaline-vascular CD (especially feeding vessels and draining veins) and its adjacent structures were demonstrated on 52 patients. Conclusion: On MDCT imaging, original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images provide an excellent tool for diagnosis of hyaline-vascular CD and have high value in the determination of a treatment plan

  14. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaoli [Department of Radiology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital affiliated to Capital University of Medical Sciences, Yangfangdian Tieyiyuan, Road No. 10, Haidian District, Beijing, 100038 China (China); Liu, Cheng [CT Department, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute (China); Wang, Rengui, E-mail: 490150302@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital affiliated to Capital University of Medical Sciences, Yangfangdian Tieyiyuan, Road No. 10, Haidian District, Beijing, 100038 China (China); Zhu, Xuejun [Dermatology Department, Beijing University First Hospital (China); Gao, Li [Department of Radiology, Beijing University First Hospital (China); Chen, Jiuhong [Healthcare, Siemens Ltd. (China)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon entity characterized by a massive growth of lymphoid tissue. There are two types: the hyaline-vascular (HV) type and the plasma cell (PC) type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning of treatment for hyaline-vascular CD. Materials and methods: Fifty-two cases of confirmed hyaline-vascular CD were retrospectively reviewed. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MDCT scans had been performed in all patients, followed by surgery and pathological analysis of the lesion. Original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images were used for image interpretation. Features of the lesion and its adjacent structures were identified. Results: The lesion was present in the thorax of 24 patients and the abdomen in 28. Obvious features of hyaline-vascular CD (especially feeding vessels and draining veins) and its adjacent structures were demonstrated on 52 patients. Conclusion: On MDCT imaging, original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images provide an excellent tool for diagnosis of hyaline-vascular CD and have high value in the determination of a treatment plan.

  15. Modulation of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase as a Strategy to Reduce Vascular Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Hadoke, Patrick W. F.; Kipari, Tiina; Seckl, Jonathan R; Chapman, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which initial vascular damage leads to extensive macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. Although acutely glucocorticoids suppress inflammation, chronic glucocorticoid excess worsens atherosclerosis, possibly by exacerbating systemic cardiovascular risk factors. However, glucocorticoid action within the lesion may reduce neointimal proliferation and inflammation. Glucocorticoid levels within cells do not necessarily reflect circulating leve...

  16. The value of 64-slice CT angiography in diagnosing spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate 64-slice CT angiography in diagnosing spinal vascular malformations. Methods: Fifteen patients, who were suggestive of spinal vascular malformations by clinical manifestation and MRI, underwent CT angiography with a 64-slice spiral CT (GE lightspeed VCT). DSA were performed later within 1 week in all the patients and four of them were treated with operation as well. We evaluated CTA images in displaying the lesions according to the following aspects: the type of malformation, lesion range, feeding artery, draining vein and possible fistula, and compared those details with DSA and operation findings. Results: All 15 patients acquired their final diagnosis by DSA and operation, which were intramedullary artefiovenous malformation in 6 cases, perimedullary artefiovenous fistula in 2, spinal dural arteriovenous fistula in 3 and Cobb syndrome in 4 cases. CTA was consistent with DSA in the classification of lesions and in the determination of the involved regions and it revealed the main feeding arteries and draining veins in all patients. CTA showed four arteriovenous fistulae confirmed by DSA, but it failed in a complex arteriovenous fistula. In Cobb syndrome patients, not only the intramedullary but also paravertebral and subcutenous vascular malformation could be clearly seen on CTA images. Conclusion: 64-slice CT angiography can be a preliminary method in spinal vascular malformation because it can determine the classification and reveal almost all the main lesions quickly, atraumatically. (authors)

  17. Vascular anomalies: A pictorial review of nomenclature,diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; L; Nosher; Philip; G; Murillo; Mark; Liszewski; Vyacheslav; Gendel; Christopher; E; Gribbin

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies,including vascular malformations and tumors,are frequently straightforward to detect;however,accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are often challenging.Misdiagnosis of these lesions can lead clinicians in the wrong direction when treat-ing these patients,which can have unfavorable results.This review presents an overview of the classification systems that have been developed for the diagnosis of vascular lesions with a focus on the imaging charac-teristics.Pictorial examples of each lesion on physical examination,as well as non-invasive and minimally invasive imaging are presented.An overview of the en-dovascular treatment of these lesions is also given.In some cases,vascular anomalies may be associated with an underlying syndrome and several of the most com-monly encountered syndromes are discussed.Under-standing of the classification systems,familiarity with the treatment options and knowledge of the associated syndromes are essential for all physicians working with this patient population.The approach to the described entities necessitates an organized multi-disciplinary team effort,with diagnostic imaging playing an increas-ingly important role in the proper diagnosis and a com-bined interventional radiologic and surgical treatment method showing promising results.

  18. Overdiagnosing Vascular Dementia using Structural Brain Imaging for Dementia Work-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Feyen, Bart F. E.; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesizing that non-significant cerebrovascular lesions on structural brain imaging lead to overdiagnosis of a vascular etiology of dementia as compared to autopsy-confirmed diagnosis, we set up a study including 71 patients with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses. Forty-two patients in the population (

  19. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations.

  20. Unusual benign polypoid and papular neoplasms and tumor-like lesions of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Keloth, Tasnim R; Raman, Lakshmiah G; Mahmood, Suaad; Almulla, Amal; AlMarzouqi, Mamoun; Al-Hasani, Salam

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of unusual benign neoplasms and tumor-like lesions presenting as vulvar polyps and papules, to study their clinical, pathologic, hormonal, and developmental features and whether they have important associations with other pathologic lesions or clinical diseases. We conducted a retrospective review study of 115 vulvar specimens over 7 years. Common lesions, for example, fibroepithelial polyps, skin tags, papillomas, abscesses, viral warts and common cysts, were excluded. We found 21 cases (18%) with uncommon benign vulvar lesions. They included 7 epithelial cysts, 3 vascular lesions, 3 glandular neoplasms, 3 endometrioses, 1 caruncle, 1 pilonidal sinus, 1 prolapsed urethra, 1 seborrheic keratosis, and 1 granular cell tumor. The age range was between 1 and 64 years with a mean age of 33 years. Most (86%) were 2.5 cm or less. Many were asymptomatic incidental pathologic findings that can be missed clinically. Nine cases have important clinical associations or coexisting incidental pathologic lesions. Some lesions demonstrated hormone receptors. Some were clinically confused with fibroepithelial polyps, abscesses, warts, melanocytic lesions, and tumors. In conclusion, although the vulva is a small compartment, its developmental and histologic complexity can result in a variety of unusual and rare benign polypoid and papular lesions, some unique to the vulva, which might present diagnostic challenges to the clinicians and pathologists. In addition, many bear controversy regarding their histogenesis and origin of development in the vulva. PMID:24342664

  1. [Local vascular complications after iatrogenic femoral artery puncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhwirth, J; Pascher, O; Hauser, H; Amann, W

    1996-01-01

    Over a period of 5 years 81 vascular complications after 15,460 catheterizations of the femoral artery for diagnostic (n = 11,883) or therapeutic (n = 3577) procedures were registered. The following complications were observed in declining frequency: 1. False aneurysm (n = 65), 2. arterial occlusion (dissection, embolia, thrombosis) (n = 8), 3. vascular lesion causing profuse bleeding (n = 7), 4. AV-fistula (n = 1). The total complication rate was 0.52%. The complication rate was significantly higher in therapeutical procedures (1,03%) than in diagnostic investigations (0.37%). Pseudoaneurysms were complicated by thrombosis of the femoral vein (n = 3), lymphatic fistula (n = 3) and deep wound infection (n = 9); secondary complication rate 18.5%. Risk factors for local vascular complications are old age, female gender, high grade arteriosclerosis at the puncture site, overweight, manifest arterial hypertension and medication with cumarin, acetylsalicylic acid or heparin. Further complicating factors are connected with technical risks such as duration of the procedure. French size of the catheter, the catheter sheath and multiple punctures. Vascular repair was performed by simple angiography in most cases, but in 14.8% more extensive surgical procedures were required. In patients with signs of occlusive vascular disease the external iliac artery was replaced by a PTFE-vascular access graft in 4 cases and an arterioplasty of the deep femoral artery was performed in 2 patients. 36% of the operations were undertaken as emergencies. Reintervention was necessary for a postoperative bleeding complication in 1 case (surgical complication rate 1.2%). A female patient suffering from aortic valve stenosis died during emergency operation due to massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage after cardiac catheterization (mortality rate 1.2%). Over a median follow-up period of 37 months no late complications of the intervention were recorded, nor recurrences of peripheral arterial occlusive

  2. The importance of vascular effects in the development of late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severe late radiation damage to normal tissues may be an unacceptable consequence of the treatment of cancer patients by radiotherapy. The importance of vascular effects in the development of the late somatic lesions in most normal tissues has been indicated. Central nervous system has a parenchyma consisting of mostly post-mitotic cells, therefore it could be argued that this provides an ideal model with which primary vascular change is evaluated. Following the local irradiation of rat brains with single dose of 2000 rad, gross focal vascular lesions were found only after a latent period in excess of 12 months. The evidence of tissue hypoxia, over the period from 6 to 9 months after irradiation, was suggested by the fall of sialic acid content in brain. Sialic acid is an important constituent of gangliosides, therefore the reduction in its level might indicate a transient degenerative process. The presence of vasodilatory changes in central nervous system after local irradiation was suggested in brains and spinal cords. The indirect evidence of the transient impairment of functional vascular supply was suggested by the reduction in the ability of subcutaneous tissues to support tumor growth and that of the bone marrows to maintain colony-forming units. The reduction in blood flow was reported to be associated with the appearance of occlusive change in arterioles, and in the vasculatures of hearts, kidneys and mouse pinnas. Vascular function was improved as the vascular density increased. (Yamashita, S.)

  3. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the breast: Is breast cancer associated with ipsilateral higher vascularity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess a possible association between breast malignancy and ipsilateral higher vascularity on gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography. One hundred six patients were examined by dynamic gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR imaging. Magnetic resonance angiographic views were generated by image subtraction and maximum intensity projection. The study included 85 patients with unilateral malignant breast neoplasms and 21 with unilateral benign lesions. Three blinded readers independently reviewed the MR angiograms after masking the lesions and the corresponding contralateral sites. The readers were asked to determine whether vascularity was higher on the right side, higher on the left side, or equal on both sides. The results were analyzed by the Kappa statistic and Pearson's chi-square test. The blood vessels of the breasts were clearly seen in all cases. There was good agreement among the observers (kappa > 0.54) in assessing vascularity on both sides. Breasts harboring malignant neoplasms were found to have a higher vascularity than the contralateral breasts (p < 0.005). This sign of malignancy had a sensitivity of 76.5 %, a specificity of 57 %, and an accuracy of 72.6 %. Blood vessels of the breast can be depicted by MR angiography. Unilateral malignant neoplasms are associated with a higher ipsilateral vascularity. In conjunction with other indications of malignancy on gadolinium-enhanced MR images, a higher ipsilateral vascularity may serve as an additional sign of malignancy. (orig.)

  4. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIVE PARTICULARITIES OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cojocaru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is not a simple vascular senescence process, but also is a progressive and high risk disease. From morphologic point of vue it can be found a large variety of atherosclerotic lesions depending on their evolution and localization. The aim of this study was to investigate and to correlate clinical and evolutive aspects of the atherosclerotic process, regarding 213 patients of Cardiovascular Department of Cardiovascular Disease Institute ``Prof. Dr. George IM Georgescu``, Iaşi, which have been investigated for a period during 2005-2009. The arterial fragments from both muscular and elastic types of arteries were prelevated by endarterectomy and were specifically prepared for histopathological exam. The microscopic exam revealed the high frequency of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, especially type V and type VI in a positive correlation with age, sex, clinical diagnostic and other associated risk factors.

  5. A New Treatment of Musculoskeletal System Lesions: Platelet Rich Plasma

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    Bayram Kelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP is a treatment modality that is very popular in recent years. It is obtained by centrifuging autologous blood. Although it has been used for tendon lesions, it could also used for many other lesions. Vascularization of tendons is relatively insufficient and therefore the treatment is difficult. They tend to be chronic. Although there are other treatments methods, the results are not always satisfactory. There are no known side effects of PRP. However, the effectiveness is highly controversial. Some studies indicated that PRP is very effective, but some say that PRP is ineffective. In this review we try to analyze the effectiveness and usability of PRP. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 236-245

  6. Injuries as a result of sports and vacation activities: Fractures with concomitant vascular injuries. Diagnosis and treatment concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extremity fractures with concomitant vascular injuries are surgical emergencies. Especially injuries of the upper extremities require a preoperative angiographic examination for the localization of the vascular lesion. In vascular lesions of the lower extremities a primary angiography is not necessary, if there is an opportunity for an intraoperative radiologic evaluation. In our traumatological department 104 patients were treated over the last 15 years with that combined injury. The concept of immediate stabilization of the fracture with simultaneous or postponed arterial repair has been proved to be appropriate. The fasziotomy as prophylactic procedure of a postischemic compartment syndrome is also a part of our concept during the last years. The late results in our mostly young patients depended on the degree of soft tissue damage and the time of ischemia. The often untreatable nerve lesions contributed to a loss of use of about 30% in the late courses. (orig.)

  7. Prepapillary Vascular Loops Complicated by Suspected Macroaneurysm Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Akaiwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of prepapillary vascular loops complicated by a suspected macroaneurysm rupture which was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB. A 62-year-old woman presented with decreased vision and myodesopsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.6 in the left eye. Fundus examination disclosed an elevated, round, and reddish lesion, retinal hemorrhage at the superior aspect of the optic disc, retinal opacification along the superior branch retinal artery, and a small vitreous hemorrhage. Optical coherence tomography showed a serous retinal detachment, and indocyanine green angiography demonstrated prepapillary vascular loops and a hypofluorescent area with hyperfluorescent margins. These findings suggested the presence of a macroaneurysm. No filling of the dye in the aneurysm-like dilatation suggested a blockage of the lumen with a thrombus which might be associated with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO. A diagnosis of prepapillary vascular loops complicated by a suspected macroaneurysm rupture and BRAO was made. Because of a persistent serous retinal detachment, IVB was performed. One month later, the BCVA improved to 1.0. Fundus examination disclosed an organized yellowish-white macroaneurysm and resolution of the serous retinal detachment. We recommend careful monitoring of patients with prepapillary vascular loops because of complications such as macroaneurysm rupture and BRAO.

  8. Retina vascular network recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  9. Abdominopelvic vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriussadaporn, S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical records of 25 patients with 32 abdominopelvic vascular injuries were reviewed. Sixty per cent of patients sustained blunt trauma and 40 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Nineteen patients (76%) were in shock on arrival, 2 of them underwent ER thoracotomy when they first arrived in the emergency room. Nine patients (36%) had signs of lower extremity ischemia. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 16-50, mean 29 +/- 10.0. Nineteen patients (76%) had 35 associated injuries. Of the 32 injured vessels; 8 were external iliac artery, 5 were renal vein, 4 were abdominal aorta, 3 were common iliac artery, common iliac vein, external iliac vein and inferior vena cava, and 1 was superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein and median sacral artery. Treatments included: 13 lateral repair, 4 prosthetic grafting, 4 nephrectomy, 3 ligation, 3 reversed saphenous vein grafting, 2 end to end anastomosis, 1 internal iliac artery grafting, 1 intravascular shunt and packing and 1 perihepatic packing. Nine patients (36%) died. High mortality was observed in injuries to the abdominal aorta (75%), inferior vena cava (66.7%), common iliac vein (66.7%) and associated major pelvic fractures (50%). Factors significantly associated with mortality were the presence of shock on arrival, associated injuries and high Injury Severity Score. The author concludes that short prehospital time, effective resuscitation and proper surgical decision making are important for survival in these critically injured patients. PMID:10710864

  10. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.)

  11. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold in patients with complex coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburino, Claudia I; Capranzano, Piera; Longo, Giovanni; Immè, Sebastiano; Tamburino, Giacomo; Scalia, Matteo; Condorelli, Antonio; Francaviglia, Bruno; LA Manna, Alessio; Sgroi, Carmelo; Grasso, Carmelo; DI Salvo, Maria E; Capodanno, Davide; Tamburino, Corrado

    2016-08-01

    The advent of fully bioresorbable stent technology is heralded as breakthrough technology in the current era of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have the potential to introduce a paradigm shift in interventional cardiology, representing an anatomical and functional "vascular restoration" therapy instead of an artificial stiff tube encased by persistent metallic foreign body. Among BRS, the everolimus-eluting scaffold (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) has been the most extensively investigated in clinical studies. The use of ABSORB in the treatment of relatively simple lesions appears to provide a similar degree of safety and efficacy compared with metallic drug-eluting stent (DES) treated under randomized trials conditions, but patients treated in real-world practice are far more complex than those included in randomized trials. Therefore, several ABSORB all-comers registries dealing with real world conditions are being performed. Their currently available results are summarized in the present overview. PMID:27128353

  12. Clinical analysis of vascular anomalies: a hospital-based retrospective study of 592 patients in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Cai-sheng; PAN Ling-xiao; HUANG Yong-bo; HAN An-jia; YE Run-yi; LI Song-qi; LI Xiao-xi; L(U) Wei-ming; WANG Shen-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular anomalies are common and multidisciplinary involved diseases. The greatest impediment to their treatment in the past was their confusing terminology and clinical heterogeneities. This hospital-based retrospective study assessed some clinical characteristics, diagnosis, therapies and outcomes of patients with vascular anomalies in southeast China.Methods A total of 592 vascular anomalies patients (patients with intracranial tissues or viscera involved were excluded), admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2006 to September 2009, were enrolled in the study. Data for clinical characteristics, diagnosis, therapies and outcomes were collected and analyzed.Results Of the 592 patients, the male:female ratios in the vascular tumor group (n=187) and the vascular malformation group (n=405) were 1∶1.49 and 1∶1.06 respectively, with no significant difference between them. The mean onset age of the vascular tumor group was significantly younger than that of the vascular malformation group (P <0.001). The head and neck were the most commonly (31.4%) involved areas in vascular anomalies. A total of 23.8% of the patients with vascular anomalies had definite symptoms caused by the vascular lesions. In the vascular tumor group, 94.1% of them were infantile hemangiomas. Venous malformation was the most common (41.0%) subtype of vascular malformations.Surgical therapy was undertaken in 94.2% of the patients with vascular anomalies. Of the 519 patients available for the 16-58 month follow-up, 322 patients (62.0%) were cured, 108 patients (20.8%) were markedly improved, 57 patients (11.0%) were partially improved, and 32 patients (6.2%) were uncured.Conclusions Vascular anomalies are clinically heterogeneous. While the outcome is generally favorable, further effort should be made to determine the appropriate terminology and management.

