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Sample records for cervical fetal fibronectin

  1. The value of Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin testing in predicting preterm delivery

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    Zeki Salar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the combination of both fetal fibronectin and sonographic measurement of cervical length in women with preterm labor provides a better prediction than the individual tests alone.\tMETHODS: We examined 40 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 24–35 (median 31 weeks of gestation with regular and painful uterine contractions, intact membranes and cervical dilatation of less than 3 cm. On admission to the hospital, fetal fibronectin positivity in cervicovaginal secretions was determined and transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical length was carried out. The primary outcome measure was delivery within 14 days of presentation.\tRESULTS: Total of 40 eligible women at a mean gestational age of 28,3±4,8 weeks were enrolled from a population of 196 subjects screened. The overall prevalence of preterm delivery CONCLUSIONS: Combined the assessment of fetal fibronectin in cervico-vaginal secretions and the sonographic cervical length measurement improve the prediction of preterm delivery within 14 days in women with threatened preterm labor

  2. Quantitative fetal fibronectin and cervical length in symptomatic women: results from a prospective blinded cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Downes, Katheryne L; Romero, Julie A; Pappas, Hope; Elovitz, Michal A

    2018-05-15

    Our objectives were to determine whether quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) and cervical length (CL) screening can be used alone or in combination as prognostic tests to identify symptomatic women at the highest or lowest risk for spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). A prospective, blinded cohort study of women presenting with a singleton gestation to our triage unit between 22-33w6d with preterm labor symptoms was performed. Women with ruptured membranes, moderate/severe bleeding, and dilation >2 cm were excluded. The primary outcome was sPTB quantitative fFN and CL assessment, both separately and in combination, considering traditionally reported cut-points (fFN ≥50 and CL 50 and CL quantitative level chosen. For all women, a shorter CL was associated with an increased sPTB risk. Among nulliparas and multiparas without a prior sPTB, a CL quantitative fFN or cervical length assessment can be utilized, depending on resources available, but a lower cut-point of 20 ng/mL should be used for quantitative fFN. For multiparous women, fFN is not useful and cervical length assessment should be the main screening tool utilized when there is clinical uncertainty. Regardless of parity, the PPV of fFN and CL is low and therefore the greatest clinical utility remains in its NPV.

  3. Contingent use of fetal fibronectin testing and cervical length measurement in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, François; Fortin, Suzanne; Delvin, Edgard; Djemli, Anissa; Brunet, Suzanne; Dubé, Johanne; Fraser, William D

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the contingent use of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing and cervical length (CL) measurement to predict preterm delivery, and to validate the use of phosphorylated IGFBP-1 as a predictor of preterm delivery. We recruited 71 women with a clinical diagnosis of preterm labour between 24 and 34 weeks, and tested for the presence of fFN and IGFBP-1 in the cervicovaginal secretions of all women immediately before CL measurement. Among the 66 women with complete outcome, four were excluded from the final analysis as two had assessment for fFN but no CL measurement, and another two had CL measured but no screening for fFN. Among 62 women with complete results, the mean gestational age at recruitment was 29.4 +/- 2.5 weeks. Six women (9.6%) delivered within two weeks of assessment, and 14 (22.5%) delivered before 34 weeks. A positive fFN test resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 84%, a positive predictive value of 36%, and a negative predictive value of 98% for delivery within two weeks; for CL contingent use of fFN (in which the test was assumed to be positive if CL contingent use protocol, only one third of women needed fFN screening after CL measurement. In this study, IGFBP-1 screening did not predict preterm delivery and fFN screening provided the best predictive capacity. A policy of contingent use of testing for fFN after CL measurement, or contingent use of CL measurement after fFN screening (depending on available resources) is a promising approach to limit use of resources.

  4. [Quantitative determination of fetal fibronectin in cervical smears: a new marker for evaluating the risk of premature labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, M; Friese, K; Hofmann, I; Melchert, F

    1994-12-01

    There is a well-known correlation between ascending infection and preterm labour. Nevertheless, up to now an exact method to identify patients which are at high risk for preterm labour does not exist. Fetal fibronectin is an extracellular matrix protein, which is produced by fetal membranes. High concentrations are present in amniotic fluid, but not in cervical secretions in uncomplicated pregnancies (only in 3-4%). If there is an inflammatory mediated damage to fetal membranes (amnion/chorion) or a mechanical disruption caused by preterm contractions, fetal fibronectin should be released into the cervix and vagina. A prospective clinical study measuring quantitatively the content of fFN in cervicovaginal secretions in patients with preterm labour (n = 43), preterm rupture of membranes (n = 15) and 20 controls was undertaken. In 16 patients frequent specimen could be obtained over a period of several weeks. 14 of the 34 patients with preterm labour, which could be observed until delivery, delivered before term ( 75 ng/ml (sensitivity: 92.4%). 13 patients were negative for fFN and only one of these patients delivered before term (92% chance of term delivery in absence of fFN in cervicovaginal fluids). In 8 patients with beta-adrenergic treatment fFN was present. All patients delivered before term. The 15 patients with PROM had very high concentrations of fFN with a medium concentration of 967.3 ng/ml. 18 of the 20 control patients were negative for fFN (< 75 ng/ml), 2 had a slightly elevated concentration of 84 and 85 ng/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Merel M. C.; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Hoesli, Irene M.; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R.; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M.; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y.; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the

  6. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of labor in Mexican women

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    Mario I. Ortiz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of fetal fibronectin in vaginal secretions has been regarded as a predictor of labor in pregnant term and preterm. Objective: For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of fibronectin in pregnant women who attended the General Hospital SSH Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Methodology: We included pregnant patients admitted to hospital for pregnancy control. Fetal fibronectin was determined in all participants and then followed until the onset of labor. Results: A total of 148 patients participated. One group with 53 patients less than 37 weeks gestation, and another group of 95 patients with 37 or more weeks gestation. In general, the test showed an average sensitivity of 72.5% and specificity 82.9% average for both groups. Conclusion: Based on these results, we recommend using fibronectin test in pregnant women after 32 weeks of gestation, both in emergency departments and outpatient clinics.

  7. Fibronectin distribution during the development of fetal rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibson, W T; Couchman, J R; Weaver, A C

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin distribution during fetal rat skin development has been studied immunocytochemically at the light and electron microscope level from 16 days of gestation to birth. The dermal-epidermal junction, the dermis, and connective tissue around developing muscle were shown by light microscopy......, and there was also staining associated with the underlying fine collagen fibrils. These observations are further evidence for the proposed role of fibronectin as a mediator of the cell-matrix interactions which are of importance for tissue development and maintenance....

  8. Utilization of fetal fibronectin testing and pregnancy outcomes among women with symptoms of preterm labor

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    Blackwell SC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sean C Blackwell,1 Erin M Sullivan,2 Allison A Petrilla,2 Xian Shen,2 Kathleen A Troeger,3 James D Byrne4 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Avalere Health, LLC, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Washington, DC, USA; 3Hologic, Inc., Outcomes Research, Marlborough, MA, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Objectives: To identify pregnant health plan members triaged through the emergency department (ED, including labor and delivery (ELD units, with symptoms of preterm labor (PTL, and evaluate the use of fetal fibronectin (fFN testing; and to calculate the rate of hospitalization and timing of delivery in relation to the ED visit. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using Medical Outcomes Research for Effectiveness and Economics Registry®, a national multipayer claims database. A cohort of pregnant women evaluated in an ELD with a diagnosis of PTL from June 2012 through November 2015 was identified. The proportion of women with PTL who received fFN testing was calculated.Results: A total of 23,062 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The rate of fFN testing prior to delivery was 12.0%. Of the 23,062 patients included in the analysis, 75.9% were discharged home. Of those who were discharged from the emergency room, one in five went on to deliver within 3 days and almost 96% of this group was not screened for the presence of fFN. Of the remaining 24.1% of patients admitted to the hospital, 91.3% delivered during their stay. In a sensitivity analysis, the percentage of women who delivered within 3 days of the ELD encounter was lower for women who received fFN testing only (6.6% versus those who had a history of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS only (21.6%. Furthermore, the rate of delivery within 3 days was lowest among patients who had both fFN testing and TVUS (4

  9. Rapid fetal fibronectin testing to predict preterm birth in women with symptoms of premature labour : a systematic review and cost analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshpande, S N; van Asselt, A D I; Tomini, F; Armstrong, N; Allen, A; Noake, C; Khan, K; Severens, J L; Kleijnen, J; Westwood, M E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature birth is defined as birth of before 37 completed weeks' gestation. Not all pregnant women showing symptoms of preterm labour will go on to deliver before 37 weeks' gestation. Hence, addition of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing to the diagnostic workup of women with suspected

  10. Posterior midline cervical fetal cystic hygroma.

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    Oak S

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior midline cervical cystic hygromas (PMC are frequently found associated with chromosomal aberrations and usually do not survive. The present report illustrates diagnosis of this condition by sonography in an 18 weeks old fetus and an amniocentesis revealed 45 x0 karyotype and increased concentration of alpha-fetoproteins. Pregnancy was terminated in view of Turner′s syndrome. The etiology and natural history of the condition is reviewed.

  11. [Clinical evaluation of flomoxef in the treatment of chorioamnionitis and changes in the fetal fibronectin level in vaginal secretion].

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    Chimura, T; Hirayama, T; Oda, T; Saitou, N; Morisaki, N

    1993-02-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX) was administered as an initial treatment for chorioamnionitis complicating possible spontaneous abortion or premature delivery and preterm PROM (premature rupture of the membranes), and the clinical effectiveness of the drug, and the usefulness of fetal fibronectin (FFN) as a diagnostic marker of premature delivery were evaluated. 1. Clinical effects of drip infusion of FMOX (2-4 g/day) with and without tocolysis for the treatment of chorioamnionitis were evaluated in 43 patients with possible spontaneous abortion or premature delivery and those with preterm PROM (n = 43). Changes in the FFN level in the vaginal secretion were also studied in 11 patients. 2. It was possible to prevent premature delivery in 7 (26.9%) of 26 patients, and the latent period of preterm PROM was longer than 8 days in 6 (46.2%) of 13 patients. 3. The FFN level decreased slightly in patients for whom FMOX was effective, and the outcome was satisfactory in those whose FFN levels were less than 200 ng/ml. However, the outcome was poor in those whose FFN levels were higher than 1,000 ng/ml. These findings suggest that changes in the FFN level in the vaginal secretion reflect the clinical course of chorioamnionitis as do changes in CRP.

  12. Fibronectin-cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, M R; Woods, A

    1990-01-01

    Fibronectins are widespread extracellular matrix and body fluid glycoproteins, capable of multiple interactions with cell surfaces and other matrix components. Their structure at a molecular level has been resolved, yet there are still many unanswered questions regarding their biologic activity...... in vivo. Much data suggests that fibronectins may promote extracellular matrix assembly, and cell adhesion to those matrices. However, one outstanding enigma is that fibronectins may, under different circumstances, promote both cell migration and anchorage. An analysis of the interaction of fibroblasts...... with proteolytically derived and purified domains of plasma fibronectin revealed that the type of adhesion and the correlated cytoskeletal organization depended on multiple interactions of fibronectin domains with the cell surface. Human dermal fibroblasts were capable of interacting with the integrin-binding domain...

  13. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that does not go away: discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse ... Names Cervical inflammation; Inflammation - cervix Images Female reproductive anatomy Cervicitis Uterus References Eckert LO, Lentz GM. Infections ...

  14. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a woman getting HIV from an infected sexual partner. Prevention To reduce your risk of cervicitis from sexually transmitted infections, use condoms consistently and correctly each time you have sex. ...

  15. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

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    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  16. Tissue-specific splicing pattern of fibronectin messenger RNA precursor during development and aging in rat

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Fibronectin isoforms are generated by the alternative splicing of a primary transcript derived from a single gene. In rat at least three regions of the molecule are involved: EIIIA, EIIIB, and V. This study investigated the splicing patterns of these regions during development and aging, by means of ribonuclease protection analysis. Between fetal and adult rat, the extent of inclusion of the EIIIA and/or EIIIB region in fibronectin mRNA varied according to the type of tissue analyzed; but the...

  17. Clinical Trial of Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation in Patients with Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

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    Ji Cheol Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a phase I/IIa open-label and nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, we sought to assess the safety and neurological effects of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs transplanted into the injured cord after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. Of 19 treated subjects, 17 were sensorimotor complete and 2 were motor complete and sensory incomplete. hNSPCs derived from the fetal telencephalon were grown as neurospheres and transplanted into the cord. In the control group, who did not receive cell implantation but were otherwise closely matched with the transplantation group, 15 patients with traumatic cervical SCI were included. At 1 year after cell transplantation, there was no evidence of cord damage, syrinx or tumor formation, neurological deterioration, and exacerbating neuropathic pain or spasticity. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS grade improved in 5 of 19 transplanted patients, 2 (A → C, 1 (A → B, and 2 (B → D, whereas only one patient in the control group showed improvement (A → B. Improvements included increased motor scores, recovery of motor levels, and responses to electrophysiological studies in the transplantation group. Therefore, the transplantation of hNSPCs into cervical SCI is safe and well-tolerated and is of modest neurological benefit up to 1 year after transplants. This trial is registered with Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, Registration Number: KCT0000879.

  18. Normal development of fetal hepatic haematopoiesis during the second trimester of gestation is upregulated by fibronectin expression in the stromal cells of the portal triads El desarrollo normal de la hematopoyesis hepática fetal durante el segundo trimestre de embarazo está regulado al alza por la expresión de fibronectina en las células del estroma de las tríadas portales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tamiolakis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in midtrimester fetuses the principal site of hematopoiesis is the liver. In hematopoietic organs, stromal cells such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and macrophage-like cells develop networks to maintain hematopoiesis, i.e. hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, and growth, by interaction with hematopoietic progenitor cells. ECM glycoproteins produced by the stromal cells are known to play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Numerous soluble and membrane-bound factors directly regulating haematopoiesis have been documented, but little is known about fetal hepatic stromal cell activity and stromal extracellular matrix protein-fibronectin, on fetal hepatic haematopoiesis. The binding of late stage erythroid cells to fibronectin has been well characterized and is believed to be critical for the terminal stages of erythroid differentiation. The intention of this article is to determine the role of fibronectin in fetal hepatic hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation in different stages of development. Material and method: we examined and compared the immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin in the hepatic stromal portal fields in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester of gestation respectively, in relation to the appearance of CD34 progenitor hematopoietic, stromal progenitor and vascular endothelial positive cells. Results: our results demonstrated a quantitative difference in the second trimester of gestation concerning the expression of fibronectin in the connective tissue stroma of the hepatic portal fields over the equivalent expression of the protein in the first (p Objetivo: en el segundo trimestre de la gestación, el principal foco de hematopoyesis del feto es el hígado. En los órganos hematopoyéticos, las células del estroma, como fibroblastos, células epiteliales y células de tipo macrófago, desarrollan redes para mantener la hematopoyesis, es decir, la auto

  19. Fibronectin non-amyloid glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim L; Killingsworth, Murray C; Spicer, S Timothy; Wu, Xiao-Juan

    2009-11-20

    A 41-year-old Burmese man presented with nephrotic syndrome, a creatinine level of 150 micromol/L and limited clinical history. His renal biopsy demonstrated glomerulopathy with large eosinophilic deposits in the mesangium and capillary loops that were negative for Congo red, slightly positive for periodic acid-Schiff and blue with Masson trichrome stain. Immunofluorescence microscopy with a routine antibody panel was unhelpful. Electron microscopy demonstrated extensive, moderately electron-dense deposits in the subendothelial space, subepithelial space and mesangium that could be differentiated from adjacent basement membrane by their increased electron density. The deposits contained finely granular material and occasional filaments with variable diameter ranging from 9-16 nm. Fibronectin glomerulopathy was suspected from anti-fibronectin immunohistochemistry that showed positive staining of thickened capillary loops. This staining was subsequently confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy demonstrating the presence of cellular fibronectin (cFN) in deposits. Significantly, deposition of fibronectin appeared to have occurred in the absence of thickening or folding of the adjacent basement membrane. The prominent mesangial location of deposits containing a cFN isotype may indicate that retention of local fibronectin produced in the mesangium has contributed to this pathology.

  20. Voorspellen van dreigende vroeggeboorte door middel van bepaling van foetaal fibronectine in vaginaal vocht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, Femke F.; van Stralen, Giel; Porath, Martina M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Oei, S. Guid G.; Mol, Ben-Willem; Scherjon, Sicco

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of foetal fibronectin and cervical length for predicting imminent preterm labour among Dutch women, who in the Netherlands normally undergo a digital examination of the cervix prior to referral to a hospital or university medical centre. DESIGN:

  1. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  2. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  3. Fetal fibronectin in the prediction of preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, M.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of preterm birth is a big clinical challenge in obstetrics. Most of the women presenting with symptoms of preterm labour will not deliver within one week and the majority will even deliver at term. Correct discrimination between women with a high and a low risk to deliver on

  4. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with [γ- 32 ]ATP for 10 min at 37 degree C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with [γ- 32 P]ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation

  5. Role of fibronectin in collagen deposition: Fab' to the gelatin-binding domain of fibronectin inhibits both fibronectin and collagen organization in fibroblast extracellular matrix

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    We report the effect of Fab' (anti-60k) to a 60,000 mol wt gelatin binding domain of fibronectin (1981, J. Biol. Chem. 256:5583) on diploid fibroblast (IMR-90) extracellular fibronectin and collagen organization. Anti-60k Fab' did not inhibit IMR-90 attachment or proliferation in fibronectin-depleted medium. Fibroblasts cultured with preimmune Fab' deposited a dense extracellular network of fibronectin and collagen detectable by immunofluorescence, while anti-60k Fab' prevented extracellular ...

  6. Dermatopontin interacts with fibronectin, promotes fibronectin fibril formation, and enhances cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aiko; Okamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Kazushi; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Shimada, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Sakuhei

    2011-04-29

    We report that dermatopontin (DP), an abundant dermal extracellular matrix protein, is found in the fibrin clot and in the wound fluid, which comprise the provisional matrix at the initial stage of wound healing. DP was also found in the serum but at a lower concentration than that in wound fluid. DP co-localized with both fibrin and fibronectin on fibrin fibers and interacted with both proteins. Both normal fibroblast and HT1080 cell adhesion to the fibrin-fibronectin matrix were dose-dependently enhanced by DP, and the adhesion was mediated by α5β1 integrin. The cytoskeleton was more organized in the cells that adhered to the fibrin-fibronectin-DP complex. When incubated with DP, fibronectin formed an insoluble complex of fibronectin fibrils as visualized by electron microscopy. The interacting sites of fibronectin with DP were the first, thirteenth, and fourteenth type III repeats (III(1), III(13), and III(14)), with III(13) and III(14) assumed to be the major sites. The interaction between III(2-3) and III(12-14) was inhibited by DP, whereas the interaction between I(1-5) and III(12-14) was specifically and strongly enhanced by DP. Because the interaction between III(2-3) and III(12-14) is involved in forming a globular conformation of fibronectin, and that between I(1-5) and III(12-14) is required for forming fibronectin fibrils, DP promotes fibronectin fibril formation probably by changing the fibronectin conformation. These results suggest that DP has an accelerating role in fibroblast cell adhesion to the provisional matrix in the initial stage of wound healing.

  7. Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery had been determined before and after operation. The study was done on 15 patients and 15 normal healthy individuals. The study revealed that patients subjected to major operation, their fibronectin level was normal before operation followed by reduction one day post-operation. After one week, fibronectin level raised again nearly to the pre-operations levels. The probable mechanisms of fibronectin in healing processes were discussed. Fibronectin (FN) is a family of structurally and immunologically related high molecular weight glycoproteins that are present in many cell surfaces, in extracellular fluids, in connective tissues and in most membranes. Interaction with certain discrete extracellular substances, such as a glucosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin), fibrin and collagen and with cell surface structure seem to account for many of its biological activities, among which are regulation of adhesion, spreading and locomotion (Mosesson and amrani, 1980). The concentration of Fn in human plasma decreases after extensive destruction such as that occurs in major surgery, burns or other trauma. This decrease has been generally though to be due to increased consumption of soluble plasma Fn in opsonization of particulate and soluble debris from circulation by the reticuloendothelial (RE) system. Fn rapidly appears in injury areas, in experimentally induced blisters, wounded and epithelium tissues (Petersen et al., 1985). Fn accumulates at times of increased vascular permeability and it is produced by cell of blood vessels in response to injury

  8. Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation of plasma fibronectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y; Kawasaki, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin is a large dimeric glycoprotein present in both human plasma and in basement membranes. The latter are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo from superoxide...... and nitric oxide radicals by stimulated macrophages and other cells. Considerable evidence supports ONOOH involvement in human atherosclerotic lesion development and rupture, possibly via extracellular matrix damage. Here we demonstrate that Tyr and Trp residues on human plasma fibronectin are highly...

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs

  10. Fetal MRI; Fetales MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, B. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Schaper, J. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Kinderradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  11. Fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubal, Nitin G.; Chaubal, Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    USG performed with a high-end machine, using a good cine-loop facility is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In fetal echocardiography, the four-chamber view and the outflow-tract view are used to diagnose cardiac anomalies. The most important objective during a targeted anomaly scan is to identify those cases that need a dedicated fetal echocardiogram. Associated truncal and chromosomal anomalies need to be identified. This review shows how fetal echocardiography, apart from identifying structural defects in the fetal heart, can be used to look at rhythm abnormalities and other functional aspects of the fetal heart

  12. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10......%. The active or activable fibronectin was compared to the immunoreactive fibronectin in plasma from patients with various bacterial diseases. Similar concentrations were detected by the two assays suggesting that all the circulating fibronectin was functionally active. The assay was also applied to determine...

  13. Fetal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007340.htm Fetal echocardiography To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) ...

  14. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Cervical Cap KidsHealth / For Teens / The Cervical Cap What's in ... Call the Doctor? Print What Is a Cervical Cap? A cervical cap is a small cup made ...

  15. Pregnancy Outcome in Cervical Incompetence: Comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical incompetence is a major cause of recurrent mid-trimester pregnancy loss and preterm deliveries; it contributes significantly to fetal loss and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite its wide use, the effectiveness of cervical cerclage in its management remains unsettled. Objective: To evaluate the ...

  16. Cartilage proteoglycans inhibit fibronectin-mediated adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, A. M.; Pearlstein, E.; Weissmann, G.; Hoffstein, S. T.

    1981-09-01

    Normal tissues and organs show, on histological examination, a pattern of cellular and acellular zones that is characteristic and unique for each organ or tissue. This pattern is maintained in health but is sometimes destroyed by disease. For example, in mobile joints, the articular surfaces consist of relatively acellular hyaline cartilage, and the joint space is enclosed by a capsule of loose connective tissue with a lining of fibroblasts and macrophages. In the normal joint these cells are confined to the synovial lining and the articular surface remains acellular. In in vitro culture, macrophages and their precursor monocytes are very adhesive, and fibroblasts can migrate and overgrow surfaces such as collagen or plastic used for tissue culture. The fibroblasts adhere to collagen by means of fibronectin, which they synthesize and secrete1. Because the collagen of cartilage is capable of binding serum fibronectin2 and fibronectin is present in cartilage during its development3, these cells should, in theory, slowly migrate from the synovial lining to the articular surface. It is their absence from the articular cartilage in normal circumstances, and then presence in such pathological states as rheumatoid arthritis, that is striking. We therefore set out to determine whether a component of cartilage could prevent fibroblast adherence in a defined adhesion assay. As normal cartilage is composed of 50% proteoglycans and 50% collagen by dry weight4, we tested the possibility that the proteoglycans in cartilage inhibit fibroblast adhesion to collagen. We present here evidence that fibroblast spreading and adhesion to collagenous substrates is inhibited by cartilage proteoglycans.

  17. Fibronectin binding to gangliosides and rat liver plasma membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, G R; Evers, D C; Radinsky, R; Morre, D J

    1986-02-01

    Binding of fibronectins to gangliosides was tested directly using several different in vitro models. Using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), gangliosides were immobilized on polystyrene tubes and relative binding of fibronectin was estimated by alkaline phosphatase activity of conjugated second antibody. Above a critical ganglioside concentration, the gangliosides bound the fibronectin (G/sub T1b/ approx. = G/sub D1b/ approx. = G/sub D1a/ > G/sub M1/ >> G/sub M2/ approx. = G/sub D3/ approx. = G/sub M3/) in approximately the same order of efficiency as they competed for the cellular sites of fibronectin binding in cell attachment assays. Alternatively, these same gangliosides bound to immobilized fibronectin. Rat erythrocytes coated with gangliosides G/sub M1/, G/sub D1a/ or G/sub T1b/ bound more fibronectin than erythrocytes not supplemented with gangliosides. Using fibronectin in which lysine residues were radioiodinated, an apparent K/sub d/ for binding to mixed rat liver gangliosides of 7.8 x 10/sup -9/ M was determined. This value compared favorably with the apparent K/sub d/ for attachment of fibronectin to isolated plasma membranes from rat liver of 3.7 x 10/sup -9/ M for fibronectin modified on the tyrosine residue, or 6.4 x 10/sup -9/ M for fibronectin modified on lysine residues. As shown previously by Grinnell and Minter, fibronectin modified on tyrosine residues did not promote spreading and attachment of CHO cells. It did, however, bind to cells. In contrast, lysine-modified fibronectin both bound to cells and promoted cell attachment. Plasma membranes isolated from hepatic tumors in which the higher gangliosides that bind fibronectin were depleted bound 43-75% less (/sup 125/I)fibronectin than did plasma membranes from control livers. The findings were consistent with binding of fibronectins to gangliosides, including the same gangliosides depleted from cell surfaces during tumorigenesis in the rat.

  18. Fetal MSCs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). In comparison ...

  19. Increased expression of fibronectin isoforms after myocardial infarction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, M. M.; Janssen, A. M.; Daemen, M. J.; Rappaport, L.; Samuel, J. L.; Contard, F.; Smits, J. F.; Cleutjens, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Fibronectin is a known chemoattractant for several cell types which play a role in the wound healing process, like fibroblasts, endothelial cells and macrophages. In addition, fibronectin generates a scaffold to which other extracellular matrix components can attach. The possible involvement of

  20. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10...

  1. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving birth vaginally, which means the cervical cap may not fit as well. Inconsistent or incorrect use of the cervical cap increases your risk of pregnancy. For example, you may get pregnant when using the cervical cap if: ...

  2. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated [ 125 I]albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell function

  3. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex. Similarly, fetal ultrasound isn't recommended solely for the purpose of producing keepsake videos or pictures. If your health care provider doesn' ...

  4. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to have a large baby. Maternal obesity. Fetal macrosomia is more likely if you're ... is more likely to be a result of maternal diabetes, obesity or weight gain during pregnancy than other causes. ...

  5. Propolis Modulates Fibronectin Expression in the Matrix of Thermal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the propolis effect on fibronectin metabolism in the course of burn wounds healing process. A model of burn wound healing of pig skin was applied. The amount of the released glycoprotein was assessed by a surface plasmon resonance. The profile of extracted fibronectin components was also assessed by an electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, with a subsequent immunodetection by Western Blotting. Propolis burn treatment decreased the release of fibronectin components from healing wounds in relation to damages treated with silver sulfadiazine. The main reason of decreased extraction of fibronectin components from wounds treated with propolis was a substantial decrease of degradation product release of the mentioned glycoprotein, which was observed particularly from the 3rd to 5th day of the repair. Wounds treatment with propolis demonstrated, especially in relation to damages treated with silver sulfadiazine, the decreased release of synthesized fibronectin molecules. The obtained results suggest that propolis modifies fibronectin metabolism in the course of wound healing process. The influence of propolis is reflected in prevention of fibronectin biosynthesis as well as its degradation in the wound area. The above-mentioned metabolic changes may decrease the risk of complications in the repair wounds process.

  6. Role of fibronectin under conditions of doxorubicin action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Shevtsova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no standard as to treatment of anthracycline chemotherapy complications. The reduction of cytotoxic drugs toxicity without weakening of their antitumor action remains relevant. The extracellular matrix which key component is fibronectin is present in all tissues and it continuously undergoes controlled remodeling. So, the purpose of our work was to study the level of fibronectin in the experimental model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and effects of this cytostatic and its co-administration with antioxidants of different nature.The level of fibronectin was measured by ELISA using monospecific antibodies against fibronectin (Sigma, USA, secondary anti-IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase (Sigma, USA and fibronectin standard (Sigma, USA. The study was conducted on Wistar male rats with weight of 210 ± 50 g which were divided into 4 groups by 8 animals in each group: 1 – control, rats receiving saline i/p; 2 – doxorubicin 1 mg/kg i/p once a week during 4 weeks; 3 – doxorubicin by the same scheme plus 1% 2-oxoglutarate in drinking water during 4 weeks;4 – doxorubicin by the same scheme and korvitin injection 30 min before doxorubicin application once a week during 4 weeks. Obtained data indicate the effect of doxorubicin to decrease in index mass heart in 38% of animals compared to control animals; decrease in total protein concentration by 8% (Р < 0,05 and increase of the level of fibronectin by 67% (P < 0,001 in blood plasma of rats and decrease in the level of fibronectin in the heart extract by 19% (Р < 0,05 under development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Increased fibronectin concentration in blood plasma had strong correlation with decreased total protein concentration in blood (r=0,80 and heart extract (r=0,59 in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomiophaty indicating the sensitive reaction of fibronectin to development of metabolic disorders under doxorubicin influence.

  7. Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.E.; Colman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera to human plasma fibronectin. By double immunodiffusion, a component in the conditioned culture medium was shown to form a line of identity with fibronectin in human plasma and to migrate as an alpha 2- to beta-globulin during immunoelectrophoresis. Human fibronectin was quantified in conditioned medium by electroimmunodiffusion, and was found to increase for at least three days at about 0.1 micrograms/10(6) cells/day. Adherent cultures of SK-HEP-1 cells were incubated with L-[ 35 S]methionine to label newly synthesized proteins. Labeled fibronectin in conditioned medium or in cell extracts comigrated with fibronectin in human plasma as shown by autoradiography following crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Fibronectin was demonstrated in the extra-cellular matrix of adherent SK-HEP-1 cultures by immunofluorescence. It was shown previously that SK-HEP-1 cells synthesize alpha 1-protease inhibitor, one of the products of normal hepatocytes. The finding that these hepatoma cells also synthesize fibronectin supports the concept that the hepatocyte may be one source of circulating fibronectin, a possibility consistent with the established role of this cell type in blood plasma protein synthesis

  8. Fetal cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijboom, E.J.; Rijsterborgh, N.; Bom, N.

    1986-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose congenital heart disease in early pregnancy. It allows us to study the anatomical configuration of the fetal heart, and additionally, to evaluate the physiological conditions of the fetus. Evaluation of the direction, velocity, wave form pattern, and quantification of blood flow at the various sites in the fetal heart helps us to assess the characteristics of the fetal circulation and condition of the fetal heart. In order to use this technique in pathological situations, an initial study of the developing normal human fetal circulation was necessary. The authors studied 34 uncomplicated pregnancies by serial Doppler echocardiography. The studies were performed every 4 weeks from 16-weeks gestation to term. The pulsed Doppler sector scanner provided cardiac cross-sectional images, mitral and tricuspid blood velocities were obtained from apical four-chamber views. Angle corrected maximal and mean temporal velocities were calculated by digitizing the Doppler frequency shift recording on a graphic tablet computed with a minicomputer. The angle between the Doppler interrogation beam and the direction of blood flow was kept as small as possible in order to minimize the error

  9. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    age- and sex-matched healthy controls in patients with chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis (n = 7), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), alcoholic fatty liver (n = 9), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 10), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16). Patients with acute viral hepatitis (type A (n = 2); type B...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised......Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...

  10. The distribution of fibronectin in the pannus in rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, D. L.; Delamere, J. P.; Walton, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    Fibronectin is an adhesive glycoprotein synthesized by mesenchymal cells. Its distribution in the rheumatoid pannus has been studied by immunofluorescence using a monospecific antiserum. All areas of the pannus contained immunoreactive fibronectin, including its junctions with synovium, ligaments, bone and cartilage. It formed a coarse extracellular meshwork which surrounded the inflammatory cells infiltrating the pannus and which codistributed with reticulin and "immature" collagen. The prol...

  11. Tendon synovial cells secrete fibronectin in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banes, A.J.; Link, G.W.; Bevin, A.G.; Peterson, H.D.; Gillespie, Y.; Bynum, D.; Watts, S.; Dahners, L.

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry and cell biology of the tendon have been largely overlooked due to the emphasis on collagen, the principle structural component of the tendon. The tendon must not only transmit the force of muscle contraction to bone to effect movement, but it must also glide simultaneously over extratendonous tissues. Fibronectin is classified as a cell attachment molecule that induces cell spreading and adhesion to substratum. The external surface of intact avian flexor tendon stained positively with antibody to cellular fibronectin. However, if the surface synovial cells were first removed with collagenase, no positive reaction with antifibronectin antibody was detected. Analysis of immunologically stained frozen sections of tendon also revealed fibronectin at the tendon synovium, but little was associated with cells internal in tendon. The staining pattern with isolated, cultured synovial cells and fibroblasts from the tendon interior substantiated the histological observations. Analysis of polyacrylamide gel profiles of 35 S-methionine-labeled proteins synthesized by synovial cells and internal fibroblasts indicated that fibronectin was synthesized principally by synovial cells. Fibronectin at the tendon surface may play a role in cell attachment to prevent cell removal by the friction of gliding. Alternatively, fibronectin, with its binding sites for hyaluronic acid and collagen, may act as a complex for boundary lubrication

  12. Fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  13. Fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  14. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI),

  15. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  16. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  18. Cervical Myomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adnexal Torsion Bartholin Gland Cysts Cervical Myomas Cervical Stenosis Endometriomas of the Vulva Inclusion and Epidermal Cysts of the Vulva Noncancerous Ovarian Growths Polyps of the Cervix Skene Duct Cyst Cervical myomas are smooth, benign tumors in the cervix. A myoma may bleed, ...

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  20. Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meznarich, H.K.; McCoy, L.S.; Bale, T.L.; Stiegler, G.L.; Sikov, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 ± 0.80 μg) and irradiated brains (0.58 ± 0.22 μg). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Muerte fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrés Pons, DR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  2. Muerte fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Pons, G.; Eduardo Sepúlveda, S.; Juan Luis Leiva, B.; Gustavo Rencoret, P.; Alfredo Germain, A.

    2014-01-01

    La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  3. Control of fibronectin synthesis by rat granulosa cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.K.; Dorrington, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The secreted and cellular [ 35 S]methionine-radiolabeled proteins of cultured rat granulosa cells were separated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gradient slab gels. From 24 to 72 h of culture FSH increased the intensity of labeling of most of the secreted proteins. A 220,000-dalton protein, however, increased in intensity only in control cultures and became the major secreted protein after 72 h, comprising 20% of the total radiolabeled proteins. This protein was identified as fibronectin by immunoprecipitation. There was no increase in the secreted or cellular fibronectin in FSH- or testosterone- and insulin-treated cultures. These studies indicate that a component of extracellular matrix is a major secretory product of unstimulated immature granulosa cells. As hormones induce the differentiated functions of granulosa cells in culture, the secretion of fibronectin is inhibited

  4. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10-13 ye...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis.......In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  5. Endothelium-derived fibronectin regulates neonatal vascular morphogenesis in an autocrine fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Christopher J; Badu-Nkansah, Kwabena; Hynes, Richard O

    2017-11-01

    Fibronectin containing alternatively spliced EIIIA and EIIIB domains is largely absent from mature quiescent vessels in adults, but is highly expressed around blood vessels during developmental and pathological angiogenesis. The precise functions of fibronectin and its splice variants during developmental angiogenesis however remain unclear due to the presence of cardiac, somitic, mesodermal and neural defects in existing global fibronectin KO mouse models. Using a rare family of surviving EIIIA EIIIB double KO mice, as well as inducible endothelial-specific fibronectin-deficient mutant mice, we show that vascular development in the neonatal retina is regulated in an autocrine manner by endothelium-derived fibronectin, and requires both EIIIA and EIIIB domains and the RGD-binding α5 and αv integrins for its function. Exogenous sources of fibronectin do not fully substitute for the autocrine function of endothelial fibronectin, demonstrating that fibronectins from different sources contribute differentially to specific aspects of angiogenesis.

  6. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell.

  7. [Fetal urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos; Jakobovits, Antal

    2009-06-14

    Although it becomes vitally important only after birth, renal function already plays significant role in maintaining fetal metabolic equilibrium. The kidneys significantly contribute to production of amniotic fluid. Adequate amount of amniotic fluid is needed to stimulate the intrauterine fetal respiratory activity. Intrauterine breathing is essential for lung development. As a result, oligohydramnion is conducive to pulmonary hypoplasia. The latter may lead to neonatal demise soon after birth. In extrauterine life kidneys eliminate nitrogen containing metabolic byproducts. Inadequate renal function results therefore lethal uremia. Integrity of ureters and the urethra is essential for the maintenance of renal function. Retention of urine causes degeneration of the functional units of the kidneys and ensuing deterioration of renal function. Intrauterine kidney puncture or shunt procedure may delay this process in some cases. On the other hand, once renal function has been damaged, no therapy can restart it. Certain anomalies of renal excretory pathways may also be associated with other congenital abnormalities, making the therapeutic efforts pointless. Presence of these associated intrauterine defects makes early pregnancy termination a management alternative, as well as it affects favorably perinatal mortality rates.

  8. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  9. Successful rescue cerclage at advanced cervical dilatation in the second trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Omotayo Omokanye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cerclage has been used in the management of cervical insufficiency for several decades, yet the indications are uncertain and benefits questionable. It remains a controversial intervention. We present a case of cervical incompetence in a 33-year-old Gravida 5 Para 0+4 woman who had an emergency cervical cerclage at 18 weeks gestation and subsequently delivered of a live male infant at 29 weeks gestation following preterm premature rupture of fetal membrane.

  10. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus-Fibronectin Interactions with and without Fibronectin-Binding Proteins and Their Role in Adhesion and Desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.P.; Boks, N.P.; Vries, de J.; Kaper, H.J.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion and residence-time-dependent desorption of two Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without fibronectin (Fn) binding proteins (FnBPs) on Fn-coated glass were compared under flow conditions. To obtain a better understanding of the role of Fn-FnBP binding, the adsorption enthalpies of Fn

  12. Staphylococcus aureus-fibronectin interactions with and without fibronectin-binding proteins and their role in adhesion and desorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Chun; Boks, Niels P; de Vries, Jacob; Kaper, Harm; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Hendrik; van der Mei, Henderina

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion and residence-time-dependent desorption of two Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without fibronectin (Fn) binding proteins (FnBPs) on Fn-coated glass were compared under flow conditions. To obtain a better understanding of the role of Fn-FnBP binding, the adsorption enthalpies of Fn

  13. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  14. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of spontaneous preterm birth: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandiramani, Manju; Di Renzo, Gian C.; Gottschalk, Elisabeth; Helmer, Hanns; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hoesli, Irene; Mol, Ben; Norman, Jane E.; Robson, Stephen; Thornton, Steven; Shennan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is estimated to account for 6-10% of all births worldwide with 13 million PTBs occurring annually and 1 million resulting in death. The diagnosis of spontaneous preterm labor and accurate prediction of preterm delivery is notoriously difficult. Identification of effective risk

  15. Fibronectin distribution in epithelial and associated tissues of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T; Thom, D

    1979-01-01

    Specific antiserum was used to investigate the distribution of the extracellular glycoprotein, fibronectin, in rat skin and tongue tissue by light and electron microscopy with immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. We conclude that fibronectin is absent from stable, differentiated...... parts of tissues, such as the sebaceous glands or the matrix, medulla, cortex, and cuticles of the hair and the inner and outer root sheaths, or even in tissues in which there is some cell movement, such as the epidermis. It is, however, characteristic of sites at which cell division is occurring...... in contact with an extracellular scaffolding, such as basement membrane or loose connective tissue. Conspicuous examples were in the glassy membrane and connective tissue sheath associated with the follicular epithelium, the basement membrane underlying vascular endothelial cells, the connective tissues...

  16. [Cervical cerclage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, C Y; Sananes, N; Gaudineau, A; Boudier, E; Langer, B

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cerclage aims to strengthen not only the mechanical properties of the cervix, but also its immunological and anti-infectious functions. The demonstration of a strong interrelation between cervical insufficiency as well as decreased cervical length at endo-vaginal ultrasonography and infection has changed the indications cerclage. Actually we can distinguish three indications for cerclage: prophylactic, for obstetrical history; therapeutic, for shortened cervical length at ultrasonography in patients at risk and; emergency cerclage in case of threatening cervix at physical examination. The McDonald's technique is the most recommended. In case of failure, it is proposed to realize cerclage at a higher level on the cervix either by vaginal or abdominal route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  18. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SEEP Alternative Medicine Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical ... tasks. A NASS physician can perform a thorough history to evaluate your symptoms and any recent changes. ...

  19. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... therapist). Sometimes, a few visits will help with neck pain. Cold packs and heat therapy may help your ...

  20. Modulation of Human Plasma Fibronectin Levels Following Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    forms of this large molecular weight (440 kilodaltons) glycoprotein,(17. While the tissue type is cell-associated and important to cell adhesion and...increased under conditions of pathology, such as in obesity (6). cancer (3). proteinuria (4). diabetic retinopathy (5). and preeclampsia (27). in the absence...Res. 1977: 22:709-716. 27. Stubbs. T.M.. Lazarchick. J.. and Horger. E.O. Plasma fibronectin levels in preeclampsia : A possible biochemical marker

  1. Fibronectin alters the rate of formation and structure of the fibrin matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Anand; Karuri, Nancy

    2014-01-10

    Plasma fibronectin is a vital component of the fibrin clot; however its role on clot structure is not clearly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of fibronectin on the kinetics of formation, structural characteristics and composition of reconstituted fibrin clots or fibrin matrices. Fibrin matrices were formed by adding thrombin to 1, 2 or 4 mg/ml fibrinogen supplemented with 0-0.4 mg/ml fibronectin. The rate of fibrin matrix formation was then monitored by measuring light absorbance properties at different time points. Confocal microscopy of fluorescein conjugated fibrinogen was used to visualize the structural characteristics of fibrin matrices. The amount of fibronectin in fibrin matrices was determined through electrophoresis and immunoblotting of solubilized matrices. Fibronectin concentration positively correlated with the initial rate of fibrin matrix formation and with steady state light absorbance values of fibrin matrices. An increase in fibronectin concentration resulted in thinner and denser fibers in the fibrin matrices. Electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that fibronectin was covalently and non-covalently bound to fibrin matrices and in the form of high molecular weight multimers. The formation of fibronectin multimers was attributed to cross-linking of fibronectin by trace amounts Factor XIIIa. These findings are novel because they link results from light absorbance studies to microcopy analyses and demonstrate an influence of fibronectin on fibrin matrix structural characteristics. This data is important in developing therapies that destabilize fibrin clots. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Factor XIII as a modulator of plasma fibronectin alterations during experimental bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, J L; Cho, E; Saba, T M

    1986-11-01

    Fibronectin is found in plasma as well as in association with connective tissue and cell surfaces. Depletion of plasma fibronectin is often observed in septic trauma and burned patients, while experimental rats often manifest hyperfibronectinemia with sepsis. Since Factor XIII may influence the rate of clearance and deposition of plasma fibronectin into tissues, we evaluated the temporal changes in plasma fibronectin and plasma Factor XIII following bacteremia and RE blockade in rats in an attempt to understand the mechanism leading to elevation of fibronectin levels in bacteremic rats, which is distinct from that observed with RE blockade. Clearance of exogenously administered fibronectin after bacteremia was also determined. Rats received either saline, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 X 10(9) organisms), gelatinized RE test lipid emulsion (50 mg/100 gm B.W.), or emulsion followed by Pseudomonas. Plasma fibronectin and Factor XIII were determined at 0, 2, 24, and 48 hours post-blockade or bacteremia. At 24 and 48 hr following bacteremia alone or bacteremia after RE blockade, there was a significant elevation (p less than 0.05) of plasma fibronectin and a concomitant decrease (p less than 0.05) of plasma factor XIII activity. Extractable tissue fibronectin from liver and spleen was also increased at 24 and 48 hours following R.E. blockade plus bacteremia. In addition, the plasma clearance of human fibronectin was significantly prolonged (p less than 0.05) following bacterial challenge. Infusion of activated Factor XIII (20 units/rat) during a period of hyperfibronectinemia (908.0 +/- 55.1 micrograms/ml) resulted in a significant (p less than 0.05) decrease in plasma fibronectin (548.5 +/- 49.9 micrograms/ml) within 30 min. Thus Factor XIII deficiency in rats with bacteremia may contribute to the elevation in plasma fibronectin by altering kinetics associated with the clearance of fibronectin from the blood.

  3. Preparation of Bioactive Titanium Surfaces via Fluoride and Fibronectin Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nelson Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem. The chemical or topographic modification of the dental implant surface can affect bone healing, promote accelerated osteogenesis, and increase bone-implant contact and bonding strength. Objective. In this work, the effects of dental implant surface treatment and fibronectin adsorption on the adhesion of osteoblasts were analyzed. Materials and Methods. Two titanium dental implants (Porous-acid etching and PorousNano-acid etching followed by fluoride ion modification were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction before and after the incorporation of human plasma fibronectin (FN. The objective was to investigate the biofunctionalization of these surfaces and examine their effects on the interaction with osteoblastic cells. Results. The evaluation techniques used showed that the Porous and PorousNano implants have similar microstructural characteristics. Spectrophotometry demonstrated similar levels of fibronectin adsorption on both surfaces (80%. The association indexes of osteoblastic cells in FN-treated samples were significantly higher than those in samples without FN. The radioactivity values associated with the same samples, expressed as counts per minute (cpm, suggested that FN incorporation is an important determinant of the in vitro cytocompatibility of the surfaces. Conclusion. The preparation of bioactive titanium surfaces via fluoride and FN retention proved to be a useful treatment to optimize and to accelerate the osseointegration process for dental implants.

  4. Controlled Assembly of Fibronectin Nanofibrils Triggered by Random Copolymer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Hayk; Rico, Patricia; Grigoriou, Eleni; Candelas, Aarón Maturana; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Sabater i Serra, Roser

    2015-08-19

    Fibronectin fibrillogenesis is the physiological process by which cells elaborate a fibrous FN matrix. Poly(ethyl acrylate), PEA, has been described to induce a similar process upon simple adsorption of fibronectin (FN) from a protein solution-in the absence of cells-leading to the so-called material-driven fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Poly(methyl acrylate), PMA, is a polymer with very similar chemistry to PEA, on which FN is adsorbed, keeping the globular conformation of the protein in solution. We have used radical polymerization to synthesize copolymers with controlled EA/MA ratio, seeking to modulate the degree of FN fibrillogenesis. The physicochemical properties of the system were studied using dynamic-mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and water contact angle. Both the degree of FN fibrillogenesis and the availability of the integrin binding region of FN directly depend on the percentage of EA in the copolymer, whereas the same total amount of FN was adsorbed regardless the EA/MA ratio. Cell morphology adhesion and differentiation of murine C2C12 were shown to depend on the degree of FN fibrillogenesis previously attained on the material surface. Myogenic differentiation was enhanced on the copolymers with higher EA content, i.e. more interconnected FN fibrils.

  5. Fibronectin Extra Domain A Promotes Liver Sinusoid Repair following Hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Sackey-Aboagye

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are the main endothelial cells in the liver and are important for maintaining liver homeostasis as well as responding to injury. LSECs express cellular fibronectin containing the alternatively spliced extra domain A (EIIIA-cFN and increase expression of this isoform after liver injury, although its function is not well understood. Here, we examined the role of EIIIA-cFN in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. We carried out two-thirds partial hepatectomies in mice lacking EIIIA-cFN and in their wild type littermates, studied liver endothelial cell adhesion on decellularized, EIIIA-cFN-containing matrices and investigated the role of cellular fibronectins in liver endothelial cell tubulogenesis. We found that liver weight recovery following hepatectomy was significantly delayed and that sinusoidal repair was impaired in EIIIA-cFN null mice, especially females, as was the lipid accumulation typical of the post-hepatectomy liver. In vitro, we found that liver endothelial cells were more adhesive to cell-deposited matrices containing the EIIIA domain and that cellular fibronectin enhanced tubulogenesis and vascular cord formation. The integrin α9β1, which specifically binds EIIIA-cFN, promoted tubulogenesis and adhesion of liver endothelial cells to EIIIA-cFN. Our findings identify a role for EIIIA-cFN in liver regeneration and tubulogenesis. We suggest that sinusoidal repair is enhanced by increased LSEC adhesion, which is mediated by EIIIA-cFN.

  6. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extensive vascular remodeling in the spinal cord of pre-symptomatic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice; increased vessel expression of fibronectin and the α5β1 integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujerdi, Amin; Welser-Alves, Jennifer V.; Milner, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in vascular structure and function are a central component of demyelinating disease. In addition to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which occurs early in the course of disease, recent studies have described angiogenic remodeling, both in multiple sclerosis tissue and in the mouse demyelinating model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As the precise timing of vascular remodeling in demyelinating disease has yet to be fully defined, the purpose of the current study was to define the time-course of these events in the MOG35-55 EAE model. Quantification of endothelial cell proliferation and vessel density revealed that a large part of angiogenic remodeling in cervical spinal cord white matter occurs during the pre-symptomatic phase of EAE. At the height of vascular remodeling, blood vessels in the cervical spinal cord showed strong transient upregulation of fibronectin and the α5β1 integrin. In vitro experiments revealed that α5 integrin inhibition reduced brain endothelial cell proliferation under inflammatory conditions. Interestingly, loss of vascular integrity was evident in all vessels during the first 4–7 days post-immunization, but after 14 days, was localized predominantly to venules. Taken together, our data demonstrate that extensive vascular remodeling occurs during the pre-symptomatic phase of EAE and point to a potential role for the fibronectin-α5β1 integrin interaction in promoting vascular remodeling during demyelinating disease. PMID:24056042

  8. Mechanism of acute depletion of plasma fibronectin following thermal injury in rats. Appearance of a gelatinlike ligand in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deno, D.C.; McCafferty, M.H.; Saba, T.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin was depleted within 15 min following sublethal burn, followed by partial recovery at 8 h and complete restoration by 24 h in anesthetized rats. Radiolabeled 75 Se-plasma fibronectin, injected intravenously before burn, was rapidly sequestered in burn skin as well as the liver. Fibronectin levels at 2 h postburn as detected by immunoassay vs. 75 Se-plasma fibronectin indicated that more fibronectin was in the plasma than detected by electroimmunoassay. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis of fibronectin in early postburn plasma demonstrated a reduced electrophoretic mobility of the fibronectin antigen. Addition of heparin or fibrin, both of which have affinity for fibronectin, to normal plasma was unable to reproduce this altered fibronectin electrophoretic pattern. In contrast, addition of gelatin or native collagen to normal plasma reproduced the abnormal electrophoretic pattern of fibronectin seen in burn plasma. Extracts of burned skin, but not extracts of normal skin, when added to normal plasma, elicited a similar altered electrophoretic pattern for fibronectin. By gel filtration, fibronectin in burn plasma had an apparent molecular weight approximately 40% greater than that observed in normal plasma. These data suggest the release into the blood of a gelatinlike ligand from burned skin, which complexes with plasma fibronectin. Thus, fibronectin deficiency acutely postburn appears mediated by (a) its accumulation at the site of burn injury; (b) its removal from the circulation by the liver; and (c) its presence in the plasma in a form that is less detectable by immunoassay

  9. Endogenous production of fibronectin is required for self-renewal of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Geoffrey C.; Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cells are attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as they make cell fate decisions within the stem cell niche. Here we show that the ubiquitous ECM protein fibronectin is required for self-renewal decisions by cultured mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Undifferentiated mES cells produce fibronectin and assemble a fibrillar matrix. Increasing the level of substrate fibronectin increased cell spreading and integrin receptor signaling through focal adhesion kinase, while concomita...

  10. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  11. Self-assembly of fibronectin mimetic peptide-amphiphile nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexeisen, Emilie Lynn

    Many therapeutic strategies incorporate peptides into their designs to mimic the natural protein ligands found in vivo. A few examples are the short peptide sequences RGD and PHSRN that mimic the primary and synergy-binding domains of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, which is recognized by the cell surface receptor, alpha5beta 1 integrin. Even though scaffold modification with biomimetic peptides remains one of the most promising approaches for tissue engineering, the use of these peptides in therapeutic tissue-engineered products and drug delivery systems available on the commercial market is limited because the peptides are not easily able to mimic the natural protein. The design of a peptide that can effectively target the alpha5beta1 integrin would greatly increase biomimetic scaffold therapeutic potential. A novel peptide containing both the RGD primary binding domain and PHSRN synergy-binding domain for fibronectin joined with the appropriate linker should bind alpha 5beta1 integrin more efficiently and lead to greater cell adhesion over RGD alone. Several fibronectin mimetic peptides were designed and coupled to dialkyl hydrocarbon tails to make peptide-amphiphiles. The peptides contained different linkers connecting the two binding domains and different spacers separating the hydrophobic tails from the hydrophilic headgroups. The peptide-amphiphiles were deposited on mica substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Langmuir isotherms indicated that the peptide-amphiphiles that contained higher numbers of serine residues formed a more tightly packed monolayer, but the increased number of serines also made transferring the amphiphiles to the mica substrate more difficult. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the bilayers showed that the headgroups might be bent, forming small divots in the surface. These divots may help expose the PHSRN synergy-binding domain. Parallel studies undertaken by fellow group members showed that human

  12. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully w...

  13. Diagnostic value of ultrafast fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoisa, Daniela; De Luca, Silvina E.; Florenzano, Nestor V.; Mondello, Eduardo J.; Eyheremendy, Eduardo; Heinen, Fernando; Margulies, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze cases of fetal pathology evaluated by Ultra Fast MR sequences. Material and methods: 12 patients (2nd. and 3rd. trimester of pregnancy) have been studied by obstetric US and MR. Results: In our series we found intestinal duplication cyst, ureteropelvic junction obstruction and multicystic dysplastic kidney, esophageal atresia, acardia, anencephalic syndrome, semilobar holoprosencephaly, congenital diafragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatoid malformation, onphalocele and several scoliosis, duodenal stenosis, cervical teratoma and uretral atresia. In 8/12 cases (66%) MRI provide additional information as compared to US. Conclusion: The Ultra Fast MR sequences allows the evaluation of patients in the second and third trimester of pregnancy without sedation. It should be considered as a complementary method of the US to confirm fetal anomalies. The information provided by MRI is useful in planning adequate therapeutic decisions. (author)

  14. Guidance of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin structured hydrogel films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Kasten

    Full Text Available Designing of implant surfaces using a suitable ligand for cell adhesion to stimulate specific biological responses of stem cells will boost the application of regenerative implants. For example, materials that facilitate rapid and guided migration of stem cells would promote tissue regeneration. When seeded on fibronectin (FN that was homogeneously immmobilized to NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO, which otherwise prevents protein binding and cell adhesion, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC revealed a faster migration, increased spreading and a more rapid organization of different cellular components for cell adhesion on fibronectin than on a glass surface. To further explore, how a structural organization of FN controls the behavior of MSC, adhesive lines of FN with varying width between 10 µm and 80 µm and spacings between 5 µm and 20 µm that did not allow cell adhesion were generated. In dependance on both line width and gaps, cells formed adjacent cell contacts, were individually organized in lines, or bridged the lines. With decreasing sizes of FN lines, speed and directionality of cell migration increased, which correlated with organization of the actin cytoskeleton, size and shape of the nuclei as well as of focal adhesions. Together, defined FN lines and gaps enabled a fine tuning of the structural organization of cellular components and migration. Microstructured adhesive substrates can mimic the extracellular matrix in vivo and stimulate cellular mechanisms which play a role in tissue regeneration.

  15. SPR imaging biosensor for the quantitation of fibronectin concentration in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankiewicz, Anna; Romanowicz, Lech; Pyc, Marlena; Hermanowicz, Adam; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa

    2018-02-20

    The purpose of this study was presentation of a new biosensor capable of determination of fibronectin. This biosensor was based on the specific interaction of anti-fibronectin antibody produced in rabbit with fibronectin. The surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) technique was used as a detecting method. Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied. The determination of fibronectin concentration in natural samples was done. The results were compared with a reference method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay-ELISA). The analytically useful dynamic response range of biosensor is between 5 and 400ngmL -1 . The detection limit is 1.5ngmL -1 and limit quantification is 5ngmL -1 . The proposed SPRI biosensor showed good selectivity for potential interferences. It was applied to determine fibronectin concentrations in plasma of healthy donors and of patients after thermal injury. Good correlations between results obtained using the SPRI biosensor and ELISA test (correlation coefficients for healthy donors 0.996, for patients 0.984) were obtained. The average fibronectin concentration of healthy donors was 140.5±24.6μgmL -1 and the average fibronectin concentration of patients was 601.5±72.1μgmL -1 , which was in agreement with results obtained by other investigators. The obtained results indicate that the developed biosensor may be a candidate for monitoring fibronectin concentration in blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fibronectin- and collagen-mimetic ligands regulate bone marrow stromal cell chondrogenesis in three-dimensional hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Connelly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Modification of tissue engineering scaffolds with bioactive molecules is a potential strategy for modulating cell behavior and guiding tissue regeneration. While adhesion to RGD peptides has been shown to inhibit in vitro chondrogenesis, the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM-mimetic ligands with complex secondary and tertiary structures are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether collagen- and fibronectin-mimetic ligands would retain biologic functionality in three-dimensional (3D hydrogels, whether different ECM-mimetic ligands differentially influence in vitro chondrogenesis, and if effects of ligands on differentiation depend on soluble biochemical stimuli. A linear RGD peptide, a recombinant fibronectin fragment containing the seven to ten Type III repeats (FnIII7-10 and a triple helical, collagen mimetic peptide with the GFOGER motif were covalently coupled to agarose gels using the sulfo-SANPAH crosslinker, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs were cultured within the 3D hydrogels. The ligands retained biologic functionality within the agarose gels and promoted density-dependent BMSC spreading. Interactions with all adhesive ligands inhibited stimulation by chondrogenic factors of collagen Type II and aggrecan mRNA levels and deposition of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. In medium containing fetal bovine serum, interactions with the GFOGER peptide enhanced mRNA expression of the osteogenic gene osteocalcin whereas FnIII7-10 inhibited osteocalcin expression. In conclusion, modification of agarose hydrogels with ECM-mimetic ligands can influence the differentiation of BMSCs in a manner that depends strongly on the presence and nature of soluble biochemical stimuli.

  17. Uncoupled regulation of fibronectin and collagen synthesis in Rous sarcoma virus transformed avian tendon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.; Soo, W.J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of fibronectin and procollagen synthesis has been investigated in normal and Rous sarcoma virus transformed primary avian tendon cells. These two proteins interact at the cell periphery and both are reportedly lost upon transformation. Whether their synthesis was coordinately regulated in Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells was thus examined. It was found that while the synthesis of both pro α 1 and pro α 2 peptides was reduced upon transformation, the synthesis of fibronectin was not altered. Nevertheless, long term radiolabeling demonstrated that fibronectin levels were reduced in transformed cells. It is concluded that the reduction in levels of these components at the surface is brought about by different mechanisms; collagen levels being regulated by procollagen synthesis and fibronectin levels by degradation and/or release into the culture medium. The possibility is discussed that fibronectin is lost from the cell periphery of primary avian tendon cells as a consequence of decreased levels of anchoring collagen molecules

  18. The fibronectin-binding integrins alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 differentially modulate RhoA-GTP loading, organization of cell matrix adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danen, Erik H J; Sonneveld, Petra; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels ...... receptors expressed on a cell dictates the ability of fibronectin to stimulate RhoA-mediated organization of cell matrix adhesions.......We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels...... of RhoA activity at later stages of cell spreading, which are associated with a translocation of focal contacts to peripheral cell protrusions, recruitment of tensin into fibrillar adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Expression of an activated mutant of RhoA stimulates alphavbeta3-mediated...

  19. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  20. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  1. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  2. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media.

  3. Fibronectin tetrapeptide is target for syphilis spirochete cytadherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.D.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The syphilis bacterium, Treponema pallidum, parasitizes host cells through recognition of fibronectin (Fn) on cell surfaces. The active site of the Fn molecule has been identified as a four-amino acid sequence, arg-gly-asp-ser (RGDS), located on each monomer of the cell-binding domain. The synthetic heptapeptide gly-arg-gly-asp-ser-pro-cys (GRGDSPC), with the active site sequence RGDS, specifically competed with 125 I-labeled cell-binding domain acquisition by T. pallidum. Additionally, the same heptapeptide with the RGDS sequence diminished treponemal attachment to HEp-2 and HT1080 cell monolayers. Related heptapeptides altered in one key amino acid within the RGDS sequence failed to inhibit Fn cell-binding domain acquisition or parasitism of host cells by T. pallidum. The data support the view that T. pallidum cytadherence of host cells is through recognition of the RGDS sequence also important for eukaryotic cell-Fn binding

  4. Defects in MAP1S-mediated autophagy turnover of fibronectin cause renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guibin; Yue, Fei; Huang, Hai; He, Yongzhong; Li, Xun; Zhao, Haibo; Su, Zhengming; Jiang, Xianhan; Li, Wenjiao; Zou, Jing; Chen, Qi; Liu, Leyuan

    2016-05-01

    Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in renal tissues causes renal fibrosis and renal function failure. Mammalian cells primarily use the autophagy-lysosome system to degrade misfolded/aggregated proteins and dysfunctional organelles. MAP1S is an autophagy activator and promotes the biogenesis and degradation of autophagosomes. Previously, we reported that MAP1S suppresses hepatocellular carcinogenesis in a mouse model and predicts a better prognosis in patients suffering from clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, we have characterized that MAP1S enhances the turnover of fibronectin, and mice overexpressing LC3 but with MAP1S deleted accumulate fibronectin and develop liver fibrosis because of the synergistic impact of LC3-induced over-synthesis of fibronectin and MAP1S depletion-caused impairment of fibronectin degradation. Here we show that a suppression of MAP1S in renal cells caused an impairment of autophagy clearance of fibronectin and an activation of pyroptosis. Depletion of MAP1S in mice leads to an accumulation of fibrosis-related proteins and the development of renal fibrosis in aged mice. The levels of MAP1S were dramatically reduced and levels of fibronectin were greatly elevated in renal fibrotic tissues from patients diagnosed as renal atrophy and renal failure. Therefore, MAP1S deficiency may cause the accumulation of fibronectin and the development of renal fibrosis.

  5. Endogenous production of fibronectin is required for self-renewal of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey C; Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E

    2012-09-10

    Pluripotent cells are attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as they make cell fate decisions within the stem cell niche. Here we show that the ubiquitous ECM protein fibronectin is required for self-renewal decisions by cultured mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Undifferentiated mES cells produce fibronectin and assemble a fibrillar matrix. Increasing the level of substrate fibronectin increased cell spreading and integrin receptor signaling through focal adhesion kinase, while concomitantly inducing the loss of Nanog and Oct4 self-renewal markers. Conversely, reducing fibronectin production by mES cells growing on a feeder-free gelatin substrate caused loss of cell adhesion, decreased integrin signaling, and decreased expression of self-renewal markers. These effects were reversed by providing the cells with exogenous fibronectin, thereby restoring adhesion to the gelatin substrate. Interestingly, mES cells do not adhere directly to the gelatin substrate, but rather adhere indirectly through gelatin-bound fibronectin, which facilitates self-renewal via its effects on cell adhesion. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of regulation of self-renewal by growth on a gelatin-coated surface. The effects of increasing or decreasing fibronectin levels show that self-renewal depends on an intermediate level of cell-fibronectin interactions. By providing cell adhesive signals that can act with other self-renewal factors to maintain mES cell pluripotency, fibronectin is therefore a necessary component of the self-renewal signaling pathway in culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  7. A radiographic study of the human fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.M.; Harris, P.F.; Jones, P.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Regression equations are presented which describe the growth in length of the various regions of the vertebral column in the human fetus. From 8 weeks on the thoracic is always the longest region and the sacral the shortest, while the lumbar region is longer than the cervical. From the regression equations predictions of fetal vertebral length can be made from fetal age: this should be useful in obstetric practice when diagnostic ultrasound techniques are being employed for the diagnosis of growth disorders and skeletal abnormalities. A different development pattern emerges when average 'vertebral units' for each region are compared. The lumbar vertebrae are always the largest with the thoracic, cervical and sacral vertebrae being progressively smaller. (author)

  8. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  9. Cervical adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.E.; Bonenfant, J.L.; Blais, R.