  13. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Kelley W. [Pediatric Radiology of America, Roanoke, VA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States); Marshall, David L.; Busch, Michael T. [Children' s Orthopaedics of Atlanta, P.C., Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Williams, Joseph P. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  14. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  15. Factitious lesions of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of a lesion with atypical presentation, obscure clinical history, which does not improve with classic treatments, shall raise the red flag of the medical team. In such cases, the hypothesis of a factitious lesion shall be considered. Many times the correct diagnosis on the initial assessment may avoid high-cost diagnostic tests, unnecessary treatments, and time consumption of the medical team. We present here two classic cases of factitious lesions that, similar to those described in the literature, is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

  16. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  17. Differential diagnosis of sacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the teaching files of Temple University Hospital and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and selected the best representative cases of various lesions of the sacrum. They selected the following lesions: metastasis, chondrosarcoma, chrodoma, plasmacytoma, giant cell tumor, osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, osteoblastoma, ossifying fibroma, eosinophilic granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, sacrococcygeal teratoma, anterior meningocele, endodermal sinus tumor, and stress fracture. The authors illustrate, for each lesion, the likely age range, sights of predilection, likelihood of occurrence in the sacrum, and radiographic findings helpful in limiting the differential diagnosis. They demonstrate the value of bone scintigraphy in detecting, and CT in confirming, stress fractures of the sacrum

  18. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  19. Risk factors for vascular dementia: Hypotension as a key point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Davide Manganaro, Cristina Vilotti, Gilberto PizzolatoDepartment of Internal Medicine and Clinical Neurology University of Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia.Keywords: vascular dementia, hypotension, low blood pressure, alzheimer disease

  20. Ultrasound in vascular disease & introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, C; S.Castellani; B. Brkljacic

    2012-01-01

    Il capitolo descrive i prin cipi generali fondamentali delle tecniche per la valutazione ultrasonografica con doppler vascolare The chapter describes the fundamental principles underlying the use of ultrasonographic techniques of vascular doppler

  1. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  2. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography : a method for preoperative cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing major vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poldermans, Don

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerosis is a systemic disease that may affect several blood vessels in different organs simultaneously. The spectrum of disease ranges from stroke to myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysms and peripheral vascular insufficiency. Patients suffering from one aspect of atherosclerotic disease will often have asymptomatic lesions elsewhere. Most patients seen with vascular disease by the internist or surgeon have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease, for example, 40-70...

  3. Vascular Thalamic Amnesia: A Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided…

  4. CT evaluation of anastomotic aneurysms following vascular reconstructive procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite improved surgical techniques, anastomotic aneurysms continue to complicate vascular reconstructive procedures. The role of CT in this condition has not been previously emphasized. Twenty-one patients with 31 anastomotic aneurysms following aortofemoral or aortoiliac graft placement were evaluated by CT and angiography and four by CT alone. CT contributed significant addiitional information affecting the surgical approach to the lesion in six patients. CT was superior in defining local complications, the longitudinal extent of the aneurysms, and in demonstrating mural thrombus, which occurred at 13 anastomoses. CT should be performed in conjunction with angiography in the evaluation of this condition

  5. Adrenal lymphangioma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rare lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carla L; Banerjee, Priya; Carney, Erin; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George J

    2011-07-01

    Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by

  6. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis that...... the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  7. The relationships of vascular plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenrick, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic research indicates that vascular plants evolved from bryophyte-like ancestors and that this involved extensive modifications to the life cycle. These conclusions are supported by a range of systematic data, including gene sequences, as well as evidence from comparative morphology and the fossil record. Within vascular plants, there is compelling evidence for two major clades, which have been termed lycophytes (clubmosses) and euphyllophytes (seed plants, ferns, horsetails)...

  8. The pathobiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer’s disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic si...

  9. Hemorrhage and vascular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While many brain lesions have a similar appearance on MRI and CT, this is not true of hemorrhage. On CT, acute hemorrhage becomes hyperdense within an hour as the clot forms. This lasts for several days and then fades to isodensity and eventually hypodensity. On MRI, hemorrhage less than 12 to 24 hours old may not be distinguishable from vasogenic edema. Its appearance subsequently is an evolving pattern of variable signal intensity which depends on the specific form of hemoglobin which is present, or whether the red cells are intact or lysed, on the operating field strength, on the type of signal (that is, spin echo or gradient echo), and on contrast (that is, T1- or T2-weighing). The appearance of hemorrhage also depends on the compartment of the brain involved---subarachnoid, subdural, or intraparenchymal. Finally, for parenchymal hematomas, different zones may be defined from the inner core to the outer rim which all vary in appearance depending on field strength and imaging technique

  10. High resolution MR angiography with rephasing and dephasing sequences for selective vascular imaging of arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rephasing and dephasing sequences the vascular system is imaged with high or low signal intensity whereas stationary tissue is imaged with identical signal intensity. With images recorded in systole and diastole followed by image subtraction separate imaging of arteries or veins without background superposition is possible. 13 patients with vascular lesions of the lower extremities and 7 volunteers were examined. Vascular stenosis, aneurysm, dilatation, occlusion and collateral vessels could be imaged similar to digital subtraction angiography. Vessels with a diameter down to 1 mm could be imaged. The large slice thickness up to 80 mm results in projection type images where the vascular tree is imaged over the whole field of view and without partial volume effects. (orig.)

  11. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined

  12. Traumatic lesions of pulmonary parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of post-traumatic pulmonary lesions (contusion, laceration and hematoma) are presented. The pathophysiology, radiological aspects and differential diagnosis are reviewed. The benign evolution showing the absorption in short time, without medical interference is emphasized. (Author)

  13. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  14. Quantitative 2- and 3-dimensional analysis of pharmacokinetic model-derived variables for breast lesions in dynamic, contrast-enhanced MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: 2- and 3-dimensional evaluation of quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the Tofts model modeling dynamic contrast enhancement of lesions in MR mammography. Materials and methods: In 95 patients, MR mammography revealed 127 suspicious lesions. The initial rate of enhancement was coded by color intensity, the post-initial enhancement change is coded by color hue. 2D and 3D analysis of distribution of color hue and intensity, vascular permeability and extracellular volume were performed. Results: In 2D, malignant lesions showed significant higher number of bright red, medium red, dark red, bright green, medium green, dark green and bright blue pixels than benign lesions. In 3D, statistical significant differences between malignant and benign lesions was found for all this parameters. Vascular permeability was significant higher in malignant lesions than in benign lesions. Regression model using the 3D data found that the best discriminator between malignant and benign lesions was combined number of voxels and medium green pixels, with a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 83.1%. Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of pharmacokinetic variables of contrast kinetics showed significant differences between malignant and benign lesions. 3D analysis showed superior diagnostic differentiation between malignant and benign lesions than 2D analysis. The parametric analysis using a pharmacokinetic model allows objective analysis of contrast enhancement in breast lesions

  15. HEART FAILURE WITH LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT AND RISK OF DEVELOPMENT OF LESIONS IN THE CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Diminished cardiac output can lead to the development of white matter lesions. White matter lesions are related to cognitive impairment, stroke risk and vascular death, yet the precise aetiology is uncertain. Methods: In this study we recruited 130 patients attending our medicine and neurology outpatient department, and divided them into those with a history of heart failure (n:24), atrial fibrillation (n:26), and those with atherosclerotic risk factors (n:80). The patients without low o...

  16. Calcium and vitamin D intakes may be positively associated with brain lesions in depressed and non-depressed elders

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Martha E.; Anderson, John J. B.; Steffens, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies indicate that diet and vascular calcification may be related to the occurrence of brain lesions, although the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that calcium and vitamin D intakes would be positively associated with brain lesion volumes in elderly individuals with and without late-life depression. A cross sectional study was performed as part of a longitudinal clinical study of late-life depress...

  17. Late-onset Depression in the Absence of Stroke: Associated with Silent Brain Infarctions, Microbleeds and Lesion Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ri-Han; Feng, Chao; Xu, Yu; Hua, Ting; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Fang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Late-onset depression (LOD) is a frequent mood disorder among elderly. Previous studies have proved that LOD is associated with cerebral silent lesions especially white matter lesions (WML) and yielded the “vascular depression” hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of LOD. However, there were relatively few studies about the association between silent brain infarctions (SBIs), microbleeds (MBs) and the prevalence of LOD. In this study we sought to evaluate the presence, accumulat...

  18. Vascular disorders in cerebral reversible ischaemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clinical prectice it is rather frequent to find neurological disorders whose etiology is not clear; in particular, it can be difficult to distinguish a cardiac from a more strictly neurological or vascular cause. In attempting to assess this problem, we have undertaken a study on 675 consecutive patients (387 males and 288 females), aged from 20 to 86 years. All patients, who came to our attention because of transient neurological symptoms or signs, underwent studies with Color Doppler Imaging and Doppler Spectral Analysis techniques applied to supraaortic vessels supplying cerebral regions. Our results show that the highest incidence of obstructive vascular findings (positive Doppler scans) is present in the age interval from 71 to 80 years (75%). The period of maximal incidence of pathologic findings is between 51 and 60 years of age (35% of the total), that is, in an age range where surgical therapy can be undertaken. In this decade 58% of examined patients showed abnormal Doppler scans. Short-lasting parcellar symptoms, such as dysphasia nominum and amaurosis fugax, or symptoms considered non-specific, such as loss of consciousness or dizziness, have given a rather high percentual incidence of positive scans; this is also the case with laterocervical murmurs, even if unaccompanied by symptoms. From the diagnostic viewpoint, Doppler imaging has reached its highest accuracy when applied to arteries very close to each other, as is the case with the carotid artery at its bifurcation. In addition, spectral analysis associated to Doppler imaging allows the detection of the frequency dispersion which results from flow turbulence caused by subcritical lesions in the presence of coiling and kinking of arterial vessel. In conclusion, noninvasive diagnostic methods based on Doppler technology (widely available commercially) can help to discriminate pathological cases in patients who present transient neurological disorders

  19. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  20. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    OpenAIRE

    Altmeyer Peter; Paech Volker; Thrandorf Christina; Sand Daniel; Sand Michael; Bechara Falk G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where su...

  1. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  2. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  3. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  4. Obesity in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDRA, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is considered a public health challenge in South Asia. Obesity is an independent risk factor in vascular dementia. It also contributes to other risk factors of vascular dementia like hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. As the rate of obesity in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known, we decided to assess obesity in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Subjects with vascular dementia presenting to Mem...

  5. GNA14 Somatic Mutation Causes Congenital and Sporadic Vascular Tumors by MAPK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young H; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Qiu, Jingyao; Straub, Robert; Bruckner, Anna; Bercovitch, Lionel; Narayan, Deepak; McNiff, Jennifer; Ko, Christine; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Antaya, Richard; Halaban, Ruth; Choate, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Vascular tumors are among the most common neoplasms in infants and children; 5%-10% of newborns present with or develop lesions within the first 3 months of life. Most are benign infantile hemangiomas that typically regress by 5 years of age; other vascular tumors include congenital tufted angiomas (TAs), kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas (KHEs), and childhood lobular capillary hemangiomas (LCHs). Some of these lesions can become locally invasive and unresponsive to pharmacologic intervention, leading to significant complications. Recent investigation has revealed that activating mutations in HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, GNAQ, and GNA11 can cause certain types of rare childhood vascular tumors, and we have now identified causal recurrent somatic activating mutations in GNA14 by whole-exome and targeted sequencing. We found somatic activating GNA14 c.614A>T (p.Gln205Leu) mutations in one KHE, one TA, and one LCH and a GNA11 c.547C>T (p.Arg183Cys) mutation in two LCH lesions. We examined mutation pathobiology via expression of mutant GNA14 or GNA11 in primary human endothelial cells and melanocytes. GNA14 and GNA11 mutations induced changes in cellular morphology and rendered cells growth-factor independent by upregulating the MAPK pathway. Our findings identify GNA14 mutations as a cause of childhood vascular tumors, offer insight into mechanisms of oncogenic transformation by mutations affecting Gaq family members, and identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27476652

  6. Occult cerebral vascular malformation: High-field (2.0 T) MR imaging and comparison with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive experience with CT has led to the recognition of criteria for the diagnosis of occult cerebral vascular malformation. MR demonstrated all lesions as hemorrhage foci. The most common and typical MR findings of OVCM was circumscribed thick hypointense rim on T2-weighted images (T2-Wls) representing hemosiderin deposit with various central intensities suggesting the presence of hematomas in different stages (11 lesions). Among these. the recurrent hemorrhage in small amount produced the characteristic 'a bunch of grape' appearance. But, small OCVM less than 1 cm in diameter was identified as a small homogeneous hypointense nodule on T2-Wls with sharp (6 lesions) or fade-out (1 lesions) border. There were 2 lesions showing atypical findings such as dense hemosiderin rin with central lacuma or bilobed subacute hematoma. As the associated MR findings which strongly suggest the diagnosis of OCVM signal void due to feeding or draining vessels was found in 4, lesions and the surrounding focal cortical atrophy or leukomalacia in 2 lesions. The predilection site of OCVM was subcortical (8 lesions) and periventricular (6 cases) location. CT depicted 16 of the 20 lesions, but missed 4 lesions of small OCVM. CT alone did not permit definitive diagnosis of OCVM is most cases. Fifteen lesions demonstrated on CT contained somewhat hyperdense area in central or peripheral locations. Peripheral hyperdense area corresponded to the dense hemosiderin deposit on MR and central one to the hematoma formed by recent hemorrhage. Low density area on CT usually corresponded to liquefied subacute hematoma on MR

  7. Achados de imagem e alternativas terapêuticas das malformações vasculares periféricas Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Moretti Monsignore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As malformações vasculares periféricas compreendem um espectro de lesões que se tornam aparentes no decorrer da vida e podem ser encontradas em praticamente todo o corpo. São pouco comuns e frequentemente confundidas com o hemangioma infantil. Estas doenças são completamente distintas tanto em relação à história clínica como ao prognóstico e às formas de tratamento. Nestas lesões, a história evolutiva e as características do exame físico são de extrema importância para o adequado diagnóstico clinicorradiológico, que guiará a melhor alternativa terapêutica. As classificações mais recentes dividem as malformações vasculares periféricas levando em consideração o fluxo sanguíneo (alto e baixo e os componentes vasculares envolvidos (arteriais, capilares, linfáticos e venosos. As malformações vasculares periféricas representam um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico, e exames complementares como tomografia computadorizada, ultrassonografia com Doppler e ressonância magnética, em conjunto com a história clínica, podem trazer informações quanto às características de fluxo e à extensão das lesões. Arteriografia e flebografia confirmam o diagnóstico, avaliam a sua extensão e orientam a decisão terapêutica. Malformações de baixo fluxo geralmente são tratadas por abordagem percutânea e injeção de agente esclerosante, enquanto para as malformações de alto fluxo o acesso é endovascular com uso de agentes embolizantes permanentes líquidos ou sólidos.Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The

  8. Protocolo de actuación ante hemangiomas y/o malformaciones vasculares Protocol for the treatment of haemangiomas and/or vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Redondo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante toda lesión vascular presente en los primeros momentos de la vida, es preciso discriminar si se trata de un tumor o una malformación vascular dada la diferente evolución de ambos procesos y, por tanto, el distinto tratamiento que precisan. El diagnóstico es fundamentalmente clínico, basado en una correcta anamnesis y una minuciosa exploración física. Lo primero es saber si la lesión no estaba presente en el nacimiento y ha cambiado de forma llamativa de tamaño, lo que llevaría a pensar en un hemangioma o, por el contrario, es congénita y de crecimiento muy lento como son las malformaciones vasculares. Ante lesiones dudosas, está indicado realizar una biopsia con inmunohistoquímica para el anticuerpo GLUT-1, específico de hemangiomas. Entre las pruebas de imagen, de primera elección suele utilizarse la ecografía-Doppler que permite diferenciar si la lesión es de alto o bajo flujo y distinguir si se trata de un hemangioma o una malformación vascular. En función del tipo de lesión, localización y grado de afectación puede ser preciso realizar una radiografía, resonancia magnética, flebografía, angio-resonancia, arteriografía o linfoescintigrafía para completar el estudio. En casos más particulares, como la hemangiomatosis múltiple, es necesario realizar una ecografía hepática, sangre oculta en heces, gastroscopia y colonoscopia, así como una determinación de hormonas tiroideas; y en las malformaciones venosas o combinadas extensas, un hemograma y pruebas de coagulación. Por otro lado, las posibles repercusiones en otros órganos hacen imprescindible un abordaje multidisciplinar con la participación de diferentes especialistas. Debido al amplio espectro que abarcan las anomalías vasculares, el tratamiento debe ser individualizado.When facing any vascular lesion present in the first moments of life, it is necessary to determine whether one is dealing with a tumour or a vascular malformation, given the

  9. Pathologic features of lower extremity arterial lesions in diabetes mellitus:an analysis of 162 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the angiographic manifestations of lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: The angiographic findings of lower extremity in 162 patients with diabetes mellitus were retrospectively analyzed. (1) The arteries of lower extremity were divided into the following four segments: iliac, femoral, popliteal and crural artery. The involvements of these arteries were documented. (2) Based on the lesion's number, location, nature (stricture or occlusion) and length ( 5 cm), the diabetic arterial diseases were categorized. Results: (1) Of 162 diabetic lower limbs, multiple segmental lesions were seen in 131, superficial femoral arterial lesions in 130, and crural arterial lesions in 139, of which 130 arterial lesions had at least two below-the-knee arteries being involved. (2) Based on segmental angiographic classification, a total of 660 vascular lesions were detected, including stricture lesions (33.8%) and occlusive lesions (66.2%). Of the 437 occlusions, 70.5% were located in below-the-knee arteries, and most of which were longer than 10 cm and located in anterior and posterior tibial arteries, while only a few peroneal arteries were involved (P < 0.0001). One hundred and fifty-two lesions were detected in superficial femoral arteries, of which 49 (31.2%) were located at the origin of the superficial femoral artery and 56 (35.7) were in the adductor canal hiatus. Conclusion: The main feature of peripheral arterial disease of lower extremity caused by diabetes mellitus is multi-level atherosclerotic occlusion, the superficial femoral and the crural arteries are most likely to be involved. The lesions of superficial femoral artery are often located at the arterial origin and in the adductor canal hiatus, while the deep femoral artery and the femoral artery are less involved. Long occlusive lesions are more prevalent in crural arteries, especially in anterior and posterior tibial arteries. (J Intervent

  10. Effects of blood flow control on clinical outcomes after ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy for vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the control of nidus blood flow and the association between such control and clinical outcomes after ethanolamine oleate (EO) sclerotherapy for vascular malformations. Morphological grades on magnetic resonance (MR) images (grades 1-3), preprocedure nidus blood flow control, and clinical results in 22 cases of vascular malformation were reviewed. Cases were subdivided by MR morphological grade as follows: grade 1, 3 patients; grade 2A, 6 patients; grade 3, 13 patients. Responses to EO sclerotherapy were as follows: excellent, 3 patients; good, 5 patients; poor, 14 patients. An excellent response was achieved in one grade 1 case, one grade 2A case, and one grade 3 case. Preprocedure nidus flow was controlled in 8 lesions (type A) and not controlled in 14 lesions (type B). Three (37.5%) type A lesions had an excellent response, five had a good response; and none had a poor response. All type B lesions had a poor response. Flow control predicted an excellent result (P<0.05). Preprocedure nidus blood flow control (versus lack of control) is associated with a significantly higher incidence of favorable clinical responses to EO sclerotherapy for vascular malformations. (author)

  11. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  12. Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  13. Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment – A critical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Jellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment describes a continuum of cognitive diorders ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, in which vascular brain injury involving regions important for memory, cognition and behaviour plays an important role. Classification, prevalence, and pathophysiology are a matter of current research. Clinical diagnostic criteria show moderate sensitivity (ca 50% and variable specificity (range 64-98%. In Western clinical series, VaD is suggested in 8-10% of cognitively impaired elderly subjects. Its prevalence in autopsy series varies from 0.03 to 58%. In contrast to Alzheimer disease (AD and mixed dementia showing significant age-related increase, the prevalence of VaD significantly decreases after age 80 years. Cognitive decline is commonly associated with widespread small ischemic vascular lesions involving subcortical brain areas. The lesions affect neuronal networks involved in cognition, memory, and behavior.Cerebrovascular lesions (CVLs often coexist wth Alzheimer-type lesions and other pathologies. The lesion pattern of "pure" VaD differs from that in mixed dementia (AD + CVLs, which suggests different pathogenesis of both phenotypes. Minor CVLs appear not essential for cognitive impairment in full-blown AD, while both mild AD-type pathology and small vessel disease may interact synergistically in promoting and progressing dementia. However, both AD-related and vascular brain pathologies have been reported.Despite recent suggestions for staging and grading CVLs in specific brain areas, no validated neuropathological criteria are currently available for VaD and mixed dementia. Further clinico-pathological studies and harmonization of neuropathological procedures are needed to validate the diagostic criteria for VaD and mixed dementia in order to clarify the impact of CVLs and other coexistent pathologies on cognitive impairment as a basis for further successful therapeutic options.

  14. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  15. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2016-07-01

    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.]. PMID:27322172

  16. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  17. Venous vascular malformation of the floor of mouth masquerading as a dermoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriw, Adam A; Song, Jin Soo A; Gullane, Patrick; terBrugge, Karel G; Yu, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Venous vascular malformations (VVMs) are described as abnormal post-capillary lesions which exhibit low flow. These are typically malleable and may grow with endocrine fluctuations. A VVM that mimics the classic appearance of dermoid tumor on imaging has never been reported. We encountered a 43-year-old woman with intermittent dysphagia relating to a firm submandibular mass. Physical exam and cross-sectional imaging revealed features consistent with variant dermoid cyst. However, catheter angiography eventually demonstrated a VVM which possessed vessels of variable size and partial thrombosis. We report the case and propose that catheter angiography remains important in cases where vascular malformation is considered. PMID:26851131

  18. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  19. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer. PMID:27468041

  20. Cognitive Rehabilitation — a New Direction of Medical Aid to Patients with the Brain Focal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorieva V.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive function disturbances are the more frequent and serious consequence of the brain acute focal lesions at such a prevalent pathology as insults and craniocerebral traumas, however a very small attention is paid to their reduction in neurological practice. It is partially explained by underestimation of the human cognitive function disturbance problem by many physicians at an acute cerebral pathology and an importance of the disorder directed correction. The modern principles and strategies of a cognitive rehabilitation in the brain vascular and traumatic lesion clinic are discussed in the article.

  1. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenan, S. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Klein, M.J. (Dept. of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Lewis, M.M. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  2. Plant Vascular Biology and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William J.Lucas

    2010-01-01

    @@ The evolution of animal and plant vascular systems played a pivotal role in the advancement from simple to complex organisms,through the provision of a delivery system for the distribution of components essential for both metabolism and growth.Interestingly,although these two vascular systems conform to the same generel rules of fluid dynamics(Murray1926;McCulloh et al.2003),the developmental mechanisms adopted by plants and animals,to generate these long-distance transport systems.have little in common.

  3. Flexibilidad y lesiones de futbolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Gocebate, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Cabe destacar que en deporte se requiere de una correcta preparación física y el caso del fútbol no es diferente a cualquier otro. Este es un deporte en equipo que genera un desgaste físico y mental en cada partido en el cual se pueden sufrir diferentes lesiones. Son varios los factores que predisponen a que se produzcan lesiones, por lo que es importante un correcto entrenamiento diario. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los niveles de flexibilidad de la cadena muscula...

  4. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  5. The Essex-Lopresti lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, K.; Dargel, J; Burkhart, K. J.; Brüggemann, G. P.; Müller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Essex-Lopresti lesion represents a severe injury of the forearm unit. In the 1940s, it’s pathology and consequences have already been mentioned by several authors. Over the course of time, the pathophysiology of the lesion was displayed in more detail. Therefore, an intensive analysis of the involved anatomic structures was done. The interosseous membrane was shown to play a major role in stabilising the forearm unit, in the situation of a fractured radial head, which is the primary stabi...

  6. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  7. Lesiones frecuentes en atletas profesionales

    OpenAIRE

    Doyel, Crevecoer

    2015-01-01

    Durante la práctica del atletismo frecuentemente ocurren lesiones, afectando principalmente a los miembros inferiores. Las causas que las originan son muy diversas y tienen diferentes características de acuerdo al tipo de modalidad realizada dentro del atletismo. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las lesiones más frecuentes en miembros inferiores, en atletas corredores profesionales, de diferentes distancias, de ambos sexos, de entre 18 y 40 años de edad, que practican atletismo en...

  8. Vascular Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hisatsugu; Washida, Kazuo; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated vascular functioning in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) and examined a possible relationship between vascular function and cognitive status. Twenty-seven patients with AD, 23 patients with VaD, and 26 healthy control patients underwent measurements of flow-mediated dilation (FMD), ankle-brachial index (ABI), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and intima-media thickness (IMT). The FMD was significantly lower in patients with AD or VaD compared to controls. There were no significant differences in ABI, CAVI, or IMT among the 3 groups. A significant correlation was found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and FMD. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis revealed that FMD was significantly predicted by MMSE scores. These results suggest that endothelial involvement plays a role in AD pathogenesis, and FMD may be more sensitive than other surrogate methods (ABI, CAVI, and IMT) for detecting early-stage atherosclerosis and/or cognitive decline. PMID:27284205

  9. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  10. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  11. Oral pyogenic granuloma: one reactive hyperplastic lesion of the gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Narendra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term pyogenic granuloma refers to a disorder of the skin, oral mucosa and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma like growth often resulting from local irritation and trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma. Different terminologies are used for this lesion by different investigators like, benign vascular tumor of pregnancy, granuloma pediculatum benignum, granuloma pyogenicum, Crocker and hartzells disease. This lesion even if looks like a tumor, is non neoplastic in nature and present itself in various clinical and histological forms. Lack of association of pyogenic etiopathogenesis does not justify the use of terminology of pyogenic granuloma. In this article we are presenting a case series of pyogenic granuloma in different locations giving an insight into their myriad of etiologies and presenting the review of literature for its inclusion as one classified hyperplastic lesion of oral cavity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3863-3868

  12. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis versus dermoscopy for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions: prospective, double-blind study in a secondary reference centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2009-01-01

    . Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy) is a new, commercially available method of analyzing pigmented skin lesions noninvasively. The diagnosis is based on objective features such as the presence of dermal pigment, vascularity of the lesion, and the integrity of collagen. The objective of this study...... was to examine the usefulness of SIAscopy for the clinical diagnosis of malignant melanoma in a prospective, unbiased manner. We enrolled 65 patients with 83 lesions, where the diagnosis of melanoma could not be ruled out on the basis of the clinical evaluation by a nondermatologist. All lesions were...

  13. Iatrogenic vascular injuries during arthroplasty of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshameeri, Z; Bajekal, R; Varty, K; Khanduja, V

    2015-11-01

    Vascular injuries during total hip arthroplasty (THA) are rare but when they occur, have serious consequences. These have traditionally been managed with open exploration and repair, but more recently there has been a trend towards percutaneous endovascular management. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess if this change in trend has led to an improvement in the overall reported rates of morbidity and mortality during the last 22 years in comparison with the reviews of the literature published previously. We found a total of 61 articles describing 138 vascular injuries in 124 patients. Injuries because of a laceration were the most prevalent (n = 51, 44%) and the most common presenting feature, when recorded, was bleeding (n = 41, 53.3%). Delay in diagnosis was associated with the type of vascular lesion (p < 0.001) and the clinical presentation (p = 0.002). Open exploration and repair was the most common form of management, however percutaneous endovascular intervention was used in one third of the injuries and more constantly during the last 13 years. The main overall reported complications included death (n = 9, 7.3%), amputation (n = 2, 1.6%), and persistent ischaemia (n = 9, 7.3%). When compared with previous reviews there was a similar rate of mortality but lower rates of amputation and permanent disability, especially in patients managed by endovascular strategies. PMID:26530643

  14. The treatment of oral lesions in Behçet's Syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristine Tarquinio Marinho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's disease (BD is a multi-systemic vascular disorder characterized by oral and genital ulcers, cutaneous, ocular, arthritic, vascular, central nervous system and gastrointestinal involvement. It usually affects young adults and the etiopathogenesis is unknown. A 21-year-old girl, Caucasian, with diagnostic BD, presented with rheumatoid arthritis, genital lesions and multiple recurrent ulcers inside the mouth, with an erythematous halo, covered by yellowish exudates exacerbated during menstrual periods, and in situations of stress and anxiety. The application of low power laser in ulcers was considered in order to decrease the inflammatory symptoms and pain, beyond getting the healing process accelerated. The proposed therapy was able to promote pain relief, increase local microcirculation and repair ulcerated lesions, eliminating the need for administration of systemic or topical medications, leading to improved quality of life.

  15. Neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): diagnosis, differential diagnosis and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and interventional radiological techniques for neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods. Modern diagnosis of the TMJ is based on the clinical use of conventional X-ray techniques, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional techniques like biopsies, vascular occlusion and ablation. Results. Conventional X-ray still forms the basic diagnostic procedure applied in open and closed mouth position. CT improves the diagnostic information and serves as the standard diagnostical instrument for cartaliganeous or osseous neoplastic lesions. MRI evaluates soft tissue infiltration in multiplanar techniques and high spatial resolution. Interventional vascular and ablative techniques improve the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (orig.)

  16. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  17. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  18. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Açıkgöz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are classified under the macules/papules, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, physiological hyperpigmentation, melanosis and acanthosis nigricans are classified under the patch/plaque. Dermatoscopic examination, which is increasing recently, is very valuable for avoiding possible cosmetic and functional complications of surgical procedures. However, epidermal pigmentations such as vulvar melanosis and vulvar intraepitelyal neoplazi are dermatoscopically indistinguishable. It may also be difficult to diagnose vulvar melanoma clinically and dermatoscopically. Histological examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pigmented vulvar lesions, which are clinically and dermatoscopically indistinguishable. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 39-44

  19. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  20. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  1. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  2. Escleroterapia con bleomicina en malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo: Experiencia y revisión del tema Bleomycin sclerotherapy for low-flow vascular malformations: our experience and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lobo Bailón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías vasculares son lesiones típicas de los pacientes pediátricos y se dividen en dos categorías: tumores vasculares y malformaciones vasculares de alto y bajo flujo. Estas últimas pueden tratarse de diversos modos: laserterapia, drenaje, aspiración, cirugía o escleroterapia, dependiendo del tipo de lesión y de su localización. Entre los agentes esclerosantes utilizados, la bleomicina ha demostrado tener buenos resultados en el tratamiento de estas lesiones. En este artículo presentamos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo mediante escleroterapia con bleomicina intralesional. Desarrollamos un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo sobre 30 pacientes que presentaban malformación vascular de bajo flujo y fueron tratados con bleomicina intralesional. Los resultados fueron buenos o excelentes en 22 pacientes y regulares o malos en los 8 restantes. De acuerdo a nuestra casuística y a la literatura revisada, la escleroterapia con bleomicina es una alternativa terapéutica eficaz y segura en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo.Vascular anomalies are common in children and can be divided into two categories, vascular tumours and vascular malformations: high-flow or low-flow. The latter can be treated in different ways such as lasertherapy, drainage, aspiration, surgery or sclerotherapy depending on the type and location of the lesion. Among the accepted sclerosing agents, bleomycin has proven good results in the treatment of this condition. Herein we present our experience in the treatment of low-flow vascular malformations with intralesional bleomycin injection. This is a retrospective, descriptive study with 30 patients presenting a low-flow vascular malformation treated with intralesional bleomycin injection. Our results are good or excellent in 22 patients and poor in the other 8. According to our case series and the consulted literature, sclerotherapy with

  3. Vascular complications in glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rhun, Emilie; Perry, James R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular complications in patients with glioma most commonly include venous and arterial thromboembolism; however, treatment-induced vasculopathies are also problematic, especially in long-term survivors. The interactions between treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy, the coagulation cascade, endothelium, and regulators of angiogenesis are complex, drive glioma growth and invasion, and create common management problems in the clinic. We review the incidence of thrombotic complications in glioma, the biology of the coagulome as related to glioma progression, prevention and treatment of thrombosis, the role of anticoagulants as anticancer therapy, and vascular complications such as ischemic stroke and intracranial bleeding. The coagulation cascade is intimately involved in cancer-related thrombosis, glioma progression, and vascular complications of glioma therapy. Tissue factor is the principal initiator of coagulation and is upregulated in a glioma subtype-specific fashion. Short-term (perioperative) antithrombotic prophylaxis is effective, but long-term anticoagulation, although attractive, is not routinely indicated. Most patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism can be safely anticoagulated, including those on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapeutics such as bevacizumab. Initial therapy should include low-molecular-weight heparin, and protracted anticoagulant treatment, perhaps indefinitely, is indicated. Many complex interactions resulting in vessel wall injury can lead to ischemic stroke, intracranial and intratumoral hemorrhage, and long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment. PMID:26948359

  4. Prevalence of oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population Prevalência de hemangioma, malformação vascular e variz de boca numa população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Henriques Corrêa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix are benign vascular lesions, common in the head and neck regions. Studies about the prevalence of these lesions in the oral cavity are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and to obtain clinical data on oral hemangioma, vascular malformation and varix in a Brazilian population. Clinical data on those lesions were retrieved from the clinical forms from the files of the Oral Diagnosis Service, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1992 to 2002. Descriptive analysis was performed. A total of 2,419 clinical forms in the 10-year period were evaluated, of which 154 (6.4% cases were categorized as oral hemangioma, oral vascular malformation or oral varix. Oral varix was the most frequent lesion (65.6%. Females had more oral hemangioma and oral varix than males. Oral vascular malformation and oral varix were more prevalent in the 7th and 6th decades, respectively. Oral hemangioma and oral varix were more prevalent in the ventral surface of the tongue and oral vascular malformation, in the lips. Oral hemangioma was treated with sclerotherapy (54.5%, and vascular malformation was managed with sclerotherapy and surgery (19.4% each. The data of this study suggests that benign vascular lesions are unusual alterations on the oral mucosa and jaws.Hemangioma, malformação vascular e variz são lesões vasculares benignas comuns na região de cabeça e pescoço. Estudos sobre a prevalência dessas lesões em boca são escassos. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência e realizar um levantamento de dados clínicos de hemangioma, malformação vascular e variz de boca. Dados clínicos dessas lesões foram consultados em fichas clínicas do arquivo do Serviço de Diagnóstico Oral da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 1992 a 2002. Uma análise descritiva foi realizada. Foram obtidas neste período de 10 anos 2.419 fichas cl

  5. [Arthroscopic management of recent or chronic lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontès, D

    2006-11-01

    Lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist (TFCC) have perfectly been dismembered by Andrew Palmer and have largely benefited from progress of arthroscopy of the wrist. One distinguishes thus traumatic lesions (class 1) individualized according to their localization, central (1-A), ulnar (1-B), radial (1-D) or distal (1-C). Central lesions are classically associated to a positive ulnar variance. The clinical symptomatology evokes a meniscal like syndrome of the wrist. In case of failure of the medical treatment, it will be necessary to propose a surgical procedure guided by histopathology of the triangular complex. Thus, ulnar peripheral richly vascularized lesions (1-B) could therefore potentially heal and will have to benefit by an attempt of surgical reattachment (arthroscopic technique of Whipple, Poehling or other techniques) or by an osteosynthesis in case of fracture on the basis on the ulnar styloid process. Central fibrocartilage lesions (1-A) or radial avulsions (1-D) are less vascularized and have therefore little probability to heal; they will benefit then ideally from the endoscopic debridement of unstable flaps of the central portion of TFCC. No immobilization is required and rehabilitation is immediately undertaken. Less frequent class 1-C lesions justify in our practice a simple arthroscopic regularization, alone complete ruptures could have necessitate a direct suture. Class 2 degenerative lesions are graduated (A to E) according to evolution of the chondromalacia of the ulnar head and carpal bone, perforation of the central disc and lunotriquetral ligament degeneration. They are usually associated with a constitutional or an acquired ulnar plus variance syndrome, for example after a distal radius fracture malunion. The clinical symptomatology needs to differentiate them from the simple frequent physiological perforations after the age of 50 years. Arthroscopy will allow to regularize unstable non-vascularized lesions and to

  6. Occlusive venous lesions in alcoholic liver disease. A study of 200 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Z D; Ishak, K G

    1982-10-01

    The nature and significance of vascular lesions in alcoholic liver disease were studied in 200 autopsies. Three principal types of lesions were recognized: (a) Lymphocytic phlebitis, consisting of a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate of the wall of terminal hepatic venules (central veins) or intercalated (sublobular) veins, was noted in 16.7% of patients with precirrhotic alcoholic hepatitis and 4.3% of patients with cirrhosis. (b) Phlebosclerosis, consisting of perivenular scarring with gradual obliteration of the lumen of terminal hepatic venules and sometimes intercalated veins was found to some degree in all patients with alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis. (c) Veno-occlusive lesions, consisting of intimal proliferation, fibrosis, and narrowing of the lumen of terminal hepatic venules, intercalated veins, and occasionally portal veins were found in 52.1% of cases of precirrhotic alcoholic hepatitis with total occlusion of some terminal hepatic venules or intercalated veins, or both, in 14.6%. In alcoholic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive lesions were present to some degree in 74.1% with totally occluded vessels found in 46.8%. Evidence of portal hypertension was present in 47.9% of patients with precirrhotic alcoholic hepatitis and was significantly associated with the degree of both veno-occlusive change and phlebosclerosis, which tend to occur together. It is concluded that both veno-occlusive lesions and phlebosclerosis contribute to the development of portal hypertension in alcoholic liver disease. Veno-occlusive lesions in the cirrhotic liver may contribute to atrophy, with loss of functioning parenchyma. The etiopathogenesis of the vascular lesions in alcoholic liver disease requires further investigation. PMID:7106509

  7. Relation between the neuronal and hemodynamic response in the lesioned rat spinal cord following peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeau, S.; Beaumont, E.; Lesage, F.

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we explore the hemodynamic response in the lesioned rat spinal cord following peripheral nerve stimulation. Oxy and deoxy hemoglobin were measured (using a four color LED multispectral intrinsic optical imaging system) simultaneously with blood flow (laser speckle measurement). Both optical and electrophysiological data are compared spatially and against stimulation strength. When compared with non-lesioned animals, the hemodynamic response is seen to display significant differences exhibiting increased initial dip and decreased blood drain following stimulation. The origin of the difference is observed to be due to the vascular nature of the injury. The distinct hemodynamic responses may have a strong impact on General Linear Model based fMRI studies of spinal cord lesions due to the difficulty in separating vascular effects from neuronal plasticity following injury.

  8. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  9. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development.

  11. Dealing with vascular conundrums with MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Wirana; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a robust imaging modality for evaluation of vascular diseases. Technological advances have made MR imaging widely available for accurate and time-efficient vascular assessment. In this article the clinical usefulness of MR imaging techniques and their application are reviewed, using examples of vascular abnormalities commonly encountered in clinical practice, including abdominal, pelvic, and thoracic vessels. Common pitfalls and problem solving in interpretation of vascular findings in body MR imaging are also discussed. PMID:24889175

  12. MicroRNAs in Vascular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Munekazu Yamakuchi

    2012-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is an important component of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms. All vascular cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and infiltrating cells, such as macrophages, orchestrate a series of pathological events. Despite dramatic improvements in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the molecular basis of vascular inflammation is not well understood. In the last decade, mi...