    1988-01-01

    Glandular neoplasms of the uterine cervix represent a small but important group of cervical carcinomas. Included in the present study were 68 cases of primary adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix seen from 1972 to 1986 in our Radiation Oncology Center. The complete data set for all patients was analyzed with regard to symptoms, histologic patterns, diagnostic procedures, treatment methods, and prognosis. The authors stress the importance of establishing the primary origin of the lesion in the cervix and of completely investigating patients with an abnormal bleeding pattern, even those with an apparently normal exocervix

  10. Abnormal pelvic morphology and high cervical length are responsible for high-risk pregnancies in women displaying achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Alexandre J; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Baujat, Geneviève; Benachi, Alexandra

    2016-12-05

    Pregnancies of women displaying achondroplasia are at high risk of adverse events. Early sonographic assessment of affected women can indicate an unusually long cervical length. It is the consequence of pathological anatomy of the pelvis. Thus, there is a foreseeable dystocia owing to cephalopelvic disproportion. Furthermore, this situation could also complicate cervical ripening prior to fetal extraction.

  11. Full-Length Fibronectin Drives Fibroblast Accumulation at the Surface of Collagen Microtissues during Cell-Induced Tissue Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Foolen

    Full Text Available Generating and maintaining gradients of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM components is a prerequisite for the development of functionality of healthy tissue. Therefore, gaining insights into the drivers of spatial organization of cells and the role of ECM during tissue morphogenesis is vital. In a 3D model system of tissue morphogenesis, a fibronectin-FRET sensor recently revealed the existence of two separate fibronectin populations with different conformations in microtissues, i.e. 'compact and adsorbed to collagen' versus 'extended and fibrillar' fibronectin that does not colocalize with the collagen scaffold. Here we asked how the presence of fibronectin might drive this cell-induced tissue morphogenesis, more specifically the formation of gradients in cell density and ECM composition. Microtissues were engineered in a high-throughput model system containing rectangular microarrays of 12 posts, which constrained fibroblast-populated collagen gels, remodeled by the contractile cells into trampoline-shaped microtissues. Fibronectin's contribution during the tissue maturation process was assessed using fibronectin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Fn-/- MEFs and floxed equivalents (Fnf/f MEFs, in fibronectin-depleted growth medium with and without exogenously added plasma fibronectin (full-length, or various fragments. In the absence of full-length fibronectin, Fn-/- MEFs remained homogenously distributed throughout the cell-contracted collagen gels. In contrast, in the presence of full-length fibronectin, both cell types produced shell-like tissues with a predominantly cell-free compacted collagen core and a peripheral surface layer rich in cells. Single cell assays then revealed that Fn-/- MEFs applied lower total strain energy on nanopillar arrays coated with either fibronectin or vitronectin when compared to Fnf/f MEFs, but that the presence of exogenously added plasma fibronectin rescued their contractility. While collagen

  12. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  13. Headache of cervical origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguet, J L; Wackenheim, A

    1984-08-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''.

  14. The preterm prediction study: risk factors for indicated preterm births. Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meis, P J; Goldenberg, R L; Mercer, B M; Iams, J D; Moawad, A H; Miodovnik, M; Menard, M K; Caritis, S N; Thurnau, G R; Bottoms, S F; Das, A; Roberts, J M; McNellis, D

    1998-03-01

    Preterm births occur for many different reasons. Most efforts to identify risk factors for preterm births either ignore cause and consider preterm births as a single entity or examine risk factors for spontaneous preterm births. We performed this study to examine risk factors for indicated preterm births, which constitute more than one quarter of all preterm births. The study included 2929 women evaluated at 24 weeks' gestation at 10 centers. Information was gathered about demographic factors, socioeconomic status, home and work environments, drug and alcohol use, and medical history. In addition vaginal samples were evaluated for fetal fibronectin and bacterial vaginosis and cervical length was measured by transvaginal ultrasonography. Associations with indicated preterm birth were evaluated by univariate tests and by multivariable analysis with logistic regression. Of the women studied at 24 weeks' gestation 15.3% were delivered of their infants at births. Risk factors in the final multivariable model were, in order of decreasing odds ratios, mullerian duct abnormality (odds ratio 7.02), proteinuria at history of chronic hypertension (odds ratio 4.06), history of previous indicated preterm birth (odds ratio 2.79), history of lung disease (odds ratio 2.52), previous spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio 2.45), age >30 years (odds ratio 2.42), black ethnicity (odds ratio 1.56), and working during pregnancy (odds ratio 1.49). Alcohol use in pregnancy was actually associated with a lower risk of indicated preterm birth (odds ratio 0.35). The risk factors found in this analysis tend to be different from those associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

  15. Cervical Vertigo(Vertigo)

    OpenAIRE

    本間, 隆夫; Homma, Takao

    1992-01-01

    Cervical vertigo was reviewed as to its mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, and nine cases which had operation done were briefly presented. Cervical vertigo has been seen occasionaly in the cases of cervical spondylosis, frequently in the cases of traumatic cervical syndrome. The mechanism is attributed to either vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by compression on vertebral artery or irritation of poterior cervical sympathetic system. The diagnosis consists of reccurent vertigo attack with...

  16. Fetal Echocardiography and Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Atahan Güven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart diseases are encountered in 0.8% of live births and are among the most frequently diagnosed malformations. At least half of these anomalies end up with death or require surgical interventions and are responsible for 30% of the perinatal mortality. Fetal echocardiography is the sum of knowledge, skill and orientation rather than knowing the embryologic details of the fetal heart. The purpose of fetal echocardiography is to document the presence of normal fetal cardiac anatomy and rhythm in high risk group and to define the anomaly and arrhythmia if present. A certain sequence should be followed during the evaluation of fetal heart. Sequential segmental analysis (SSA and basic definition terminology made it possible to determine a lot of complex cardiac anomalies during prenatal period. By the end of 1970’s, Shinebourne started using sequential segmental analysis for fetal cardiac evaluation and today, prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is possible without any confusion. In this manner, whole fetal heart can be evaluated as the relation of three segments (atria, ventricles and the great arteries with each other, irrelevant of complexity of a possible cardiac anomaly. Presence of increased nuchal thickness during early gestation and abnormal four-chamber-view during ultrasonography by the obstetrician presents a clear indication for fetal echocardiography,however, one should keep in mind that 80-90% of the babies born with a congenital heart disease do not have a familial or maternal risk factor. In addition, it should be remembered that expectant mothers with diabetes mellitus pose an indication for fetal echocardiography.

  17. Quantification of fibronectin as a method to assess ex vivo extracellular matrix remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Cecilie Liv; Gudmann, N.; Willumsen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Altered architecture, composition and quality of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are pathological hallmarks of several inflammatory and fibro-proliferative pathological processes such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibrosis and cancer. One of the most important components...... of the ECM is fibronectin. Fibronectin serves as an adhesion molecule anchoring cells to the underlying basement membrane through direct interaction with integrin receptors. Fibronectin hereby modulates the properties of the ECM and affects cellular processes. Quantification of fibronectin remodeling could...... therefore be used to assess the changes in the ECM that occur during progression of fibro-proliferative pathologies. Ex vivo models are becoming state-of-the-art tools to study ECM remodeling as the cellular composition and the organization of the ECM are preserved. Ex vivo models may therefore...

  18. Fetal tachycardia : diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, Martijn Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Part I: Fetal tachyarrhythmias Diagnosis Fetal tachycardia is a serious condition warranting specialized evaluation. In chapter 2, methods of diagnosis of fetal tachycardia are described, including doppler and M-mode echocardiography and fetal magnetocardiography. The study presented in chapter 3

  19. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  20. Fetal blood drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, J C; Mahoney, M J

    1975-07-19

    A small sample of fetal blood suitable for studies of haemoglobin synthesis was obtained from a placental vessel under endoscopic visualisation in 23 of 26 patients in whom the procedure was attempted prior to second-trimester abortion. Fetal blood loss, calculated in 23 cases, was between 0-2 ml. and 2-5 ml., and fetal blood-volume depletion varied from 0-5% to 15%. No short-term ill-effects were demonstrated in mother or fetus in any of 16 patients in whom the injection of aborti-facient was postponed for between 16 and 24 hours after the procedure.

  1. Interaction of osteoblast-like cells with serum and fibronectin: effects on cell motility and proliferation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, A.

    1986-01-01

    Osteoblast migration and proliferation are believed to occur during bone remodelling, in particular after osteoclastic bone resorption and prior to osteoblastic bone formation. In order to study migration and proliferation in vitro, the model of Alessandri et al. (1983) was modified. The model entailed seeding osteoblast-like cells into wells cut in agar and quantifying migration and proliferation peripheral to the well. Cell morphology also was described. The data indicated that on growth surfaces enriched with varying concentrations of fetal calf serum (FSC), the quantification of migration and proliferation was related both to percent cell attachment and to FCS-concentration. Because few osteoblast-like cells incorporated ( 3 H-TdR), it was concluded that the appearance of cells peripheral to the well was due to migration, and not to proliferation. Cell morphology and myosin distribution and organization indicated that osteoblast-like cells at the periphery of the cell culture (i.e. leading edge) may have been directionally migrating whereas cells behind the leading edge may have been engaged in non-directional migration. The migration, proliferation, and morphology of osteoblast-like cells cultured on fibronectin (FN) enriched growth surfaces also was examined. The quantification of migration and proliferation was related to the FN-concentration applied to the growth surface. Because few osteoblast-like cells incorporated 3 H-TdR and cell morphology indicated migration, it was concluded that osteoblast-like cells on FN-enriched growth surfaces are specialized, in part, for migration

  2. Diagnosis of Chiari III malformation by second trimester fetal MRI with postnatal MRI and CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alice B.; Glenn, Orit A.; Gupta, Nalin; Otto, Carl

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of Chiari III malformation diagnosed by fetal MRI. Ultrasound (US) performed at a gestational age of 18 weeks demonstrated a posterior skull base cyst. Repeat US at 19 weeks demonstrated neural tissue in the cyst, consistent with an encephalocele. MR imaging at 23 weeks confirmed the presence of an occipital encephalocele, demonstrated additional bony defect in the upper cervical spine, and identified abnormal morphology and position of the brainstem consistent with the diagnosis of Chiari III. Postnatal MRI and CT confirmed the fetal MRI findings and demonstrate the utility of fetal MRI in the early evaluation of songraphically detected posterior fossa abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Diagnosis of Chiari III malformation by second trimester fetal MRI with postnatal MRI and CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alice B.; Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gupta, Nalin [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neurosurgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Otto, Carl [California Pacific Medical Center, Department of Perinatology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We report a case of Chiari III malformation diagnosed by fetal MRI. Ultrasound (US) performed at a gestational age of 18 weeks demonstrated a posterior skull base cyst. Repeat US at 19 weeks demonstrated neural tissue in the cyst, consistent with an encephalocele. MR imaging at 23 weeks confirmed the presence of an occipital encephalocele, demonstrated additional bony defect in the upper cervical spine, and identified abnormal morphology and position of the brainstem consistent with the diagnosis of Chiari III. Postnatal MRI and CT confirmed the fetal MRI findings and demonstrate the utility of fetal MRI in the early evaluation of songraphically detected posterior fossa abnormalities. (orig.)

  4. Structural determinants of the interaction between the Haemophilus influenzae Hap autotransporter and fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahich, Nicole A; Kenjale, Roma; McCann, Jessica; Meng, Guoyu; Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P; St Geme, Joseph W

    2014-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative cocco-bacillus that initiates infection by colonizing the upper respiratory tract. Hap is an H. influenzae serine protease autotransporter protein that mediates adherence, invasion and microcolony formation in assays with human epithelial cells and is presumed to facilitate the process of colonization. Additionally, Hap mediates adherence to fibronectin, laminin and collagen IV, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that are present in the respiratory tract and are probably important targets for H. influenzae colonization. The region of Hap responsible for adherence to ECM proteins has been localized to the C-terminal 511 aa of the Hap passenger domain (HapS). In this study, we characterized the structural determinants of the interaction between HapS and fibronectin. Using defined fibronectin fragments, we established that Hap interacts with the fibronectin repeat fragment called FNIII(1-2). Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found a series of motifs in the C-terminal region of HapS that contribute to the interaction with fibronectin. Most of these motifs are located on the F1 and F3 faces of the HapS structure, suggesting that the F1 and F3 faces may be responsible for the HapS-fibronectin interaction. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Conformational changes of plasma fibronectin detected upon adsorption to solid substrates: A spin-label study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, C.; Lai, Chingsan

    1989-01-01

    Changes in local environment of the free sulfhydryl groups in plasma fibronectin upon adsorption of the protein to polystyrene beads have been examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-label spectroscopy. The two free sulfhydryl groups per subunit of plasma fibronectin were modified chemically with an [ 15 N, 2 H]maleimide spin-label. For soluble fibronectin, both free sulfhydryl groups shown to be in confined environments as evidenced from the labeled protein exhibiting a strongly immobilized ESR spectrum as described previously using [ 14 N, 1 H]maleimide spin-labels. When the labeled protein was adsorbed to the beads, half of the strongly immobilized component was found to convert into a weakly immobilized component, a result indicating that one of the two labeled sites becomes exposed and exhibits a fast tumbling motion. Experiments conducted using various spin-labeled fibronectin fragments suggest that the newly exposed labeled site is located between the DNA-binding and the cell-binding regions of the molecule. The data obtained indicate that, upon adsorption to polystyrene beads, plasma fibronectin undergoes a conformational change through which the buried free sulfhydryl group near the cell-binding region of the molecule is exposed. This observation may have important implications regarding the expression of cell adhesive properties of the fibronectin molecule

  6. Assembly of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix of early and late passage human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The specific binding of soluble 125 I-human plasma fibronectin ( 125 I-HFN-P) to confluent cultures of early and late passage human skin fibroblasts was investigated. Previous studies HFN-P bound to fibroblast cell layers indicated that HNF-P was present in the cultures in two separate pools, distinguishable on the basis of their solubility in 1% deoxycholate. Examination of the kinetics of 125 I-HFN-P binding to Pool I of early and late passage cultures revealed that both cultures required 2-4 h to approach steady-state conditions. Other kinetic studies showed that the rates of low of 125 I-HFN-P from either Pool I or Pool II were similar for both cultures. Further, Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of Pool I binding sites with apparent dissociation constants (K/sub d/) of 5.3 x 10 -8 M (early passage) and 4.2 x 10 -8 M (late passage). These results indicate that early and late passage cultures of human fibroblasts exhibit differences in the number of cell surface biding sites for soluble fibronectin, and in the extent to which they incorporate soluble fibronectin into the extracellular matrix. Parameters which affect the fibronectin matrix assembly system of human skin fibroblasts were also examined. In addition, several monoclonal anti-fibronectin antibodies were characterized and developed as experimental probes for fibronectin structure and function

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  8. Buffalo plasma fibronectin: a physico-chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N; Chandra, R; Raj, H G

    2001-12-01

    Plasma fibronectin (FN) of buffalo (Babulis babulis) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using gelatin-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose affinity columns. It was found to have two subunits of molecular mass 246 kDa and 228 kDa, on SDS-gel. Its immunological cross-reactivity with anti-human plasma FN was confirmed by Western blotting. The amino acid composition was found to be similar to that of human and bovine plasma FNs. Buffalo plasma FN contained 2.23% neutral hexoses and 1.18% sialic acids. No titrable sulfhydryl group could be detected in the absence of denaturant. Reaction with DTNB indicated 3.4 sulfhydryl groups in the molecule, whereas BDC-OH titration gave a value of 3.8 -SH groups in buffalo plasma FN. Stoke's radius, intrinsic viscosity, diffusion coefficient and frictional ratio indicated that buffalo plasma FN did not have a compact globular conformation at physiological pH and ionic strength. Molecular dimensions (average length, 120 nm; molar mass to length ratio, 3950 nm(-1) and mean diameter, 2.4 nm) as revealed by rotary shadowing electron microscopy further supported the extended conformation of buffalo plasma FN. These results show that buffalo plasma FN has similar properties as that of human plasma FN.

  9. Small molecule inhibitors target the tissue transglutaminase and fibronectin interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiyor Yakubov

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 mediates protein crosslinking through generation of ε-(γ-glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds and promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin (FN and integrins. Cell adhesion to the peritoneal matrix regulated by TG2 facilitates ovarian cancer dissemination. Therefore, disruption of the TG2-FN complex by small molecules may inhibit cell adhesion and metastasis. A novel high throughput screening (HTS assay based on AlphaLISA™ technology was developed to measure the formation of a complex between His-TG2 and the biotinylated FN fragment that binds TG2 and to discover small molecules that inhibit this protein-protein interaction. Several hits were identified from 10,000 compounds screened. The top candidates selected based on >70% inhibition of the TG2/FN complex formation were confirmed by using ELISA and bioassays measuring cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation. In conclusion, the AlphaLISA bead format assay measuring the TG2-FN interaction is robust and suitable for HTS of small molecules. One compound identified from the screen (TG53 potently inhibited ovarian cancer cell adhesion to FN, cell migration, and invasion and could be further developed as a potential inhibitor for ovarian cancer dissemination.

  10. Fibronectin Pattern in Benign Hyperplasia and Cancer of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava M. Janković

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN is a multifunctional glycoprotein involved in cell-matrix interactions. It exhibits a complex pattern of forms differing in respect to aminoacid and oligosaccharide composition. In this study we examined glycobiochemical and functional properties of the FN in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostatic cancer (PCa, attempting to resolve disease-related differences. Two BPH sera pools and three PCa sera pools were used as the FN source. The affinity-purified molecule was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immuno- and lectin blot, lectin-affinity chromatography and adhesion assay. BPH FN existed as intact molecule, giving the main immunoreactive band at 220 kDa. In contrast, PCa FN comprised three main immunoreactive fragments of 140, 110 and 90 kDa. As for glycosylation the ratio of altogether lectin-reactive PCa FN was different from that of BPH FN manifested as a decrease of Con A- and an increase of LCA-reactive moieties. Fibroblasts adhered to both FN preparations in a concentration dependent manner, but with a significantly lower efficiency to PCa FN. The results obtained showing distinct structural characteristics of PCa FN compared to BPH FN could be important for modulation of its ligand and recognition properties expressed as gain or loss of functions or as specific markers of its origin.

  11. EDA-containing fibronectin increases proliferation of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Losino

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM, a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA(+. Here, we investigated if the FN EDA(+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA(-, and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC's proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC's proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy.

  12. Kinetics of conformational changes of fibronectin adsorbed onto model surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baujard-Lamotte, L; Noinville, S; Goubard, F; Marque, P; Pauthe, E

    2008-05-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a large glycoprotein found in body fluids and in the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in numerous cellular behaviours. We investigate FN adsorption onto hydrophilic bare silica and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) surfaces using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) in aqueous medium. Adsorption kinetics using different bulk concentrations of FN were followed for 2h and the surface density of adsorbed FN and its time-dependent conformational changes were determined. When adsorption occurs onto the hydrophilic surface, FN molecules keep their native conformation independent of the adsorption conditions, but the amount of adsorbed FN increases with time and the bulk concentration. Although the protein surface density is the same on the hydrophobic PS surface, this has a strong impact on the average conformation of the adsorbed FN layer. Indeed, interfacial hydration changes induced by adsorption onto the hydrophobic surface lead to a decrease in unhydrated beta-sheet content and cause an increase in hydrated beta-strand and hydrated random domain content of adsorbed FN. This conformational change is mainly dependent on the bulk concentration. Indeed, at low bulk concentrations, the secondary structures of adsorbed FN molecules undergo strong unfolding, allowing an extended and hydrated conformation of the protein. At high bulk concentrations, the molecular packing reduces the unfolding of the stereoregular structures of the FN molecules, preventing stronger spreading of the protein.

  13. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Chandar Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave's disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant's specific signs and symptoms. PMID:24251220

  14. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  15. The transcription factor ETS-1 regulates angiotensin II-stimulated fibronectin production in mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ping; Feng, Wenguang; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Chumley, Phillip; Jaimes, Edgar A

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) produced as result of activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease via its hemodynamic effects on the renal microcirculation as well as by its nonhemodynamic actions including the production of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that plays a major role in cell adhesion and migration as well as in the development of glomerulosclerosis. ETS-1 is an important transcription factor essential for normal kidney development and glomerular integrity. We previously showed that ANG II increases ETS-1 expression and is required for fibronectin production in mesangial cells. In these studies, we determined that ANG II induces phosphorylation of ETS-1 via activation of the type 1 ANG II receptor and that Erk1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation are required for these effects. In addition, we characterized the role of ETS-1 on the transcriptional activation of fibronectin production in mesangial cells. We determined that ETS-1 directly activates the fibronectin promoter and by utilizing gel shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified two different ETS-1 binding sites that promote the transcriptional activation of fibronectin in response to ANG II. In addition, we identified the essential role of CREB and its coactivator p300 on the transcriptional activation of fibronectin by ETS-1. These studies unveil novel mechanisms involved in RAS-induced production of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in mesangial cells and establish the role of the transcription factor ETS-1 as a direct mediator of these effects.

  16. Cooperative effects of fibronectin matrix assembly and initial cell-substrate adhesion strength in cellular self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James R; Hocking, Denise C

    2016-03-01

    The cell-dependent polymerization of intercellular fibronectin fibrils can stimulate cells to self-assemble into multicellular structures. The local physical cues that support fibronectin-mediated cellular self-assembly are largely unknown. Here, fibronectin matrix analogs were used as synthetic adhesive substrates to model cell-matrix fibronectin fibrils having different integrin-binding specificity, affinity, and/or density. We utilized this model to quantitatively assess the relationship between adhesive forces derived from cell-substrate interactions and the ability of fibronectin fibril assembly to induce cellular self-assembly. Results indicate that the strength of initial, rather than mature, cell-substrate attachments correlates with the ability of substrates to support fibronectin-mediated cellular self-assembly. The cellular response to soluble fibronectin was bimodal and independent of the integrin-binding specificity of the substrate; increasing soluble fibronectin levels above a critical threshold increased aggregate cohesion on permissive substrates. Once aggregates formed, continuous fibronectin polymerization was necessary to maintain cohesion. During self-assembly, soluble fibronectin decreased cell-substrate adhesion strength and induced aggregate cohesion via a Rho-dependent mechanism, suggesting that the balance of contractile forces derived from fibronectin fibrils within cell-cell versus cell-substrate adhesions controls self-assembly and aggregate cohesion. Thus, initial cell-substrate attachment strength may provide a quantitative basis with which to build predictive models of fibronectin-mediated microtissue fabrication on a variety of substrates. Cellular self-assembly is a process by which cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins spontaneously organize into three-dimensional (3D) tissues in the absence of external forces. Cellular self-assembly can be initiated in vitro, and represents a potential tool for tissue engineers to

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  19. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  20. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  1. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  2. Cervical Dystonia (Spasmodic Torticollis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many people who have cervical dystonia also experience neck pain that can radiate into the shoulders. The disorder also can cause headaches. In some people, the pain from cervical dystonia can be exhausting and disabling. Causes In ...

  3. Intrapartum fetal heart rate profiles with and without fetal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, J A; Pancham, S R; Worthington, D N

    1977-04-01

    Fetal heart rate profiles for periods up to 12 hours prior to delivery have been reviewed in 515 patients with a fetus at risk. Mechanisms other than fetal asphyxia will cause fetal heart rate decelerations, and fetal asphyxia may in some instances develop in the absence of total or late decelerations. However, an increasing incidence of total decelerations and late decelerations and particularly a marked pattern of total decelerations and late decelerations are of value in the prediction of fetal asphyxia. Fetal heart rate deceleration patterns can predict the probability of fetal asphyxia at the time of initial intervention, while a progression of fetal heart rate deceleration patterns in the individual fetus can be of assistance in the subsequent scheduling of serial acid-base assessments during labor.

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  9. Fibronectin regulates the activation of THP-1 cells by TGF-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A C; Fu, L

    2001-03-01

    To determine how fibronectin regulates the immunomodulatory effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta on THP-1 cells. THP-1 monocytic cell line. THP-1 cells were primed for 48 h in the presence or absence of 250 pM TGF-beta1. Assays or assessments carried out, together with statistical test applied. We found that adherence to fibronectin dramatically modulates the effects of TGF-beta1 on the human monocytic cell line THP-1. TGF-beta did not significantly affect constitutive interleukin (IL)-8 secretion or IL-1beta-induced IL-8 secretion from suspended cells. In contrast, TGF-beta stimulated IL-8 secretion as well as augmented IL-1beta-induced IL-8 secretion from adherent cells. The differential effects of TGF-beta1 on IL-8 secretion from suspended and adherent cells could not be explained by differences in IL-1 receptor antagonist production. The effects of fibronectin on TGF-beta1 induced IL-8 secretion from THP-1 cells were mimicked by adhesion to immobilized anti-a4beta1 integrin antibody and to a fibronectin fragment containing the CS-1 domain. These results indicate that alpha4beta1-mediated adhesion to fibronectin may play a key role during inflammation by profoundly influencing the effects of TGF-beta1 on monocytes.

  10. Increased biosynthesis and processing of fibronectin in fibroblasts from diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan-Thanh, L.; Robert, L.; Derouette, J.C.; Labat-Robert, J.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetic connective tissues exhibit a deranged regulation of extracellular matrix biosynthesis. Fibronectin is shown to be increased in human dermal connective tissue by immunofluorescence, mainly at the dermoepidermal and capillary basement membranes. The rate of fibronectin biosynthesis, excretion, and incorporation in a pericellular polymeric form was investigated using genetically diabetic KK mouse skin and fibroblasts as compared to swiss and C57BL mouse skin and fibroblasts. The rate of incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine into proteins recovered in the culture medium or in deoxycholate and NaDodSO 4 or urea extracts was investigated. The rate of incorporation in the medium and deoxycholate extracts was comparable. However, the relative rate of incorporation of the tracer in the NaDodSO 4 -extractable, pericellular polymeric form was increased in the diabetic KK fibroblasts both for total proteins and for fibronectin. In pulse-chase experiments, the deoxycholate-soluble and NaDodSO 4 -soluble fractions exhibited a precursor-product relationship. The rate of passage of fibronectin from the deoxycholate-soluble (cellular compartment) form to the NaDodSO 4 -soluble (pericellular polymeric) form was strongly accelerated in the diabetic fibroblast cultures. These results confirm the increased rate of synthesis of fibronectin in diabetic fibroblasts as well as its processing from the cellular compartment to the polymeric pericellular form

  11. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  12. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages.

  13. Ultrasonic prediction of fetal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-19

    Feb 19, 1983 ... Summary. A clinically accurate method for estimating fetal. mass from fetal body parameters is reviewed. The abdominal circumference is first calculated from ... reliable clinical parameter is the impression of uterine volume,.

  14. Unexplained fetal death

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, Janer; Quintero, Eliana Maribel

    2004-01-01

    El porcentaje de muertes fetales inexplicadas oscila entre un 21% a 50%; se define como la muerte que ocurre en fetos con edad gestacional mayor de 20 semanas o peso superior a 500 g, en la cual ni la autopsia ni el examen histológico del cordón umbilical, placenta y membranas, se logra identificar la causa. Los factores asociados con muerte fetal inexplicada son edad materna mayor de 35 años, sobrepeso, nivel educativo menor de 10 años, cigarrillo y bajo nivel socioeconómico, entre otros. La...

  15. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma and chronic wounds: remaining fibronectin may influence matrix remodeling and regeneration success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Deffune, Elenice

    2013-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been largely used as a therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic wounds of different etiologies. The enhanced regeneration observed after the use of platelet-rich plasma has been systematically attributed to the growth factors that are present inside platelets' granules. We hypothesize that the remaining plasma and platelet-bound fibronectin may act as a further bioactive protein in platelet-rich plasma preparations. Recent reports were analyzed and presented as direct evidences of this hypotheses. Fibronectin may directly influence the extracellular matrix remodeling during wound repair. This effect is probably through matrix metalloproteinase expression, thus exerting an extra effect on chronic wound regeneration. Physicians should be well aware of the possible fibronectin-induced effects in their future endeavors with PRP in chronic wound treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  20. Cell shape and spreading of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells cultured on fibronectin coated gold and hydroxyapatite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkjær; Kolind, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the cellular mechanisms leading to the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite implants, we studied the interaction of human bone marrow derived stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) with fibronectin-coated gold (Au) and hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. The adsorption of fibronectin...

  1. DMPD: The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16978691 The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function...(.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function...and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function. Authors Schmidt DR, Kao WJ. Publication Bioma

  2. A synthetic peptide from the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin promotes focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; McCarthy, J B; Furcht, L T

    1993-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin involves complex transmembrane signaling processes. Attachment and spreading of primary fibroblasts can be promoted by interactions of cell surface integrins with RGD-containing fragments of fibronectin, but the further process o...

  3. Production of Fibronectin Binding Protein A at the surface of Lactococcus lactis increases plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pontes

    Full Text Available Lactococci are noninvasive lactic acid bacteria frequently used as protein delivery vectors and, more recently, as DNA delivery vehicles. We previously showed that Lactococcus lactis (LL expressing the Fibronectin-Binding Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (LL-FnBPA+ showed higher internalization rates in vitro in Caco-2 cells than the native (wt lactococci and were able to deliver a eukaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP expression plasmid in 1% of human Caco-2 cells. Here, using the bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG, one of the major cow's milk allergen, and GFP we characterized the potential of LL-FnBPA+ as an in vivo DNA vaccine delivery vehicle. We first showed that the invasive strain LL-FnBPA+ carrying the plasmid pValac:BLG (LL-FnBPA+ BLG was more invasive than LL-BLG and showed the same invasivity as LL-FnBPA+. Then we demonstrated that the Caco-2 cells, co-incubated with LL-FnBPA+ BLG produced up to 30 times more BLG than the Caco-2 cells co-incubated with the non invasive LL-BLG. Using two different gene reporters, BLG and GFP, and two different methods of detection, EIA and fluorescence microscopy, we showed in vivo that: i in order to be effective, LL-FnBPA+ required a pre-coating with Fetal Calf Serum before oral administration; ii plasmid transfer occurred in enterocytes without regard to the strains used (invasive or not; iii the use of LL-FnBPA+ increased the number of mice producing BLG, but not the level of BLG produced. We thus confirmed the good potential of invasive recombinant lactic acid bacteria as DNA delivery vector in vivo.

  4. The effect of fetal sex on customized fetal growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Prefumo, Federico; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Zanardini, Cristina; Di Martino, Daniela; Boito, Simona; Aiello, Elisa; Ghi, Tullio

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of fetal sex on singleton pregnancy growth charts customized for parental characteristics, race, and parity Methods: In a multicentric cross-sectional study, 8070 ultrasonographic examinations from low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation were considered. The fetal measurements obtained were biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL). Quantile regression was used to examine the impact of fetal sex across the biometric percentiles of the fetal measurements considered together with parents' height, weight, parity, and race. Fetal gender resulted to be a significant covariate for BDP, HC, and AC with higher values for male fetuses (p ≤ 0.0009). Minimal differences were found among sexes for FL. Parity, maternal race, paternal height and maternal height, and weight resulted significantly related to the fetal biometric parameters considered independently from fetal gender. In this study, we constructed customized biometric growth charts for fetal sex, parental, and obstetrical characteristics using quantile regression. The use of gender-specific charts offers the advantage to define individualized normal ranges of fetal biometric parameters at each specific centile. This approach may improve the antenatal identification of abnormal fetal growth.

  5. Fibrinogen and fibronectin binding cooperate for valve infection and invasion in Staphylococcus aureus experimental endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Que, Yok-Ai; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Piroth, Lionel; François, Patrice; Widmer, Eleonora; Entenza, José M; Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias; Francioli, Patrick; Vaudaux, Pierre; Moreillon, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The expression of Staphylococcus aureus adhesins in Lactococcus lactis identified clumping factor A (ClfA) and fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) as critical for valve colonization in rats with experimental endocarditis. This study further analyzed their role in disease evolution. Infected

  6. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farokhi, Mehdi [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanoechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidvar, Ramin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National cell bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghizadeh, Majid, E-mail: sadeghma@modares.ac.ir [Department Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT.

  7. The effect of fibronectin on structural and biological properties of single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Omidvar, Ramin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the cytocompatibility of single walled carbon nanotube by loading fibronectin. • Enhancing the hydrophilicity and nanosurface roughness of single walled carbon nanotube after loading fibronectin. • Fibronectin makes the surface properties of single walled carbon nanotube more suitable for cell proliferation and growth. - Abstract: Despite the attractive properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cytoxicity and hydrophobicity are two main considerable features which limit their application in biomedical fields. It was well established that treating CNTs with extracellular matrix components could reduce these unfavourable characteristics. In an attempt to address these issues, fibronectin (FN) with different concentrations was loaded on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) substrate. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were preformed in order to characterize FN loaded SWCNTs substrates. According to XPS and AFM results, FN could interact with SWCNTs and for this, the hydrophilicity of SWCNTs was improved. Additionally, SWCNT modified with FN showed less cytotoxicity compared with neat SWCNT. Finally, FN was shown to act as an interesting extracellular component for enhancing the biological properties of SWCNT

  8. Fetal cardiac assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    The better understanding of fetal cardiovascular physiology coupled with improved technology for non-invasive study of the fetus now enable much more detailed assessment of fetal cardiac status than by heart rate alone. Even the latter, relatively simple, measurement contains much more information than was previously realized. It is also increasingly clear that no single measurement will provide the answer to all clinical dilemmas either on cardiac function or the welfare of the fetus as a whole. There are obvious clinical advantages in measuring several variables from one signal and the measurement of heart rate, heart rate variation and waveform from the ECG in labour is a potentially useful combination. Systolic time intervals or flow measurements could easily be added or used separately by combining real-time and Doppler ultrasound probes

  9. Fetal chromosome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, A; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  10. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Rising rates of caesarean deliveries at full cervical dilatation: a concerning trend.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, J

    2011-08-01

    To audit caesarean sections performed at full cervical dilatation over a three year period in a tertiary referral centre in Ireland. To evaluate (i) the rate of caesarean deliveries in the second stage of labour, (ii) the indication for delivery and (iii) the associated fetal and maternal morbidity in this cohort of women.

  12. Adhesion of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes to fibronectin or laminin modifies tubulin and paraflagellar rod protein phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliciane C Mattos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagaś disease in humans. Adherence of the infective stage to elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM, as laminin and fibronectin, is an essential step in host cell invasion. Although members of the gp85/TS, as Tc85, were identified as laminin and fibronectin ligands, the signaling events triggered on the parasite upon binding to these molecules are largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viable infective parasites were incubated with laminin, fibronectin or bovine serum albumin for different periods of time and the proteins were separated by bidimensional gels. The phosphoproteins were envisaged by specific staining and the spots showing phosphorylation levels significantly different from the control were excised and identified by MS/MS. The results of interest were confirmed by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation and the localization of proteins in the parasite was determined by immunofluorescence. Using a host cell-free system, our data indicate that the phosphorylation contents of T. cruzi proteins encompassing different cellular functions are modified upon incubation of the parasite with fibronectin or laminin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Herein it is shown, for the first time, that paraflagellar rod proteins and α-tubulin, major structural elements of the parasite cytoskeleton, are predominantly dephosphorylated during the process, probably involving the ERK1/2 pathway. It is well established that T. cruzi binds to ECM elements during the cell infection process. The fact that laminin and fibronectin induce predominantly dephosphorylation of the main cytoskeletal proteins of the parasite suggests a possible correlation between cytoskeletal modifications and the ability of the parasite to internalize into host cells.

  13. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  14. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  15. Meningocele Cervical. Presentación de un caso Cervical meningocele. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Rita Camejo Macías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El meningocele cervical es una forma rara de disrafismo espinal. La placa neural pasa por diversas transformaciones hasta convertirse en el tubo neural y cualquier alteración durante su cierre conllevará la aparición de la espina bífida. Durante el embarazo las necesidades maternas de folatos aumentan debido a la síntesis de ácidos nucleicos y proteínas durante la embriogénesis, velocidad de crecimiento y desarrollo fetal de los primeros meses de la gestación. Se presenta el caso de paciente masculino de 12 meses de edad, nacido de un parto eutócico institucional ocurrido el día 5 de diciembre del 2008, con una tumoración en la región posterior del cuello al nacer; es remitido al servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Mario Catarino Rivas. Se observó como dato positivo en la región cervical un aumento de volumen redondeado, adherido al plano profundo, renitente, movible y no doloroso cubierto de piel en su totalidad. Se le diagnostica un meningocele cervical y confirma mediante resonancia magnética nuclear cervicodorsal. Se realizó la resección del mismo en el mes de febrero del año 2010 y ha sido evaluado periódicamente en las consultas de neurocirugía y en su área de salud con evolución satisfactoria.Cervical meningocele is a rare form of spinal dysrhahism. Neural plate undergoes various transformations to become into the neural tube, and any modifications occurring during the closure, will lead to the onset of spina bifida. During pregnancy the maternal needs of folates increase due to the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, all through the embryogenesis, velocity of growth and fetal development in the first months of pregnancy. A 12-months age, male patient, born from a normal delivery, December 5, 2008 at “Santa Barbara” Hospital, presented a tumor at birth in the posterior region of the neck; the patient was referred to the Neurosurgery Service at “Mario Catarino Rivas” Hospital. As positive information

  16. Pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Darryl C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a group of closely related disorders usually caused by spondylosis or by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and is characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots by varying degrees and number of levels. The decrease in diameter of the vertebral canal secondary to disc degeneration and osteophytic spurs compresses the spinal cord and nerve roots at one or several levels, producing direct damage and often secondary ischemic changes. Clinicians who treat cervical myelopathy cord injuries should have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology and the processes that are initiated after the spinal cord has been injured. Literature review. Literature review of human cervical myelopathy and clinically relevant animal models to further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved. The pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy involves static factors, which result in acquired or developmental stenosis of the cervical canal and dynamic factors, which involve repetitive injury to the cervical cord. These mechanical factors in turn result in direct injury to neurons and glia as well as a secondary cascade of events including ischemia, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis; a pathobiology similar to that occurring in traumatic spinal cord injury. This review summarizes some of the significant pathophysiological processes involved in cervical myelopathy.

  17. Imaging in cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Follen, M.; Levenback, C.F.; Iyer, R.B.; Grigsby, P.W.; Boss, E.A.; Delpassand, E.S.; Fornage, B.D.; Fishman, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer traditionally has been staged clinically. Advances in imaging could improve the staging of cervical cancer by facilitating the detection of lymph node metastases and micrometastases in distant organs. Such progress could lead to improvements in treatment selection and therefore

  18. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 6,2016 ... Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis Introduction Common Tests Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  20. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  1. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in fetal intervention and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this poster is to illustrate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide detailed anatomical information in the assessment of fetal anomalies, and the role this information plays in planning maternal and fetal management and treatment. Between November 1999 and June 2001, 41 fetal MRI examinations were performed on 34 patients at the Royal Children's Hospital. The patients were referred for further imaging by neonatologists and paediatric specialists, who had been consulted following an anomaly being detected on routine obstetric ultrasound. Gestational age ranged between 19 and 36 weeks, with a mean gestational age on presentation of 23.5 weeks. All the patients were scanned with high-resolution single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) T2 weighted sequences, in multiple planes, using a 1.5 Tesla GE LX Echo-speed magnet. Fetal MRI confirmed the diagnosis in 10 cases, added to the ultrasound diagnosis or confirmed a differential diagnosis in 11 cases, and altered the diagnosis in 9 cases (of which 4 were shown to be normal variants). MRI was able to make the diagnosis in 1 case (cervical teratoma), and guided perinatal intervention in 4 cases (1 cervical teratoma, 1 sacrococcygeal teratoma, 1 vein of Galen aneurysm, and 1 case of conjoint twins). In all of the cases to date, MR imaging has provided useful information, particularly in the area of parental counselling, and for practitioners providing fetal management options. While ultrasound remains the screening modality of choice for fetal imaging, the introduction of ultra-fast imaging sequences has dramatically improved the ability of MRI to evaluate fetal anomalies. MRI, with its excellent soft tissue contrast, large field of view, and multiplanar capabilities, frequently provides invaluable additional and complementary information to ultrasound. This is proving particularly useful in the pre-natal management and counselling, the planning of antenatal and peripartum

  2. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes

  3. Molecular Docking Characterization of a Four-Domain Segment of Human Fibronectin Encompassing the RGD Loop with Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailin Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin adsorption on biomaterial surfaces plays a key role in the biocompatibility of biomedical implants. In the current study, the adsorption behavior of the 7–10th type III modules of fibronectin (FN-III7–10 in the presence of hydroxyapatite (HAP was systematically investigated by using molecular docking approach. It was revealed that the FN-III10 is the most important module among FN-III7–10 in promoting fibronectin binding to HAP by optimizing the interaction energy; the arginine residues were observed to directly interact with the hydroxyl group of HAP through electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding. Moreover, it was found that the HAP-binding sites on FN-III10 are mainly located at the RGD loop region, which does not affect the interaction between the fibronectin protein and its cognate receptors on the cell surface.

  4. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, John M

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the “low risk” population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment

  5. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deep, Gagan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  6. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  7. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  8. Congenital Cervical Teratoma: Anaesthetic Management (The EXIT Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Bilgin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT is a procedure performed during caesarean section with preservation of fetal-placental circulation, which allows the safe handling of fetal airways with risk of airways obstruction. This report aimed at describing a case of anaesthesia for EXIT in a fetus with cervical teratoma. A 30-year-old woman, 70 kg, 160 cm, gravida 2, para 1, was followed because of polyhydramniosis diagnosed at 24 weeks′ gestation. During a routine ultrasonographic examination at 35 weeks′ gestation, it was noticed that the fetus had a tumoral mass on the anterior neck, the mass had cystic and calcified components and with a size of was 10 x 6 x5 cm. The patient with physical status ASA I, was submitted to caesarean section under general anaesthesia with mechanically controlled ventilation for exutero intrapartum treatment (EXIT. Anaesthesia was induced in rapid sequence with fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium and was maintained with isoflurane in 2.5 at 3 % in O 2 and N 2 O (50%. After hysterotomy, fetus was partially released assuring uterus-placental circulation, followed by fetal laryngoscopy and tracheal intuba-tion. The infant was intubated with an uncuffed, size 2.5 endotracheal tube. Excision of the mass was performed under general anaesthesia. After surgical intervention, on the fourth postoperative day, the infant was extubated and the newborn was discharged to the pediatric neonatal unit and on the seventh day postoperatively to home without complications. Major recommendations for EXIT are maternal-fetal safety, uterine relaxation to maintain uterine volume and uterus-placental circulation, and fetal immobility to help airway handling. We report one case of cervical teratoma managed successfully with EXIT procedure.

  9. Serum and plasma fibronectin binds to complement reacted immune complexes primarily via Clq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E

    1986-01-01

    The binding of fibronectin to human Clq, C3b, and complement-reacted immune complexes (IC) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Microplates were coated with BSA followed by incubation with rabbit-anti-BSA IgG or F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit anti-BSA. Incubation of the solid phase...... with serum at 37 degrees C caused attachment of Clq and C3b. Addition of EDTA to the serum inhibited the binding of C3b, but not Clq, whereas substitution of the anti-BSA IgG on the solid phase with the F(ab')2 fragments abrogated the Clq, but not the C3b binding. Fibronectin binding was observed after...

  10. Tlx acts as a proangiogenic switch by regulating extracellular assembly of fibronectin matrices in retinal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Akiyoshi; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Wiegand, Stanley J; Yu, Ruth T; Nishikawa, Shin-ichi

    2006-02-01

    In response to hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factors act as the primary proangiogenic triggers by regulating transcription levels of target genes, including VEGF. However, little is known about the specific factors that control other components of the angiogenic process, particularly formation of matrix scaffolds that promote adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. We show that in the postnatal mouse retina, the orphan nuclear receptor tailless (Tlx) is strongly expressed in the proangiogenic astrocytes, which secrete VEGF and fibronectin. Tlx expression by retinal astrocytes is controlled by oxygen concentration and rapidly downregulated upon contact with blood vessels. In mice null for Tlx, retinal astrocytes maintain VEGF expression; however, the extracellular assembly of fibronectin matrices by astrocytes is severely impaired, leading to defective scaffold formation and a complete failure of normal retinal vascular development. This work identifies Tlx as an essential component of the molecular network involved in the hypoxia-inducible proangiogenic switch in retinal astrocytes.

  11. Proteases secreted by Gnathostoma binucleatum degrade fibronectin and antibodies from mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibanco-Pérez N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostomiasis is a prevalent zoonosis in humans in some regions of the world. The genus Gnathostoma is considered an accidental parasite for humans; G. binucleatum is the endemic species in Nayarit, Mexico. This work was designed to determine the proteolytic activity of the excretory-secretory products (ESP of advanced third-stage larvae (ADVL3 of Gnathostoma binucleatum against human fibronectin and antibodies from human and sheep. Our findings showed protease activity against human fibronectin as well as sheep and human gamma globulins of the ESP at molecular weights of 80 and 56 kDa. The proteases found in the ESP of G. binucleatum are thus candidate molecules for consideration as pathogenic elements, owing to the fact that they destroy proteins of the host tissue, which probably allows them to migrate through those tissues and degrade molecules involved in the humoral immune response.

  12. Quantitative fibronectin to help decision-making in women with symptoms of preterm labour (QUIDS) part 1: Individual participant data meta-analysis and health economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Lisa M; Boyd, Kathleen A; Morris, Rachel K; Jackson, Lesley; Chandiramani, Manju; David, Anna L; Khalil, Asma; Shennan, Andrew; Hodgetts Morton, Victoria; Lavender, Tina; Khan, Khalid; Harper-Clarke, Susan; Mol, Ben W; Riley, Richard D; Norrie, John; Norman, Jane E

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (qfFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. Methods and analysis The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In part 1 of the study, we will develop and internally validate a prognostic model using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of existing studies containing women with symptoms of preterm labour alongside fFN measurements and pregnancy outcome. An economic analysis will be undertaken to assess potential cost-effectiveness of the qfFN prognostic model. The primary endpoint will be the ability of the prognostic model to rule out spontaneous preterm birth within 7 days. Six eligible studies were identified by systematic review of the literature and five agreed to provide their IPD (n=5 studies, 1783 women and 139 events of preterm delivery within 7 days of testing). Ethics and dissemination The study is funded by the National Institute of Healthcare Research Health Technology Assessment (HTA 14/32/01). It has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (16/WS/0068). PROSPERO registration number CRD42015027590. Version Protocol version 2, date 1 November 2016. PMID:29627817

  13. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    in the controls (obese r = 0.06, controls r = 0.02; p greater than 0.05). Plasma fibronectin was insignificantly correlated with body weight (obese r = 0.21, controls r = 0.15; p greater than 0.05) and percentage overweight (obese r = 0.27, controls r = 0.04; p greater than 0.05). The raised level of circulating...

  14. Oxidative damage to fibronectin. 2. The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissers, M.C.; Winterbourn, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical (.OH) on fibronectin was investigated. .OH was generated in three ways: (1) by radiolysis with 60Co under N2O, or by the Fenton system using either (2) equimolar Fe(2+)-EDTA and H2O2 or (3) H2O2 and catalytic amounts of Fe(2+)-EDTA recycled with ascorbate. Each system had a different effect. H2O2 alone caused no changes, even at an 800-fold molar excess. Radiolytic .OH caused a rapid loss of tryptophan fluorescence, an increase in bityrosine fluorescence, and extensive crosslinking. The Fenton system using Fe-EDTA, H2O2, and ascorbate caused a loss in tryptophan fluorescence, a smaller increase in bityrosine than was seen with radiolytic .OH, and a threefold increase in carbonyl groups. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis fragmentation of fibronectin was seen. In contrast, when .OH was generated with equimolar Fe-EDTA and H2O2, the only change was a small increase in bityrosine fluorescence at the highest dose of oxidant. None of the systems used affected cysteine. All the changes except the loss of tryptophan by radiolytic .OH were completely inhibited with mannitol. The differences seen with radiolytic .OH and the Fe-EDTA, H2O2, ascorbate system were not solely due to O2 in the latter system since similar results were obtained under N2. The differences between radiolytic .OH and the Fenton systems could be partly due to the components of the latter systems reacting with .OH and thus competing with fibronectin. The authors results demonstrate that the extent and type of fibronectin damage by .OH is dependent on the mode of radical generation

  15. Improved endothelial cell seeding with cultured cells and fibronectin-coated grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, J.M.; Klingman, N.

    1985-01-01

    A possible approach to the low seeding efficiency of endothelial cells into prosthetic grafts is to increase the number of cells to be seeded in cell culture and improve seeding efficiency by graft precoating with fibronectin. The effect of cell culture on cell adhesion is unknown, however, and fibronectin also binds fibrin, which may increase the thrombogenicity of the graft luminal surface. To investigate these questions, freshly harvested canine jugular vein endothelial cells from six animals and similar cells harvested from six primary and eight secondary cell cultures were labeled with 111 Indium and seeded into 5 cm, 4 mm PTFE grafts coated with fibronectin, using similar uncoated PTFE grafts as controls. Platelet accumulation and distribution on six similar coated and uncoated grafts placed in canine carotid, external jugular arterial venous shunts for 2 hr were also determined using autogenous 111 Indium-labeled platelets. Significant differences between group means were determined using the paired Student's t test. Results reveal that seeding efficiency is significantly better in all groups of coated grafts compared to uncoated grafts (P less than 0.01). Cells derived from cell culture also had significantly higher seeding efficiencies than freshly harvested cells when seeded into coated grafts (P less than 0.05) and tended to have higher seeding efficiencies than harvested cells when seeded into uncoated grafts (P = 0.53). Fibronectin coating increased mean platelet accumulation on the entire graft luminal surface, but not to a statistically significant degree (P greater than 0.1). Whether this increased seeding efficiency will improve graft endothelialization remains to be investigated

  16. Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of fibronectin in rheumatoid pannus and at the cartilage-pannus junction.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozawa, S; Ziff, M

    1983-01-01

    The presence of fibronectin (Fn) in rheumatoid pannus was investigated by an immunoelectron microscopic method using horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibody to stain Fn. Large amounts of Fn were demonstrated in the interstitial collagenous tissue of invasive rheumatoid pannus. Fn was also observed on the surface of both fibroblast-like and macrophage-like pannus cells, suggesting that it was secreted by these cells and that the secreted Fn might facilitate the spreading of the pannus cells...

  17. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis reduces versican and fibronectin levels in trabecular meshwork cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Keller

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM and is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS. Similarities between the HAS2 knockout mouse and the hdf mutant mouse, which has a mutation in the versican gene, suggest that HA and versican expression may be linked. In this study, the relationship between HA synthesis and levels of versican, fibronectin and several other ECM components in trabecular meshwork cells from the anterior segment of the eye was investigated. HA synthesis was inhibited using 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU, or reduced by RNAi silencing of each individual HAS gene. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated a reduction in mRNA and protein levels of versican and fibronectin. Hyaluronidase treatment also reduced versican and fibronectin levels. These effects could not be reversed by addition of excess glucose or glucosamine or exogenous HA to the culture medium. CD44, tenascin C and fibrillin-1 mRNA levels were reduced by 4MU treatment, but SPARC and CSPG6 mRNA levels were unaffected. Immunostaining of trabecular meshwork tissue after exposure to 4MU showed an altered localization pattern of HA-binding protein, versican and fibronectin. Reduction of versican by RNAi silencing did not affect HA concentration as assessed by ELISA. Together, these data imply that HA concentration affects synthesis of certain ECM components. Since precise regulation of the trabecular meshwork ECM composition and organization is required to maintain the aqueous humor outflow resistance and intraocular pressure homeostasis in the eye, coordinated coupling of HA levels and several of its ECM binding partners should facilitate this process.

  18. Cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Sage, M.R.; Brophy, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Although cervical spondylosis is a common disorder, dysphagia induced by osteophyte formation is uncommon. Fewer than one hundred cases of cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia have been reported, with little attention to the diagnosis by barium swallow. The radiological features of two cases treated surgically with good results are described. Both cases complained of dysphagia while one had associated respiratory obstruction on forward flexion of his neck. The features on barium study of cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia include deformity at the level of osteophyte formation, in both AP and lateral projections. Tracheal aspirations due to deformity at the laryngeal inlet and interference with epiglottic retroversion may be present. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  20. Immunofluorescent histological studies of the role of fibronectin in the expression of the associative preferences of embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, P B; Armstrong, M T

    1981-08-01

    The identity of the chemical factors controlling the spreading behaviour of sheets of cells was examined in organ culture. When aggregates of two dissimilar tissues are apposed in organ culture, one tissue spreads reproducibly over the surface of the second. The present study employed indirect immunofluorescent localization techniques to evaluate the hypothesis that the spreading behaviour of chick embryonic heart tissue in culture is dominated by the presence or absence of the cell-surface and extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in the surface layers of the aggregates. Specifically, the hypothesis proposes that aggregates that display surface fibronectin earlier after culturing and/or in higher quantities segregate internally to aggregates that are slower to develop a surface layer of fibronectin or in which this layer contains reduced amounts of fibronectin. The hypothesis has been supported for 3 categories of behaviour of chick embryo heart tissue: (1) myocyte aggregates spread over myocyte aggregates containing a 20% admixture of heart fibroblasts, which in turn spread over heart fibroblast aggregates; (2) 5-day embryonic ventricle-tissue fragments maintained in culture for 0.5 days spread over ventricle fragments cultured for 2.5 days; and (3) 2-day embryonic ventricle spreads over 5-day ventricle. In all these situations, the aggregate type that segregates to an internal position displays more fibronectin at its surface than aggregate types that spread to occupy an external position. Evidence is presented that the fibronectin in heart tissue aggregates is elaborated by heart fibroblasts.

  1. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins: tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interchanged stromal-epithelial relations and altered expression profiles of various extracellular matrix (ECM proteins creates a suitable microenvironment for cancer development and growth. We support the opinion that remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important role in the cancer progression. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ECM proteins tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Glands and surrounding stroma were analyzed in randomly selected specimens from 52 patients with prostate cancer and 28 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP. To evaluate the intensity of tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 expression the percentage of positively immunostained stromal cells was examined.Results: Compared to BPH, stroma of prostatic adenocarcinoma showed statistically significant increase in tenascin-C expression (p<0.001, predominantly around neoplastic glands, while fibronectin (p=0.001 and galectin-3 (p<0.001 expression in the same area was decreased.Conclusions: Our study confirms changes in the expression of ECM proteins of prostate cancer which may have important role in the cancer development.

  2. MicroRNA MiR-17 retards tissue growth and represses fibronectin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Sze Wan; Lee, Daniel Y; Deng, Zhaoqun; Shatseva, Tatiana; Jeyapalan, Zina; Du, William W; Zhang, Yaou; Xuan, Jim W; Yee, Siu-Pok; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Yang, Burton B

    2009-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded regulatory RNAs, frequently expressed as clusters. Previous studies have demonstrated that the six-miRNA cluster miR-17~92 has important roles in tissue development and cancers. However, the precise role of each miRNA in the cluster is unknown. Here we show that overexpression of miR-17 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17 showed overall growth retardation, smaller organs and greatly reduced haematopoietic cell lineages. We found that fibronectin and the fibronectin type-III domain containing 3A (FNDC3A) are two targets that have their expression repressed by miR-17, both in vitro and in transgenic mice. Several lines of evidence support the notion that miR-17 causes cellular defects through its repression of fibronectin expression. Our single miRNA expression assay may be evolved to allow the manipulation of individual miRNA functions in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that this could serve as a model for studying gene regulation by miRNAs in the development of gene therapy.

  3. Structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahuhta, Markus; Xu, Qi; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The crystals used for data collection belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 35.43, b = 45.73, c = 107.72 Å, and the structure was refined to an R factor of 0.166. Structural comparisons found over 800 similar structures in the Protein Data Bank. The broad range of different proteins or protein domains with high structural similarity makes it especially demanding to classify these proteins. Previous studies of fibronectin type III-like modules have indicated that they might function as ligand-binding modules, as a compact form of peptide linkers or spacers between other domains, as cellulose-disrupting modules or as proteins that help large enzyme complexes remain soluble

  4. Collagen fibrillogenesis: fibronectin, integrins, and minor collagens as organizers and nucleators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, Karl E; Hill, Adele; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    Collagens are triple helical proteins that occur in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and at the cell-ECM interface. There are more than 30 collagens and collagen-related proteins but the most abundant are collagens I and II that exist as D-periodic (where D = 67 nm) fibrils. The fibrils are of broad biomedical importance and have central roles in embryogenesis, arthritis, tissue repair, fibrosis, tumor invasion, and cardiovascular disease. Collagens I and II spontaneously form fibrils in vitro, which shows that collagen fibrillogenesis is a selfassembly process. However, the situation in vivo is not that simple; collagen I-containing fibrils do not form in the absence of fibronectin, fibronectin-binding and collagen-binding integrins, and collagen V. Likewise, the thin collagen II-containing fibrils in cartilage do not form in the absence of collagen XI. Thus, in vivo, cellular mechanisms are in place to control what is otherwise a protein self-assembly process. This review puts forward a working hypothesis for how fibronectin and integrins (the organizers) determine the site of fibril assembly, and collagens V and XI (the nucleators) initiate collagen fibrillogenesis.

  5. The role of Mycobacterium avium complex fibronectin attachment protein in adherence to the human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Wilson, R

    2000-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic respiratory pathogens that infect non-immunocompromised patients with established lung disease, although they can also cause primary infections. The ability to bind fibronectin is conserved among many mycobacterial species. We have investigated the adherence of a sputum isolate of MAC to the mucosa of organ cultures constructed with human tissue and the contribution of M. avium fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) to the process. MAC adhered to fibrous, but not globular mucus, and to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of epithelial damage, but not to intact extruded cells and collagen fibres. Bacteria occasionally adhered to healthy unciliated epithelium and to cells that had degenerated exposing their contents, but never to ciliated cells. The results obtained with different respiratory tissues were similar. Two ATCC strains of MAC gave similar results. There was a significant reduction (P fibrous mucus was unchanged. Immunogold labelling demonstrated fibronectin in ECM as well as in other areas of epithelial damage, but only ECM bound FAP. A Mycobacterium smegmatis strain had the same pattern of adherence to the mucosa as MAC. When the FAP gene was deleted, the strain demonstrated reduced adherence to ECM, and adherence was restored when the strain was transfected with an M. avium FAP expression construct. We conclude that MAC adheres to ECM in areas of epithelial damage via FAP and to mucus with a fibrous appearance via another adhesin. Epithelial damage exposing ECM and poor mucus clearance will predispose to MAC airway infection.

  6. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function. Seventy-five per cent of patients with mild symptoms (sensory changes but no functional ... of both motor and sensory function as well as ... pathological and compressive) structures, ... management of cervical degenerative disease:.

  7. Cervical MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bones and cartilage in the neck ( cervical spondylosis ) Abnormal results may also be due to: Bone ... Park AL. Degenerative disorders of the thoracic and lumbar spine. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, ...

  8. Cervical Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Tuomas; Kajosaari, Lauri

    2017-03-01

    Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are rare malformations usually found in the lower neck. As high as 76% of patients have been reported to have associated anomalies. We review the literature and report a case series of seven patients with cervical cartilaginous remnants.   A retrospective case series of seven patients identified from the electronic hospital records.   Seven patients with cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants were identified (six boys and one girl). Only one of the patients had associated anomalies.   A review of the literature revealed no evidence for sinuses or cysts related to cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants. Operative treatment can be postponed to a suitable and safe age. There is marked variation in the reported prevalence of associated anomalies, ranging from 11% to 76%.

  9. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  10. The cervical cap (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  11. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.

  12. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  13. Herniated Cervical Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes prescribed for more severe arm and neck pain because of their very powerful anti-inflammatory effect. ... caused by a herniated cervical disc. However, some neck pain may persist. Most patients respond well to discectomy; ...

  14. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica; Capilla, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  15. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  16. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal stethoscope. 884.2900 Section 884.2900 Food... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart... conventional stethoscopes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  17. [Incidence of fetal macrosomia: maternal and fetal morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, R R; Cantú-Esquivel, M G; Benavides-de la Garza, L; Benavides-de Anda, L

    1996-06-01

    The macrosomia is an obstetric eventuality associated to high maternal-fetal morbidity-mortality. This assay was planned in order to know the incidence of macrosomia in our institution, the relation between vaginal and abdominal deliveries and the fetal-maternal morbidity we reviewed 3590 records and we found 5.6% incidence of macrosomia in the global obstetric population. There was 58% of vaginal deliveries, 68% of the newborn were male. The main complications were in the C. sections, 2 laceration of the hysterectomy, and 2 peroperative atonias. In the vaginal deliveries, the lacerations of III and IV grade were 9 of each grade. The main fetal complications were 5 slight to severe asphyxia and 4 shoulder dystocias. This assay concludes that the macrosomia in our service is similar to the already published ones, a 42% were C. section and the maternal-fetal morbidity was low.

  18. Digital communication with fetal monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Z

    1997-11-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) values in the averaged format that are provided by commercial computed cardiotocography analysis systems may be unsuitable for special analysis purposes. I developed a communication software program to obtain any measured values of fetal monitors for individual analysis of computed cardiotocography. The software program was used to study the data continuity of beat-to-beat FHR values as an experiment for chaos theory and power spectrum analysis. The results indicated that the signal loss was recognized at a precision of 95%. The described method of digital communication with fetal monitors was found to be useful for individual purposes in the field of computed cardiotocography analysis.

  19. Ultrasonographic determination of fetal gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Bae, Dong Han

    1985-01-01

    Sonographic determination of fetal gender was attempted prospectively in most pregnancies of more than 26 weeks. We studied 193 cases of pregnancies with ultrasound for recent 9 months from June 1984 to February 1985 at department of radiology, Soonchunhyang university, Soonchunhyang Chunan hospital, and analysed ultrasonographic finding of fetal gender. The results were as follows; 1. Overall accuracy rate for fetal gender is 90%. 2. Accuracy rate for male fetus is 97.8%. 3. Accuracy rate for female fetus is 88.2%

  20. MRI of the fetal abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, M.; Brugger, P.C.; Witzani, L.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic component for central nervous system and thoracic diseases during fetal development. Although ultrasound remains the method of choice for observing the fetus during pregnancy, fetal MRI is being increasingly used as an additional technique for the accurate diagnosis of abdominal diseases. Recent publications confirm the value of MRI in the diagnosis of fetal gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system diseases. The following report provides an overview of MRI-examination techniques for the most frequent diseases of the abdomen. (orig.) [de

  1. The Danish fetal medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  2. MRI imaging of fetal neck masses with airway compromise: utility in delivery planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathary, N.; Bulas, D.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Newman, K.D. [Dept. of Surgery, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Schonberg, R.L. [Dept. of Medical Genetics, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-10-01

    We present two cases of fetal neck masses that were initially diagnosed by ultrasound and further evaluated with prenatal MRI. MRI findings aided in further delineating the neck masses, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis (cervical teratoma and cystic hygroma). With the fetal airway typically filled with fluid that is of high signal on T2-weighted sequences, MRI images in three planes could identify whether the fetal larynx and trachea were partially or completely compressed by the neck tumor. This information was particularly useful in determining if a controlled delivery such as ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) was necessary and aided the surgeons in planning their approach to establishing airway control in the delivery room. (orig.)

  3. MRI imaging of fetal neck masses with airway compromise: utility in delivery planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathary, N.; Bulas, D.I.; Newman, K.D.; Schonberg, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    We present two cases of fetal neck masses that were initially diagnosed by ultrasound and further evaluated with prenatal MRI. MRI findings aided in further delineating the neck masses, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis (cervical teratoma and cystic hygroma). With the fetal airway typically filled with fluid that is of high signal on T2-weighted sequences, MRI images in three planes could identify whether the fetal larynx and trachea were partially or completely compressed by the neck tumor. This information was particularly useful in determining if a controlled delivery such as ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) was necessary and aided the surgeons in planning their approach to establishing airway control in the delivery room. (orig.)