  13. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  14. Present status and new perspectives in laser welding of vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, G; Rossi, F; Matteini, P; Puca, A; Albanese, A; Sabatino, G; Maira, G; Pini, R

    2011-01-01

    The laser welding of biological tissues is a particular use of lasers in surgery. The technique has been proposed since the 1970s for surgical applications, such as repairing blood vessels, nerves, tendons, bronchial fistulae, skin and ocular tissues. In vascular surgery, two procedures have been tested and optimized in animal models, both ex vivo and in vivo, in order to design different approaches for blood vessels anastomoses and for the repair of vascular lesions: the laser-assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) and the laser-assisted vessel repair (LAVR). Sealing tissues by laser may overcome the problems related to the use of conventional closuring methods that are generally associated with various degrees of vascular wall damage that can ultimately predispose to vessel thrombosis and occlusion. In fact, the use of a laser welding technique provides several advantages such as simplification of the surgical procedure, reduction of the operative time, suppression of bleeding, and may guarantee an optimal healing process of vascular structures, very similar to restitutio ad integrum. Despite the numerous preclinical studies performed by several research groups, the clinical applications of laser-assisted anastomosis or vessel repair are still far off. Substantial breakthrough in the laser welding of biological tissues may come from the advent of nanotechnologies. Herein we describe the present status and the future perspectives in laser welding of vascular structures. PMID:21880202

  15. Three-dimensional CT angiography of the vascular disorders in the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA) as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of vascular disorders in the upper extremity. 11 cases, including 3 cases with vascular malformation and 8 cases to be confirmed the existence of vascular occlusion, were examined by a multidetector-row CT scanner after the administration of contrast media in the vein. 3D image was composed of the maximum intensity projection technique and the volume rendering technique. The location and extent of the lesion was clearly confirmed in all cases of vascular malformation by the 3DCTA image. The existence of vascular occlusion was confirmed in 4 of 8 cases by the image. Even in the finger level, the running of the artery could be confirmed in all cases by the 3DCTA. We found 3DCTA to be a useful procedure in the investigation and diagnosis of vascular disorders in the upper extremity. 3DCTA is a method with the possibility of replacing the conventional angiography. (author)

  16. Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

  17. Inhibition of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Suppresses Angiogenesis in Developing Endometriotic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Carla N.; Alaniz, Laura D.; Menger, Michael D.; Barañao, Rosa I.; Laschke, Matthias W.; Meresman, Gabriela F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The development and long-term survival of endometriotic lesions is crucially dependent on an adequate vascularization. Hyaluronic acid (HA) through its receptor CD44 has been described to be involved in the process of angiogenesis. Objective To study the effect of HA synthesis inhibition using non-toxic doses of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on endometriosis-related angiogenesis. Materials and Methods The cytotoxicity of different in vitro doses of 4-MU on endothelial cells was firstly tested by means of a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The anti-angiogenic action of non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU was then assessed by a rat aortic ring assay. In addition, endometriotic lesions were induced in dorsal skinfold chambers of female BALB/c mice, which were daily treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% NaCl (vehicle group; n = 6), 20mg/kg 4-MU (n = 8) or 80mg/kg 4-MU (n = 7) throughout an observation period of 14 days. The effect of 4-MU on their vascularization, survival and growth were studied by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. Main Results Non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU effectively inhibited vascular sprout formation in the rat aortic ring assay. Endometriotic lesions in dorsal skinfold chambers of 4-MU-treated mice dose-dependently exhibited a significantly smaller vascularized area and lower functional microvessel density when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Histological analyses revealed a downregulation of HA expression in 4-MU-treated lesions. This was associated with a reduced density of CD31-positive microvessels within the lesions. In contrast, numbers of PCNA-positive proliferating and cleaved caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells did not differ between 4-MU-treated and control lesions. Conclusions The present study demonstrates for the first time that targeting the synthesis of HA suppresses angiogenesis in developing endometriotic lesions. Further studies have to clarify now whether in the future this

  18. Inhibition of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Suppresses Angiogenesis in Developing Endometriotic Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N Olivares

    Full Text Available The development and long-term survival of endometriotic lesions is crucially dependent on an adequate vascularization. Hyaluronic acid (HA through its receptor CD44 has been described to be involved in the process of angiogenesis.To study the effect of HA synthesis inhibition using non-toxic doses of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on endometriosis-related angiogenesis.The cytotoxicity of different in vitro doses of 4-MU on endothelial cells was firstly tested by means of a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The anti-angiogenic action of non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU was then assessed by a rat aortic ring assay. In addition, endometriotic lesions were induced in dorsal skinfold chambers of female BALB/c mice, which were daily treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% NaCl (vehicle group; n = 6, 20 mg/kg 4-MU (n = 8 or 80 mg/kg 4-MU (n = 7 throughout an observation period of 14 days. The effect of 4-MU on their vascularization, survival and growth were studied by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry.Non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU effectively inhibited vascular sprout formation in the rat aortic ring assay. Endometriotic lesions in dorsal skinfold chambers of 4-MU-treated mice dose-dependently exhibited a significantly smaller vascularized area and lower functional microvessel density when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Histological analyses revealed a downregulation of HA expression in 4-MU-treated lesions. This was associated with a reduced density of CD31-positive microvessels within the lesions. In contrast, numbers of PCNA-positive proliferating and cleaved caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells did not differ between 4-MU-treated and control lesions.The present study demonstrates for the first time that targeting the synthesis of HA suppresses angiogenesis in developing endometriotic lesions. Further studies have to clarify now whether in the future this anti-angiogenic effect can be used beneficially for the

  19. Outcome of endovascular treatment in symptomatic intracranial vascular stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome evaluation for the revascularization of intracranial vascular stenoses has not been fully described due to the highly technical nature of the procedure. We report here on the early and late clinical outcome of angioplasty and/or stenting of symptomatic severe intracranial vascular stenoses at a single institute. Since 1995, we have treated 35 patients with symptomatic intracranial vascular stenosis (more than 70% stenosis, mean stenosis: 78.6% ± 6.2%). Angioplasty (n = 19) was performed for the horizontal segment of the middle cerebral artery (M1) (n = 16) and the basilar artery (BA) (n = 1), the intradural vertebral artery (VA) (n = 1), and the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) (n = 1). Stenting (n = 16) was performed for the cavernous or petrous ICAs (n = 9), the intradural VA (n = 3), BA (n = 2), and M1 (n = 2) artery. We assessed the angiographic success (defined as residual stenosis < 50%) rate, the periprocedural complications during the 30-day periprocedural period, the symptomatic recurrence and restenosis during a mean 22-month follow-up (FU) period. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative even-free rate of the major cerebrovascular events, i.e. death, stroke or restenosis, was also done. Angiographic success was achieved in 97% of our patients (34/35). There were four procedure-related complications (11%) including a death and a minor stroke. During the mean 22-month FU, the asymptomatic restenosis rate was 9% and the symptomatic restenosis rate was 6% in the target lesion and 9% in all the vascular territories. The Kaplan-Meier estimate was 70.6% (95% confidence interval = 46.5-94.7) after 33 month of FU. In addition to a high angiographic success rate and an acceptable periprocedural complication rate, intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting revealed a relatively low symptomatic recurrence rate. Hemorrhage is a rare, but the physician must aware that potentially fatal periprocedural complications can occur

  20. Hemiballism due to the lesion in the striatum demonstrated by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of hemiballism due to vascular lesions in the striatum demonstrated by CT scan were reported. Case 1 was a 58-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes mellitus, who had cerebral hemorrhage in the right striatum. Hemiballistic movements, which were confined to his face, neck and trunk as well as limbs of the left side, appeared soon after CVA and improved on treatment with haloperidol up to 4 mg per day. Case 2 was a 63-year-old woman with hypertension, who had probable cerebral infarct in the right striatum. The hemiballistic movements, confined to her right side, appeared soon after CVA and improved on treatment with chlorpromazine up to 50 mg per day, and perphenazine up to 6 mg per day. Whereas case 1 had contralateral hemiballism, case 2 had homolateral hemiballism, both due to vascular lesions in the striatum. Although it has been generally accepted, from postmortem and experimental studies, that the lesion responsible for hemiballism was localized in the contralateral subthalamic nucleus, a few cases of hemiballism have been reported, in which the subthalamic nucleus (Luys' body) and its connections appeared to be intact at necropsy. The present cases of hemiballism with involvement of the striatum without involvement of the subthalamic nucleus by CT scan, seem to be the first reported cases. It is not clear in the CT scan whether the subthalamic nucleus is also involved in addition to the striatal lesion, however, it is unlikely due to different vascular supplies to these areas. From a clinical and an experimental point of view, we would like to propose that hemiballism can occur due to the lesion in the striatum, especially the caudate nucleus even when the subthalamic nucleus and its connections are intact. (author)

  1. Blue mode imaging may improve the detection and visualization of small-bowel lesions: A capsule endoscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama M Abdelaal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diagnostic miss rate and time consumption are the two challenging limitations of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE. In this study, we aimed to know whether using of the blue mode (BM combined with QuickView (QV at a high reviewing speed could influence SBCE interpretation and accuracy. Materials and Methods: Seventy CE procedures were totally reviewed in four different ways; (1 using the conventional white light, (2 using the BM, [on a viewing speed at 10 frames per second (fps], (3 using white light, and (4 using the BM (on a viewing speed at 20 fps. In study A, the results of (1 were compared with those of (2, and in study B, the results of (3 and (4 were separately compared with those of (1. Results: In study A, the total number of the vascular (P < 0.001 and the inflammatory lesions (P = 0.005 detected by BM was significantly higher than that detected by the white light. No lesion was found using the white light that was not detected by the BM. Moreover, the BM highly improved the image quality of all the vascular lesions and the erythematous ones from the nonvascular lesions. In study B, the total number of only the vascular lesions, detected by the BM on a rapid speed of viewing at 20 fps was significantly higher than that detected by the white light (P = 0.035. However, the true miss rate for the BM was 4%. Conclusion: BM imaging is a new method that improved the detection and visualization of the vascular and erythematous nonvascular lesions of SB as compared with the conventional white light imaging. Using of the BM at a slow viewing speed, markedly reduced the diagnostic miss rate of CE.

  2. Vascularity Visualized by Doppler Sonography as a Predictor of Healing Potential of the OCD of the Humeral Capitellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Kabuto, Yukichi; Onishi, Okihiro; MInami, Masataka; Tsujihara, Takashi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The significance of vascularity visualized by Doppler sonography in osteochondritis dissecance (OCD) lesion of the humeral capitellum is unclear. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the relationship between Doppler ultrasound (US) signals observed in OCD lesion of the humeral capitellum and X-ray stage; 2) to determine if the presence of Doppler US signals in OCD lesion of the humeral capitellum could be the predictor of healing potential. Methods: Fifty patients with OCD of the humeral capitellum treated conservatively were enrolled in this study. During the conservative treatment period, Doppler sonography was performed on affected elbow to assess the presence of vascularity in the OCD lesion (Figure 1), and radiographic examination were evaluated on the same day to determine the X-ray stage (stage I: radiolucent stage, stage II: fragmentation stage, and stage III: loose body stage) of the OCD lesion (Figure 2). Radiographic examination of the elbow was examined after 6 weeks to evaluate the healing of the lesion. If the size of the lesion decreased or new bone formations were observed around the fragments, the healing of the lesion was considered to be improve. The χ2 test was used to determine if the presence of Doppler US signals were related to X-ray stage and the improvement of the healing. P OCD lesions were positive in 23 patients and negative in 27 patients. Of these patients, 19 were X-ray stage I, 17 were stage II, and 9 were stage III. The healing of OCD lesions improved in 78.2% for the positive Doppler US signal group, but only 18.5% for the negative Doppler US signal group (Figure 3). The presence of the Doppler US signal was significantly related to the improvement of healing (P = 0.00002). The Doppler US signal were positive in 78.9% for stage I, 36.4% for stage II, and 0.0% for stage III (Figure 4). The presence of Doppler US signal was significantly related to early X-ray stage (P = 0.0002). Conclusion: From

  3. Near-infraread spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Vogt, Katja; Secher, Niels Henry

    Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry......Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry...

  4. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  5. A RARE CASE OF UTERINE VASCULAR MALFORMATION PRESENTING WITH HEAVY MENSTRUAL BLEEDING AND RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM is a rare condition, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. It is a potentially life - threatening condition, as patients may present with profuse bleeding. Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare and the vast majority repo rted in the literature are those of arteriovenous malformations. Uterine AVM can be congenital or acquired. This case reports a woman with Uterine AVM presenting with heavy menstrual bleeding and a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.

  6. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  7. Extensive Vascular Mineralization in the Brain of a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Connor-Stroud, Fawn R; Hopkins, William D.; Preuss, Todd M.; Johnson, Zachary; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sharma, Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous vascular mineralization (deposition of iron or calcium salts) has been observed in marble brain syndrome, mineralizing microangiopathy, hypothyroidism, Fahr syndrome, Sturge–Weber syndrome, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and calciphylaxis in humans and as an aging or idiopathic lesion in the brains of horses, cats, nonhuman primates, mice, rats, cattle, white-tailed deer, and dogs. Here we present a 27-y-old, adult male ...

  8. A New Classification of Vascular Health and Vascular Medicine%新的血管健康分级标准与血管医学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; 刘欢

    2015-01-01

    动脉血管病变的进展是引发其相关联的器官发生恶性事件的主要原因,传统的血管病变评价方法和分类方法仅关注血管结构性动脉管腔狭窄,并未整体评估其结构和功能状态。为此,北京大学首钢医院创立了新的血管健康分类方法(北京血管健康分级)和血管医学专业学科,从全新的视角展示血管状态,对于预防和管理血管疾病的发生与发展具有重要的临床价值。%The progress of arterial vascular lesion is the main cause of the malignant events of the organs associated with the blood vessel.Traditional evaluation and classification methods of vascular disease only focus on vascular structural artery stenosis and have no over-all assessment of the structure and function state of the blood vessel.New vascular health classification method ( Beijing Vascular Health Classification) and vascular medicine, have an important clinical value for the prevention and management of vascular disease, which from a brand new perspective to show the state of blood vessels.

  9. Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1983-07-01

    A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

  10. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  11. Identification of molecular processes needed for vascular formation through transcriptome analysis of different vascular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Kong, Yimeng; Li, Xuan; Li, Laigeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular system formation has been studied through molecular and genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a herbaceous dicot that is used as a model system. Different vascular systems have developed in other plants such as crops and trees. Uncovering shared mechanisms underlying vascular development by transcriptome analysis of different vascular systems may help to transfer knowledge acquired from Arabidopsis to other economically important species. Results Conserved vascular genes and ...

  12. Implant periapical lesion. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Venetis, Fotis Iordanidis, Paraskevi Giovani, Lambros Zouloumis

    2011-01-01

    Ιmplant periapical lesion (IPL) is probably not a uniform entity in all cases presented in the literature. Asseptic bone necrosis may be a cause for some of the IPLs, whilst the presence of microorganisms is not always detectable with conventional methods. A case of IPL in a male patient who underwent an extraction of 12 tooth and an immediate implantation at this site is presented. Eight months postoperatively, an IPL was revealed on radiologic examination. After surgical exploration, the IP...

  13. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered ...

  14. Symmetrical thalamic lesions in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Eicke, M.; Briner, J; Willi, U; Uehlinger, J; Boltshauser, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical observations and findings on imaging are reported in six newborns with symmetrical thalamic lesions (STL). In three cases the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination. Characteristic observations in this series and 17 previously reported cases include no evidence of perinatal asphyxia, high incidence of polyhydramnios, absent suck and swallow, absent primitive reflexes, appreciable spasticity at or within days of birth, lack of psychomotor development, and death within days ...

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Vascular Anomalies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marion; Giraudeau, Bruno; Tavernier, Elsa; Jonville-Bera, Annie-Pierre; Lorette, Gerárd; Maruani, Annabel

    2016-04-12

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are a promising new treatment in vascular anomalies, but no published randomized controlled trials are available. The aim of this systematic review of all reported cases was to assess the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in all vascular anomalies, except cancers, in children and adults. In November 2014 MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and EMBASE were searched for studies of mTOR inhibitors in any vascular condition, except for malignant lesions, in humans. Fourteen publications and 9 posters, with data on 25 and 59 patients, respectively, all cases, at a median time of 2 weeks (95% confidence interval 1-10 weeks). Sirolimus was well tolerated, the main side-effect being mouth sores, which led to treatment withdrawal in one case. The dosage of sirolimus was heterogeneous, the most common being 1.6 mg/m2/day. PMID:26607948

  16. Radiological diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the radiological examination techniques, CT is today, besides scintigraphy, the method of choice as far as the detection of functional adrenal lesions is concerned. In primary aldosteronism, CT classification of the syndrome is based on the detection of an adenoma which can be reliably detected in adenoma sizes up to 8-10 mm. Thus, 70 to 80% of Conn's syndromes can be classified. In adrenal Cushing's syndrome, the distinction between adenoma and carcinoma of the adrenal gland is up to CT and can usually be easily made due to the characteristic morphology of each type of lesion. In case of a typcial adrenal or juxtaadrenal tumor location, detection of a pheochromocytoma is likewise easy. In ectopic and multiple pheochromocytomas or such as occur as part of a MEN-syndrome, the situation is quite different. If lesions of the adrenal gland are found by accident in examinations otherwise indicated, the question arises whether the process is malignant or benign. In this respect, all the traditional imaging methods, including CT, involve a considerable factor or uncertainity, especially if a malignant tumor is anamnestically known and the question of metastases arises. According to recent information, MR-imaging seems to be advantageous concerning this difficult differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-01-01

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions. PMID:19918332

  18. The adhesion receptor CD44 promotes atherosclerosis by mediating inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Carolyn A.; Kothapalli, Devashish; Azonobi, Ijeoma; Chun, Sam; Zhang, Yuanming; Belkin, Richard; Yeh, Christine; Secreto, Anthony; Assoian, Richard K.; Rader, Daniel J.; Puré, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis causes most acute coronary syndromes and strokes. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis includes recruitment of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall and activation of vascular cells. CD44 is an adhesion protein expressed on inflammatory and vascular cells. CD44 supports the adhesion of activated lymphocytes to endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, ligation of CD44 induces activation of both inflammatory and vascular cells. To assess the potential contribution of CD44 to atherosclerosis, we bred CD44-null mice to atherosclerosis-prone apoE-deficient mice. We found a 50–70% reduction in aortic lesions in CD44-null mice compared with CD44 heterozygote and wild-type littermates. We demonstrate that CD44 promotes the recruitment of macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, we show that CD44 is required for phenotypic dedifferentiation of medial smooth muscle cells to the “synthetic” state as measured by expression of VCAM-1. Finally, we demonstrate that hyaluronan, the principal ligand for CD44, is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE-deficient mice and that the low-molecular-weight proinflammatory forms of hyaluronan stimulate VCAM-1 expression and proliferation of cultured primary aortic smooth muscle cells, whereas high-molecular-weight forms of hyaluronan inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. We conclude that CD44 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms. PMID:11581304

  19. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  20. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND AND CT SCAN IN EVALUATING FOCAL LIVER LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The liver plays several complex but essential roles in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids as well as synthesis of proteins. The basic pathophysiology of parenchymal hepatic diseases usually represents a failure in one of these metabolic pathways.1 Diagnosis of liver pathology rests on physical examination, laboratory investigation, newer imaging techniques, radio isotope scanning.2 etc. Radiological techniques like ultrasonography and CT scan have roles in evaluation of these liver diseases. Ultrasound plays an important role in evaluation of liver pathology. It helps by detecting lesions, gives clue about its internal structure giving idea about its exact extent: it also gives opportunity to evaluate other abdominal organs. Correlation of ultrasonographic findings with clinical data, laboratory investigations and other radiological investigations lead to make a definite and accurate diagnosis. Thus appropriate management of patients can be done. Present study includes focal and pathology. In present years ultrasonography is widely accepted as first line radiological investigation for liver pathology detection. It is non-invasive cheap, quick free of radiation hazards, comfortable for patients.3 easy to re-perform and very accurate in hands of skilled operator. With Colour Doppler it is possible to evaluate vascularity of lesion. Ultrasonographic contrast media helps in determination of exact extent of lesion and vascularity of lesion. CT scan is very helpful to evaluate focal as well as diffuse liver pathology.4 Other investigations like MRI, radionuclide scanning, DSA.5 etc. are also helpful in liver pathology

  1. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  2. Fascia and Primo Vascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Yang; Yi-kuan Du; Jian-bin Wu; Jun Wang; Ping Luan; Qin-lao Yang; Lin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical basis for the concept of acupuncture points/meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has not been resolved. This paper reviews the fascia research progress and the relationship among acupuncture points/meridians, primo vascular system (PVS), and fascia. Fascia is as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and holds memory and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimatel...