  4. Intrauterine position affects fetal weight and crown-rump length throughout gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, Y L; Lindemann, M D

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of intrauterine positions on fetal growth throughout gestation, data from a total of 65 gilts (n = 784 fetuses) that were slaughtered at assigned days of gestation (d 43, 58, 73, 91, 101, and 108) on a project to evaluate fetal mineral deposition were used. Placenta units were removed from the uterus, and position, sex, weight, and crown-rump length (CRL) of each fetus were recorded. Fetuses were classified into 5 categories within a uterine horn for the absolute intrauterine position: the ovarian end (OE) of the uterine horn, next to the ovarian end (NOE), the middle (MD), next to the cervical end (NCE), and the cervical end (CE), and also classified for the relative fetal position with respect to the sex of adjacent fetuses. Fetuses at the OE and NOE of the uterine horn tended to be heavier (P = 0.06) and longer (P sex (fetuses surrounded by the opposite sexes) in weight or length. Male fetuses were heavier than female fetuses at d 43, 58, 73, and 108 of gestation (P position affects fetal growth more than the sex of the adjacent fetus in the uterine horn, 2) each end of the uterine horn (OE and CE) has heavier fetuses than the MD, and 3) male pigs grow faster than female pigs even before birth.

  5. Clinical implications from monitoring fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-12-15

    The monitoring of fetal motion in high-risk pregnancies has been shown to be worthwhile in predicting fetal distress and impending fetal death. The maternal recording of perceived fetal activity is an inexpensive surveillance technique which is most useful when there is chronic uteroplacental insufficiency or when a stillbirth may be expected. The presence of an active, vigorous fetus is reassuring, but documented fetal inactivity required a reassessment of the underlying antepartum complication and further fetal evaluation with real-time ultrasonography, fetal heart rate testing, and biochemical testing. Fetal distress from such acute changes as abruptio placentae or umbilical cord compression may not be predicted by monitoring fetal motion. Although not used for routine clinical investigation, electromechanical devices such as tocodynamometry have provided much insight into fetal behavioral patterns at many stages of pregnancy and in pregnancies with an antepartum complication.

  6. KYSTE THYMIQUE CERVICAL CERVICAL THYMIC CYST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tic est souvent de découverte histologique après l'examen de la pièce opératoire. Nous rapportons un cas de kyste thymique cervical et nous exposons les particularités em- bryologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques de cette entité pathologique. OBSERVATION CLINIQUE. Il s'agit d'une patiente, âgée de sept ans, qui nous ...

  7. Impact of sub-inhibitory antibiotics on fibronectin-mediated host cell adhesion and invasion by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasigade Jean

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a well-armed pathogen prevalent in severe infections such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Fibronectin-binding proteins A and B, encoded by fnbA/B, are major pathogenesis determinants in these infections through their involvement in S. aureus adhesion to and invasion of host cells. Sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs of antibiotics, frequently occurring in vivo because of impaired drug diffusion at the infection site, can alter S. aureus phenotype. We therefore investigated their impact on S. aureus fibronectin-mediated adhesiveness and invasiveness. Methods After in vitro challenge of S. aureus 8325-4 and clinical isolates with sub-MICs of major anti-staphylococcal agents, we explored fnbA/B transcription levels, bacterial adhesiveness to immobilised human fibronectin and human osteoblasts in culture, and bacterial invasion of human osteoblasts. Results Oxacillin, moxifloxacin and linezolid led to the development of a hyper-adhesive phenotype in the fibronectin adhesion assay that was consistent with an increase in fnbA/B transcription. Conversely, rifampin treatment decreased fibronectin binding in all strains tested without affecting fnbA/B transcription. Gentamicin and vancomycin had no impact on fibronectin binding or fnbA/B transcription levels. Only oxacillin-treated S. aureus displayed a significantly increased adhesion to cultured osteoblasts, but its invasiveness did not differ from that of untreated controls. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that several antibiotics at sub-MICs modulate fibronectin binding in S. aureus in a drug-specific fashion. However, hyper- and hypo- adhesive phenotypes observed in controlled in vitro conditions were not fully confirmed in whole cell infection assays. The relevance of adhesion modulation during in vivo infections is thus still uncertain and requires further investigations.

  8. Role of a bacillus Calmette-Guérin fibronectin attachment protein in BCG-induced antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W; Schorey, J S; Bong-Mastek, M; Ritchey, J; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L

    2000-04-01

    Intravesical Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gu*erin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder cancer. Previous studies showed that attachment of BCG to fibronectin within the bladder was necessary for mediation of the antitumor response. Further studies identified a bacterial receptor, fibronectin attachment protein (FAP), as an important mediator of BCG attachment to fibronectin. In vitro studies showed that a stable BCG/fibronectin interaction was dependent on FAP binding to fibronectin; however, no role for FAP in the attachment of BCG in vivo has been characterized. We now report the cloning of the M. bovis BCG FAP (FAP-B) and demonstrate an important role for FAP in the in vivo attachment of BCG to the bladder wall and in the induction of BCG-mediated antitumor activity. The predicted amino acid sequence for FAP-B shows 61% and 71% homology, respectively, with Mycobacterium avium FAP (FAP-A) and Mycobacterium leprae FAP (FAP-L). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Mycobacterium vaccae FAP (FAP-V) reacted with all 3 recombinant FAP proteins on Western blots. Functional studies show FAP-B to bind fibronectin via the highly conserved attachment regions previously identified for FAP-A and FAP-L and also to competitively inhibit attachment of BCG to matrix fibronectin. In vivo studies show FAP to be a necessary protein for the stable attachment of BCG to the bladder wall. Moreover, stable binding of BCG via FAP was shown to be necessary for the expression of BCG-induced antitumor activity. Our results demonstrate a biological role for FAP in the mediation of BCG-induced antitumor activity.

  9. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter Christian; Prayer, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  10. Fetal programming of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  11. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of fetal movements by Doppler actocardiogram and fetal B-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Tatsumura, M; Utsu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have presented that fetal surveillance may be enhanced by use of the fetal actocardiogram and by computerized processing of fetal motion as well as fetal B-mode ultrasound imaging. Ultrasonic Doppler fetal actogram is a sensitive and objective method for detecting and recording fetal movements. Computer processing of the actograph output signals enables powerful, detailed, and convenient analysis of fetal physiologic phenomena. The actocardiogram is a useful measurement tool not only in fetal behavioral studies but also in evaluation of fetal well-being. It reduces false-positive, nonreactive NST and false-positive sinusoidal FHR pattern. It is a valuable tool to predict fetal distress. The results of intrapartum fetal monitoring are further improved by the antepartum application of the actocardiogram. Quantified fetal motion analysis is a useful, objective evaluation of the embryo and fetus. This method allows monitoring of changes in fetal movement, as well as frequency, amplitude, and duration. Furthermore, quantification of fetal motion enables evaluation of fetal behavior states and how these states relate to other measurements, such as changes in FHR. Numeric analysis of both fetal actogram and fetal motion from B-mode images is a promising application in the correlation of fetal activity or behavior with other fetal physiologic measurements.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, BS Rama

    2008-01-01

    A syndrome is a pattern of multiple anomalies arising due to a single known causative factor. Ultrasonography has enabled us to recognize many fetal anomalies and dysmorphic features. Recognition of the anomaly pattern leads to the diagnosis of a particular syndrome. This enables us to counsel prospective parents and aids in management. We present a selection of fetal syndromes in the form of a pictorial essay

  14. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  15. Epigenetic regulation and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Christine; El-Osta, Assam; Le Bouc, Yves

    2008-02-01

    Fetal programming encompasses the role of developmental plasticity in response to environmental and nutritional signals during early life and its potential adverse consequences (risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural diseases) in later life. The first studies in this field highlighted an association between poor fetal growth and chronic adult diseases. However, environmental signals during early life may lead to adverse long-term effects independently of obvious effects on fetal growth. Adverse long-term effects reflect a mismatch between early (fetal and neonatal) environmental conditions and the conditions that the individual will confront later in life. The mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear. However, experimental data in rodents and recent observations in humans suggest that epigenetic changes in regulatory genes and growth-related genes play a significant role in fetal programming. Improvements in our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms at play in fetal programming would make it possible to identify biomarkers for detecting infants at high risk of adult-onset diseases. Such improvements should also lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  16. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  17. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  18. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  20. Diagnostic value of fibronectin discriminant score for predicting liver fibrosis stages in chronic hepatitis C virus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Abdallah, Sanaa O; Attallah, Ahmed A; Omran, Mohamed M; Farid, Khaled; Nasif, Wesam A; Shiha, Gamal E; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz F; Rasafy, Nancy; Shaker, Yehia M

    2013-01-01

    Several noninvasive predictive models were developed to substitute liver biopsy for fibrosis assessment. To evaluate the diagnostic value of fibronectin which reflect extracellular matrix metabolism and standard liver functions tests which reflect alterations in hepatic functions. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients (n = 145) were evaluated using ROC curves and stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA) and was validated in 180 additional patients. Liver biochemical profile including transaminases, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, complete blood count were estimated. Fibronectin concentration was determined using monoclonal antibody and ELISA. A novel index named fibronectin discriminant score (FDS) based on fibronectin, APRI and albumin was developed. FDS produced areas under ROC curves (AUC) of 0.91 for significant fibrosis and 0.81 for advanced fibrosis. The FDS correctly classified 79% of the significant liver fibrosis patients (F2-F4) with 87% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The relative risk [odds ratio (OR)] of having significant liver fibrosis using the cut-off values determined by ROC curve analyses were 6.1 for fibronectin, 4.9 for APRI, and 4.2 for albumin. FDS predicted liver fibrosis with an OR of 16.8 for significant fibrosis and 8.6 for advanced fibrosis. The FDS had similar AUC and OR in the validation group to the estimation group without statistically significant difference. FDS predicted liver fibrosis with high degree of accuracy, potentially decreasing the number of liver biopsy required.

  1. Average fetal depth in utero: data for estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozzino, M.W.; Breckle, R.; Hill, L.M.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate fetal absorbed dose from radiographic examinations, the depth from the anterior maternal surface to the midline of the fetal skull and abdomen was measured by ultrasound in 97 pregnant women. The relationships between fetal depth, fetal presentation, and maternal parameters of height, weight, anteroposterior (AP) thickness, gestational age, placental location, and bladder volume were analyzed. Maternal AP thickness (MAP) can be estimated from gestational age, maternal height, and maternal weight. Fetal midskull and abdominal depths were nearly equal. Fetal depth normalized to MAP was independent or nearly independent of maternal parameters and fetal presentation. These data enable a reasonable estimation of absorbed dose to fetal brain, abdomen, and whole body

  2. Leishmania infection modulates beta-1 integrin activation and alters the kinetics of monocyte spreading over fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Carvalhal, Djalma Gomes Ferrão; Almeida, Rafaela Andrade; Hermida, Micely d’ El-Rei; Touchard, Dominique; Robert, Phillipe; Pierres, Anne; Bongrand, Pierre; dos-Santos, Washington LC

    2015-01-01

    Contact with Leishmania leads to a decreases in mononuclear phagocyte adherence to connective tissue. In this work, we studied the early stages of bond formation between VLA4 and fibronectin, measured the kinetics of membrane alignment and the monocyte cytoplasm spreading area over a fibronectin-coated surface, and studied the expression of high affinity integrin epitope in uninfected and Leishmania-infected human monocytes. Our results show that the initial VLA4-mediated interaction of Leishmania-infected monocyte with a fibronectin-coated surface is preserved, however, the later stage, leukocyte spreading over the substrate is abrogated in Leishmania-infected cells. The median of spreading area was 72 [55–89] μm2 for uninfected and 41 [34–51] μm2 for Leishmania-infected monocyte. This cytoplasm spread was inhibited using an anti-VLA4 blocking antibody. After the initial contact with the fibronectrin-coated surface, uninfected monocyte quickly spread the cytoplasm at a 15 μm2 s−1 ratio whilst Leishmania-infected monocytes only made small contacts at a 5.5 μm2 s−1 ratio. The expression of high affinity epitope by VLA4 (from 39 ± 21% to 14 ± 3%); and LFA1 (from 37 ± 32% to 18 ± 16%) molecules was reduced in Leishmania-infected monocytes. These changes in phagocyte function may be important for parasite dissemination and distribution of lesions in leishmaniasis. PMID:26249106

  3. Dynamic 3D cell rearrangements guided by a fibronectin matrix underlie somitogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Martins

    Full Text Available Somites are transient segments formed in a rostro-caudal progression during vertebrate development. In chick embryos, segmentation of a new pair of somites occurs every 90 minutes and involves a mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition of cells from the presomitic mesoderm. Little is known about the cellular rearrangements involved, and, although it is known that the fibronectin extracellular matrix is required, its actual role remains elusive. Using 3D and 4D imaging of somite formation we discovered that somitogenesis consists of a complex choreography of individual cell movements. Epithelialization starts medially with the formation of a transient epithelium of cuboidal cells, followed by cell elongation and reorganization into a pseudostratified epithelium of spindle-shaped epitheloid cells. Mesenchymal cells are then recruited to this medial epithelium through accretion, a phenomenon that spreads to all sides, except the lateral side of the forming somite, which epithelializes by cell elongation and intercalation. Surprisingly, an important contribution to the somite epithelium also comes from the continuous egression of mesenchymal cells from the core into the epithelium via its apical side. Inhibition of fibronectin matrix assembly first slows down the rate, and then halts somite formation, without affecting pseudopodial activity or cell body movements. Rather, cell elongation, centripetal alignment, N-cadherin polarization and egression are impaired, showing that the fibronectin matrix plays a role in polarizing and guiding the exploratory behavior of somitic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first 4D in vivo recording of a full mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition. This approach brought new insights into this event and highlighted the importance of the extracellular matrix as a guiding cue during morphogenesis.

  4. Cervical Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. The primary risk factor for cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Start here to find evidence-based information on cervical cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  5. Surface displaced alfa-enolase of Lactobacillus plantarum is a fibronectin binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are one of the most important health promoting groups of the human intestinal microbiota. Their protective role within the gut consists in out competing invading pathogens for ecological niches and metabolic substrates. Among the features necessary to provide health benefits, commensal microorganisms must have the ability to adhere to human intestinal cells and consequently to colonize the gut. Studies on mechanisms mediating adhesion of lactobacilli to human intestinal cells showed that factors involved in the interaction vary mostly among different species and strains, mainly regarding interaction between bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix or mucus proteins. We have investigated the adhesive properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, a member of the human microbiota of healthy individuals. Results We show the identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum LM3 cell surface protein (48 kDa, which specifically binds to human fibronectin (Fn, an extracellular matrix protein. By means of mass spectrometric analysis this protein was identified as the product of the L. plantarum enoA1 gene, coding the EnoA1 alfa-enolase. Surface localization of EnoA1 was proved by immune electron microscopy. In the mutant strain LM3-CC1, carrying the enoA1 null mutation, the 48 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable neither by anti-enolase Western blot nor by Fn-overlay immunoblotting assay. Moreover, by an adhesion assay we show that LM3-CC1 cells bind to fibronectin-coated surfaces less efficiently than wild type cells, thus demonstrating the significance of the surface displaced EnoA1 protein for the L. plantarum LM3 adhesion to fibronectin. Conclusion Adhesion to host tissues represents a crucial early step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensal bacteria. We demonstrated the involvement of the L. plantarum Eno A1 alfa-enolase in Fn-binding, by studying

  6. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekelund CK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Kvist Ekelund,1 Tine Iskov Kopp,2 Ann Tabor,1 Olav Bjørn Petersen3 1Department of Obstetrics, Center of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Fetal Medicine Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Nord, Denmark Aim: The aim of this study is to set up a database in order to monitor the detection rates and false-positive rates of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and prenatal detection rates of fetal malformations in Denmark. Study population: Pregnant women with a first or second trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units' Astraia databases to the central database via web service. Information about outcome of pregnancy (miscarriage, termination, live birth, or stillbirth is received from the National Patient Register and National Birth Register and linked via the Danish unique personal registration number. Furthermore, results of all pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database is valuable to assess the performance at a regional level and to compare Danish performance with international results at a national level. Keywords: prenatal screening, nuchal translucency, fetal malformations, chromosomal abnormalities

  7. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James P

    2015-12-21

    Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with the aim of improving fetal outcome and minimising unnecessary obstetric interference. To compare the effects of analysis of fetal ECG waveforms during labour with alternative methods of fetal monitoring. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (latest search 23 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing fetal ECG waveform analysis with alternative methods of fetal monitoring during labour. One review author independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. One review author assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Seven trials (27,403 women) were included: six trials of ST waveform analysis (26,446 women) and one trial of PR interval analysis (957 women). The trials were generally at low risk of bias for most domains and the quality of evidence for ST waveform analysis trials was graded moderate to high. In comparison to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring alone, the use of adjunctive ST waveform analysis made no obvious difference to primary outcomes: births by caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.08; six trials, 26,446 women; high quality evidence); the number of babies with severe metabolic acidosis at birth (cord arterial pH less than 7.05 and base deficit greater than 12 mmol/L) (average RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.20; six trials, 25,682 babies; moderate quality evidence); or babies with neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.22; six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There were, however, on average

  8. The Fibronectin-Binding Protein EfbA Contributes to Pathogenesis and Protects against Infective Endocarditis Caused by Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Roh, Jung Hyeob

    2015-01-01

    EfbA is a PavA-like fibronectin adhesin of Enterococcus faecalis previously shown to be important in experimental urinary tract infection. Here, we expressed and purified the E. faecalis OG1RF EfbA and confirmed that this protein binds with high affinity to immobilized fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen V. We constructed an efbA deletion mutant and demonstrated that its virulence was significantly attenuated (P endocarditis model. Furthermore, efbA deletion resulted in diminished ability to bind fibronectin (P endocarditis (P = 0.008 versus control). Taken together, our results demonstrate that EfbA is an important factor involved in E. faecalis endocarditis and that rEfbA immunization is effective in preventing such infection, likely by interfering with bacterial adherence. PMID:26351286

  9. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  10. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  11. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mottaghitalab

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  12. Fibroblast Cluster Formation on 3D Collagen Matrices Requires Cell Contraction-Dependent Fibronectin Matrix Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Ho, Chin-Han; Grinnell, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts incubated on 3D collagen matrices in serum or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-containing medium self-organize into clusters through a mechanism that requires cell contraction. However, in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-containing medium, cells migrate as individuals and do not form clusters even though they constantly encounter each other. Here, we present evidence that a required function of cell contraction in clustering is formation of fibronectin fibrillar matrix. We found that in serum or LPA but not in PDGF or basal medium, cells organized FN (both serum and cellular) into a fibrillar, detergent-insoluble matrix. Cell clusters developed concomitant with FN matrix formation. FN fibrils accumulated beneath cells and along the borders of cell clusters in regions of cell-matrix tension. Blocking Rho kinase or myosin II activity prevented FN matrix assembly and cell clustering. Using siRNA silencing and function-blocking antibodies and peptides, we found that cell clustering and FN matrix assembly required α5β1 integrins and fibronectin. Cells were still able to exert contractile force and compact the collagen matrix under the latter conditions, which showed that contraction was not sufficient for cell clustering to occur. Our findings provide new insights into how procontractile (serum/LPA) and promigratory (PDGF) growth factor environments can differentially regulate FN matrix assembly by fibroblasts interacting with collagen matrices and thereby influence mesenchymal cell morphogenetic behavior under physiologic circumstances such as wound repair, morphogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23117111

  13. Fibroblast cluster formation on 3D collagen matrices requires cell contraction dependent fibronectin matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Ho, Chin-Han; Grinnell, Frederick

    2013-02-15

    Fibroblasts incubated on 3D collagen matrices in serum or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-containing medium self-organize into clusters through a mechanism that requires cell contraction. However, in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-containing medium, cells migrate as individuals and do not form clusters even though they constantly encounter each other. Here, we present evidence that a required function of cell contraction in clustering is formation of fibronectin (FN) fibrillar matrix. We found that in serum or LPA but not in PDGF or basal medium, cells organized FN (both serum and cellular) into a fibrillar, detergent-insoluble matrix. Cell clusters developed concomitant with FN matrix formation. FN fibrils accumulated beneath cells and along the borders of cell clusters in regions of cell-matrix tension. Blocking Rho kinase or myosin II activity prevented FN matrix assembly and cell clustering. Using siRNA silencing and function-blocking antibodies and peptides, we found that cell clustering and FN matrix assembly required α5β1 integrins and fibronectin. Cells were still able to exert contractile force and compact the collagen matrix under the latter conditions, which showed that contraction was not sufficient for cell clustering to occur. Our findings provide new insights into how procontractile (serum/LPA) and promigratory (PDGF) growth factor environments can differentially regulate FN matrix assembly by fibroblasts interacting with collagen matrices and thereby influence mesenchymal cell morphogenetic behavior under physiologic circumstances such as wound repair, morphogenesis and malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing the soft tissue seal around intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses using silanized fibronectin titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Pendegrass, C; Blunn, G, E-mail: mukai.cg@mac.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, HA7 4LP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The success of intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) relies on achieving a tight seal between the soft tissues and the implant in order to avoid infection. Fibronectin (Fn) may be silanized onto titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in order to promote soft-tissue attachment. The silanization process includes passivation with sulphuric acid, which alters surface characteristics. This study aimed to improve in vitro fibroblast adhesion to silanized fibronectin (SiFn) titanium alloy by omitting the passivation stage. Additionally, the study assessed the effects of SiFn on in vivo dermal attachment, comparing the results with adsorbed Fn, hydroxyapatite (HA), Fn adsorbed onto HA (HAFn) and uncoated controls. Surface topography was assessed using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurement. Anti-vinculin antibodies were used to immunolocalize fibroblast adhesion sites. A histological assessment of soft-tissue attachment and cell alignment relative to implants in an in vivo ovine model was performed. Passivation resulted in rougher, more hydrophobic, microcracked surfaces and was associated with poorer fibroblast adhesion than unpassivated controls. SiFn and HAFn surfaces resulted in more favourable cell alignment in vivo, implying that dermal attachment was enhanced. These results suggest that SiFn and HAFn surfaces could be useful in optimizing the soft tissue seal around ITAP.

  15. Time course of fibronectin in the peri-implant tissue and neointima formation after functional implantation of polyester-based vascular prostheses with different porosity in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrzyk, Maciej; Hoene, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Str. 23, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Jarchow, Raymond [Computation Centre, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 12, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wilhelm, Lutz [Department of Surgery, Hospital Demmin, Loitzer Str. 1, D-17109 Demmin (Germany); Walschus, Uwe; Schlosser, Michael [Research Group of Predictive Diagnostics of the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute of Pathophysiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswalder Str. 11c, D-17495 Karlsburg (Germany); Zippel, Roland, E-mail: schlosse@uni-greifswald.d [Department of Surgery, Elbland Hospital Center, Weinbergstr. 8, D-01589 Riesa (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Intima hyperplasia, resulting from extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, can lead to vascular prosthesis occlusion and is a major problem in vascular surgery. Fibronectin might contribute to ongoing ECM secretion. However, the exact role of fibronectin and its influence on neointima formation remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the time course of the fibronectin area fraction and neointima formation following the functional implantation of three different polyester vascular prostheses into pigs. The infrarenal aorta from 15 animals (n = 5/group) was replaced by prosthesis segments with low, medium and high primary porosity. After 7, 14, 21, 28 and 116 days, the prostheses were morphometrically examined. Overall, the fibronectin area fraction was inversely correlated with the neointima thickness, demonstrating high fibronectin levels in the early phase (days 7 and 14) and low levels in the later phase with almost complete neointima formation (days 21-116). Throughout the study, fibronectin levels were highest at the proximal anastomosis region. The low porosity prosthesis had the highest fibronectin area fraction and a delayed neointima formation in the middle phase (days 21 and 28) but the highest neointima lining on day 116. The results indicate a relationship between fibronectin and neointima formation with the prosthesis porosity, demonstrating the importance of the textile design for tissue reactions following implantation.

  16. [Fetal version as ambulatory intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, G; Hartmann, W; Klapproth, C E

    1996-06-01

    The external cephalic version (ECV) of the fetus at term reduces the maternal and fetal risks of intrapartum breech presentation and Caesarean delivery. Since 1986 over 800 external cephalic versions were performed in the outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Städtische Frauenklinik Stuttgart. 60.5% were successful. NO severe complications occurred. Sufficient amniotic fluid as well as the mobility of the fetal breech is a major criterion for the success of the ECV. Management requires a safe technique for mother and fetus. This includes ultrasonography, elektronic fetal monitoring and the ability to perform immediate caesarean delivery as well as the performance of ECV without analgesicas and sedatives. More than 70% of the ECV were successful without tocolysis. In unsuccessful cases the additional use of tocolysis improves the success rate only slightly. Therefore routine use of tocolysis does not appear necessary. External cephalic version can be recommended as an outpatient treatment without tocolysis.

  17. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh...... software) to a central national database. Data are linked to outcome data from the National Birth Register, the National Patient Register and the National Cytogenetic Register via the mother's unique personal registration number. First-trimester screening data from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved. MAIN OUTCOME...

  18. Fetal exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.L.; Vandergrift, J.F.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of possible radiation damage to the fetus or embryo as a result of diagnostic radiography during pregnancy, particularly in the early stages, is discussed. Recommendations of therapeutic abortion after fetal exposure require an adequate knowledge of the doses involved. In the absence of actual dose measurements or estimates, approximate exposure levels may be determined from the literature. A summary of published values for radiography involving the lower abdomen is given. Data is also presented from a series of fetal exposures resulting mostly from routine diagnostic radiography when pregnancy was not known at the time but was established later. Results of actual dose measurements using a phantom and of dose calculations based on published values are in reasonable agreement indicating that literature values of dose provide a satisfactory alternative to measurement. These data suggest that diagnostic radiography rarely, if ever, results in fetal exposures high enough to justify therapeutic abortion. (author)

  19. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  20. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HPV) will hopefully reduce cervical cancer rates globally even ... active people will get HPV at some time in their lives', making it ... cells due to HPV infection of the cervix are the first step in a series ..... A randomised controlled study of purified air administered to the 'breathing zone' at night to people with allergic asthma ...

  1. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  2. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the types of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How ... methods of fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. Auscultation is a method of periodically listening to the ...

  3. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  4. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  5. Study protocol: quantitative fibronectin to help decision-making in women with symptoms of preterm labour (QUIDS) part 2, UK Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Lisa M; Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Morris, Rachel K; Jackson, Lesley; Chandiramani, Manju; David, Anna L; Khalil, Asma; Shennan, Andrew; Hodgetts Morton, Victoria; Lavender, Tina; Khan, Khalid; Harper-Clarke, Susan; Mol, Ben; Riley, Richard D; Norrie, John; Norman, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. Methods and analysis The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In QUIDS part 2, we will perform a prospective cohort study in at least eight UK consultant-led maternity units, in women with symptoms of preterm labour at 22+0 to 34+6 weeks gestation to externally validate a prognostic model developed in QUIDS part 1. The effects of quantitative fFN on anxiety will be assessed, and acceptability of the test and prognostic model will be evaluated in a subgroup of women and clinicians (n=30). The sample size is 1600 women (with estimated 96–192 events of preterm delivery within 7 days of testing). Clinicians will be informed of the qualitative fFN result (positive/negative) but be blinded to quantitative fFN result. Research midwives will collect outcome data from the maternal and neonatal clinical records. The final validated prognostic model will be presented as a mobile or web-based application. Ethics and dissemination The study is funded by the National Institute of Healthcare Research Health Technology Assessment (HTA 14/32/01). It has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (16/WS/0068). Version Protocol V.2, Date 1 November 2016. Trial registration number ISRCTN41598423 and CPMS: 31277. PMID:29674373

  6. Quantitative fibronectin to help decision-making in women with symptoms of preterm labour (QUIDS) part 1: Individual participant data meta-analysis and health economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Sarah J; Wotherspoon, Lisa M; Boyd, Kathleen A; Morris, Rachel K; Dorling, Jon; Jackson, Lesley; Chandiramani, Manju; David, Anna L; Khalil, Asma; Shennan, Andrew; Hodgetts Morton, Victoria; Lavender, Tina; Khan, Khalid; Harper-Clarke, Susan; Mol, Ben W; Riley, Richard D; Norrie, John; Norman, Jane E

    2018-04-07

    The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (qfFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In part 1 of the study, we will develop and internally validate a prognostic model using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of existing studies containing women with symptoms of preterm labour alongside fFN measurements and pregnancy outcome. An economic analysis will be undertaken to assess potential cost-effectiveness of the qfFN prognostic model. The primary endpoint will be the ability of the prognostic model to rule out spontaneous preterm birth within 7 days. Six eligible studies were identified by systematic review of the literature and five agreed to provide their IPD (n=5 studies, 1783 women and 139 events of preterm delivery within 7 days of testing). The study is funded by the National Institute of Healthcare Research Health Technology Assessment (HTA 14/32/01). It has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (16/WS/0068). CRD42015027590. Protocol version 2, date 1 November 2016. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Musculocontractural Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells to migrate and adhere to fibronectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Gouignard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all live births with congenital anomalies, approximately one-third exhibit deformities of the head and face. Most craniofacial disorders are associated with defects in a migratory stem and progenitor cell population, which is designated the neural crest (NC. Musculocontractural Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (MCEDS is a heritable connective tissue disorder with distinct craniofacial features; this syndrome comprises multiple congenital malformations that are caused by dysfunction of dermatan sulfate (DS biosynthetic enzymes, including DS epimerase-1 (DS-epi1; also known as DSE. Studies in mice have extended our understanding of DS-epi1 in connective tissue maintenance; however, its role in fetal development is not understood. We demonstrate that DS-epi1 is important for the generation of isolated iduronic acid residues in chondroitin sulfate (CS/DS proteoglycans in early Xenopus embryos. The knockdown of DS-epi1 does not affect the formation of early NC progenitors; however, it impairs the correct activation of transcription factors involved in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT and reduces the extent of NC cell migration, which leads to a decrease in NC-derived craniofacial skeleton, melanocytes and dorsal fin structures. Transplantation experiments demonstrate a tissue-autonomous role for DS-epi1 in cranial NC cell migration in vivo. Cranial NC explant and single-cell cultures indicate a requirement of DS-epi1 in cell adhesion, spreading and extension of polarized cell processes on fibronectin. Thus, our work indicates a functional link between DS and NC cell migration. We conclude that NC defects in the EMT and cell migration might account for the craniofacial anomalies and other congenital malformations in MCEDS, which might facilitate the diagnosis and development of therapies for this distressing condition. Moreover, the presented correlations between human DS-epi1 expression and gene sets of mesenchymal character, invasion and

  8. Choriodecidual group B streptococcal inoculation induces fetal lung injury without intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor in Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Adams Waldorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early events leading to intrauterine infection and fetal lung injury remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing neonatal and adult chronic lung disease. Our objective was to establish a nonhuman primate model of an early stage of chorioamnionitis in order to determine the time course and mechanisms of fetal lung injury in utero. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term=172 days received one of two treatments: 1 choriodecidual and intra-amniotic saline (n=5, or 2 choriodecidual inoculation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS 1×10(6 colony forming units (n=5. Cesarean section was performed regardless of labor 4 days after GBS or 7 days after saline infusion to collect fetal and placental tissues. Only two GBS animals developed early labor with no cervical change in the remaining animals. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, blinded review found histopathological evidence of fetal lung injury in four GBS animals characterized by intra-alveolar neutrophils and interstitial thickening, which was absent in controls. Significant elevations of cytokines in amniotic fluid (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and fetal plasma (IL-8 were detected in GBS animals and correlated with lung injury (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable in amniotic fluid (~10 samples tested/animal, maternal and fetal blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction. In only two cases was GBS cultured from the inoculation site in low numbers. Chorioamnionitis occurred in two GBS animals with lung injury, but two others with lung injury had normal placental histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transient choriodecidual infection can induce cytokine production, which is associated with fetal lung injury without overt infection of amniotic fluid, chorioamnionitis or preterm labor. Fetal lung injury may, thus, occur silently without

  9. A case of marked short-neck with fusion of cervical vertebrae in a Holstein cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, J.; Ando, T.; Otsuka, H.; Paku, T.; Yoshioka, I.; Saruyama, Y.; Yamada, H.; Iso, H.; Oyamada, T.; Watanabe, D.