  3. Quantitative analysis of vascular calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Jin Hyun; Kim, Dong Ik

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis. The mineral composition and quantity within calcified arterial plaques remains unelucidated; therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the mineral composition of such plaques. Calcified arterial plaques were obtained from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and carotid artery stenoses. Calcified aneurysmal plaques were obtained during the routine open repair of AAAs, while calcified carotid plaques were collec...

  4. Vascular instruction of pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Cleaver, Ondine; Dor, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels course through organs, providing them with essential nutrient and gaseous exchange. However, the vasculature has also been shown to provide non-nutritional signals that play key roles in the control of organ growth, morphogenesis and homeostasis. Here, we examine a decade of work on the contribution of vascular paracrine signals to developing tissues, with a focus on pancreatic β-cells. During the early stages of embryonic development, blood vessels are required for pancreas spe...

  5. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta; Tomasz J. Guzik

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the ...

  6. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  7. Cocaine-related vascular headaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhuna, A; Pascual-Leone, A; Belgrade, M

    1991-01-01

    The records of 21 patients admitted to hospital from January 1985 to December 1988 for acute headache associated with cocaine intoxication were reviewed. Fifteen patients were identified who experienced headaches with migrainous features in the absence of neurological or systemic complications. None of them had a history of cocaine-unrelated headaches or a family history of migraine, and all had a favourable outcome. Three possible mechanisms of cocaine-related vascular headaches are discusse...

  8. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  9. Vascular parameters from angiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures geometric and dynamic vascular parameters using digital angiographic image sequences: An image analysis system for neuroangiography is being developed by the Medical Imaging Division and Endovascular Therapy section of our department. Angiographic images are obtained from a GE Digital Fluoricon 5000 system. The image sets are analyzed on a Stellar GS2000 graphics mini-supercomputer using software modules written for use with the Application Visualization System (AVS). Flow phantoms are used to evaluate analysis routines and bolus injection techniques

  10. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular ti...

  11. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    IWATSUKI, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can ...

  12. Radiology of peripheral vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides a comprehensive account of the use of modern imaging procedures for the diagnosis of arterial and venous diseases. Each imaging modality is separately considered and applications in individual diseases are then explained with the aid of excellent illustrations. In addition, vascular interventions such as balloon angioplasty, local thrombolysis, and stent implantation are discussed and appraised. Special attention is devoted to the problem of radiation burden for patients. The authors are all recognized experts in angiology, phlebology, and interventional radiology. (orig.)

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of breast tumor vascularization: a comparison with MRI and histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; van den Engh, Frank M.; Klaase, Joost M.; Brinkhuis, Mariël.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females. Early diagnosis improves the survival chances for the disease and that is why there is an ongoing search for improved methods for visualizing breast cancer. One of the hallmarks of breast cancer is the increase in tumor vascularization that is associated with angiogenesis: a crucial factor for survival of malignancies. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize the malignancyassociated increased hemoglobin concentration with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, without the use of ionizing radiation or contrast agents and is therefore theoretically an ideal method for breast imaging. Previous clinical studies using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM), which works in forward mode using a single wavelength (1064 nm), showed that malignancies can indeed be identified in the photoacoustic imaging volume as high contrast areas. However, the specific appearance of the malignancies led to questions about the contrast mechanism in relation to tumor vascularization. In this study, the photoacoustic lesion appearance obtained with an updated version of PAM is compared with the lesion appearance on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), both in general (19 patients) and on an individual basis (7 patients). Further, in 3 patients an extended histopathology protocol is being performed in which malignancies are stained for vascularity using an endothelial antibody: CD31. The correspondence between PAM and MRI and between PAM and histopathology makes it likely that the high photoacoustic contrast at 1064 nm is indeed largely the consequence of the increased tumor vascularization.

  14. Vascular Complications of Cancer Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alan C; Touyz, Rhian M; Lang, Ninian N

    2016-07-01

    Development of new anticancer drugs has resulted in improved mortality rates and 5-year survival rates in patients with cancer. However, many of the modern chemotherapies are associated with cardiovascular toxicities that increase cardiovascular risk in cancer patients, including hypertension, thrombosis, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. These limitations restrict treatment options and might negatively affect the management of cancer. The cardiotoxic effects of older chemotherapeutic drugs such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, and anticancer antibiotics have been known for a while. The newer agents, such as the antiangiogenic drugs that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor signalling are also associated with cardiovascular pathology, especially hypertension, thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and proteinuria. Exact mechanisms by which vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors cause these complications are unclear but impaired endothelial function, vascular and renal damage, oxidative stress, and thrombosis might be important. With increasing use of modern chemotherapies and prolonged survival of cancer patients, the incidence of cardiovascular disease in this patient population will continue to increase. Accordingly, careful assessment and management of cardiovascular risk factors in cancer patients by oncologists and cardiologists working together is essential for optimal care so that prolonged cancer survival is not at the expense of increased cardiovascular events. PMID:26968393

  15. Inflammation in disseminated lesions: an analysis of CD4+, CD20+, CD68+, CD31+ and vW+ cells in non-ulcerated lesions of disseminated leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Santos Mendes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW-positive cells in the inflamed area. We analysed eighteen biopsies from non-ulcerated lesions and quantified the inflamed areas and the expression of CD4, CD20, CD68, CD31 and vW using Image-Pro software (Media Cybernetics. Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates were found in dermal skin. Inflammation was observed in 3-73% of the total biopsy area and showed a significant linear correlation with the number of vW+ vessels. The most common cells were CD68+ macrophages, CD20+ B-cells and CD4+ T-cells. A significant linear correlation between CD4+ and CD20+ cells and the size of the inflamed area was also found. Our findings show chronic inflammation in all DL non-ulcerated lesions predominantly formed by macrophages, plasmacytes and T and B-cells. As the inflamed area expanded, the number of granulomas and extent of the vascular framework increased. Thus, we demonstrate that vessels may have an important role in the clinical evolution of DL lesions.

  16. Evidence for cell fusion is absent in vascular lesions associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Majka, S. M.; M. Skokan; Wheeler, L; Harral, J.; Gladson, S.; Burnham, E.; J. E. Loyd; Stenmark, K R; Varella-Garcia, M; West, J.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease associated with severe remodeling of the large and small pulmonary arteries. Increased accumulation of inflammatory cells and apoptosis-resistant cells are contributing factors. Proliferative apoptosis-resistant cells expressing CD133 are increased in the circulation of PAH patients. Circulating cells can contribute to tissue repair via cell fusion and heterokaryon formation. We therefore hypothesized that in the presence of increased l...

  17. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pattern has been identified. Seizures can be focal (meaning they involve a small part of the brain) ... AVMs. A special water-soluble dye, called a contrast agent, is injected into an artery and highlights ...

  18. Optimization of endovascular techniques for the treatment of peripheral vascular stenotic lesions by ultrasound scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodology of endovascular intervention with intraoperational application of ultrasound scanning is developed. Diagnostical arteriography constitutes the basic fragment of the above methodology. Application of the methodology facilitates the accomplishment of various intravascular manipulations, limiting the risk of possible heavy complicates. 8 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Where is the Lesion? Glomus Tumours of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumours are vascular hamartomas that are commonly found in the hand, particularlythe subungual region. They appear as solitary or multiple tumours, and often present as abluish discoloration of the nail plate. Different diagnostic tests are outlined, as well as imagingstudies such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and delayeddiagnosis of these tumours are common, while a familial tendency is a potential risk factor butnot yet proven. Complete surgical excision often results in complete symptomatic relief, whilerecurrences are largely due to incomplete excision or the growth of a new glomus tumour. Thisarticle aims to review the key aspects of glomus tumours and provide a diagnostic algorithmso that the lesion can be recognized and treated earlier.

  20. Closing microvascular lesions with fibrin sealant-attached muscle pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Nando Percy; Vatankhah, Bijan; Dittmar, Michael S; Tevetoglu, Yesim; Retzl, Gerald; Horn, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Fibrin sealants are used in a variety of surgical procedures, mainly for purposes of hemostasis and assisted wound healing. The combined use of fibrin sealant and autologous muscle pads for hemostasis was not reported previously. Arterial incisions in the common carotid artery in rats were closed by the combined application of fibrin sealant and an autologous muscle pad. Postsurgical vessel patency and degree of stenosis were evaluated by color duplex sonography, computed tomography angiography, and postmortem histology. The combined application of muscle pad and fibrin sealant and achievement of hemostasis was feasible in all animals. Seventy-eight percent of animals showed no or only slight postsurgical vessel stenosis. Our method is simple and quick to perform, showing a high potential for hemostasis in microvascular lesions. Therefore, it might be used in future experimental studies for conservation of vessel patency after arterial catheterization and in experimental or clinical vascular surgery. PMID:16184526

  1. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pejić Miljko A.; Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other m...

  2. Use of Second generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of focal liver lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is often the first imaging modality employed in patients with suspected focal liver lesions.The role of US in the characterisation of focal liver lesions has been transformed with the introduction of specific contrast media and the development of specialized imaging techniques. Ultrasound now can fully characterise the enhancement pattern of hepatic lesions, similar to that achieved with contrast enhanced multiphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). US contrast agents are safe,well-tolerated and have very few contraindications.Furthermore, real-time evaluation of the vascularity of focal liver lesions has become possible with the use of the newer microbubble contrast agents. This article reviews the enhancement pattern of the most frequent liver lesions seen, using the second generation US contrast media. The common pitfalls for each type of lesion are discussed. The recent developments in US contrast media and specific imaging techniques have been a major advance and this technique, in view of the intrinsic advantages of US, will undoubtedly gain popularity in the years to come.

  3. Changing demographics in patients with vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, Christopher J; Clagett, G Patrick

    2009-02-01

    The United States population with vascular disease has changed dramatically during the past 2 decades, with large increases in the proportion of Hispanic, African American, and other minority patients. Not only has the number of these patients increased, but the types and distribution of vascular disease in minority populations is also different from that encountered in non-Hispanic whites. Although genetic makeup accounts for some of these differences, access to vascular care is also an important determinant, with many minority patients presenting late in the course of the disease process. These factors create significant challenges for the vascular specialists caring for these patients. The vascular surgery workforce is composed of >90% white men and does not currently represent the changes in the population of patients with vascular disease. In addition, women with vascular disease comprise up to 50% of many vascular surgery practices. In many parts of the country, Hispanics and African Americans outnumber non-Hispanic whites with vascular disease. Yet, women and minority physicians are still significantly under-represented in the field of vascular surgery. This year's E. Stanley Crawford Critical Issues Forum at the Society for Vascular Surgery meeting addressed the disconnect between the vascular surgery workforce and the patients whom we serve. This article reviews the projected demographic changes in the population of the United States, which supports the need for training a vascular surgery workforce that is more diverse. This article also reviews the current status of minority and female representation in medical schools, surgical training programs, and vascular surgery programs in the United States. PMID:19216973

  4. CLASSIFYING NODULAR LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Bhateja

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of many lesions of the oral cavity is challenging to most cliniciansbecause of their uncommon prevalence. A number of cystic, osteodystrophic,microbial, tumor and tumor like lesions of the oral cavity are present withcharacteristic exophytic/raised surface; which makes their diagnosis and studysimpler. The present article is attempted at classifying the common nodular lesions ofthe oral cavity.

  5. Lytic clavicular lesions in fibromatosis colli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with fibromatosis colli (congenital torticollis) presented with lytic lesions in the clavicle at the insertion of the fibrosed clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Biopsy of one lesion showed intraosseous fibrosis. These lesions are probably not uncommon but radiographs are rarely performed in uncomplicated cases. (orig.)

  6. Lytic clavicular lesions in fibromatosis colli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Parker, B.R.; Mochizuki, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Two patients with fibromatosis colli (congenital torticollis) presented with lytic lesions in the clavicle at the insertion of the fibrosed clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Biopsy of one lesion showed intraosseous fibrosis. These lesions are probably not uncommon but radiographs are rarely performed in uncomplicated cases.

  7. Angiogenesis and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of benign and malignant breast lesions: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI features of early-phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with histopathologically verified breast lesions underwent dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-SI curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5 min), type II (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type III (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). the mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immuno-histochemical staining method in all the histologic specimens by pathologists without the knowledge of the results of the MR examination. The relationships among dynamic contrast enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. Results: Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for 21 malignant lesions were statistically higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for 17 benign lesions. High VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions showed an association with increased MVD. Among all 38 lesions, greater (> 60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type II and III showed an association with increased MVD and higher VEGF expression level. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance except that the difference between VEGF expression and the distribution of curve types had no statistical significance. No significant relationships were observed between the mean of enhancement

  8. Tumor-Like Lesions of the Brain in MRI and CT-scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Bakhshandehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a variety of non-neoplastic pathologies that may present with a mass effect and/or abnormal enhancement, thus simulating neoplasia. "nMaterials and Methods: We collected 77 cases of various tumor mimics from teaching files of three institutions. All patients presented with intra- and/or extra–axial lesions and imaging findings that could, potentially, mimic brain neoplasia. "nResults: Assessment of central nervous system pathology may be very challenging. The usual description of mass effect and abnormal enhancement, typical of brain neoplasia, can also be shared by a variety of non-neoplastic etiologies. Radiologists should be familiar with these tumor mimics, and shold be included as differential diagnoses. We categorized and these non-neoplastic lesions, which could potentially mimic extra-and/or intra- axial brain tumors, into the following groups: "n1 Normal variant (giant (tumefactive perivascular spaces "n2 Infection (tuberculosis, cysticercosis, and fungal lesions "n3 Syndromes (NF1, Rosai-Dorfman Syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos, Krabbe Disease (adult type. "n4 Vascular lesions (vascular malformations, aneurysms and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis "n5 Autoimmune and inflammatory processes (MS, ADEM, encephalitis, sarcoidosis and PML "n6 Idiopathic (idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis "n7 Congenital brain lesions (cortical dysgenesis and heterotopias "n8 Miscellaneous (postictal brain lesions "nConclusion: In this paper, we present a large collection of non-neoplastic tumor mimics. Awareness, understanding, and recognition of these mimics may permit the radiologist to play a significant role in the prevention of unwanted surgical interventions or extensive diagnostic evaluation procedures.  

  9. Common and Rare Causes of Spinal Dumbbell-Shaped Lesions Including a Chondrosarcoma That Primarily Developed in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Ghazavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various neoplastic, vascular and developmental causes may lead to spinal neural foraminal widening. Schwanomas and neurofibromas are the most common causes of spinal dumbbell-shaped lesions. Occasionally, some other slow-growing tumors may cause neural foraminal widening."nWe report an exceptional case of a spinal chondrosarcoma of the neural arcus of C5. The lesion passed through the C4-C5 foramen, producing a dumbbell mass.

  10. Multislice spiral CT virtual endoscopy: the clinical application in the diagnosis of vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the display ability and the clinical application of multislice spiral CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE) in the diagnosis of vascular diseases. Methods: Fifty-six patients were examined by CT virtual endoscopy. 32 patients also had DSA for comparison. 18 patients were confirmed by operation (3 patients also had DSA). 9 patients with pulmonary embolism were confirmed by other examinations and treatments. Results: 56 patients showed successful CT virtual endoscopy images. CT virtual endoscopy images could clearly show the inner wall and inner structures of the vessels, mural thrombus, calcification form, stenosis of the vessels, the true and false lumina of aortic dissections, the lesion of false aneurysm, and the anatomic relationship between the lesion and surrounding structures of the normal vessels. Out of the 32 patients with vessel abnormalities on DSA, 24 patients (75%) showed the lesions on CTVE. 17 out of 18 patients with operation showed the lesions on CTVE. All 9 patients with pulmonary embolism showed the abnormalities on CTVE. Chi-square test: χ2=5.2809, P=0.071 patients showed the vascular diseases on CTVE in 56 patients (84%). Conclusion: MSCT virtual endoscopy could provide more information of the vessel by displaying the inner wall and allowing users to map the vessels in a display. It is helpful in correct diagnosis and guiding surgery

  11. Structure and mechanism for DNA lesion recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental question in DNA repair is how a lesion is detected when embedded in millions to billions of normal base pairs. Extensive structural and functional studies reveal atomic details of DNA repair protein and nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes seemingly diverse structural motifs used in lesion recognition and suggests a general mechanism to recognize DNA lesion by the poor base stacking. After initial recognition of this shared struc-tural feature of lesions, different DNA repair pathways use unique verification mechanisms to ensure correct lesion identification and removal.

  12. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  13. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1297-1314, 2016. PMID:26864677

  14. Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulik, Oleg; Cavanagh, Yana; Grossman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU. CONCLUSIONS EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this practice may be associated with an inherently significant risk of misdiagnosis and subsequent unnecessary surgery, as illustrated by this case. Malignancy was initially suspected in our patient and surgical resection was recommended. Endoscopic measures were only pursued to complete staging. We propose that EUS-guided biopsy may be a crucial diagnostic step in the management algorithm

  15. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...... professionals, the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) recently proposed a classification of psychodermatological terms in order to establish a coherent use of terms across the medical fields involved. We reviewed current and previous psychodermatological diagnoses in order to clarify how...

  16. Vascular injury in lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled particulates which stimulate a 'delayed', cellular mode of alveolar clearance are excreted to the airways through lymphoid foci in the bronchial bifurcations. The anatomic relations and developing pathology of the tissues adjacent to these foci, including the divisions of accompanying arteries, were studied by serial sectioning and photomicrographic modelling of rat lungs. The changes are typical of classic 'delayed' inflammatory reactions and, in the rat, the fully developed stage is characterised by fibrinoid necrosis involving all three layers of the arterial wall in a linear lesion across the leading edge of the flow divider. An hypothesis was developed to relate the injury to pulsatile forces. Recent published findings indicate that similarly placed lesions, with species-specific changes in development, are universal in both cerebral and extra-cranial arterial forks of man and animals. Possible associations of the microvascular changes with human atherosclerosis and their further significance in pulmonary and systemic effects arising from industrial and environmental contaminants are explored. (author)

  17. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on the diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 36 cases of ovarian lesions presented to Niloufer Hospital during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from newborn to 14 years. The most common presenting symptom was an abdominal or pelvic mass. The most common ultrasound character of the non-neoplastic ovarian lesion was cystic whereas that of a neoplastic ovarian lesion was complex or mixed. Non neoplastic lesions were present in 22 patients. Neoplastic lesions were seen in 14 patients. CONCLUSION: Physiological or functional ovarian cysts are the commonest ovarian lesions seen in the paediatric age group. Ultrasonogram is accurate and very reliable in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic and malignant from benign ovarian lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions can be managed conservatively in about 40% of cases. Neoplastic lesions in children require a less radical approach in order to preserve ovarian function.

  18. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of prevention. High-resolution anoscopy is routinely used for the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in many centers but the medical literature is still deficient concerning the role of this diagnostic modality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy in comparison to histopathological results of anal biopsies performed in HIV-positive patients treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, AM, Brazil. To observe any possible association between some risk factors for the development of anal cancer and the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: A hundred and twenty-eight HIV-positive patients were submitted to anal canal cytological sampling for the detection of HPV infection by a PCR based method. High-resolution anoscopy was then performed after topical application of acetic acid 3% in the anal canal for 2 minutes. Eventual acetowhite lesions that were detected were recorded in respect to location, and classified by their tinctorial pattern, distribution aspect, relief, surface and vascular pattern. Biopsies of acetowhite lesions were performed under local anesthesia and the specimens sent to histopathological analysis. The patients were interviewed for the presence of anal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalences of anal HPV infection and of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population were, respectively, 79% and 39.1%. High-resolution anoscopy

  19. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagholikar Gajanan D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  20. Preoperative preparation of vascular patients undergoing nonvascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Kostić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with vascular diseases mainly caused by atherosclerosis, that are undergoing nonvascular surgery, often have co-existing conditions which affect their cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular complications are among the most common perioperative complications including respiratory complications and infections. These include coronary disease, hypertension, heart insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension, and renovascular hypertension, among others. Preoperative preparation must include the use of ßblocker therapy, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antilipogenic therapy. Electrocardiogram (ECG and trans-thoracic echocardiography are the minimum preoperative diagnostic evaluations that should be performed, because complications may arise even in patients without prior cardiovascular symptomatology. Venous diseases are the most common contemporary diseases affecting people of all age groups and races. Invasive-diagnostic-therapeutic procedures may cause lesions of venous endothelium, hence perioperative prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT with the use of heparin or low-molecular -weight heparin (LMWH should be undertaken.

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings; Pneumopatias intersticiais difusas idiopaticas e associadas a colagenoses - aspectos da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Biomedico. Inst. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Radiologia; Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Penumologia

    1996-09-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author) 31 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: optical coherence guided innovative treatment options with the bioresorbable vascular scaffold: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Édes, István F; Hajas, Ágota; Sax, Balázs; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Becker, Dávid; Merkely, Béla

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our work was to assess a novel interventional therapy option in cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), a complex form of coronary disease presenting only in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. It is typically a rapidly progressing phenomenon, affecting the entire coronary circulation causing diffuse, severe coronary lesions and has no one unique cause. Treatment options are limited, but where eligible, palliation via percutaneous revascularization (PCI) mainly using new generation drug eluting stents (DES) is recommended. Our working group sought to assess outcomes of CAV PCI using an Absorb (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) fully bioresorbable, everolimus eluting vascular scaffold (BVS), under optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance. Our initial, proof-of-concept case showed a late CAV, macrophage and foam-cell rich lesion, with typical asymmetric intimal hyperplasia and contralateral thin-cap fibroatheroma formation. Post-PCI OCT showed underexpansion, requiring aggressive postdilatation. Ninety-day follow-up CT angiogram identified the scaffold and displayed a patent lumen of the device. BVS use thus seems eligible in CAV, yet needs proper, meticulous implantation. Use may also delay CAV progression as lesion healing is promoted, with restoration of vasomotion and a natural increase in vascular lumen. Furthermore, the chronically present vascular irritation surrounding stent/scaffold struts may subside, as no permanent metal is present as an increased substrate for inflammation. To assess full efficacy, further studies will be needed. PMID:27152623

  3. Clinical pharmacology and vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, G; Corea, F; Micheli, S; Lanari, A

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment and several drugs of abuse have been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is a paucity of data on the independent risk of vascular disease (VD) associated with pharmacological treatment and no controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in risk with abstinence. Information about IHD and CVD-related drug abuse is mainly limited to epidemiological studies focused on urban populations. The potential link between some pharmacological treatments (estrogen, some oncologic drugs and some atypical antipsychotics) and cerebrovascular adverse events was analyzed, but disagreement about an association persists. Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamines and heroin, have been associated with an increased vascular risk. These drugs can cause abrupt changes in blood pressure, vasculitic-type changes, lead to embolization caused by infective endocarditis, and hemostatic and hematologic abnormalities that can result in increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Long-term treatment strategies based on medication, psychological support, and outreach programs play an important role in treatment of drug dependency. In these last years public interest in risk factors for VD has been constantly increasing and the successful identification and management of pharmacological treatment and drug abuse can be challenging. One of the major public health issues for the future will be to focus more on new vascular risk factor recognition and management. The objective of this chapter is to review the relevance of IHD and CVD associated with various pharmacological treatments and drug abuse with focusing on ischemic disease. This chapter reports the clinical evidence of this association and analyzes the experimental role of new drugs as a growing risk factor of VD with the hypothetical new association. In conclusion, in this chapter great attention is paid to evaluating the scientific and real

  4. Mechanic’s hands revisited: is this sign still useful for diagnosis in patients with lung involvement of collagen vascular diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Sohara, Erei; Saraya, Takeshi; Sato, Shinji; Tsujimoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Takayasu; Takata, Saori; Tanaka, Yasutaka; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of “mechanic’s hands” is one of the clinical clues for collagen vascular diseases. However, the exact relevance of “mechanic’s hands” in collagen vascular diseases has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to clarify the relevance of “mechanic’s hands” to collagen vascular diseases including various skin lesions and interstitial pneumonia. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with “mechanic’s hands” at our hospital between Apr...

  5. Transcutaneous contrast-enhanced sonography of pleural-based pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Transcutaneous ultrasound enables visualization of pleural-based lesions but with a poor correlation to specific pathology. Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast-specific imaging techniques are increasingly accepted in clinical use. Based on the dual arterial supply of the lung, this organ is suited for evaluation of arterial vascularity by contrast-enhanced sonography (CES). This review will present first data about practise and clinical use of CES in patient with peripheral lung lesions. Methods: This review is based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 350 patients with chest pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Pulmonary lesions were characterized by CES regarding time to enhancement (TE) and extend of enhancement (EE). Results: CES in peripheral lung lesions is feasible and depending on underlying diseases lesions may show a variable TE and EE. CES enables to distinguish pulmonary arterial supply from bronchial arterial supply by TE. First experiences with CES have shown that various peripheral lung lesions do have a characteristic CES pattern regarding TE and EE. First clinical data show that there are clinical conditions, which may show a diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES may be helpful (1) to confirm diagnosis of pleurisy, (2) to confirm diagnosis peripheral pulmonary embolism, (3) to characterize lung opafication to atelectasis, pneumonia, and tumor, and (4) to assist in interventional procedures. Conclusion: CES of the chest is limited to pleural-based lesions. CES enables to characterize lung lesions regarding TE and EE. The clinical benefit is yet unclear, but first

  6. Transcutaneous contrast-enhanced sonography of pleural-based pulmonary lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps-University, Baldingerstrasse, Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Transcutaneous ultrasound enables visualization of pleural-based lesions but with a poor correlation to specific pathology. Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast-specific imaging techniques are increasingly accepted in clinical use. Based on the dual arterial supply of the lung, this organ is suited for evaluation of arterial vascularity by contrast-enhanced sonography (CES). This review will present first data about practise and clinical use of CES in patient with peripheral lung lesions. Methods: This review is based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 350 patients with chest pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Pulmonary lesions were characterized by CES regarding time to enhancement (TE) and extend of enhancement (EE). Results: CES in peripheral lung lesions is feasible and depending on underlying diseases lesions may show a variable TE and EE. CES enables to distinguish pulmonary arterial supply from bronchial arterial supply by TE. First experiences with CES have shown that various peripheral lung lesions do have a characteristic CES pattern regarding TE and EE. First clinical data show that there are clinical conditions, which may show a diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES may be helpful (1) to confirm diagnosis of pleurisy, (2) to confirm diagnosis peripheral pulmonary embolism, (3) to characterize lung opafication to atelectasis, pneumonia, and tumor, and (4) to assist in interventional procedures. Conclusion: CES of the chest is limited to pleural-based lesions. CES enables to characterize lung lesions regarding TE and EE. The clinical benefit is yet unclear, but first

  7. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  8. Clinical application and diagnostic value of non-invasive spinal angiography in spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of CT spinal angiography with 256 MSCT and fast dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (CE-MRA) at 3.0 T in the diagnosis of spinal vascular malformations by comparing with results of DSA and operation. Methods: Seventeen patients suspected of spinal vascular diseases by initial MR and clinical manifestations all underwent CT spinal angiography. Of them, 10 patients underwent MRA, 15 patients underwent DSA within 3-5 days,and 8 patients finally underwent surgical treatment. Results: CTA examination clearly showed the abnormal vascular lesions in 16 of 17 cases, including 7 cases with the diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, 7 cases of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula, and 2 cases of spinal arteriovenous malformations. The results were consistent with the diagnosis of DSA or surgery. One case was poorly diagnosed. The feeding vessels were correctly determined in 12 cases, and the level of fistulas were correctly displayed in 12 cases. The level of fistulas and feeding vessels were accurately showed in 7 of 10 cases with MRA, while the other 3 cases exhibited normal with DSA. Conclusions: Spinal angiography with 256 MSCT and CE-MRA at 3.0 T can clearly show the extent of spinal vascular malformations, feeding arteries and fistula location. They are safe, noninvasive, convenient and can shorten the time of DSA diagnosis and treatment. They play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of spinal vascular malformations and postoperative follow-up. (authors)

  9. Extraordinary Vessels Needling for Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin; LAI Xin-sheng; HUANG Qiu-tang; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical efficacy of extraordinary vessels needling in treating vascular dementia. Method 39 cases vascular dementia were treated by acupoints selected from the eight extraordinary meridians and the time needling techniques such as eight methods of spiritual turtle, in accordance with time period and pattern identifition. Results 2 cases were cured, 30 cases improved and 7 cases failed; the total effective rate was 82.1%. Conclusion Extraordinary vessels needling has positive effects in treating vascular dementia.

  10. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  11. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Horiuchi; Koichi Okita

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular str...

  12. MR imaging of orbital space-occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative MR studies were carried out on 11 patients whose diagnoses were confirmed by histologic examination. The pathology of the lacrimal gland tumor and of the orbital varix was predicted preoperatively by the clinical and/or radiological findings. The radiological findings of the malignant fibrous histiocytoma suggested a malignant tumor. By comparison, the preoperative diagnoses of the remaining eight cases were difficult as no characteristic CT findings were useful for differentiating the lesions. Hence, we carried out a retrospective evaluation of the MR images of these lesions, and found that each one of them had characteristic features of signal intensity on T2-weighted images, while the T1-weighted images showed only nonspecific signal intensity. All three pseudotumors were iso- or hypointense relative to extraocular muscles on T2-weighted images. The chief histopathologic feature of these lesions was infiltration of inflammatory cells among the abundant connective fibrous tissue. By contrast, the squamous cell carcinoma and the malignant fibrous histiocytoma, both of which are hypercellular malignant tumors, were hyperintense relative to extraocular muscles, and essentially isointense with orbital fat on T2-weighted images. The cavernous angiomas were hyperintense relative to orbital fat, and almost as isointense as the vitreous humor on T2-weighted images. Histopathologically, the cavernous angiomas exhibited a vascular channel of dilated vessels, lined by a single layer of endothelial cells and interstitial spaces were thought to elongate the T2 relaxation time. On the other hand, intracanalicular aspergillus granulomas are very rare, and our case showed a markedly hypointense mass on T2-weighted MR images. (K.H.)

  13. Headache in acute ischaemic stroke: a lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Christian L; Schönbach, Etienne M; Magon, Stefano; Gross, Elena; Zimmer, Claus; Förschler, Anette; Tölle, Thomas R; Mühlau, Mark; Sprenger, Till; Poppert, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Headache is a common symptom in acute ischaemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. The aim of this lesion mapping study was to identify brain regions, which are related to the development of headache in acute ischaemic stroke. Patients with acute ischaemic stroke (n = 100) were assessed by brain MRI at 3 T including diffusion weighted imaging. We included 50 patients with stroke and headache as well as 50 patients with stroke but no headache symptoms. Infarcts were manually outlined and images were transformed into standard stereotaxic space using non-linear warping. Voxel-wise overlap and subtraction analyses of lesions as well as non-parametric statistics were conducted. The same analyses were carried out by flipping of left-sided lesions, so that all strokes were transformed to the same hemisphere. Between the headache group as well as the non-headache there was no difference in infarct volumes, in the distribution of affected vascular beds or in the clinical severity of strokes. The headache phenotype was tension-type like in most cases. Subtraction analysis revealed that in headache sufferers infarctions were more often distributed in two well-known areas of the central pain matrix: the insula and the somatosensory cortex. This result was confirmed in the flipped analysis and by non-parametric statistical testing (whole brain corrected P-value Insular strokes turned out to be strongly associated with headache. As the insular cortex is a well-established region in pain processing, our results suggest that, at least in a subgroup of patients, acute stroke-related headache might be centrally driven. PMID:26603369

  14. Very High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging for Real-Time Quantitative Visualization of Vascular Disruption after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubeyrand, Marc; Badner, Anna; Vawda, Reaz; Chung, Young Sun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by vascular disruption with intramedullary hemorrhage, alterations in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, and perilesional ischemia. A safe and easily applied imaging technique to quantify evolving intraspinal vascular changes after SCI is lacking. We evaluated the utility of very high resolution ultrasound (VHRUS) imaging to assess SCI-induced vascular disruption in a clinically relevant rodent model. The spinal cords of Wistar rats were lesioned at the 11th thoracic vertebra (Th11) by a 35 g 1-minute clip compression. Three-dimensional quantification of intraspinal hemorrhage using VHRUS (at an acute 90-min and subacute 24-h time point post-SCI) was compared with lesional hemoglobin and extravasated Evans blue dye measured spectrophotometrically. The anatomy of hemorrhage was comparatively assessed using VHRUS and histology. Time-lapse videos demonstrated the evolution of parenchymal hemorrhage. VHRUS accurately depicted the structural (gray and white matter) and vascular anatomy of the spinal cord (after laminectomy) and was safely repeated in the same animal. After SCI, a hyperechoic signal extended from the lesion epicenter. Significant correlations were found between VHRUS signal and hemorrhage in the acute (r=0.88, p<0.0001) and subacute (r=0.85, p<0.0001) phases and extravasated Evans blue (a measure of vascular disruption) in the subacute phase (r=0.94, p<0.0001). Time-lapse videos demonstrated that the expanding parenchymal hemorrhage is preceded by new perilesional hemorrhagic foci. VHRUS enables real-time quantitative live anatomical imaging of acute and subacute vascular disruption after SCI in rats. This technique has important scientific and clinical translational applications. PMID:24831774

  15. Vascular endothelium - Gatekeeper of vessel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul A; Redmond, Eileen M

    2016-05-01

    The vascular endothelium is an interface between the blood stream and the vessel wall. Changes in this single cell layer of the artery wall are believed of primary importance in the pathogenesis of vascular disease/atherosclerosis. The endothelium responds to humoral, neural and especially hemodynamic stimuli and regulates platelet function, inflammatory responses, vascular smooth muscle cell growth and migration, in addition to modulating vascular tone by synthesizing and releasing vasoactive substances. Compromised endothelial function contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; endothelial 'dysfunction' is associated with risk factors, correlates with disease progression, and predicts cardiovascular events. Therapies for atherosclerosis have been developed, therefore, that are directed towards improving endothelial function. PMID:26994427

  16. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  18. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  19. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  20. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  1. Role of DTI neuroimaging in diagnosis of vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Since its introduction more than two decades ago, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has not only allowed for visualization of the macrostructure of the CNS, but also has been able to study dynamic processes which constitute the substrate of currently available MRI variants. Materials and methods: In this presentation, the potential role of MRI techniques, particularly DTI, for the study of the relationship between changes in the microstructural integrity of WM and cognitive impairment in the context of cerebrovascular disease and particularly the vascular dementia (VaD) are discussed. Results: While conventional Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) permits a robust visualization of lesions just a few minutes after the onset of cerebral ischemia, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measures the magnitude and direction of diffusion, leading to the characterization of cerebral white matter (WM) microstructural integrity of white matter fibers using quantitative fractionated anisotropy (DTI-FA) and tractography (DTI-TR). DTI-FA is an important technique in considering the large extension of white matter, and has been previously applied in clinical practice. DTI-TR can visualize the bundles interconnecting various regions whose interruption can cause a range of different disconnection syndromes. The method is not routinely used in clinical practice.In this presentation, the potential role of MRI techniques, particularly DTI, for the study of the relationship between changes in the microstructural integrity of WM and cognitive impairment in the context of cerebrovascular disease and particularly the vascular dementia (VaD) are discussed. Conclusion: Significant correlations between cognitive function and regional anisotropy values are an example of the potential efficacy of DTI for in vivo studies of brain connectivity in vascular neurodegenerative conditions

  2. Advance in molecular imaging research of vascular smooth muscle cells in the vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the primary cells within the vascular wall structure and maintain the tension of blood vessels, playing a key role in the restenosis, atherosclerosis and some other vascular diseases. With the development of molecular imaging, VSMCs cellular level of imaging studies is becoming more and more attention. The phenotype modulation, proliferation, migration and molecular imaging research progress of VSMCs in pathologic state were reviewed, to improve the management of vascular restenosis and atherosclerosis. (authors)

  3. [Summary of 2004 Chinese National Conference on oral and maxillofacial vascular anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Cang-Shang; Zhou, Qi

    2004-08-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies have been the subject of much controversy and confusion over the years, many remain to be investigated and resolved. Authorized by the Managing Director Board of Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA), 2004 Chinese National Conference on Oral and Maxillofacial Vascular Anomalies was successfully held on July 15 to 18, 2004 in Shenzhen Grand Hotel. The conference was sponsored by Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CSOMS), and undertaken by the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen city. Professor ZHANG Zhen-kang, president of CSA, Professor QIU Wei-liu, president of CSOMS and academician of Chinese Academy of Engineers, and Professor LIU Bao-lin, vice president of CSOMS were present and made important speech at the meeting. More than 120 delegates nationwide attended this conference. Through a 3-day of oral presentation and discussion, the terminology, classification, treatment selection and outcome measurement of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations were concerted among the delegates. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations have been recognized as distinct diseases that exhibit unique properties and behavior that demand an appropriately tailored treatment plan. The classification of Waner and Suen was adopted and different treatment modalities were reviewed and advocated for different lesions. Delegates were most interested in intralesional injection of Pingyangmycin for venous malformations, Krypton laser photodynamic therapy of venular malformations, Nd:YAG laser therapy for deep head and neck venous malformations after surgical exposure of the lesions, as well as "double" embolization of large venous malformations reported by Professor QIN Zhong-ping. The conference witnessed the foundation of the Division of Vascular Anomalies, Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:15349690

  4. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  5. sup 123 I-IMP-SPECT in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namura, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshihiko; Shio, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kimura, Jun (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1990-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by N-isopropyl-p-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with vascular dementia. Patients were divided by CT/MRI findings into multiple or localized type and cortical or subcortical type. Of patients with multiple lesions in the cortex, the reduction of CBF was noted in several cortex corresponding to CT/MRI findings. Patients in this group had a high incidence of aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, and amnesia. Patients with multiple lesions in the white matter and basal ganglia were subdivided into 3 groups by clinical manifestations. CBF in those with dementia showed generalized reduction in all cerebral cortex and especially in bilateral frontal regions. CBF in those with slightly impaired mentality was almost normal. In another group with pseudobulbar palsy and/or extrapyramidal sings, CBF was reduced intermediately only in bilateral frontal regions. Typical symptoms in demented patients were apathy, emotional lability, and forgetfulness. In those with the localized type, CBF was reduced in cerebral cortical areas correlating with the impaired mental functions. (author).