    2007-01-01

    An 11-month old Holstein cow with congenitally shortened neck was subjected to clinical, radiographic and myelographic examination, and also autopsy and histopathological examination. Skeletal preparations of the cervical region were made to investigate the abnormality of the vertebrae. The cow was growing normally, and no critical neurological signs were observed. Radiographic examination showed marked kyphosis of the cervical spine, and fusion of posterior cervical vertebrae was suspected. Myelographic examination showed curvature of the spinal cord, but no narrowing at any part. Atrophy, hyaline degeneration, and hydropic degeneration of muscle fibers were seen in the dorsal part of the cervical region in the histopathological examination, but there was no abnormality in the cervical spinal cord. Deformation, fusion, and hypoplasia of the cervical vertebrae and posterior thoracic vertebrae were observed. It is suggested that in the organ system-wise classification of congenital abnormalities, this may be classified as a case of defective vertebrae with the coexisting congenital anomalies of kyphosis, scoliosis and vertebral fusion. The cause of this defect was not clear, but the observed vertebral fusion and hypoplasia indicated defective development of the vertebral segment during the early fetal stage

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  11. Fetal programming and environmental exposures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs from uterine tissue, the placenta, the maternal blood supply, and other sources. Recent evidence has made clear that the process is not based entirely on genetics, but rather on a delicate series of interactions between genes and the environment. It is likely that epigenctic (“above the genome”) changes are responsible for modifying gene expression in the developing fetus, and these modifications can have long-lasting health impacts. Determining which epigenetic regulators are most vital in embryonic development will improve pregnancy outcomes and our ability to treat and prevent disorders that emerge later in life. “Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth’ began with a keynote address by Frederick vom Saal, who explained that low-level exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) perturbs hormone systems in utero and can have negative effects on fetal development. vom Saal presented data on the LOC bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking compound found in many plastics. He suggested that low-dose exposure to LOCs can alter the development process and enhance chances of acquiring adult diseases, such as breastcancer, diabetes, and even developmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD).’ Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs

  12. Fetal programming of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Manchia, Mirko; Pintus, Roberta; Gerosa, Clara; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Fanos, Vassilios

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. The perinatal epigenetic factors have been divided in two main groups: maternal factors and fetal factors. The maternal factors include diet, smoking, alcoholism, hypertension, malnutrition, trace elements, stress, diabetes, substance abuse, and exposure to environmental toxicants, while the fetal factors include hypoxia/asphyxia, placental insufficiency, prematurity, low birth weight, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby, and all factors causing intrauterine growth restriction. A better comprehension of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases may help researchers and clinicians develop new diagnostic tools and treatments to offer these patients a tailored medical treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:207-223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lauxen, Isabel; Sant’Ana Filho, Manoel; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad) or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad), plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization. PMID:26978651

  14. Clinical value of indicators of cationic proteins, leukocytes myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma in viral meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: was to establish clinical and diagnostic value of cytochemical indices of peripheral blood leukocytes (cationic protein and myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma to assess the severity, predict the course and outcome of viral meningitis in children.Subjects and methods. In 450 patients with viral meningitis (enterovirus, arbovirus, parotitic, herpesviral, adenovirus etiology at the age of 14 years, the parameters of the microbicidal system of leukocytes (cation proteins, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma were determined. Etiological diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed by release of viral RNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The results and conclusion. Found that severe, prolonged duration, lethal outcome of viral meningitis in children are accompanied by sugnificant suppression of cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma, maximally expressed in lethal outcomes, compared with the severe form, but with a favorable outcome and control. Settings imbalance cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma are objective criteria of the adaptation syndrome that reflects the state of the phagocytosis system in viral meningitis in children and can be considered as additional criteria for predicting the course and outcome of disease.

  15. The E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is surface-expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum and binds fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, Valeria; Salzillo, Marzia; Siciliano, Rosa A; Muscariello, Lidia; Sacco, Margherita; Marasco, Rosangela

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is among the species with a probiotic activity. Adhesion of probiotic bacteria to host tissues is an important principle for strain selection, because it represents a crucial step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensals. Most bacterial adhesins are proteins, and a major target for them is fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that PDHB, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is a factor contributing to fibronectin-binding in L. plantarum LM3. By means of fibronectin overlay immunoblotting assay, we identified a L. plantarum LM3 surface protein with apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that this protein is the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta-subunit (PDHB). The corresponding pdhB gene is located in a 4-gene cluster encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase. In LM3-B1, carrying a null mutation in pdhB, the 35 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable by immunoblotting assay. Nevertheless, the pdhB null mutation did not abolish pdhA, pdhC, and pdhD transcription in LM3-B1. By adhesion assays, we show that LM3-B1 cells bind to immobilized fibronectin less efficiently than wild type cells. Moreover, we show that pdhB expression is negatively regulated by the CcpA protein and is induced by bile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Disentangling the multifactorial contributions of fibronectin, collagen and cyclic strain on MMP expression and extracellular matrix remodeling by fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Lin, Z.; Foolen, J.; Schoen, I.; Santoro, A.; Zenobi-Wong, M.; Vogel, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Early wound healing is associated with fibroblasts assembling a provisional fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), which is subsequently remodeled and interlaced by type I collagen. This exposes fibroblasts to time-variant sets of matrices during different stages of wound healing. Our goal was

  17. Cellular adhesion responses to the heparin-binding (HepII) domain of fibronectin require heparan sulfate with specific properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahalingam, Yashithra; Gallagher, John T; Couchman, John R

    2006-01-01

    of fibronectin (HepII domain) through its HS chains. The fine structure of HS is critical to growth factor responses, and whether this extends to matrix ligands is unknown but is suggested from in vitro experiments. Cell attachment to HepII showed that heparin oligosaccharides of >or=14 sugar residues were...

  18. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos

    Full Text Available Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad, plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization.

  19. Osseoconductivity of a Specific Streptavidin-Biotin-Fibronectin Surface Coating of Biotinylated Titanium Implants - A Rabbit Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, Peer W; Lehnert, Michael; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Kumar, Vinay V; Hagmann, Sebastien; Alshihri, Abdulmonem; Frerich, Bernhard; Veith, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Biofunctionalized implant surfaces may accelerate bony integration and increase long-term stability. The aim of the study was to evaluate the osseous reaction toward biomimetic titanium implants surfaces coated with quasicovalent immobilized fibronectin in an in vivo animal model. A total of 84 implants (uncoated [control 1, n = 36], streptavidin-biotin coated [test 1, n = 24], streptavidin-biotin-fibronectin coated [test 2, n = 24]) were inserted 1 mm supracortically in the proximal tibia of 12 rabbits. The samples were examined after 3 and 6 weeks. Total bone-implant contact (tBIC; %), bone-implant contact in the cortical (cBIC; %) and in the spongious bone (sBIC; %) as well as the percentage of linear bone fill (PLF; %) were evaluated. After 3 weeks, streptavidin-biotin-fibronectin implants had a significant higher sBIC (p = .043) and PLF (p = .007) compared with the uncoated samples. After 6 weeks, this difference was significant for tBIC (p = .016) and cBIC (p biotin-coated implants showed less bone growth at both time points of all examined parameters when compared with their counterparts (all p biotin-fibronectin system on smooth surface titanium shows a beneficial faster osseous healing in vivo. Besides, an antifouling effect of the streptavidin-biotin coating was proven. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of fibronectin- and collagen I-coated titanium fiber mesh on proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolder, J. van den; Bancroft, G.N.; Sikavitsas, V.I.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fibronectin and collagen I coatings on titanium fiber mesh on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells. Three main treatment groups were investigated in addition to uncoated titanium fiber meshes: meshes

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data

  2. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  3. Imaging of cervical carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, P.; Michel, G.; Masselot, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal or transvaginal ultrasound (TRUS, TVUS) had an important place in imaging techniques of cervical carcinomas and raise the question of modifying the imaging strategies. For the diagnosis of primitive tumor, those techniques cannot take the place of clinical examination and gross examination. In the assessment of parametrial involvement, TRUS which has better accuracy than clinical examination, and MRI which is considered as the most accurate technique, have an important role to play. In the follow-up and the detection of recurrences, MRI is actually considered as the best imaging technique. The authors, according to recent data in literature and their own experience, present basic concepts of imaging strategies for staging and follow-up of cervical carcinomas [fr

  4. Cytology of treated cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    The vaginal smear specimens of the patients who received operative therapy, irradiation or chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma were examined. Long-term follow-up vaginal cytology following treatment of cervical carcinoma is effective for the detection of local recurrence in an early stage. Serial cytology is also useful in evaluation of the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Radiosensitive and prognostic significance of vaginal smears before and after radiation therapy was discussed. (author)

  5. Amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand B Hiremath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, such as amitriptyline, have many side effects. But extrapyramidal tract symptom is an uncommon side effect of these drugs. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old male who is suffering from amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia. Though rare, this side effect is an uncomfortable condition and may influence drug compliance. So clinicians should be aware of this side effect while treating a patient with amitriptyline.

  6. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  9. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  10. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  11. Common MspI RFLP of the human fibronectin gene (FN1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardella, R; Colombi, M; Barlati, S

    1988-02-25

    The probe used, pFH154, contains a sequence of 2.5 kb of the fibronectin cDNA inserted in pAT153/Pvu/8 plasmid vector. The recombinant plasmid and the HindIII/BamHI purified cDNA insert give identical patterns. MspI (C/CGG) (Promega Biotec) detects invariant bands at 8.5, 4.2, 2.5, 2.1, 1.55, 1.4, 1.1 and 0.75 kb in addition to a simple two allele polymorphism with a band at either 0.35 kb (F1) or 2.7 kb (F2). Co-dominant segregation was demonstrated in 6 families.

  12. Molecular basis for the presence of glycosylated onco-foetal fibronectin in oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Dabelsteen, Sally; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    spliced IIICS region. Using cell culture experiments, immunohistochemical staining of primary tissue, and RT-PCR of tumour cells isolated by laser capture techniques we have examined the molecular basis for the production of GOF in oral carcinomas. Immuno-histochemical investigation confirmed the stromal......Glycosylated onco-foetal fibronectin (GOF) deposited in the stroma of oral squamous cell carcinomas correlates with survival. One of the two polypeptide GalNAc-transferases, GalNAc-T3 or GalNAc-T6, is required for the biosynthesis of GOF by the initiation of a unique O-glycan in the alternative...... deposition of GOF in oral carcinomas. However, neither GalNAc-T3 nor GalNAc-T6 could be detected in stromal fibroblasts. In contrast both transferases were present in the oral squamous carcinoma cells, suggesting that GOF is produced by the oral cancer cells and not only the stromal cells. RT-PCR analysis...

  13. Counterbalancing anti-adhesive effects of Tenascin-C through fibronectin expression in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanska, Agata; Grall, Dominique; Schaub, Sébastien; Divonne, Stéphanie Beghelli-de la Forest; Ciais, Delphine; Rekima, Samah; Rupp, Tristan; Sudaka, Anne; Orend, Gertraud; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2017-10-06

    Cellular fibronectin (FN) and tenascin-C (TNC) are prominent development- and disease-associated matrix components with pro- and anti-adhesive activity, respectively. Whereas both are present in the tumour vasculature, their functional interplay on vascular endothelial cells remains unclear. We have previously shown that basally-oriented deposition of a FN matrix restricts motility and promotes junctional stability in cultured endothelial cells and that this effect is tightly coupled to expression of FN. Here we report that TNC induces FN expression in endothelial cells. This effect counteracts the potent anti-adhesive activity of TNC and leads to the assembly of a dense highly-branched subendothelial matrix that enhances tubulogenic activity. These findings suggest that pro-angiogenic remodelling of the perivascular matrix may involve TNC-induced upregulation of FN in endothelial cells.

  14. Integrin α5β1, the Fibronectin Receptor, as a Pertinent Therapeutic Target in Solid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, Florence; Ray, Anne Marie; Dontenwill, Monique, E-mail: monique.dontenwill@unistra.fr [UMR 7213 CNRS, Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie, Tumoral signaling and therapeutic targets, Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Pharmacie, 67401 Illkirch (France)

    2013-01-15

    Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric proteins sensing the cell microenvironment and modulating numerous signalling pathways. Changes in integrin expression between normal and tumoral cells support involvement of specific integrins in tumor progression and aggressiveness. This review highlights the current knowledge about α5β1 integrin, also called the fibronectin receptor, in solid tumors. We summarize data showing that α5β1 integrin is a pertinent therapeutic target expressed by tumoral neovessels and tumoral cells. Although mainly evaluated in preclinical models, α5β1 integrin merits interest in particular in colon, breast, ovarian, lung and brain tumors where its overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis for patients. Specific α5β1 integrin antagonists will be listed that may represent new potential therapeutic agents to fight defined subpopulations of particularly aggressive tumors.

  15. Pili of oral Streptococcus sanguinis bind to fibronectin and contribute to cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Nakata, Masanobu; Sakurai, Atsuo; Terao, Yutaka; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Isoda, Ryutaro; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ooshima, Takashi

    2010-01-08

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. We identified a unique cell surface polymeric structure named pili in this species and investigated its functions in regard to its potential virulence. Pili of S. sanguinis strain SK36 were shown to be composed of three distinctive pilus proteins (PilA, PilB, and PilC), and a pili-deficient mutant demonstrated reduced bacterial adherence to HeLa and human oral epithelial cells. PilC showed a binding ability to fibronectin, suggesting that pili are involved in colonization by this species. In addition, ATCC10556, a standard S. sanguinis strain, was unable to produce pili due to defective pilus genes, which indicates a diversity of pilus expression among various S. sanguinis strains. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cadherin adhesion, tissue tension, and noncanonical Wnt signaling regulate fibronectin matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzamba, Bette J; Jakab, Karoly R; Marsden, Mungo; Schwartz, Martin A; DeSimone, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    In this study we demonstrate that planar cell polarity signaling regulates morphogenesis in Xenopus embryos in part through the assembly of the fibronectin (FN) matrix. We outline a regulatory pathway that includes cadherin adhesion and signaling through Rac and Pak, culminating in actin reorganization, myosin contractility, and tissue tension, which, in turn, directs the correct spatiotemporal localization of FN into a fibrillar matrix. Increased mechanical tension promotes FN fibril assembly in the blastocoel roof (BCR), while reduced BCR tension inhibits matrix assembly. These data support a model for matrix assembly in tissues where cell-cell adhesions play an analogous role to the focal adhesions of cultured cells by transferring to integrins the tension required to direct FN fibril formation at cell surfaces.

  17. [Cervical spine trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  18. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mukerji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common.

  19. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  20. Silk-based biomaterials functionalized with fibronectin type II promotes cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Margarida; Machado, Raul; da Costa, André; Ribeiro, Artur; Collins, Tony; Gomes, Andreia C; Leonor, Isabel B; Kaplan, David L; Reis, Rui L; Casal, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to exploit the fibronectin type II (FNII) module from human matrix metalloproteinase-2 as a functional domain for the development of silk-based biopolymer blends that display enhanced cell adhesion properties. The DNA sequence of spider dragline silk protein (6mer) was genetically fused with the FNII coding sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli. The chimeric protein 6mer+FNII was purified by non-chromatographic methods. Films prepared from 6mer+FNII by solvent casting promoted only limited cell adhesion of human skin fibroblasts. However, the performance of the material in terms of cell adhesion was significantly improved when 6mer+FNII was combined with a silk-elastin-like protein in a concentration-dependent behavior. With this work we describe a novel class of biopolymer that promote cell adhesion and potentially useful as biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This work reports the development of biocompatible silk-based composites with enhanced cell adhesion properties suitable for biomedical applications in regenerative medicine. The biocomposites were produced by combining a genetically engineered silk-elastin-like protein with a genetically engineered spider-silk-based polypeptide carrying the three domains of the fibronectin type II module from human metalloproteinase-2. These composites were processed into free-standing films by solvent casting and characterized for their biological behavior. To our knowledge this is the first report of the exploitation of all three FNII domains as a functional domain for the development of bioinspired materials with improved biological performance. The present study highlights the potential of using genetically engineered protein-based composites as a platform for the development of new bioinspired biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of fibronectin adsorption on osteoblastic cellular responses to hydroxyapatite and alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashita, Masakazu, E-mail: m-kawa@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hasegawa, Maki [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kudo, Tada-aki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu [Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toshiki [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 808-0196 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masami [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Initial cellular responses following implantation are important for inducing osteoconduction. We investigated cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on untreated or fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs of hydroxyapatite (HAp) or alpha-type alumina (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Fn coating significantly enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp, but did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation on HAp or α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fn-coated HAp likely does not stimulate pre-osteoblast cells to initiate the process of osteoconduction; however, Fn adsorption might affect the response of inflammatory cells to the implanted material or, in conjunction with other serum proteins, stimulate pre-osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. Further studies on the effect of serum proteins in cell culture and the efficacy of Fn-coated HAp and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}in vivo are warranted. - Highlights: • We studied osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell responses on fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs (HAp/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). • Fn adsorption enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp but not on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fn adsorption hardly affected proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fn adsorption might stimulate osteoconduction on HAp along with other serum proteins.

  2. Delineating fibronectin bioadhesive micropatterns by photochemical immobilization of polystyrene and poly(vinylpyrrolidone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Olof; Giazzon, Marta; Zürcher, Stefan; Tosatti, Samuele; Liley, Martha; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2014-01-01

    Bioadhesive micropatterns, capable of laterally confining cells to a 2D lattice, have proven effective in simulating the in vivo tissue environment. They reveal fundamental aspects of the role of adhesion in cell mechanics, proliferation, and differentiation. Here we present an approach based on photochemistry for the fabrication of synthetic polymer micropatterns. Perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA), upon deep-UV exposure, forms a reactive nitrene capable of covalently linking to a molecule that is in close proximity. PFPA has been grafted onto a backbone of poly(allyl amine), which readily forms a self-assembled monolayer on silicon wafers or glass. A film of polystyrene was applied by spin-coating, and by laterally confining the UV exposure through a chromium-on-quartz photomask, monolayers of polymers could be immobilized in circular microdomains. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was attached to the background to form a barrier to nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Micropatterns were characterized with high-lateral-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), which confirmed the formation of polystyrene domains within a PVP background. Fluorescence-microscopy adsorption assays with rhodamine-labeled bovine serum albumin demonstrated the nonfouling efficiency of PVP and, combined with TOF-SIMS, allowed for a comprehensive characterization of the pattern geometry. The applicability of the micropatterned platform in single-cell assays was tested by culturing two cell types, WM 239 melanoma cells and SaOs-2 osteoblasts, on micropatterned glass, either with or without backfilling of the patterns with fibronectin. It was demonstrated that the platform was efficient in confining cells to the fibronectin-backfilled micropatterns for at least 48 h. PVP is thus proposed as a viable, highly stable alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) for nonfouling applications. Due to the versatility of the nitrene-insertion reaction, the platform could be

  3. Interaction of phosphorylcholine with fibronectin coatings: Surface characterization and biological performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaño-Machado, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessa.montano-machado.1@ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Noël, Céline, E-mail: celine.noel@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Turgeon, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.turgeon@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Houssiau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.houssiau@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Pauthe, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.pauthe@u-cergy.fr [ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); and others

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Fibronectin/phosphorylcholine coatings on plasma deposited fluorocarbon films were created. • The effect of several coating techniques on the surface biological performances was evaluated. • XPS, DWCA, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) techniques were applied. • Potential for cardiovascular applications was showed by endothelial cell and blood interactions. - Abstract: Coating medical devices with several bioactive molecules is an interesting approach to achieve specific biological targets upon the interaction of the biomaterial with the living environment. In this work, a fluorocarbon polymer (CF{sub x}) was first deposited by plasma treatment on stainless steel (SS) substrate and thereafter, coatings containing fibronectin (FN) and phosphorylcholine (PRC) were created for cardiovascular applications. These two biomolecules were chosen to promote endothelialization and to avoid thrombus formation, respectively. Adsorption and grafting techniques were applied – and combined – to accomplish 4 different coatings containing both molecules. However, big challenge was found to characterize a small molecule (PRC: 184 g/mol) interacting with a protein (FN: 450 kD). For the first time XPS, dynamic water contact angle, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) analyses were combined to accomplish the characterization of such a coating. The most encouraging biological performances were obtained for samples where FN was grafted to the CF{sub x} film followed by the adsorption of PRC: proliferation of endothelial cells and hemocompatibility properties were observed. Promising coatings for cardiovascular applications were developed. The relevance of characterizing the coatings with high sensitive techniques and the further correlation with their biological performances were evidenced.

  4. Effect of fibronectin adsorption on osteoblastic cellular responses to hydroxyapatite and alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Hasegawa, Maki; Kudo, Tada-aki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Hashimoto, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Initial cellular responses following implantation are important for inducing osteoconduction. We investigated cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on untreated or fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs of hydroxyapatite (HAp) or alpha-type alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 ). Fn coating significantly enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp, but did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation on HAp or α-Al 2 O 3 . Fn-coated HAp likely does not stimulate pre-osteoblast cells to initiate the process of osteoconduction; however, Fn adsorption might affect the response of inflammatory cells to the implanted material or, in conjunction with other serum proteins, stimulate pre-osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. Further studies on the effect of serum proteins in cell culture and the efficacy of Fn-coated HAp and α-Al 2 O 3 in vivo are warranted. - Highlights: • We studied osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell responses on fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs (HAp/α-Al 2 O 3 ). • Fn adsorption enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp but not on α-Al 2 O 3 . • Fn adsorption hardly affected proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp and α-Al 2 O 3 . • Fn adsorption might stimulate osteoconduction on HAp along with other serum proteins.

  5. TGFβ1-mediated expression and alternative splicing of Fibronectin Extra Domain A in human podocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madne, Tarunkumar Hemraj; Dockrell, Mark Edward Carl

    2018-02-28

    Alternative splicing is a fundamental phenomenon to build protein diversity in health and diseases. Extra Domain A+ Fibronectin (EDA+Fn) is an alternatively spliced form of fibronectin protein present in the extra cellular matrix (ECM) in renal fibrosis. Podocytes are spectacular cell type and play a key role in filtration and synthesise ECM proteins in renal physiology and pathology. TGFβ1 is a strong stimulator of ECM proteins in renal injury. In this study, we have investigated alternative splicing of EDA+ Fn in human podocytes in response to TGFβ1. We have performed western blotting and immunofluorescence to characterise the expression of the EDA+Fn protein, real-time PCR for RNA expression and RT-PCR to look for alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in conditionally immortalised human podocytes culture.We used TGFβ1 as a stimulator and SB431542 and SRPIN340 for inhibitory studies. In this work, for the first time we have demonstrated in human podocytes culture EDA+Fn is expressed in the basal condition and TGFβ1 2.5ng/ml induced the Fn mRNA and EDA+Fn protein expression demonstrated by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. TGFβ1 2.5ng/ml induced the alternative splicing of EDA+Fn shown by conventional RT-PCR. Studies with ALK5 inhibitor SB431542 and SRPIN340 show that TGFβ1 induced alternative splicing of EDA+Fn was by the ALK5 receptor and the SR proteins.  In human podocytes culture, alternative splicing of EDA+Fn occurs at basal conditions and TGFβ1 further induced the alternative splicing of EDA+Fn via ALK5 receptor activation and SR proteins. This is the first evidence of basal and TGFβ1 mediated alternative splicing of EDA+Fn in human podocytes culture.

  6. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-03-15

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Disruption of fibronectin matrix affects type IV collagen, fibrillin and laminin deposition into extracellular matrix of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filla, Mark S; Dimeo, Kaylee D; Tong, Tiegang; Peters, Donna M

    2017-12-01

    Fibronectin fibrils are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM). They are a key mediator of the formation of the ECM which controls aqueous humor outflow and contributes to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this work was to determine if a fibronectin-binding peptide called FUD, derived from the Streptococcus pyogenes Functional Upstream Domain of the F1 adhesin protein, could be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and hence ECM formation under conditions where its expression was induced by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. FUD was very effective at preventing fibronectin fibrillogenesis in the presence or absence of steroid treatment as well as the removal of existing fibronectin fibrils. Disruption of fibronectin fibrillogenesis by FUD also disrupted the incorporation of type IV collagen, laminin and fibrillin into the ECM. The effect of FUD on these other protein matrices, however, was found to be dependent upon the maturity of the ECM when FUD was added. FUD effectively disrupted the incorporation of these other proteins into matrices when added to newly confluent cells that were forming a nascent ECM. In contrast, FUD had no effect on these other protein matrices if the cell cultures already possessed a pre-formed, mature ECM. Our studies indicate that FUD can be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and that these fibrils play a role in regulating the assembly of other ECM protein into matrices involving type IV collagen, laminin, and fibrillin within the TM. This suggests that under in vivo conditions, FUD would selectively disrupt fibronectin fibrils and de novo assembly of other proteins into the ECM. Finally, our studies suggest that targeting fibronectin fibril assembly may be a viable treatment for POAG as well as other glaucomas involving excessive or abnormal matrix deposition of the ECM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spondilitis Tuberkulosa Cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Eka Saputra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Spondilitis tuberkulosa servikalis adalah penyakit yang cukup jarang dijumpai, hanya berkisar 2-3% dariseluruh kasus spondilitis tuberkulosa. Gambaran klinis sangat bervariasi, mulai dari gejala ringan dan tidak spesifikhingga komplikasi neurologis yang berat. Seorang wanita berusia 29 tahun datang dengan keluhan lemah keempatanggota gerak yang semakin memberat dalam 10 hari terakhir yang didahului oleh nyeri leher yang menjalar ke bahudan lengan sejak 6 bulan sebelumnya. Nyeri awalnya dirasakan sebagai keterbatasan gerakan leher saat menolehkesamping kiri dan kanan serta menundukkan kepala. Nyeri dirasakan semakin berat dengan pergerakan danberkurang jika istirahat. Pasien mengalami penurunan berat badan sejak 2 bulan terakhir. Tidak dijumpai riwayat batukatau nyeri dada. Pemeriksaan neurologis menunjukkan kelemahan  pada keempat ekstremitas. Hasil laboratoriumditemukan peningkatan Laju Endap Darah (LED. Rontgen foto toraks dalam batas normal. Roentgen foto cervicalmenunjukkan destruksi setinggi C5. MRI cervical menunjukkan destruksi pada korpus C5-6 dengan penyempitan padadiscus intervertebrae C5-6 disertai dengan  massa/abses paravertebral dengan penekanan ke posterior. MRI Thorakaltampak destruksi corpus verebre T4,5 dengan diskus intervertebralis yang menyempit. Sugestif suatu spondilitistuberkulosa. Pasien dilakukan tindakan pembedahan anterior corpectomi melalui microscopic surgery dengan graftdari iliac sinistra, serta insersi anterior plate 1 level. Hasil pemeriksaan patologi anatomi menunjukkan spodilitis TBCkaseosa. Pada spondilitis vertebre T4,5 dilakukan laminectomi, debridement costotrasversektomi, dan stabilisasidengan pedicle screw T2, T3, dan T5. Pasien diterapi dengan obat antituberkulosis. Keadaan pasien saat ini, pasiensudah bisa beraktifitas normal dengan motorik dan sensorik baik. Spondilitis tuberkulosa merupakan bentuktuberkulosa tulang yang paling sering dijumpai. Spondilitis tuberkulosa cervical berkisar 2

  9. The impact of postpartum cervical tear on the occurrence of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafran, Noah; Gerszman, Eden; Garmi, Gali; Zuaretz-Easton, Sivan; Salim, Raed

    2017-08-01

    To examine the occurrence of subsequent preterm birth (PTB) among women who experienced a cervical tear during prior delivery. A retrospective study conducted at a single teaching hospital on data from January 1994 to March 2014. The study group included all women who had a cervical tear detected at uterine and cervical examination, performed due to early postpartum hemorrhage. The control group consisted of women who delivered vaginally, experienced an early postpartum hemorrhage, and had an intact cervix at uterine and cervical examination. The control group was matched for maternal age and ethnicity at a ratio of 1:2. Women who had a cervical tear but then did not have a subsequent delivery, or had multiple fetal gestations or cervical cerclage at subsequent pregnancies were excluded. Primary outcome was spontaneous PTB rate (PTBs in other subsequent pregnancies. Overall, 389 women were included. Of all cases of cervical tear, 129 were identified eligible and included in the final analysis. The control group included 260 women with an intact cervix. No significant differences were found between the study and control groups in the incidence of spontaneous PTB in the immediate subsequent pregnancy [1.6% (2/129) vs. 3.8% (10/260), respectively, p = 0.35]. The incidence of any spontaneous PTBs in all subsequent pregnancies did not differ also [4.7% (6/129) vs. 7.3% (19/260), respectively, p = 0.31]. Cervical tear detected after delivery does not increase the risk of spontaneous PTB in subsequent pregnancies.

  10. Pulmonary Hypoplasia Caused by Fetal Ascites in Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Despite Fetal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumichi Fujioka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of pulmonary hypoplasia due to fetal ascites in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infections despite fetal therapy. The patients died soon after birth. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia in our cases might be thoracic compression due to massive fetal ascites as a result of liver insufficiency. Despite aggressive fetal treatment, including multiple immunoglobulin administration, which was supposed to diminish the pathogenic effects of CMV either by neutralization or immunomodulatory effects, the fetal ascites was uncontrollable. To prevent development of pulmonary hypoplasia in symptomatic congenital CMV infections, further fetal intervention to reduce ascites should be considered.

  11. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulas, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  12. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  13. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  14. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  15. Chondrocyte heterogeneity: immunohistologically defined variation of integrin expression at different sites in human fetal knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, D M; Godolphin, J L; Gourlay, M S

    1995-04-01

    During development and at maturity different forms of cartilage vary in morphology and macromolecular content. This reflects heterogeneity of chondrocyte activity, in part involving differential interactions with the adjacent extracellular matrix via specialized cell surface receptors such as integrins. We undertook an immunohistological study on a series of human fetal knee joints to assess variation in the expression of integrins by chondrocytes and potential matrix ligands in articular, epiphyseal, growth plate, and meniscal cartilage. The results show that articular chondrocytes (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+, alpha 2+/-, alpha 5+, weakly alpha 6+, alpha V+) differed from epiphyseal (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+/-, alpha 2+/-, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+) growth plate (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1-, alpha 2-, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+), and meniscal cells (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+, strongly alpha 2+, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+ in expression of integrin subunits. There was no expression of beta 3, beta 4, beta 6, or alpha 3 by chondrocytes. These results differ from previous reports on the expression of integrins by adult articular cartilage, where alpha 2 and alpha 6 are not seen. Variation in distribution of matrix ligands was also seen. Fibronectin, laminin and Type VI collagen were expressed in all cartilages but there was restricted expression of tenascin, ED-A and ED-B fibronectin isoforms (articular cartilage and meniscus), and vitronectin (absent from growth plate cartilage). Regulated expression of integrins by chondrocytes, associated with changes in the pericellular matrix composition, is of potential importance in control of cartilage differentiation and function in health and disease.

  16. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  18. The use of non-invasive fetal electrocardiography in diagnosing second-degree fetal atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor; Behar, Joachim A; Oster, Julien; Shulgin, Vyacheslav; Ostras, Oleksii; Andreotti, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Complete atrioventricular block in fetuses is known to be mostly associated with autoimmune disease and can be irreversible if no steroids treatment is provided. Conventional methods used in clinical practice for diagnosing fetal arrhythmia are limited since they do not reflect the primary electrophysiological conduction processes that take place in the myocardium. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram has the potential to better support fetal arrhythmias diagnosis through the continuous analysis of the beat to beat variation of the fetal heart rate and morphological analysis of the PQRST complex. We present two retrospective case reports on which atrioventricular block diagnosis could have been supported by the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The two cases comprised a 22-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 31 weeks and a 25-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 41 weeks. Both women were admitted to the Department of Maternal and Fetal Medicine at the Kyiv and Kharkiv municipal perinatal clinics. Patients were observed using standard fetal monitoring methods as well as the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed retrospectively, where it is possible to identify the presence of the atrioventricular block. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram as a supplementary method to diagnose of the fetal atrioventricular block. Combined with current fetal monitoring techniques, non-invasive fetal electrocardiography could support clinical decisions.

  19. Radiology of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. (orig.) [de

  20. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  1. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rarely changes in bowel or bladder control. Cervical radiculopathy will manifest itself as pain traveling from the neck into a specific region ... physician feels that this is related to your cervical spine. If you have persistent pain, numbness or weakness in one of your arms ...

  2. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Ferrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  3. Fenda cervical mediana Midline cervical cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Tagliarini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A fenda mediana congênita do pescoço é anomalia rara da parte ventral do pescoço. Em torno de 100 casos foram relatados na literatura, sendo o primeiro caso descrito por Bailey em 1924. Este defeito é relatado em associação com fenda mediana do lábio inferior, fenda da mandíbula e da língua, e hipoplasia de outras estruturas cervicais medianas. Acredita-se que seja uma malformação originada dos dois primeiros arcos branquiais. O tratamento da lesão consiste na excisão vertical da lesão e reparação do defeito resultante. A maioria dos autores recomenda evitar a reparação simples da lesão, preferindo a fechamento com a utilização de zetaplastia múltiplas, com o intuito de evitar fibrose e retração local. Neste artigo relatamos dois casos dessa anomalia e realizamos revisão bibliográfica.The midline cervical cleft is an unusual congenital anomaly of the ventral neck and fewer than 100 cases have been reported overall and the first described by Bailey in 1924. This anomaly is report in association with median cleft of lower lip, cleft mandible and tongue, and hypoplasia of other midline neck structures. Its considered an anomaly originated from the two first branchial arches. The treatment of this cleft is a vertical complete excision and a closure with multiple Z-plasty. Many authors recommend avoid linear closure and prefer multiple Z-plasty for evicted fibrosis and local retraction. In this paper we report 2 case of this anomaly and the literature is reviewed.