  6. Gamma-radiosurgery of angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the installation of Gamma-knife, we have treated 26 cases of AOVM (angiographically occult vascular malformations), who had enough follow-up period more than 12 months. There were 16 males and 10 females, whose ages ranged from 3 to 58 years with an average of 32.7. Their clinical presentations at the onset were hemorrhage in 17, seizure in 7, and progressive neurological deficits in 2. Three cases had multiple lesions of AOVM. Among 26 symptomatic lesions, 15 were located supratentorially, 7 in brain stem and 4 in cerebellar hemisphere. AOVMs were treated with radiosurgery at the marginal doses between 15 to 20 Gy (mean 17.9 Gy). Follow-up studies revealed a rebleeding in one after the treatment in the mean follow-up period of 17.7 months. Among 7 cases presented with seizure, 5 were improved and the other 2 showed no change. Imaging studies with MRI showed a major shrinkage in 1, minor shrinkage in 7, and no obvious change in 18. Symptomatic perifocal edema occurred in 5 (19.2%), especially those who were treated at the marginal dose more than 18 Gy. In conclusion our preliminary clinical results indicate that the radiosurgery with Gamma-knife has positive effects to prevent the rebleeding and to control the seizures associated with symptomatic AOVMs. (author)

  7. 123I-IMP-SPECT in vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with vascular dementia. Patients were divided by CT/MRI findings into multiple or localized type and cortical or subcortical type. Of patients with multiple lesions in the cortex, the reduction of CBF was noted in several cortex corresponding to CT/MRI findings. Patients in this group had a high incidence of aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, and amnesia. Patients with multiple lesions in the white matter and basal ganglia were subdivided into 3 groups by clinical manifestations. CBF in those with dementia showed generalized reduction in all cerebral cortex and especially in bilateral frontal regions. CBF in those with slightly impaired mentality was almost normal. In another group with pseudobulbar palsy and/or extrapyramidal sings, CBF was reduced intermediately only in bilateral frontal regions. Typical symptoms in demented patients were apathy, emotional lability, and forgetfulness. In those with the localized type, CBF was reduced in cerebral cortical areas correlating with the impaired mental functions. (author)

  8. Diabetes and ageing-induced vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mariam El; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-04-15

    Diabetes and the ageing process independently increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since incidence of diabetes increases as people get older, the diabetic older adults represent the largest population of diabetic subjects. This group of patients would potentially be threatened by the development of CVD related to both ageing and diabetes. The relationship between CVD, ageing and diabetes is explained by the negative impact of these conditions on vascular function. Functional and clinical evidence supports the role of vascular inflammation induced by the ageing process and by diabetes in vascular impairment and CVD. Inflammatory mechanisms in both aged and diabetic vasculature include pro-inflammatory cytokines, vascular hyperactivation of nuclear factor-кB, increased expression of cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, imbalanced expression of pro/anti-inflammatory microRNAs, and dysfunctional stress-response systems (sirtuins, Nrf2). In contrast, there are scarce data regarding the interaction of these mechanisms when ageing and diabetes co-exist and its impact on vascular function. Older diabetic animals and humans display higher vascular impairment and CVD risk than those either aged or diabetic, suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation in ageing creates a vascular environment favouring the mechanisms of vascular damage driven by diabetes. Further research is needed to determine the specific inflammatory mechanisms responsible for exacerbated vascular impairment in older diabetic subjects in order to design effective therapeutic interventions to minimize the impact of vascular inflammation. This would help to prevent or delay CVD and the specific clinical manifestations (cognitive decline, frailty and disability) promoted by diabetes-induced vascular impairment in the elderly. PMID:26435167

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs). Methods and Materials: From 1987 to 1996, 21 patients, 10 males and 11 females, median age of 41 years (range: 7-75 years), with an intracerebral AOVM underwent stereotactic radiosurgery at our institution. All were considered at high risk for surgical intervention. The vascular lesions were located in the brainstem (17 patients), basal ganglia (2), occipital lobe (1), and cerebellum (1). Diagnosis was based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical presentation at onset included previous intracerebral hemorrhage (20 patients) and epilepsy (1). All patients were treated with a linac-based radiosurgical technique. The median dose delivered was 25 Gy (range 13-50 Gy), typically prescribed to the 80-90% isodose surface (range 50-90%), which corresponded to the periphery of the vascular malformation. Patients were followed by clinical neurologic assessment and by MRI on a regular interval basis. Results: Follow-up was obtained in 20 patients; clinical or MRI information was not available for 1 patient, and this patient was excluded from our analysis. At a median follow-up of 77 months (range: 4-141 months), follow-up MRIs postradiosurgery do not demonstrate any changes in the appearance of the AOVM. Four patients developed an intracranial bleed at 4, 8, 35, and 57 months postradiosurgery. Annual hemorrhage rates were considerably higher in the observation period preradiosurgery than postradiosurgery (30% vs. 3.2%, p<0.001). Complications postradiosurgery were observed in 4 patients. Three patients developed mild to moderate edema surrounding the radiosurgical target, expressed at 5, 8, and 24 months, respectively. In all cases, the edema was transient and resolved completely on subsequent MRIs. One of the 4 patients developed radiation necrosis 8 months after radiosurgery. Conclusion: The use of stereotactic

  10. Radiologic aspects of the Galeazzi lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In lesions of the forearm that included a fracture of the distal two thirds of the radial shaft, a concomitant disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint was found in 20 out of 38 cases. In 15 cases a typical Galeazzi lesion was present. Dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint frequently goes unrecognized. The clinical significance of a lesion in the distal radio-ulnar joint is related to its prognostic value. (orig.)

  11. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  12. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  13. Roles of Vascular and Metabolic Components in Cognitive Dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: Short- and Long-term Modification by Non-genetic Risk Factors

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    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD. Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of 1 compromised vascular reactivity, 2 vascular lesions, 3 hypo/hyperglycemia, and 4 exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively. Vascular factors compromise cerebrovascular reactivity in response to neuronal activity and also cause irreversible vascular lesions. On the other hand, representative short-term effects of metabolic factors on cognitive dysfunction occur due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Non-genetic risk factors also modify the pathological manifestations of AD in the long-term. Therefore, vascular and metabolic factors contribute to aggravation of cognitive dysfunction in AD through short-term and long-term effects. Beta-amyloid could be involved in both vascular and metabolic components. It might be beneficial to support treatment in AD patients by appropriate therapeutic management of non-genetic risk factors, considering the contributions of these four elements to the manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in individual patients, though all components are not always present. It should be clarified how these four components interact with each other. To answer this question, a clinical prospective study that follows up clinical features with respect to these four components: 1 functional MRI or SPECT for cerebrovascular reactivity, 2 MRI for ischemic lesions and atrophy, 3 clinical episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, 4 amyloid-PET and tau-PET for pathological features of AD, would be required.

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PALPABLE THYROID LESIONS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION- A PROSP ECTIVE STUDY

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    Malik

    2013-05-01

    .49 %. Conclusion: Sonographic characteristics of marked hypoechoic ec hotexture, solid and predominantly solid nature, absence of peripheral halo, presence of cholesterol crystals, fine calcification, and internal vascularity with high resistive index show high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate benign and malignant lesions.

  15. Thermophysical lesions caused by HZE particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a type of damage caused by heavy particles that may occur in subcellular structures. These lesions are called thermophysical radiation injury and are similar to damage produced in solids by HZE particles. This chapter summarizes some of the experimental evidence for the presence of these lesions in certain mammalian tissues including the retina, brain, cornea, lens of mice and seeds of corn. Of all tissues examined, only the cornea exhibited a type of lesion which would fulfill the criteria of thermophysical lesions

  16. Three Cases of Organized Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus: Clinical Features and Immunohistological Studies for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expressions

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    Shoichiro Imayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Organized hematoma (OH is a rare, nonneoplastic, hemorrhagic lesion causing mucosal swelling and bone thinning, mainly in the maxillary sinus. We aimed to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of OH. Methods. Three cases of maxillary sinus OH and a literature review are presented. Results. Three men aged 16–40 years complained of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and/or headache. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a maxillary sinus OH. They were cured in a piecemeal fashion via endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were expressed in the lesion. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of OH is unclear and it presents various histological and imaging findings; however, it is not difficult to rule out malignant tumors. Minimally invasive surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery can cure it completely. Thus, it is important to determine the diagnosis using CT and MRI and to quickly provide surgical treatment.

  17. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  18. Topological characteristics of brainstem lesions in clinically definite and clinically probable cases of multiple sclerosis: An MRI-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disseminated lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and confluent lesions at the borders of the lateral ventricles as seen on MRI are both considered acceptable paraclinical evidence for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Similar changes are, however, also found in vascular diseases of the brain. We therefore aimed at identifying those additional traits in the infratentorial region, which in our experience are not frequently found in cerebrovascular pathology. We evaluated MR brain scans of 68 patients and found pontine lesions in 71% of cases with a clinically definite diagnosis (17 out of 24) and in 33% of cases with a probable diagnosis (14 out of 43). Lesions in the medulla oblongata were present in 50% and 16%, respectively, and in the midbrain in 25% and 7%, respectively. With rare exceptions all brainstem lesions were contiguous with the cisternal or ventricular cerebrospinal fluid spaces. In keeping with post-mortem reports the morphological spectrum ranged from large confluent patches to solitary, well delineated paramedian lesions or discrete linings of the cerebrospinal fluid border zones and were most clearly depicted from horizontal and sagittal T2 weighted SE-sequences. If there is a predilection for the outer or inner surfaces of the brainstem, such lesions can be considered an additional typical feature of multiple sclerosis and can be more reliably weighted as paraclinical evidence for a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Megadolicho vascular malformation of the intracranial arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, J; Janevski, B; van der Lugt, P J

    1981-01-01

    A patient is presented suffering a hemiparesis. Megadolicho-vascular malformation of the intracranial part of the internal carotid arteries and some of its branches and of the basilar artery was suggested by CT and confirmed by angiography. The value of CT compared with angiography in relation to intracranial megadolicho vascular malformations is discussed. PMID:6273040

  20. Multinephron dynamics on the renal vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Donald J; Wexler, Anthony S; Brazhe, Alexey;

    2012-01-01

    ensemble. Ensembles may synchronize. Smooth muscle cells in the ensemble depolarize periodically, generating electrical signals that propagate along the vascular network. We developed a mathematical model of a nephron-vascular network, with 16 versions of a single nephron model containing representations...

  1. Vascular surgery and diabetic foot revascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yong-quan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease and infection involving the lower extremities.Lower limb arterial disease is more common among patients with diabetes, and lower limb atherosclerosis is the main cause of lower limb ischemia for these patients.Two types of vascular disease are seen in patients with diabetes.

  2. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  3. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  4. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM. PMID:26756629

  5. The Vascular Microenvironment and Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Frech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the vascular microenvironment in the pathogenesis Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is appreciated clinically as Raynaud's syndrome with capillary nail bed change. This manifestation of vasculopathy is used diagnostically in both limited and diffuse cutaneous subsets of SSc, and is thought to precede fibrosis. The degree of subsequent fibrosis may also be determined by the vascular microenvironment. This paper describes why the vascular microenvironment might determine the degree of end-organ damage that occurs in SSc, with a focus on vascular cell senescence, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC including multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, pericytes, and angiogenic monocytes. An explanation of the role of EPC, pericytes, and angiogenic monocytes is important to an understanding of SSc pathogenesis. An evolving understanding of the vascular microenvironment in SSc may allow directed treatment.

  6. Vascular Stiffness in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong eJia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are associated with a substantially increased prevalence of vascular fibrosis and stiffness, with attendant increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Although the underlying mechanisms and mediators of vascular stiffness are not well understood, accumulating evidence supports the role of metabolic and immune dysregulation related to increased adiposity, activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, reduced bioavailable nitric oxide, increased vascular extracellular matrix (ECM and ECM remodeling in the pathogenesis of vascular stiffness. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and increased vascular stiffness to provide a contemporary understanding of the proposed underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies.

  7. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  8. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzer, Peter (ed.) [Health Care Center Bitterfeld (Germany). Division of Cardiovascular Disease

    2015-06-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with vascular hamartoma of the liver: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosinski Katrin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is the first description of the ultrasonographic findings in a cow with vascular hamartoma of the liver. Case presentation Ultrasonographic examination of a six-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow revealed an excessive number of hypoechogenic blood vessels in the liver parenchyma and a thrombus in the right hepatic vein. The activities of the liver enzymes and the concentration of bilirubin were within the reference ranges. At postmortem examination, a poorly delineated, non-encapsulated lesion, measuring approximately 10 cm × 10 cm in diameter, was found in the right liver lobe. The cut surface of the lesion was sponge-like and contained extremely dilated blood vessels, one of which was occluded with a branching red thrombus. A vascular hamartoma of the liver with thrombosis was diagnosed based on the histological findings. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of the ultrasonographic findings of vascular hamartoma of the liver in a cow. Hamartoma should be considered part of the differential diagnosis in cows with an abnormally large number of blood vessels in the liver parenchyma. This case report broadens the spectrum of liver diseases and ultrasonographic findings of the liver in cattle.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells-derived vascular smooth muscle cells release abundant levels of osteoprotegerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vaccarezza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown that the serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG are significantly elevated in patients affected with atherosclerotic lesions in coronary and peripheral arteries, the cellular source and the role of OPG in the physiopathology of atherosclerosis are not completely defined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential contribution of mesenchymal stem cells in the production/release of OPG. OPG was detectable by immunohistochemistry in aortic and coronary atherosclerotic plaques, within or in proximity of intimal vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC. In addition, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-derived vascular SMC as well as primary aortic SMC released in the culture supernatant significantly higher levels of OPG with respect to MSCderived endothelial cells (EC or primary aortic EC. On the other hand, in vitro exposure to full-length human recombinant OPG significantly increased the proliferation rate of aortic SMC cultures, as monitored by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Taken together, these data suggest that OPG acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for vascular SMC, which might contribute to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.

  11. Castleman Disease of Hyaline Vascular Type in the Infrathyroidal Region: A Masquerader of Parathyroid Adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Castleman disease of the infrathyroidal region is extremely rare. We report both CT and sonographic findings of a case of infrathyroidal paratracheal Castleman disease of hyaline vascular type, which masquerades parathyroid adenoma, in a 48-year-old woman. We further provide its histological findings at sonographically guided core-needle biopsy (US-CNB) and excisional biopsy. The lesion was ovoid with homogeneous intense enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), and was homogeneous, markedly hypoechoic, and hypervascular on ultrasonography (US). Histological findings of the specimen obtained by US-CNB suggested lymphoproliferative lesion, and thus was inconclusive; those obtained by excisional biopsy were characteristics of Castleman disease of hyaline vascular type. Hyaline vascular type Castleman's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass of the infrathyroidal region with homogeneous intense enhancement on CECT, as well as with marked hypoechogenicity and hypervascularity on US. US-CNB may be of limited value in the histological diagnosis of this entity.

  12. Gastrointestinal Polypoid Lesions: The Albanian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Cekodhima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal polypoid lesions are a well-known cause of possible future malignant lesions. Screening for these lesions, especially for colon polyps, has reduced morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors. To our best knowledge, no screening program on gastrointestinal polypoid lesions exists in Albania and no former study has been performed to check the distribution of these lesions. Therefore, our aim was to study the distribution of gastrointestinal polypoid lesions in a symptomatic outpatient population. Methods: This study included five hundred seventy five consecutive patients referred to perform an endoscopic examination, regardless of their specific complains and of their possible diagnosis, to one of the two Endoscopy Centers in Tirana in the period between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2013. At least one polyp was resected and histologically examined in all included patients. Results: A total of 575 patients, of which 345 males (60.0%, aged 51.9 years (standard deviation 16.97 years, were examined and their data inserted in the statistical analysis. In total, 88 cases were identified with malignant pathologies of which 50 cases (56.8% were males. No case of malignancy was diagnosed among the nine esophageal specimens, but among the specimens resected from the stomach, small intestine and large intestine, were respectively diagnosed 21 (20.0%, 9 (40.9% and 58 (13.2% malignant lesions. Patients with malignant lesions were older (57.4 ± 16.8 years old in contrast to those with benign lesions (50.5 ± 17.0 years old (p = 0.004. Conclusion: Our study is the first one to offer figures on the polypoid lesions distribution and characteristics in the Albanian population. Large intestine is the main site where such lesions occur, but anyhow the small intestine presented a larger proportion of malignancy.

  13. Simulating the mammographic appearance of circumscribed lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization performance of digital image post-processing techniques in mammography requires controlled conditions of data sets permitting quantitative representation of image characteristics of pathological findings. Digital test objects, although objective and quantitative, do not mimic mammographic appearance and clinical data sets do not provide adequate sets of values of the various pathological finding characteristics. This can be overcome by digital simulation of pathological findings and superimposition on mammographic images. A simple method for simulation of mammographic appearance of radiopaque and/or radiolucent circumscribed lesions is presented. Circumscribed lesions are simulated using grey-level transformation functions which shift and compress the range of the initial pixel grey-level values in a region of interest (ROI) of a digitized mammographic image, according to grey-level analysis in 200 ROIs of real circumscribed lesions from digitized mammographic images. Simulation addresses lesion image characteristics, such as elliptical shape, orientation, halo sign for radiopaque lesions and capsule for radiolucent lesions, and is implemented in a user-driven PC-based interactive application. The appearance of the lesions is evaluated by six radiologists on a sample of 60 real and 60 simulated radiopaque lesions with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve, pooling the responses of the observers, was 0.55±0.03 indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated lesions (p>0.05). The method adequately simulates the mammographic appearance of circumscribed lesions and could be used to generate circumscribed lesion data sets for performance evaluation of image processing techniques, as well as education purposes. (orig.)

  14. Localization of lesions in aphasia, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the focus and the extent of the lesions and the various symptoms was investigated. 1. Broca aphasics: More than 80% of the group with obvious anarthric components had lesions of the third frontal gyrus involving Broca's area and the lower part of the precental gyrus as well as opercular and insular regions. The size of the lesions of this group was significantly larger than that of the group without marked anarthric components, and the latter was proved to have little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: The group with poor reading comprehension had cortical and/or subcortical lesions, involving posterior parts of both superior and middle temporal gyri as well as the supramarginal gyrus. On the other hand, lesions of the group with poor auditory comprehension were more anteriorly located and localized in the deep structures. Lesions of the group with poor Token test scores were large and scattered more anteriorly and/or posteriorly compared with those of the group with good Token test scores. 3. Amnestic aphaiscs: The group with poor naming scores had somewhat larger lesions than the group with good naming scores, and the lesions were scattered about the left hemisphere. The finding has proved that both groups had little localizing value. 4. Conduction aphasics: Lesions of the non-fluent type were significantly larger than those of the fluent type and distributed more anteriorly. However, highly involved lesions were located in the supramarginal gyrus and posterior parts of superior and/or middle temporal gyri. 5. Global aphasics: Lesions of the group with good articulation and prosody were observed to distribute more posteriorly in comparison with those of the other global aphasics. (J.P.N.)