  4. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  5. Binding of the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, to α5β1 on pig islet cells increases fibronectin production and facilitates internalization of PR_b functionalized liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Nicole A.; Fan, Wei; Papas, Klearchos K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that human islet allografts can restore insulin independence to patients with this disease. As islet isolation and immunotherapeutic techniques improve, the demand for this cell-based therapy will dictate the need for other sources of islets. Pig islets could provide an unlimited supply for xenotransplantation and have shown promise as an alternative to human islet allografts. However, stresses imposed during islet isolation and transplantation decrease islet viability, leading to loss of graft function. In this study, we investigated the ability of a fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, which specifically binds to the α5β1 integrin, to reestablish lost extracellular matrix (ECM) around isolated pig islets and increase internalization of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to show the presence of the integrin α5β1 on the pig islets on day 0 (day of isolation), as well as different days of islet culture. Islets cultured in medium supplemented with free PR_b for 48 hours were found to have increased levels of ECM fibronectin secretion compared to islets in normal culture conditions. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we found that PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes delivered to the pig islets internalized into the cells in a PR_b concentration dependent manner, and non-functionalized liposomes showed minimal internalization. These studies proved that the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, is an appropriate peptide bullet for applications involving α5β1 expressing pig islet cells. Fibronectin production stimulated through α5β1 PR_b binding may decrease apoptosis and therefore increase islet viability in culture. In addition, PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes may be used for targeted delivery of different agents to pig islet cells. PMID:20704278

  6. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  7. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable...... longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway...

  9. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa; Matesan, Manuela; Weinberger, Ed; Bulas, Dorothy I

    2010-02-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C#, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download from http://radiology.seattlechildrens.org/teaching/fetal_brain . Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development.

  10. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, Orit A.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  11. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  12. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved fibronectin-immobilized fibrinogen microthreads for the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajangam T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanavel Rajangam, Seong Soo A AnDepartment of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South KoreaAbstract: The aim of this study was to fabricate fibrinogen (Fbg microfibers with different structural characteristics for the development of 3-D tissue-engineering scaffolds. Fabricated Fbg microfibers were investigated for their biomolecule encapsulation, cell adhesion, and proliferations. Microfibers with three different concentrations of Fbg (5, 10, and 15 wt% were prepared by a gel solvent-extraction method using a silicone rubber tube. Fbg microfibers were covalently modified with fibronectin (FN by using water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as the cross-linking agent. Fbg microfibers were characterized by their FN cross-linking properties, structural morphology, and in vitro degradation. Furthermore, FN/Fbg microfibers were evaluated for cell attachment and proliferation. The biocompatibility and cell proliferation of the microfibers were assessed by measuring adenosine triphosphate activity in C2C12 fibroblast cells. Cell attachment and proliferation on microfibers were further examined using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopic images. FN loading on the microfibers was confirmed by fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and showed highly aligned nanostructures for fibers made with 15 wt% Fbg, a more porous structure for fibers made with 10 wt% Fbg, and a less porous structure for those made with 5 wt% Fbg. Controlled biodegradation of the fiber was observed for 8 weeks by using an in vitro proteolytic degradation assay. Fbg microfibers with highly aligned nanostructures (15 wt% showed enhanced biomolecule encapsulation, as well as higher cell adhesion and proliferation than another two types of FN/Fbg fibers (5 and 10 wt% and unmodified Fbg fibers. The promising results obtained from the present study reveal that optimal structure

  14. Involvement of rho-gtpases in fibroblast adhesion and fibronectine fibrillogenesis under stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignandon, A.; Lambert, C.; Rattner, A.; Servotte, S.; Lapiere, C.; Nusgens, B.; Vico, L.

    The Rho family small GTPases play a crucial role in mediating cellular adaptation to mechanical stimulation (MS), and possibly to microgravity (μg), through effects on the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion which is, in turn, mainly regulated by fibronectin fibrillogenesis (FnF). It remains unclear how mechanical stimulation is transduced to the Rho signaling pathways and how it impacts on fibronectin (fbn) fibrillogenesis (FnF). μg (2 days, mission STS-095) led to de-adhesion of fibroblasts and modification of the underlying extracellular matrix. To determine whether GTPases modulated FnF, we generated stable cell lines expressing high level of activated RhoA and Rac1 (QL) as compared to wild type (WI26-WT). After MS application [8% deformation, 1Hz, 15 min., 3 times/day for 1-2 days], we quantified focal adhesion (vinculin, paxillin, FAKY397), f-actin stress fibers (Sf) and FnF with home-developed softwares. We reported that after MS, Sf are more rapidly (30min) formed under the nucleus in Wi26-WT (+100%) and Rac1 (+200%) than in RhoA (+20%). Vinculin & paxillin were only restricted to the cell edge in static conditions and homogeneously distributed after MS in WT and Rac1. The relative area of contacts (vinculin & paxillin) was more dramatically enhanced by MS in Rac1 (+80%) than in WT (+40%) and RhoA (+25%) indicating that new focal contacts are formed under MS and supported the presence of Sf. MS Activation of FAK (FAKY397) was clear in WT and Rac1 and reduced in RhoA. FnF was restricted to cell-cell contacts zone without any change in the relative area of fbn after a 2-days MS. However we found more numerous spots of fbn at the cell center in Rac1 as compared with RhoA & WT suggesting that these fibrillar contacts will grow upon maturation and modulate FnF. The results indicate that MS induces formation of Sf and focal adhesions and enhances FF. RhoA has been shown to induce the formation of Sf and focal adhesions, and Rac1 activation decreases Rho activity in

  15. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region of the mo......We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  16. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and accumulation of fibronectin in coronary artery restenotic lesions retrieved by atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, N.; de Lima, V. C.; Molossi, S.; Liu, P.; Turley, E.; Gotlieb, A. I.; Adelman, A. G.; Rabinovitch, M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The formation of coronary artery neointima experimentally induced in piglets after cardiac transplantation is related to an immune-inflammatory reaction associated with increased expression of T cells and inflammatory mediators (tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) and upregulation of fibronectin. In vivo blockade of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rabbits after cardiac transplantation results in reduced neointimal formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that coronary restenosis after atherectomy or percutaneous balloon angioplasty is associated with a similar inflammatory cascade initiated by mechanical injury. METHODS--Specimens taken at coronary atherectomy were analysed from 16 patients. Nine had had the procedure performed twice, firstly, to remove a primary lesion, and secondly, to remove a restenotic lesion. Seven had percutaneous balloon angioplasty after removal of restenotic tissue. Coronary atherectomy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of T cells, macrophages, major histocompatibility complex II, interleukin 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibronectin, and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility. RESULTS--The groups were clinically and angiographically similar with equivalent lumens before and after atherectomy. Restenotic lesions had increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin compared with the primary lesions (P < 0.05 for both). There was also a trend towards a greater number of T cells and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta. CONCLUSIONS--Restenosis is associated with increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin, suggesting that an immune-inflammatory reaction probably contributes to neointimal formation and may represent a form of wound healing and repair secondary to mechanical injury. Images PMID:7626352

  17. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, especially suitable for use on the elderly population and on infants. While performing Tuina, the therapist concentrates his mind, regulates his breathing, and actuates the Qi and power of his entire body towards his hands. For a better result is recommended to try to combine acupuncture with tuina treatment. Tuina can help relieve the pain associated with spondylosis. After this kind of treatment, the symptomes produced by irritated nerves and sore muscles can find some relief. Tuina helps patients with cervical spondylosis regain muscle control, nerve function and flexibility, all through the restoration of the life force flow.

  18. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  19. Embryonic/fetal mortality after exposure to tritiated water in pregnant Swiss albino mice during different gestation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Saini, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a priming injection(im) of tritiated water (HTO) at the dose rate of 2.3 and 5 μCi/ml body water (74, III or 185 K Bq/ml body water) at 0,6 and 14 day post conception (d.p.c) and were subsequently maintained on tritiated drinking water ad libitum during preimplantation (0-5 d.p.c), organogenetic (6-12 d.c.p.) or fetal (14-18 d.p.c) period, respectively. On day 18 of gestation the females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to record the implant sites per dam and embryonic/fetal mortality. Significant reduction was observed in average implant sites per dam when the females were exposed to any of the three doses during the preimplantation period due to embryonic resorption before implantation. However, the same was found to be within the normal range when mothers were exposed during the organogenetic or fetal period. Prenatal mortality (embryonic resorption/fetal death) was higher after in utero exposure to different doses during preimplantation period as compared to organogenetic period, but mortality did not occur after exposure to any of the doses during the fetal period. Occurrence of mortality was found to be dose dependent. (author). 25 refs., 1 tab

  20. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  1. Fibronectin affects transient MMP2 gene expression through DNA demethylation changes in non-invasive breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela T Pereira

    Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for more than 90% of cancer deaths. Cells from primary solid tumors may invade adjacent tissues and migrate to distant sites where they establish new colonies. The tumor microenvironment is now recognized as an important participant in the signaling that induces cancer cell migration. An essential process for metastasis is extracellular matrix (ECM degradation by metalloproteases (MMPs, which allows tumor cells to invade local tissues and to reach blood vessels. The members of this protein family include gelatinase A, or MMP-2, which is responsible for the degradation of type IV collagen, the most abundant component of the basal membrane, that separates epithelial cells in the stroma. It is known that fibronectin is capable of promoting the expression of MMP-2 in MCF7 breast cancer cells in culture. In addition, it was already shown that the MMP2 gene expression is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. In this work, we showed that fibronectin was able to induce MMP2 expression by 30% decrease in its promoter methylation. In addition, a histone marker for an open chromatin conformation was significantly increased. These results indicate a new role for fibronectin in the communication between cancer cells and the ECM, promoting epigenetic modifications.

  2. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Advances in cervical screening technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, M H

    2000-03-01

    The Pap smear unquestionably is a successful screening test for cervical cancer. However, recent advances in technology have raised questions regarding whether the conventional Pap smear is still the standard of care. This article relates issues of screening and cost-effectiveness to the state of the art in thin layer preparations, cytology automation, human papillomavirus screening, human papillomavirus vaccines, and other cervical screening adjuncts. Perhaps nowhere in medicine is clinical decision making being more strongly influenced by market and other external forces than in cervical cytopathology.

  4. Biocompatibility and favorable response of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin-gold nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Shan Hung

    Full Text Available A simple surface modification method, comprising of a thin coating with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and fibronectin (FN, was developed to improve the biocompatibility required for cardiovascular devices. The nanocomposites from FN and AuNPs (FN-Au were characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The biocompatibility of the nanocomposites was evaluated by the response of monocytes and platelets to the material surface in vitro. FN-Au coated surfaces demonstrated low monocyte activation and platelet activation. The behavior of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on FN-Au was further investigated. MSCs on FN-Au nanocomposites particularly that containing 43.5 ppm of AuNPs (FN-Au 43.5 ppm showed cell proliferation, low ROS generation, as well as increases in the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, which may account for the enhanced MSC migration on the nanocomposites. These results suggest that the FN-Au nanocomposite thin film coating may serve as a potential and simple solution for the surface modification of blood-contacting devices such as vascular grafts.

  5. Role of fibronectin in intravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Kavoussi, L R; Catalona, W J

    1988-02-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been demonstrated to be effective both for prophylaxis and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. In order to identify the progression of events that result in BCG-mediated antitumor activity, studies were performed to evaluate the mechanism of binding of BCG within the bladder. Histological and quantitative studies in a mouse model revealed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas of urothelial damage. Preliminary in vitro data showed that BCG attached to surfaces coated with extracellular matrix proteins. Further studies were then performed using purified extracellular matrix proteins to identify the proteins responsible for attachment. BCG were observed to attach to surfaces coated only with purified fibronectin (FN) but not to other purified proteins including laminin, collagen or fibrinogen. The attachment of BCG to purified FN in vitro was dose dependent and was inhibited by anti-FN antibodies. Moreover, BCG attachment in vivo to bladders with damaged urothelial surfaces was inhibited more than 95% by anti-FN antibodies, but binding was not affected by anti-laminin antibodies or preimmune serum. A survey of commercially available BCG vaccines (Pasteur, Tice, Glaxo, Connaught) showed that only Glaxo BCG did not attach to FN-coated surfaces. Glaxo BCG also was shown to express inferior antitumor activity suggesting that the absence of FN binding by Glaxo may have been associated with the absence of antitumor activity of the vaccine.

  6. Comparison of the fibronectin-binding ability and antitumor efficacy of various mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M A; Ritchey, J K; Catalona, W J; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L

    1990-07-01

    Although the mechanism by which Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) exerts an antitumor effect on superficial bladder tumors is not fully understood, recent evidence has implicated binding of BCG organisms to fibronectin (FN) as requisite for this antitumor efficacy. Various substrains of BCG and other mycobacteria were tested in vitro for their relative capacities to bind both matrix and soluble FN. A substrain of Mycobacterium kansasii, designated the "high-binding strain," was found to bind FN more readily (P less than 0.05) in in vitro studies, when compared to commercially available substrains of BCG (Tice, Connaught, and Armand Frappier). The binding by the three commercial strains of BCG to FN in vitro appeared to be equivalent. The high-binding strain was further demonstrated to attach more readily in vivo to the acutely injured murine bladder (P less than 0.005) than the Armand Frappier substrain. Finally, using the MB49 murine bladder tumor model, an enhanced antitumor effect (P less than 0.05) was noted in mice treated with intravesical high-binding strain, in comparison to the Armand Frappier substrain, during five weekly treatments. It appears not only that the commercial substrains of BCG bind FN in an equivalent manner but also that the relative binding capacities of the substrains correlate directly with antitumor activity. A substrain of M. kansasii appears to have been identified which may prove more clinically effective than the currently available strains of BCG.

  7. Synergistic Interactions of a Synthetic Lubricin-Mimetic with Fibronectin for Enhanced Wear Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C. Andresen Eguiluz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lubricin (LUB, a major mucinous glycoprotein of mammalian synovial fluids, is believed to provide excellent lubrication to cartilage surfaces. Consequently, when joint disease or replacement leads to increased friction and surface damage in the joint, robust synthetic LUB alternatives that could be used therapeutically to improve lubrication and surface protection are needed. Here, we report the characterization of a lubricating multiblock bottlebrush polymer whose architecture was inspired by LUB, and we investigate the role of fibronectin (FN, a glycoprotein found in the superficial zone of cartilage, in mediating the tribological properties of the polymer upon shear between mica surfaces. Our surface forces apparatus (SFA normal force measurements indicate that the lubricin-mimetic (mimLUB could be kept anchored between mica surfaces, even under high contact pressures, when an intermediate layer of FN was present. Additional SFA friction measurements show that FN would also extend the wearless friction regime of the polymer up to pressures of 3.4 MPa while ensuring stable friction coefficients (μ ≈ 0.28. These results demonstrate synergistic interactions between mimLUB and FN in assisting the lubrication and wear protection of ideal (mica substrates upon shear. Collectively, these findings suggest that our proposed mimLUB might be a promising alternative to LUB, as similar mechanisms could potentially facilitate the interaction between the polymer and cartilage surfaces in articular joints and prosthetic implants in vivo.

  8. Fibronectin adsorption and cell response on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C; Panadero, J A; Sencadas, V; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Tamaño, M N; Moratal, D; Salmerón-Sánchez, M; Gómez Ribelles, J L

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large potential of electroactive materials in novel tissue engineering strategies, the aim of this work is to determine if the crystalline phase and/or the surface electrical charge of electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, have influence on the biological response in monolayer cell culture. Non-polar α-PVDF and electroactive β-PVDF were prepared. The β-PVDF films were poled by corona discharge to show negative or positive electrical surface charge density. It has been concluded that hydrophilicity of the PVDF substrates depends significantly on crystalline phase and polarity. Furthermore, by means of atomic force microscopy and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, it has been shown that positive or negative poling strongly influences the behavior of β-PVDF supports with respect to fibronectin (FN) adsorption, varying the exhibition of adhesion ligands of adsorbed FN. Culture of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoeblasts proved that cell proliferation depends on surface polarity as well. These results open the viability of cell culture stimulation by mechanical deformation of a piezoelectric substrate that results in varying electrical charge densities on the substrate surface. (paper)

  9. Mechanical forces regulate the interactions of fibronectin and collagen I in extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Kristopher E; Vukmirovic, Radmila; Zhe, Lin; Klotzsch, Enrico; Smith, Michael L; Gourdon, Delphine; Luna, Sheila; Vogel, Viola

    2015-08-14

    Despite the crucial role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in directing cell fate in healthy and diseased tissues--particularly in development, wound healing, tissue regeneration and cancer--the mechanisms that direct the assembly and regulate hierarchical architectures of ECM are poorly understood. Collagen I matrix assembly in vivo requires active fibronectin (Fn) fibrillogenesis by cells. Here we exploit Fn-FRET probes as mechanical strain sensors and demonstrate that collagen I fibres preferentially co-localize with more-relaxed Fn fibrils in the ECM of fibroblasts in cell culture. Fibre stretch-assay studies reveal that collagen I's Fn-binding domain is responsible for the mechano-regulated interaction. Furthermore, we show that Fn-collagen interactions are reciprocal: relaxed Fn fibrils act as multivalent templates for collagen assembly, but once assembled, collagen fibres shield Fn fibres from being stretched by cellular traction forces. Thus, in addition to the well-recognized, force-regulated, cell-matrix interactions, forces also tune the interactions between different structural ECM components.

  10. Cloning and analysis of the promoter region of the human fibronectin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D.C.; Bowlus, C.L.; Bourgeois, S.

    1987-01-01

    Human fibronectin (FN) genomic clones were isolated by screening a human genomic library with a 75-base oligonucleotide. The sequence of the oligonucleotide corresponds to a region near the 5' end of the human FN cDNA clone pFH6 that contains the amino-terminal coding sequences but does not extend to the 5' end of the mRNA. The 5' end of the FN gene is found on a 3.7-kilobase-pair EcoRI fragment that contains about 2.7 kilobase pairs of flanking sequence. The first exon is 414 base pairs long, with a 5' untranslated region of 267 base pairs. As deduced on the basis of the position of the initiation codon, FN is synthesized with a 31-residue amino acid extension on the amion terminus that is not present in the mature polypeptide. This amino-terminal extension appears to contain both a signal peptide and a propeptide. The first 200 base pairs of 5'-flanking sequence is very G+C rich. Upstream of this the sequence becomes relatively A+T rich. The sequence ATATAA is found at -25 and the sequence CAAT is present at -150. The sequence GGGGCGGGGC at -102 exhibits homology to the binding site for the transcription factor SP1, and the sequence TGACGTCA at -173 exhibits homology to 5'-flanking sequences important for induction by cAMP

  11. Adipose progenitor cells increase fibronectin matrix strain and unfolding in breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, E. M.; Saunders, M. P.; Yoon, C. J.; Gourdon, D.; Fischbach, C.

    2011-02-01

    Increased stiffness represents a hallmark of breast cancer that has been attributed to the altered physicochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of fibronectin (Fn) in modulating the composition and mechanical properties of the tumor-associated ECM remains unclear. We have utilized a combination of biochemical and physical science tools to evaluate whether paracrine signaling between breast cancer cells and adipose progenitor cells regulates Fn matrix assembly and stiffness enhancement in the tumor stroma. In particular, we utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to map the molecular conformation and stiffness of Fn that has been assembled by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in response to conditioned media from MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Our results reveal that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote Fn expression, unfolding, and stiffening by adipose progenitor cells and that transforming growth factor-β serves as a soluble cue underlying these changes. In vivo experiments using orthotopic co-transplantation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells and MDA-MB231 into SCID mice support the pathological relevance of our results. Insights gained by these studies advance our understanding of the role of Fn in mammary tumorigenesis and may ultimately lead to improved anti-cancer therapies.

  12. Adipose progenitor cells increase fibronectin matrix strain and unfolding in breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, E M; Saunders, M P; Yoon, C J; Fischbach, C; Gourdon, D

    2011-01-01

    Increased stiffness represents a hallmark of breast cancer that has been attributed to the altered physicochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of fibronectin (Fn) in modulating the composition and mechanical properties of the tumor-associated ECM remains unclear. We have utilized a combination of biochemical and physical science tools to evaluate whether paracrine signaling between breast cancer cells and adipose progenitor cells regulates Fn matrix assembly and stiffness enhancement in the tumor stroma. In particular, we utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to map the molecular conformation and stiffness of Fn that has been assembled by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in response to conditioned media from MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Our results reveal that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote Fn expression, unfolding, and stiffening by adipose progenitor cells and that transforming growth factor-β serves as a soluble cue underlying these changes. In vivo experiments using orthotopic co-transplantation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells and MDA-MB231 into SCID mice support the pathological relevance of our results. Insights gained by these studies advance our understanding of the role of Fn in mammary tumorigenesis and may ultimately lead to improved anti-cancer therapies

  13. Fibronectin contributes to notochord intercalation in the invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Segade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic analysis has upended chordate phylogeny, placing the tunicates as the sister group to the vertebrates. This taxonomic rearrangement raises questions about the emergence of a tunicate/vertebrate ancestor. Results Characterization of developmental genes uniquely shared by tunicates and vertebrates is one promising approach for deciphering developmental shifts underlying acquisition of novel, ancestral traits. The matrix glycoprotein Fibronectin (FN has long been considered a vertebrate-specific gene, playing a major instructive role in vertebrate embryonic development. However, the recent computational prediction of an orthologous “vertebrate-like” Fn gene in the genome of a tunicate, Ciona savignyi, challenges this viewpoint suggesting that Fn may have arisen in the shared tunicate/vertebrate ancestor. Here we verify the presence of a tunicate Fn ortholog. Transgenic reporter analysis was used to characterize a Ciona Fn enhancer driving expression in the notochord. Targeted knockdown in the notochord lineage indicates that FN is required for proper convergent extension. Conclusions These findings suggest that acquisition of Fn was associated with altered notochord morphogenesis in the vertebrate/tunicate ancestor.

  14. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Coelho da Costa, Meline; Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Neves, Cynara Mendes; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Calloni, Giordano Wosgrau; Trentin, Andrea Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effect was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells

  15. Fibronectin potentiates topical erythropoietin-induced wound repair in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Ullmann, Yehuda; Egozi, Dana; Daod, Essam; Hellou, Elias; Ashkar, Manal; Gilhar, Amos; Teot, Luc

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus disrupts all phases of the wound repair cascade and leads to development of chronic wounds. We previously showed that topical erythropoietin (EPO) can promote wound repair in diabetic rats. Fibronectin (FN) has a critical role throughout the process of wound healing, yet it is deficient in wound tissues of diabetic patients. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical treatment of both EPO and FN (EPO/FN) on wound repair in diabetic mice. Full-thickness excisional skin wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic mice were treated with a cream containing vehicle, EPO, FN, or EPO/FN. We assessed the rate of wound closure, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and expression of inflammatory cytokines, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and β1-integrin, in the wound tissues. We also investigated the effect of EPO, FN, and EPO/FN on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts cultured on fibrin-coated plates, or in high glucose concentrations. EPO/FN treatment significantly increased the rate of wound closure and this effect was associated with increased angiogenesis, increased eNOS and β1-integrin expression, and reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Our findings show that EPO and FN have an additive effect on wound repair in diabetic mice.

  16. Glucose-induced serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase activation in oncofetal fibronectin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zia A.; Barbin, Yousef P.; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    Preferential expression of oncofetal extra domain-B fibronectin (EDB + FN), a proposed angiogenic marker, has been shown in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. High levels of glucose also increase EDB + FN expression in endothelial cells (ECs) via transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK-1) in glucose-induced EDB + FN expression. Using human macro- and microvascular ECs, we show that high levels of glucose, TGF-β1, and ET-1 increase the EDB + FN expression via SGK-1 alteration at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Inhibition of TGF-β1 and ET-1 prevented glucose-induced SGK-1 activation and the EDB + FN expression. Furthermore, using siRNA-mediated SGK-1 gene silencing, we show that glucose-induced EDB + FN expression can be completely prevented. These findings provide first evidence of glucose-induced SGK-1 activation in altered EDB + FN expression and provide novel avenues for therapeutic modalities

  17. Laminin and Matrix metalloproteinase 11 regulate Fibronectin levels in the zebrafish myotendinous junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Molly H; Alrowaished, Sarah S; Goody, Michelle F; Crawford, Bryan D; Henry, Clarissa A

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix. One such shift involves the replacement of Fibronectin (Fn)-rich matrix, which is essential for both somite and early muscle development, with laminin-rich matrix essential for normal function of the myotome. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying this transition. We show that laminin polymerization indirectly promotes Fn downregulation at the MTJ, via a matrix metalloproteinase 11 (Mmp11)-dependent mechanism. Laminin deposition and organization is required for localization of Mmp11 to the MTJ, where Mmp11 is both necessary and sufficient for Fn downregulation in vivo. Furthermore, reduction of residual Mmp11 in laminin mutants promotes a Fn-rich MTJ that partially rescues skeletal muscle architecture. These results identify a mechanism for Fn downregulation at the MTJ, highlight crosstalk between laminin and Fn, and identify a new in vivo function for Mmp11. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel signaling pathway mediating Fn downregulation. Our data revealing new regulatory mechanisms that guide ECM remodeling during morphogenesis in vivo may inform pathological conditions in which Fn is dysregulated.

  18. Comparing the Efficacy and Side Effects of Trans-Cervical Catheter and Vaginal Misoprostol on Cervical Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mallah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of labor induction is extremely dependent on the state of the cervix. There are various methods available in modern obstetrics practice for ripening the cervix, such as intravaginal prostaglandins and mechanical devices like transcervical catheters. Although plenty of studies have already compared the two methods for the unripened cervices, more studies are warranted in nulliparous patients only. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol tablets with transcervical Foley catheter for cervical ripening in nulliparous patients. Methods & Materials: In this randomized clinical trial, 120 nulliparous candidates for labor induction were recruited from two teaching centers in Tabriz within a 17-month period of time. All the enrolled cases had a live singleton fetus with cephalic presentation at term (≥37 weeks, on-admission Bishop Score≤4, intact membranes and reactive non-stress test results. They were randomly assigned to two equal age-matched groups receiving either intravaginal misoprostol (25 microgram, n=59, or transcervical insertion of 16F Foley catheter (n=60. Results: One time successful induction (i.e. successful induction after a single insertion of misoprostol, or expulsion of transcervical Foley catheter within 12 h of insertion was achieved in all the patients without employment of other methods such as use of syntocinon. Misoprostol was more effective in terms of induction-to-cervical ripening interval (15.16±3.59 h vs. 18.30±1.59 h; p<0.001. Tachysystole, on the other hand, was significantly more frequent in the misoprostol receivers (25.4% vs. 0%; p<0.001. The two groups were comparable for the rate of cesarean section (misoprostol, 37.3%; Folly catheter, 30%; p=0.40. Comparing the two groups, there was no significant difference with regard to change in Bishop Score (misoprostol, 1.90±0.54 h-1; Folly catheter, 1.89±0.74 h-1; p=0.95 and miscellaneous pregnancy-related and fetal

  19. Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells to migrate and adhere to fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouignard, Nadège; Maccarana, Marco; Strate, Ina; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Malmström, Anders; Pera, Edgar M

    2016-06-01

    Of all live births with congenital anomalies, approximately one-third exhibit deformities of the head and face. Most craniofacial disorders are associated with defects in a migratory stem and progenitor cell population, which is designated the neural crest (NC). Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (MCEDS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder with distinct craniofacial features; this syndrome comprises multiple congenital malformations that are caused by dysfunction of dermatan sulfate (DS) biosynthetic enzymes, including DS epimerase-1 (DS-epi1; also known as DSE). Studies in mice have extended our understanding of DS-epi1 in connective tissue maintenance; however, its role in fetal development is not understood. We demonstrate that DS-epi1 is important for the generation of isolated iduronic acid residues in chondroitin sulfate (CS)/DS proteoglycans in early Xenopus embryos. The knockdown of DS-epi1 does not affect the formation of early NC progenitors; however, it impairs the correct activation of transcription factors involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduces the extent of NC cell migration, which leads to a decrease in NC-derived craniofacial skeleton, melanocytes and dorsal fin structures. Transplantation experiments demonstrate a tissue-autonomous role for DS-epi1 in cranial NC cell migration in vivo Cranial NC explant and single-cell cultures indicate a requirement of DS-epi1 in cell adhesion, spreading and extension of polarized cell processes on fibronectin. Thus, our work indicates a functional link between DS and NC cell migration. We conclude that NC defects in the EMT and cell migration might account for the craniofacial anomalies and other congenital malformations in MCEDS, which might facilitate the diagnosis and development of therapies for this distressing condition. Moreover, the presented correlations between human DS-epi1 expression and gene sets of mesenchymal character, invasion and metastasis in

  20. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E.; Matesan, Manuela; Bulas, Dorothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  1. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...

  2. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  3. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been

  4. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  5. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...

  6. Fetal hydronephrosis: is there hope for consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Dubois, Josee; Rypens, Francoise; Boisvert, Jacques; Perreault, Gilles; Decarie, Jean Claude; Filiatrault, Denis; Lapierre, Chantale; Miron, Marie-Claude; Bechard, Nancy [Department of Medical Imaging, Hopital Ste-Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, H3T 1C5, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Garel, Laurent; Grignon, Andree [Department of Medical Imaging, Hopital Ste-Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, H3T 1C5, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiology, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, H3T 1C5, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This review article aims at summarizing the data regarding fetal and neonatal hydronephrosis, at correlating controversial data with the differences in the practice of obstetrical sonography from one country to another, and finally, at presenting our own criteria for fetal renal collecting system dilatation along with our own guidelines of postnatal investigation. (orig.)

  7. Fetal DNA: strategies for optimal recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, Tobias J.; Heermann, Klaus-Hinrich; Liu, Zhong; Soussan, Aicha Ait; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2008-01-01

    For fetal DNA extraction, in principle each DNA extraction method can be used; however, because most methods have been optimized for genomic DNA from leucocytes, we describe here the methods that have been optimized for the extraction of fetal DNA from maternal plasma and validated for this purpose

  8. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatme...

  9. Fetal behavior in normal dichorionic twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Derks, J. B.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study was performed to compare fetal behavioral development in healthy dichorionic twins and singletons, and identify twin intra-pair associations (synchrony) of fetal movements and rest-activity cycles using different criteria to define synchrony. Subjects and methods:

  10. Value of amniocentesis versus fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of fetal demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant Borders, Ann E; Greenberg, Jessica; Plaga, Stacey; Shepard-Hinton, Megan; Yates, Carin; Elias, Sherman; Shulman, Lee P

    2009-01-01

    Use of fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise frequently results in unacceptably high failure rates. We reviewed our ongoing use of amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation to determine if this provided a better source of cells for cytogenetic analysis. We compared cytogenetic results using fetal tissues obtained following uterine evacuation to our ongoing use of amniotic fluid cell obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation from 2003 to 2008. In 49 of the 63 cases evaluated by fetal tissue biopsies performed after uterine evacuation, a karyotypic analysis was obtained (77.8%). Among the 38 cases evaluated by amniocentesis, an amniotic fluid sample and fetal cytogenetic results were obtained in all 38 (100%) cases. Our findings indicate that amniocentesis is a more reliable source of cytogenetic information than fetal tissue in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise.

  11. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  12. Fetal Origin of Sensorimotor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fagard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to track the fetal origin of infants’ sensorimotor behavior. We consider development as the self-organizing emergence of complex forms from spontaneously generated activity, governed by the innate capacity to detect and memorize the consequences of spontaneous activity (contingencies, and constrained by the sensory and motor maturation of the body. In support of this view, we show how observations on fetuses and also several fetal experiments suggest that the fetus’s first motor activity allows it to feel the space around it and to feel its body and the consequences of its movements on its body. This primitive motor babbling gives way progressively to sensorimotor behavior which already possesses most of the characteristics of infants’ later behavior: repetition of actions leading to sensations, intentionality, some motor control and oriented reactions to sensory stimulation. In this way the fetus can start developing a body map and acquiring knowledge of its limited physical and social environment.