  15. Lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el ligamento cruzado anterior desempeña un papel muy importante en la estabili-dad de la rodilla. La incidencia de esta afección es alta en pacientes que practican deportes de contacto y de no ser tratados de forma adecuada, los resultados son desfavorables. Objetivo: profundizar en los factores necesarios para el tratamiento adecuado de enfermos con esta lesión y evitar las complicaciones. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 300 artículos publicados en Pubmed, Hinari y Medline mediante el localizador de información Endnote, de ellos se utilizaron 52 citas selecciona-das para realizar la revisión, 48 de ellas de los últimos cinco años donde se incluyeron seis libros. Desarrollo: se discuten los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico clínico e imaginológico. Se aborda la clasificación de esta lesión en cuanto a varios aspectos como: tiempo, lesión de ligamentos u ósea, aislada o combinada y parcial o total. Se mencionan los parámetros para obtener resultados satisfac-torios al considerar factores como la edad del enfermo, lesiones asociadas y tiempo de la lesión. Se relacio-nan los requisitos para la selección del implante y se mostró las ventajas y desventajas de cada tipo de in-jerto. Las complicaciones de esta cirugía están relacionadas con la técnica quirúrgica y médicas. Conclusiones: las lesiones del ligamento son entidades traumáticas que afectan por lo general a pacientes jóvenes. Para lograr un resultado satisfactorio en el tratamiento es necesario el conocimiento de su anatomía, clasificación, tipo de injerto a emplear según sus ventajas y desventajas.

  16. Carotid ultrasonographic and brain computerized tomographic findings in patients with vascular ocular syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushima, Chikage; Shimizu, Souichirou; Takasaki, Masaru; Iwasaki, Takuya; Usui, Masahiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    To clarify the characteristics of cerebrovascular lesions in subtypes of vascular ocular syndrome, including amaurosis fugax (AF), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO), 93 patients with vascular ocular syndrome were studied by means of carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain computerized tomography (CT). The subjects comprised 21 patients with AF, 37 with RAO, and 35 with RVO who were sequentially given these diagnoses by the department of ophthalmology. On the basis of US findings, carotid lesions were defined as the presence of plaque or stenotic changes. CT findings were assessed for the presence and distribution of low-density areas (LDAs). Mean age was similar in each group, ranging from 64.5 to 67.4 years. The RAO group had high rates of men, hypertension, and smokers. US showed that the prevalence of carotid lesions ipsilateral to the affected eye was high in the RAO group and that severe stenosis and ulcerated plaque were present in 28.6% of the AF group and 45.9% of the RAO group. On CT examination, cerebral infarctions appeared as LDAs in about 10% of the patients in each group, and the incidence and distribution of LDAs were similar. Of 13 patients with cerebral infarction, only 2 were presumably due to carotid lesions; the others had a variety of causes. The discrepancy between US and CT findings was attributed to the small number of patients with cerebral infarction, since most patients had visual defects as an initial symptom. Our results suggest that extracranial carotid lesions, considered to be a major risk factor for stroke, should be carefully assessed in patients with AF or RAO to prevent further stroke. (author)

  17. Liver hemangioma and vascular liver diseases in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annalisa Berzigotti; Marco Zoli; Marilena Frigato; Elena Manfredini; Lucia Pierpaoli; Rita Mulè; Carolina Tiani; Paola Zappoli; Donatella Magalotti; Nazzarena Malavolta

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with benign focal liver lesions and vascular liver diseases, since these have been occasionally reported in SLE patients. METHODS: Thirty-five consecutive adult patients with SLE and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated. Hepatic and portal vein patency and presence of focal liver lesions were studied by colour- Doppler ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance were used to refine the diagnosis, clinical data of SLE patients were reviewed. RESULTS: Benign hepatic lesions were common in SLE patients (54% vs 14% controls, P < 0.0001), with hemangioma being the most commonly observed lesion in the two groups. SLE was associated with the presence of single hemangioma [odds ratios (OR) 5.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91-13.38] and multiple hemangiomas (OR 4.13; 95% CI 1.03-16.55). Multiple hemangiomas were associated with a longer duration of SLE (9.9 ± 6.5 vs 5.5 ± 6.4 years; P = 0.04). Imaging prior to SLE onset was available in 9 patients with SLE and hemangioma, showing absence of lesions in 7/9. The clinical data of our patients suggest that SLE possibly plays a role in the development of hemangioma. In addition, a Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), and a NRH associated with hepatic hemangioma were observed, both in patients hospitalized for abdominal symptoms, suggesting that vascular liver diseases should be specifically investigated in this population. CONCLUSION: SLE is associated with 5-fold increased odds of liver hemangiomas, suggesting that these might be considered among the hepatic manifestations of SLE.

  18. Carotid ultrasonographic and brain computerized tomographic findings in patients with vascular ocular syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the characteristics of cerebrovascular lesions in subtypes of vascular ocular syndrome, including amaurosis fugax (AF), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO), 93 patients with vascular ocular syndrome were studied by means of carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain computerized tomography (CT). The subjects comprised 21 patients with AF, 37 with RAO, and 35 with RVO who were sequentially given these diagnoses by the department of ophthalmology. On the basis of US findings, carotid lesions were defined as the presence of plaque or stenotic changes. CT findings were assessed for the presence and distribution of low-density areas (LDAs). Mean age was similar in each group, ranging from 64.5 to 67.4 years. The RAO group had high rates of men, hypertension, and smokers. US showed that the prevalence of carotid lesions ipsilateral to the affected eye was high in the RAO group and that severe stenosis and ulcerated plaque were present in 28.6% of the AF group and 45.9% of the RAO group. On CT examination, cerebral infarctions appeared as LDAs in about 10% of the patients in each group, and the incidence and distribution of LDAs were similar. Of 13 patients with cerebral infarction, only 2 were presumably due to carotid lesions; the others had a variety of causes. The discrepancy between US and CT findings was attributed to the small number of patients with cerebral infarction, since most patients had visual defects as an initial symptom. Our results suggest that extracranial carotid lesions, considered to be a major risk factor for stroke, should be carefully assessed in patients with AF or RAO to prevent further stroke. (author)

  19. In situ validation of VEGFR-2 and α v ß 3 integrin as targets for breast lesion characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, Josef; Misiewicz, Matthias; von Stillfried, Saskia; Möckel, Diana; Bzyl, Jessica; Pochon, Sibylle; Lederle, Wiltrud; Knuechel, Ruth; Lammers, Twan; Palmowski, Moritz; Kiessling, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and α v ß 3 integrin are the most frequently addressed targets in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. In preclinical studies, molecular imaging of angiogenesis has shown potential to detect and differentiate benign and malignant lesions of the breast. Thus, in this retrospective clinical study employing patient tissues, the diagnostic value of VEGFR-2, α v ß 3 integrin and vascular area fraction for the diagnosis and differentiation of breast neoplasia was evaluated. To this end, tissue sections of breast cancer (n = 40), pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; n = 8), fibroadenoma (n = 40), radial scar (n = 6) and normal breast tissue (n = 40) were used to quantify (1) endothelial VEGFR-2, (2) endothelial α v ß 3 integrin and (3) total α v ß 3 integrin expression, as well as (4) the vascular area fraction. Sensitivity and specificity to differentiate benign from malignant lesions were calculated for each marker by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. Whereas vessel density, as commonly used, did not significantly differ between benign and malignant lesions (AUROC: 0.54), VEGFR-2 and α v ß 3 integrin levels were gradually up-regulated in carcinoma versus fibroadenoma versus healthy tissue. The highest diagnostic accuracy for differentiating carcinoma from fibroadenoma was found for total α v ß 3 integrin expression (AUROC: 0.76), followed by VEGFR-2 (AUROC: 0.71) and endothelial α v ß 3 integrin expression (AUROC: 0.68). In conclusion, total α v ß 3 integrin expression is the best discriminator between breast cancer, fibroadenoma and normal breast tissue. With respect to vascular targeting and molecular imaging of angiogenesis, endothelial VEGFR-2 appeared to be slightly superior to endothelial α v ß 3 for differentiating benign from cancerous lesions. PMID:26902100

  20. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected. PMID:1579669

  1. Loss-of-Function Mutations in ELMO2 Cause Intraosseous Vascular Malformation by Impeding RAC1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Arda; Xiong, Jingwei Rachel; Vargel, İbrahim; Kösemehmetoğlu, Kemal; Canter, Halil İbrahim; Gerdan, Ömer Faruk; Longo, Nicola; Alzahrani, Ahmad; Camps, Mireia Perez; Taskiran, Ekim Zihni; Laupheimer, Simone; Botto, Lorenzo D; Paramalingam, Eeswari; Gormez, Zeliha; Uz, Elif; Yuksel, Bayram; Ruacan, Şevket; Sağıroğlu, Mahmut Şamil; Takahashi, Tokiharu; Reversade, Bruno; Akarsu, Nurten Ayse

    2016-08-01

    Vascular malformations are non-neoplastic expansions of blood vessels that arise due to errors during angiogenesis. They are a heterogeneous group of sporadic or inherited vascular disorders characterized by localized lesions of arteriovenous, capillary, or lymphatic origin. Vascular malformations that occur inside bone tissue are rare. Herein, we report loss-of-function mutations in ELMO2 (which translates extracellular signals into cellular movements) that are causative for autosomal-recessive intraosseous vascular malformation (VMOS) in five different families. Individuals with VMOS suffer from life-threatening progressive expansion of the jaw, craniofacial, and other intramembranous bones caused by malformed blood vessels that lack a mature vascular smooth muscle layer. Analysis of primary fibroblasts from an affected individual showed that absence of ELMO2 correlated with a significant downregulation of binding partner DOCK1, resulting in deficient RAC1-dependent cell migration. Unexpectedly, elmo2-knockout zebrafish appeared phenotypically normal, suggesting that there might be human-specific ELMO2 requirements in bone vasculature homeostasis or genetic compensation by related genes. Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that elmo2 originated upon the appearance of intramembranous bones and the jaw in ancestral vertebrates, implying that elmo2 might have been involved in the evolution of these novel traits. The present findings highlight the necessity of ELMO2 for maintaining vascular integrity, specifically in intramembranous bones. PMID:27476657

  2. Hypertensive organ damage in patients with vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vlek, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common vascular risk factors, and is an important cause of development of different vascular diseases. The main aim of this thesis was to determine the burden of hypertension-associated vascular diseases and end-organ damage in patients with manifest vascular disease. Patients with manifest vascular diseases are at high risk for recurrent vascular diseases. We studied the effect of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus on the occurrence of cardiov...

  3. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna; Gouw, Alida A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; Petrovic, Katja; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, Jose M; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Fazekas, Franz; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated samp...

  4. Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristi M; Wieser, Friedrich A; Wilder, Catera L; Sidell, Neil; Platt, Manu O

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue on organs within the peritoneal cavity, causing debilitating abdominal pain and infertility. Current treatments alleviate moderate pain symptoms associated with the disorder but exhibit limited ability to prevent new or recurring lesion establishment and growth. Retrograde menstruation has been implicated for introducing endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity, but molecular mechanisms underlying attachment and invasion are not fully understood. We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26482207

  5. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  6. Pediatric multifocal liver lesions evaluated by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Almotairi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with MRI evaluation of multifocal liver lesions in children and describe the MRI characteristics of these lesions. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive MRI exams performed for the evaluation of multiple liver lesions between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 was done to note the number of lesions, the size of the largest lesion, MR signal characteristics, and background liver. Final diagnosis was assigned to each case based on pathology in the available cases and a combination of clinical features, imaging features, and follow-up in the remaining cases. Results: A total of 48 children (22 boys, 26 girls; age between 3 months and 18 years with average age 10.58 years and median age 11 years were included in the study. Totally 51 lesion diagnoses were seen in 48 children that included 17 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 8 hemangiomas, 7 metastases, 6 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 abscesses, and one each of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, focal fatty infiltration, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic infarction, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatic cyst. Background liver was normal in 33, cirrhotic in 10, fatty in 3, and siderotic in 2 children. Most FNH, hemangiomas, and regenerative nodules showed characteristic MRI features, while metastases were variable in signal pattern. Conclusion: Many commonly seen multifocal liver lesions in children have characteristic MRI features. MRI can help to arrive at reasonable differential diagnoses for multifocal liver lesions in children and guide further investigation and management.

  7. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  8. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  9. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle, surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information

  10. Neurovascular lesion after total hip arthroplasty in congenital hip dysplasia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković-Jovanović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the total hip arthroplasty is a very frequent surgical intervention. In some cases, vascular and nerve injuries may happen around the hip with total hip arthroplasty. Although they are very rare, they may be very dangerous for the patient in some cases. This paper presents a case of a female patient, in whom the nervous fibularis lesion was detected after the total hip arthroplasty, and the occlusion of the iliac femoral artery was revealed later during physical therapy. Case Report. We described a case of a 32-year-old female patient, in whom the nervous fibularis lesion was detected after the total hip arthroplasty. The patient was referred to a ward for physical therapy. On the 19th postoperative day, she felt a vigorous ache and numbness on the left operated leg during stimulation of the paretic fibular musculature. Clinically weak inguinal arterial pulse was detected. After the examination, iliac-femoral occlusion was diagnosed. The patient was referred to the vascular surgeon. In the next few months, she was treated conservatively and eventually underwent surgery. The revascularization was achieved with a satisfactory effect. A year after the total hip replacement, the patient continued with rehabilitation and physical treatment, which lasted one and a half month and had an incomplete functional result - the patient walked with a walking stick and had weak fibular musculature of a severe degree. The vascular status of the leg was good. Conclusion. In this case, neurovascular lesions led to an incomplete functional recovery of the patient and compromised the expected treatment outcome. According to the scoring system used to assess the functionality, the result was marked as poor.

  11. Cystic ovarian lesions in SSFP diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR assessments of ovarian cystic lesions are usually based on morphological features, signal intensities and enhancement with contrast media. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the steady-state free precession (SSFP) diffusion imaging of cystic ovarian lesions for analyzing cystic contents. Sixty-one ovarian cystic lesions in 37 patients were examined. The diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) and the ratio of the relative apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesion to that of subcutaneous fat tissue (rADCL/rADCF) were calculated from SSFP diffusion images. The DRCs and the rADCL /rADCF ratios in endometrial cysts and in the fatty parts of dermoid cysts were significantly lower than in other cystic tumors. SSFP diffusion imaging can be included in clinical practice to analyze ovarian cystic lesions within a short scan time; the DRC and the rADCL /rADCF ratio are useful for evaluating cystic contents. (author)

  12. Adverse Outcome Pathway for Embryonic Vascular Disruption and Alternative Methods to Identify Chemical Vascular Disruptors During Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide range of adverse prenatal outcomes. We used information from genetic mouse models linked to phenotypic outcomes and a vascular toxicity knowledge base to construct an embryonic vascular disrupt...

  13. Assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hassanen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Assessment of vascular invasion is crucial in the evaluation of resectability for pancreatic cancer. MDCT is an accurate diagnostic tool for peripancreatic vascular invasion in cancer pancreas.

  14. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today. PMID:27090098

  15. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  16. Modeling of angioadaptation: insights for vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Axel R; Reglin, Bettina; Secomb, Timothy W

    2011-01-01

    Vascular beds are generated by vasculogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, and these processes have strong stochastic components. As a result, vascular patterns exhibit significant heterogeneity with respect to the topological arrangement of the individual vessel segments and the characteristics (length, number of segments) of different arterio-venous pathways. This structural heterogeneity tends to cause heterogeneous distributions of flow and oxygen availability in tissue. However, these quantities must be maintained within tolerable ranges to allow normal tissue function. This is achieved largely through adjustment of vascular flow resistance by control of vessel diameters. While short-term diameter control by changes in vascular tone in arterioles and small arteries plays an important role, in the long term an even more important role is played by structural adaptation (angioadaptation), occurring in response to metabolic and hemodynamic signals. The effectiveness, stability and robustness of this angioadaptation depend sensitively on the nature and strength of the vascular responses involved and their interactions with the network structure. Mathematical models are helpful in understanding these complex interactions, and can be used to simulate the consequences of failures in sensing or signal transmission mechanisms. For the tumor microcirculation, this strategy of combining experimental observations with theoretical models, has led to the hypothesis that dysfunctional information transport via vascular connexins is a major cause of the observed vascular pathology and increased heterogeneity in oxygen distribution. PMID:21858766

  17. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  18. Real-time high resolution laser speckle imaging of cerebral vascular changes in a rodent photothrombosis model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Hongyang LU; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-01-01

    The study of hemodynamic and vascular changes following ischemic stroke is of great importance in the understanding of physiological and pathological processes during the thrombus formation. The photothrombosis model is preferred by researchers in stroke study for its minimal invasiveness, controllable infarct volume and lesion location. Nevertheless, there is a lack in high spatiotemporal resolution techniques for real time monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 2D-profile. In th...

  19. Polymorphism of apolipoprotein E gene and post-stroke vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjing Lin; Changlin Hu; Yunlan Xie; Xin Zhang; Xiangping Liu; Ge Yan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that the more certain etiological factors of vascular dementia are the sites, size and number of cerebrovascular lesions, but there are arguments all the time in the relationship of genetic factors, especially apolipoprotein E gene, with the occurrence and development of vascular dementia. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the polymorphism of apolipoprotein E gene and vascular dementia in stroke patients. DESIGN: A non-randomized grouped comparative observation at the same time. SETTING: The Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 121 inpatients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from January 2000 to December 2001. All the patients were accorded with the diagnostic standards for cerebrovascular diseases set by the Second National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease, and confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. According to with vascular dementia or not, they were divided into vascular dementia group (n =58) and non-vascular dementia group (n =63). In the vascular dementia group, there were 37 males and 21 females, the average age was (59±8) years. They were all in accordance with the standard of the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-Ⅲ), without conscious disturbance and language disorder; hospitalized within 3 days after the attack of cerebrovascular disease. In the non-vascular dementia group, there were 37 males and 26 females, the average age was (59±9.5) years. They all had no intellectual disturbance within 3 months after the attack of cerebrovascular disease. All the subjects agreed to supply blood samples for the experiment. METHODS: ①Fasting venous blood (2 mL) was drawn from each patient in the morning to extract DNA. The frequencies of apolipoprotein E genotypes and alleles were

  20. Production of experimental malignant pleural effusions is dependent on invasion of the pleura and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor by human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, S; Shinohara, H; Herbst, R S; Kuniyasu, H; Bucana, C D; Ellis, L M; Fidler, I J

    2000-12-01

    We determined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (PE) associated with advanced stage of human, non-small-cell lung cancer. Intravenous injection of human PC14 and PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells into nude mice yielded numerous lung lesions. PC14 and PC14PE6 lung lesions invaded the pleura and produced PE containing a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-localized vascular hyperpermeability. Lung lesions produced by H226 cells were confined to the lung parenchyma with no PE. The level of expression of VEGF mRNA and protein by the cell lines directly correlated with extent of PE formation. Transfection of PC14PE6 cells with antisense VEGF165 gene did not inhibit invasion into the pleural space but reduced PE formation. H226 cells transfected with either sense VEGF 165 or sense VEGF 121 genes induced localized vascular hyperpermeability and produced PE only after direct implantation into the thoracic cavity. The production of PE was thus associated with the ability of tumor cells to invade the pleura, a property associated with expression of high levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and low levels of TIMP-2. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the production of malignant PE requires tumor cells to invade the pleura and express high levels of VEGF/VPF. PMID:11106562