  13. Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy modified by alkali heating treatment followed by the immobilization of poly (ethylene glycol), fibronectin and heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Changjiang, E-mail: panchangjiang@hyit.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Hu, Youdong [Department of Geriatrics, The Affiliated Huai' an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Huai' an 223003 (China); Hou, Yu; Liu, Tao; Lin, Yuebin; Ye, Wei; Hou, Yanhua; Gong, Tao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, magnesium alloys are attracting more and more attention as a kind of biodegradable metallic biomaterials, however, their uncontrollable biodegradation speed in vivo and the limited surface biocompatibility hinder their clinical applications. In the present study, with the aim of improving the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, the magnesium alloy (AZ31B) surface was modified by alkali heating treatment followed by the self-assembly of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Subsequently, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and fibronectin or fibronectin/heparin complex were sequentially immobilized on the modified surface. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the above molecules were successfully immobilized on the magnesium alloy surface. An excellent hydrophilic surface was obtained after the alkali heating treatment while the hydrophilicity decreased to some degree after the self-assembly of APTMS, the surface hydrophilicity was gradually improved again after the immobilization of PEG, fibronectin or fibronectin/heparin complex. The corrosion resistance of the control magnesium alloy was significantly improved by the alkali heating treatment. The self-assembly of APTMS and the following immobilization of PEG further enhanced the corrosion resistance of the substrates, however, the grafting of fibronectin or fibronectin/heparin complex slightly lowered the corrosion resistance. As compared to the pristine magnesium alloy, the samples modified by the immobilization of PEG and fibronectin/heparin complex presented better blood compatibility according to the results of hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). In addition, the modified substrates had better cytocompatibility to endothelial cells due to the improved anticorrosion and the introduction of fibronectin. The substrates

  14. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  15. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  16. CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY. LONG TERM RESULTS CONCERNING 18 PATIENTS OPERATED ON BY ANTERIOR APPROACH IN GABON MYELOPATHIES CERVICARTHROSIQUES INVALIDANTES. RESULTATS A LONG TERME DE 18 PATIENTS OPERES PAR VOIE ...

  17. Teratoma cervical congênito gigante: relato de caso e revisão quanto às opções terapêuticas Giant congenital cervical teratoma: case report and review about therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferro Miele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de teratoma cervical congênito, destacando a gravidade e as dificuldades terapêuticas associadas. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Mãe de 30 anos, com gestação por fertilização assistida. Com 23 semanas, diagnosticada malformação cervical fetal à direita. Parto cesáreo por indicação fetal com 31 semanas. Recém-nascido masculino, peso ao nascer de 1800g, Apgar 4 e 9, com volumoso processo expansivo à direita, ocupando toda a região cervical, comprometendo a mandíbula e estendendo-se para o terço superior do tórax. Com 40 horas de vida, apresentou insuficiência cardíaca congestiva de alto débito por roubo de fluxo pelo tumor. A partir de 54 horas de vida, houve progressiva deterioração hemodinâmica e respiratória, com hipotensão, anúria e labilidade de oxigenação, refratárias às aminas vasoativas, reposição de volume e aumento do suporte ventilatório. Indicada abordagem cirúrgica para ressecção tumoral, todavia o paciente não apresentou estabilidade clínica que permitisse seu transporte ao centro cirúrgico e faleceu com 70 horas de vida. COMENTÁRIOS: O caso demonstra as dificuldades relacionadas à abordagem pós-natal dos teratomas cervicais volumosos. Apesar do diagnóstico pré-natal, o paciente evoluiu com obstrução de vias aéreas, complicada por um choque cardiogênico refratário, que culminou no óbito. A abordagem intraparto é fundamental nesses pacientes, consistindo em exérese tumoral, enquanto a manutenção da circulação materno-fetal permite a oxigenação fetal contínua. A evolução neonatal no caso descrito é condizente com a literatura que mostra prognóstico reservado quando não é realizada a abordagem cirúrgica intraparto.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of congenital cervical teratoma, highlighting the severity and the therapeutic difficulties associated. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 30-year old mother, with pregnancy by assisted fertilization. At 23 weeks, a cervical fetal

  18. Inequality in Fetal Autopsy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Tiandrazana, Rémi-Claude; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Costopoulos, André

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in use of fetal autopsy is poorly understood, despite the importance of autopsy in establishing the cause of stillbirth for future prevention. We examined fetal autopsy rates between linguistic minorities in Quebec, Canada, and assessed trends over three decades. Using registry data on 11,992 stillbirths from 1981-2011, we calculated fetal autopsy rates for Francophones, Anglophones, and Allophones by decade. We found lower fetal autopsy rates for Allophones (54.4%) than Francophones (68.5%) and Anglophones (63.4%), but rates decreased over time for all language groups. After 2000, Allophones had 25% higher risk of non-autopsy relative to Francophones, with 8.8 fewer autopsies for every 100 stillbirths. Allophones who were not autopsied had 32% higher risk of having an undetermined cause of death. Inequality in use of fetal autopsy may be widespread for minorities in Canada. Efforts to decrease stillbirth in minorities may require policies to increase autopsy rates.

  19. Fetal activity patterns in hypertensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-01-01

    This prospective investigation attempts to determine whether the maternal recording of perceived fetal motion is useful for fetal assessment in pregnancies complicated by hypertension. During a 21 month period, 124 patients whose pregnancies were complicated by either chronic or pregnancy-induced hypertension participated. The number of perceived movements per hour (24 +/- 11, mean +/- S.D.) and evidence for fetal inactivity (7 cases, 6%) did not vary significantly from a control group of normotensive pregnancies (p greater than 0.05). Fetal inactivity was predictive of an unfavorable perinatal outcome in 6 of 7 cases, including the three stillborn infants. No perinatal deaths occurred among the 117 hypertensive pregnancies with active fetuses, and the 6 cases with an unfavorable outcome were associated with mild intrauterine growth delay, prematurity, or acute changes such as placental abruption or umbilical cord accidents. Realizing these limitations, a record of fetal inactivity is worthwhile in managing the pregnancy complicated by hypertension.

  20. Fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism: diagnostic and therapeutic approachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism may occur in mothers with Graves’ disease. Fetal thyrotoxicosis manifestation is observed with the transition of TSH receptor stimulating antibodies to the fetus from the 17th–20th weeks of pregnancy and with the fetal TSH receptors becoming responsive after 20 weeks. The diagnosis is confirmed by fetal tachycardia, goiter and bone age advancement in pregnancy and maternal treatment is conducted in accordance. The probability of neonatal hyperthyroidism is high in the babies of mothers that have ongoing antithyroid requirement and higher antibody levels in the last months of pregnancy. Clinical manifestation may be delayed by 7–17 days because of the antithyroid drugs taken by the mother. Neonatal hyperthyroidism symptoms can be confused with sepsis and congenital viral infections. Herein, the diagnosis and therapeutic approach are reviewed in cases of fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism. PMID:28439194

  1. Does rehabilitation of cervical lordosis influence sagittal cervical spine flexion extension kinematics in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim Moustafa; Diab, Aliaa Attiah Mohamed; Hegazy, Fatma A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that improvement of cervical lordosis in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) will improve cervical spine flexion and extension end range of motion kinematics in a population suffering from CSR. Thirty chronic lower CSR patients with cervical lordosis lordosis (p lordosis in the study group was associated with significant improvement in the translational and rotational motions of the lower cervical spine. This finding provides objective evidence that cervical flexion/extension is partially dependent on the posture and sagittal curve orientation. These findings are in agreement with several other reports in the literature; whereas ours is the first post treatment analysis identifying this relationship.

  2. Cervical chordoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, C.; Wiehoff, A.; Candela, V. P.; Perera, J.

    2002-01-01

    Chordomas, lesions that develop from notochordal remnants, can arise at any site ranging from the clivus to the sacrum: they represent 3% to 4% of all primary bone tumors. We present the cases of a 45-year-old man with cervical chordoma at the C2 level, the site least frequently reported in the literature. We provide the radiological findings resulting from cervical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (Author) 11 refs

  3. A novel fibronectin binding motif in MSCRAMMs targets F3 modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available BBK32 is a surface expressed lipoprotein and fibronectin (Fn-binding microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies from our group showed that BBK32 is a virulence factor in experimental Lyme disease and located the Fn-binding region to residues 21-205 of the lipoprotein.Studies aimed at identifying interacting sites between BBK32 and Fn revealed an interaction between the MSCRAMM and the Fn F3 modules. Further analysis of this interaction showed that BBK32 can cause the aggregation of human plasma Fn in a similar concentration-dependent manner to that of anastellin, the superfibronectin (sFn inducing agent. The resulting Fn aggregates are conformationally distinct from plasma Fn as indicated by a change in available thermolysin cleavage sites. Recombinant BBK32 and anastellin affect the structure of Fn matrices formed by cultured fibroblasts and inhibit endothelial cell proliferation similarly. Within BBK32, we have located the sFn-forming activity to a region between residues 160 and 175 which contains two sequence motifs that are also found in anastellin. Synthetic peptides mimicking these motifs induce Fn aggregation, whereas a peptide with a scrambled sequence motif was inactive, suggesting that these motifs represent the sFn-inducing sequence.We conclude that BBK32 induces the formation of Fn aggregates that are indistinguishable from those formed by anastellin. The results of this study provide evidence for how bacteria can target host proteins to manipulate host cell activities.

  4. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta

    2017-07-04

    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  5. Radiation induced changes in the expression of fibronectin, Pai-1, MMP in rat glomerular epithelial cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Zheng, Ying; Ha, Tae Sun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moon June [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Renal irradiation can lead to the development of radiation nephropathy, and this is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and final fibrosis. To determine the possible role of the glomerular epithelial cell, the radiation-induced changes in the expression of its genes associated with the extracellular matrix were analyzed. Rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) were irradiated with a single dose of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Gy with using 6 MV LINAC (Siemens, USA), and the samples were collected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation, respectively. Northern blotting, western blotting and zymography were used to measure the expression level of fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy resulted in a significant increase in Fn mRNA since 24 hours post-irradiation, and a single dose of 5 and 10 Gy significantly increased the Fn immunoreactive protein measured 48 hours post-irradiation. An increase in Pai-mRNA and protein was also observed and especially, a single dose of 10 Gy significantly increased the mRNA measured 24 and 48 hours post-irradiation. The active MMP-2 measured 24 hours post-irradiation slightly increased in a dose dependent manner, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. The levels of MMP-9, TIMP-2, t-PA and u-PA appeared unaltered after irradiation. Irradiation of the glomerular epithelial cells altered the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix, implying that the glomerular epithelial cell may be involved in the development of radiation nephropathy.

  6. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Fibronectin Domains in Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor E. Deyev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The orphan insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR, in contrast to its close homologs, the insulin receptor (IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR can be activated by mildly alkaline extracellular medium. We have previously demonstrated that IRR activation is defined by its extracellular region, involves multiple domains, and shows positive cooperativity with two synergistic sites. By the analyses of point mutants and chimeras of IRR with IR in, we now address the role of the fibronectin type III (FnIII repeats in the IRR pH-sensing. The first activation site includes the intrinsically disordered subdomain ID (646–716 within the FnIII-2 domain at the C-terminus of IRR alpha subunit together with closely located residues L135, G188, R244, H318, and K319 of L1 and C domains of the second subunit. The second site involves residue T582 of FnIII-1 domain at the top of IRR lambda-shape pyramid together with M406, V407, and D408 from L2 domain within the second subunit. A possible importance of the IRR carbohydrate moiety for its activation was also assessed. IRR is normally less glycosylated than IR and IGF-IR. Swapping both FnIII-2 and FnIII-3 IRR domains with those of IR shifted beta-subunit mass from 68 kDa for IRR to about 100 kDa due to increased glycosylation and abolished the IRR pH response. However, mutations of four asparagine residues, potential glycosylation sites in chimera IRR with swapped FnIII-2/3 domains of IR, decreased the chimera glycosylation and resulted in a partial restoration of IRR pH-sensing activity, suggesting that the extensive glycosylation of FnIII-2/3 provides steric hindrance for the alkali-induced rearrangement of the IRR ectodomain.

  7. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of 99m Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by 99m Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl 2 bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl 2 > 110 μg/ml. Adherence levels of 99m Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 μg/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% ± 1.2). Therefore, bacterial 99m Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  8. Role of plasma fibronectin in the foreign body response to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselowsky, Benjamin G; Bridges, Amanda W; Burns, Kellie L; Tate, Ciara C; Babensee, Julia E; LaPlaca, Michelle C; García, Andrés J

    2007-09-01

    Host responses to biomaterials control the biological performance of implanted medical devices. Upon implantation, synthetic materials adsorb biomolecules, which trigger an inflammatory cascade comprising coagulation, leukocyte recruitment/adhesion, and foreign body reaction. The foreign body reaction and ensuing fibrous encapsulation severely limit the in vivo performance of numerous biomedical devices. While it is well established that plasma fibrinogen and secreted cytokines modulate leukocyte recruitment and maturation into foreign body giant cells, mediators of chronic inflammation and fibrous encapsulation of implanted biomaterials remain poorly understood. Using plasma fibronectin (pFN) conditional knock-out mice, we demonstrate that pFN modulates the foreign body response to polyethylene terephthalate disks implanted subcutaneously. Fibrous collagenous capsules were two-fold thicker in mice depleted of pFN compared to controls. In contrast, deletion of pFN did not alter acute leukocyte recruitment to the biomaterial, indicating that pFN modulates chronic fibrotic responses. The number of foreign body giant cells associated with the implant was three times higher in the absence of pFN while macrophage numbers were not different, suggesting that pFN regulates the formation of biomaterial-associated foreign body giant cells. Interestingly, cellular FN (cFN) was present in the capsules of both normal and pFN-depleted mice, suggesting that cFN could not compensate for the loss of pFN. These results implicate pFN in the host response to implanted materials and identify a potential target for therapeutic intervention to enhance the biological performance of biomedical devices.

  9. Fibronectin-tethered graphene oxide as an artificial matrix for osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, Ramesh; Du, Ping; Van, Se Young; Suhaeri, Muhammad; Lee, Kangwon; Park, Kwideok; Hwang, Mintai P

    2014-01-01

    An artificial matrix (Fn-Tigra), consisting of graphene oxide (GO) and fibronectin (Fn), is developed on pure titanium (Ti) substrates via an electrodropping technique assisted with a custom-made coaxial needle. The morphology and topography of the resulting artificial matrix is orderly aligned and composed of porous microcavities. In addition, Fn is homogenously distributed and firmly bound onto GO as determined via immunofluorescence and elemental mapping, respectively. The artificial matrix is moderately hydrophobic (63.7°), and exhibits an average roughness of 546 nm and a Young’s modulus (E) of approximately 4.8 GPa. The biocompatibility, cellular behavior, and osteogenic potential of preosteoblasts on Fn-Tigra are compared to those of cells cultured on Ti and Ti-GO (Tigra). Cell proliferation and viability are significantly higher on Fn-Tigra and Tigra than that of cells grown on Ti. Focal adhesion molecule (vinculin) expression is highly activated at the central and peripheral area of preosteoblasts when cultured on Fn-Tigra. Furthermore, we demonstrate enhanced in vitro osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts cultured on Fn-Tigra over those cultured on bare Ti, as determined via Alizarin red and von Kossa staining, and the analysis of osteocalcin, type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium contents. Finally, we investigate the biophysical and biomechanical properties of the cells using AFM. While the height and roughness of preosteoblasts increased with time, cell surface area decreased during in vitro osteogenesis over 2 weeks. In addition, the E of cells cultured on Tigra and Fn-Tigra increase in a statistically significant and time-dependent manner by 30%, while those cultured on bare Ti retain a relatively consistent E. In summary, we engineer a biocompatible artificial matrix (Fn-Tigra) capable of osteogenic induction and consequently demonstrate its potential in bone tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  10. Radiation induced changes in the expression of fibronectin, Pai-1, MMP in rat glomerular epithelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Zheng, Ying; Ha, Tae Sun; Kim, Jae Sung; Cho, Moon June

    2006-01-01

    Renal irradiation can lead to the development of radiation nephropathy, and this is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and final fibrosis. To determine the possible role of the glomerular epithelial cell, the radiation-induced changes in the expression of its genes associated with the extracellular matrix were analyzed. Rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) were irradiated with a single dose of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Gy with using 6 MV LINAC (Siemens, USA), and the samples were collected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation, respectively. Northern blotting, western blotting and zymography were used to measure the expression level of fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy resulted in a significant increase in Fn mRNA since 24 hours post-irradiation, and a single dose of 5 and 10 Gy significantly increased the Fn immunoreactive protein measured 48 hours post-irradiation. An increase in Pai-mRNA and protein was also observed and especially, a single dose of 10 Gy significantly increased the mRNA measured 24 and 48 hours post-irradiation. The active MMP-2 measured 24 hours post-irradiation slightly increased in a dose dependent manner, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. The levels of MMP-9, TIMP-2, t-PA and u-PA appeared unaltered after irradiation. Irradiation of the glomerular epithelial cells altered the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix, implying that the glomerular epithelial cell may be involved in the development of radiation nephropathy

  11. Fibulin-1 suppression of fibronectin-regulated cell adhesion and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twal, W O; Czirok, A; Hegedus, B; Knaak, C; Chintalapudi, M R; Okagawa, H; Sugi, Y; Argraves, W S

    2001-12-01

    Fibulin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein often associated with fibronectin (FN) in vivo. In this study, the ability of fibulin-1 to modulate adhesion, spreading and motility-promoting activities of FN was investigated. Fibulin-1 was found to have pronounced inhibitory effects on the cell attachment and spreading promoted by FN. Fibulin-1 was also found to inhibit the motility of a variety of cell types on FN substrata. For example, the FN-dependent haptotactic motility of breast carcinoma (MDA MB231) cells, epidermal carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375 SM), rat pulmonary aortic smooth muscle cells (PAC1) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was inhibited by the presence of fibulin-1 bound to FN-coated Boyden chamber membranes. Cells transfected to overproduce fibulin-1 displayed reduced velocity, distance of movement and persistence time on FN substrata. Similarly, the incorporation of fibulin-1 into FN-containing type I collagen gels inhibited the invasion of endocardial cushion mesenchymal cells migrating from cultured embryonic heart explants. By contrast, incorporation of fibulin-1 into collagen gels lacking FN had no effect on the migration of endocardial cushion cells. These results suggest that the motility-suppressive effects of fibulin-1 might be FN specific. Furthermore, such effects are cell-type specific, in that the migration of gingival fibroblasts and endothelial cells on FN substrata is not responsive to fibulin-1. Additional studies found that the mechanism for the motility-suppressive effects of fibulin-1 does not involve perturbations of interactions between alpha5beta1 or alpha4 integrins, or heparan sulfate proteoglycans with FN. However, fibulin-1 was found to inhibit extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation and to suppress phosphorylation of myosin heavy chain. This ability to influence signal transduction cascades that modulate the actin-myosin motor complex might be the basis for the effects of fibulin-1 on adhesion and

  12. Geometry-driven cell organization determines tissue growths in scaffold pores: consequences for fibronectin organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Joly

    Full Text Available To heal tissue defects, cells have to bridge gaps and generate new extracellular matrix (ECM. Macroporous scaffolds are frequently used to support the process of defect filling and thus foster tissue regeneration. Such biomaterials contain micro-voids (pores that the cells fill with their own ECM over time. There is only limited knowledge on how pore geometry influences cell organization and matrix production, even though it is highly relevant for scaffold design. This study hypothesized that 1 a simple geometric description predicts cellular organization during pore filling at the cell level and that 2 pore closure results in a reorganization of ECM. Scaffolds with a broad distribution of pore sizes (macroporous starPEG-heparin cryogel were used as a model system and seeded with primary fibroblasts. The strategies of cells to fill pores could be explained by a simple geometrical model considering cells as tensioned chords. The model matched qualitatively as well as quantitatively by means of cell number vs. open cross-sectional area for all pore sizes. The correlation between ECM location and cell position was higher when the pores were not filled with tissue (Pearson's coefficient ρ = 0.45±0.01 and reduced once the pores were closed (ρ = 0.26±0.04 indicating a reorganization of the cell/ECM network. Scaffold pore size directed the time required for pore closure and furthermore impacted the organization of the fibronectin matrix. Understanding how cells fill micro-voids will help to design biomaterial scaffolds that support the endogenous healing process and thus allow a fast filling of tissue defects.

  13. Fibronectin-tethered graphene oxide as an artificial matrix for osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Ramesh; Du, Ping; Van, Se Young; Suhaeri, Muhammad; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kangwon; Park, Kwideok

    2014-10-20

    An artificial matrix (Fn-Tigra), consisting of graphene oxide (GO) and fibronectin (Fn), is developed on pure titanium (Ti) substrates via an electrodropping technique assisted with a custom-made coaxial needle. The morphology and topography of the resulting artificial matrix is orderly aligned and composed of porous microcavities. In addition, Fn is homogenously distributed and firmly bound onto GO as determined via immunofluorescence and elemental mapping, respectively. The artificial matrix is moderately hydrophobic (63.7°), and exhibits an average roughness of 546 nm and a Young's modulus (E) of approximately 4.8 GPa. The biocompatibility, cellular behavior, and osteogenic potential of preosteoblasts on Fn-Tigra are compared to those of cells cultured on Ti and Ti-GO (Tigra). Cell proliferation and viability are significantly higher on Fn-Tigra and Tigra than that of cells grown on Ti. Focal adhesion molecule (vinculin) expression is highly activated at the central and peripheral area of preosteoblasts when cultured on Fn-Tigra. Furthermore, we demonstrate enhanced in vitro osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts cultured on Fn-Tigra over those cultured on bare Ti, as determined via Alizarin red and von Kossa staining, and the analysis of osteocalcin, type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium contents. Finally, we investigate the biophysical and biomechanical properties of the cells using AFM. While the height and roughness of preosteoblasts increased with time, cell surface area decreased during in vitro osteogenesis over 2 weeks. In addition, the E of cells cultured on Tigra and Fn-Tigra increase in a statistically significant and time-dependent manner by 30%, while those cultured on bare Ti retain a relatively consistent E. In summary, we engineer a biocompatible artificial matrix (Fn-Tigra) capable of osteogenic induction and consequently demonstrate its potential in bone tissue engineering applications.

  14. Separating the contributions to 15N transverse relaxation in a fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekhof, Alison E.; Freund, Stefan M.V.

    1999-01-01

    In proteins, dynamic mobility is an important feature of structure, stability, and biomolecular recognition. Uniquely sensitive to motion throughout the milli- to picosecond range, rates of transverse relaxation, R2, are commonly obtained for the characterization of chemical exchange, and the construction of motional models that attempt to separate overall and internal mobility. We have performed an in-depth study of transverse relaxation rates of backbone 15N nuclei in TNfn31-90, the third fibronectin type III domain from human tenascin. By combining the results of spin-echo (CPMG) and off-resonance T1ρ experiments, we present R2 rates at effective field strengths of 2 to 40 krad/s, obtaining a full spectrum of 16 independent R2 data points for most residues. Collecting such a large number of replicate measurements provides insight into intrinsic uncertainties. The median standard deviation in R2 for non-exchanging residues is 0.31, indicating that isolated measurements may not be sufficiently accurate for a precise interpretation of motional models. Chemical exchange events on a timescale of 570 μs were observed in a cluster of residues at the C terminus. Rates of exchange for five other residues were faster than the sampled range of frequencies and could not be determined. Averaged 'exchange free' transverse relaxation rates, R20, were used to calculate the diffusion tensor for rotational motion. Despite a highly asymmetric moment of inertia, the narrow angular dispersion of N-H vectors within the β sandwich proves insufficient to define deviations from isotropic rotation. Loop residues provide exclusive evidence for axially symmetric diffusion (Dpar/Dper=1.55)

  15. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Y Deng

    Full Text Available Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs for blood pressure (BP have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8 to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5' Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP 'indirectly' by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy.

  16. Using molecular mechanics to predict bulk material properties of fibronectin fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bradshaw

    Full Text Available The structural proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM form fibers with finely tuned mechanical properties matched to the time scales of cell traction forces. Several proteins such as fibronectin (Fn and fibrin undergo molecular conformational changes that extend the proteins and are believed to be a major contributor to the extensibility of bulk fibers. The dynamics of these conformational changes have been thoroughly explored since the advent of single molecule force spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations but remarkably, these data have not been rigorously applied to the understanding of the time dependent mechanics of bulk ECM fibers. Using measurements of protein density within fibers, we have examined the influence of dynamic molecular conformational changes and the intermolecular arrangement of Fn within fibers on the bulk mechanical properties of Fn fibers. Fibers were simulated as molecular strands with architectures that promote either equal or disparate molecular loading under conditions of constant extension rate. Measurements of protein concentration within micron scale fibers using deep ultraviolet transmission microscopy allowed the simulations to be scaled appropriately for comparison to in vitro measurements of fiber mechanics as well as providing estimates of fiber porosity and water content, suggesting Fn fibers are approximately 75% solute. Comparing the properties predicted by single molecule measurements to in vitro measurements of Fn fibers showed that domain unfolding is sufficient to predict the high extensibility and nonlinear stiffness of Fn fibers with surprising accuracy, with disparately loaded fibers providing the best fit to experiment. This work shows the promise of this microstructural modeling approach for understanding Fn fiber properties, which is generally applicable to other ECM fibers, and could be further expanded to tissue scale by incorporating these simulated fibers into three dimensional

  17. Fibronectin distribution in the extracellular matrix in the cells grown in deuterated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Caloianu, Maria; Moldovan, Lucia; Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the influence of deuterated water upon the synthesis and organization of fibronectin (FN) in extracellular matrices. Changes were evidenced at the level of extracellular matrix in case of embryo fibroblast cultivation in media with different concentrations of heavy water (20%, 40% and 65%). FN was identified in the extracellular matrix by means of indirect immunocytochemical technique, using a secondary antibody coupled with peroxydase. In the presence of heavy water in culture medium, the arrangement and localization of cellular FN showed changes depending on the exposure time, D 2 O concentration in the medium and the FN polymerization step in the extra cellular matrix in correlation with the culture stage of the monolayer. The heavy water determined a strong reduction of the FN amount released by the cells. This reduction was most evident in the 65% D 2 O medium following a 5 day exposure. The FN distribution after 2 day exposure in an early stage with regards to the FN network formation in a the deuterated medium presented a FN pericellular distribution arranged in aggregates. The heavy water can act upon formation of FN fibrils immediately due to solvent role in the FN polymerization process but also indirectly through metabolic processes and so upon the protein synthesis and FN cellular secretion.The FN network arrangement in the cells cultivated in deuterated media as aggregates might be the effect of solvent role played by D 2 O while the quantitative reduction of FN results from perturbation of protein synthesis as well from biochemical synthesis reactions

  18. Fibronectin-integrin signaling is required for L-glutamine's protection against gut injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Niederlechner

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM stabilization and fibronectin (FN-Integrin signaling can mediate cellular protection. L-glutamine (GLN is known to prevent apoptosis after injury. However, it is currently unknown if ECM stabilization and FN-Integrin osmosensing pathways are related to GLN's cell protective mechanism in the intestine.IEC-6 cells were treated with GLN with or without FN siRNA, integrin inhibitor GRGDSP, control peptide GRGESP or ERK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and UO126 under basal and stressed conditions. Cell survival measured via MTS assay. Phosphorylated and/or total levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, heat shock proteins (HSPs, ERK1/2 and transcription factor HSF-1 assessed via Western blotting. Cell size and F-actin morphology quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy and intracellular GLN concentration by LC-MS/MS.GLN's prevention of FN degradation after hyperthermia attenuated apoptosis. Additionally, inhibition of FN-Integrin interaction by GRGDSP and ERK1/2 kinase inhibition by PD98059 inhibited GLN's protective effect. GRGDSP attenuated GLN-mediated increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSF-1 levels. PD98059 and GRGDSP also decreased HSP levels after GLN treatment. Finally, GRGDSP attenuated GLN-mediated increases in cell area size and disrupted F-actin assembly, but had no effect on intracellular GLN concentrations.Taken together, this data suggests that prevention of FN degradation and the FN-Integrin signaling play a key role in GLN-mediated cellular protection. GLN's signaling via the FN-Integrin pathway is associated with HSP induction via ERK1/2 and HSF-1 activation leading to reduced apoptosis after gut injury.

  19. [FETAL PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadinova, M R; Metodieva, R; Boyadzhieva, N

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of fetal programming has developed notably over the years and recent data suggest that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy can have early-onset and long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. Specific negative influences of high dietary glucose and lipid consumption, as well as undernutrition, are associated with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes in the offspring. The mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus may involve structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes. The aim of this review is to illustrate how adverse intrauterine environment may influence molecular modifications in the fetus and cause epigenetic alterations in particular. It has been demonstrated that prenatal epigenetic modifications may be linked to the pathogenesis and progression of the adult chronic disorders. Studies on epigenetic alterations will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term effects of in utero exposure and may open new perspectives for disease prevention and treatment.

  20. An intelligent fetal monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, J.; Akatsuka, T.; Kubo, T.; Iwasaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    An intelligent monitoring system is constructed by a multi-micro-computer system. The monitoring signals are fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) through the conventional monitoring device for a day until the delivery. These signals are fed to a micro-computer in digital format, and evaluated by the computer in real time according to the diagnostic algorithm of the expert physician. Monitoring signals are always displayed on the CRT screen and in the case of dangerous state of the fetus, warning signal will appear on the screen and the doctor or nurse will be called. All these signals are sent to the next micro-computer with 10MB hard disk system. On this computer, the doctor and nurse can retrieve and inspect the details of the process by clock-key and/or events-key. After finishing monitoring process, summarized report is constructed and printed out on the paper

  1. Hypoxia: From Placental Development to Fetal Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Lais; Veras, Mariana Matera

    2017-10-16

    Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O 2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood. In this review, the role of hypoxia in fetal development, placentation, and fetal programming is summarized. Hypoxia is a basic mechanism involved in different pregnancy disorders and fetal health developmental complications. Although there are scientific data showing that hypoxia mediates changes in the growth trajectory of the fetus, modulates gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, and determines the health status later in adulthood, more mechanistic studies are needed. Furthermore, if we consider that intrauterine hypoxia is not a rare event, and can be a consequence of unavoidable exposures to air pollution, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and other very common conditions (drug addiction and stress), the health of future generations may be damaged and the incidence of some diseases will markedly increase as a consequence of disturbed fetal programming. Birth Defects Research 109:1377-1385, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Awareness of fetal echo in Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, Dhanya; Saraf, Rahul; Maheshwari, Sunita; Suresh, PV; Shah, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    Fetal echocardiography is a well established sensitive tool to diagnose congenital heart disease (CHD) in utero. One of the determinants of effective utilization of fetal echocardiography is its awareness in the general population. The present hospital based study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the need for fetal echocardiography amongst Indian parents. One thousand one hundred and thirty eight consecutive parents who visited the pediatric cardiology outpatient department of a tertiary care centre over a period of two months were asked to fill up a questionnaire that included their demographic data, educational status, history of CHD in children, awareness of fetal echocardiography and source of information and timing of fetal echocardiogram if performed. The data was categorized and awareness was noted in different groups. The awareness in the study population was 2.2%. Awareness was found to be similar across the study population irrespective of the demographics and high risk status of the parents. The awareness of fetal echocardiography, an important tool in reducing the incidence of complex CHD, thereby impacting public health, is alarmingly low in the population studied. Appropriate action to increase awareness of fetal echocardiography needs to be looked into

  3. Fetal stimulation by pulsed diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, M; Ogburn, P L; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-08-01

    To show that pulsed ultrasound from a clinical ultrasonic imaging system can stimulate the fetus. Stimulation is defined mainly as increased fetal gross body movements in response to excitation. Fetuses of a group of 9 volunteer women (mean gestational age, 33.37 weeks; range, 25-40 weeks) were evaluated for body movement under 3 different conditions: (1) control, with no ultrasound exposure; (2) ultrasound in continuous wave Doppler mode; and (3) pulsed ultrasound in pulsed Doppler and B modes. A conventional external fetal monitor, with negligible ultrasonic output, was used to monitor fetal gross body motions. After an initial rest period of 3 minutes with 1 or no fetal motion, fetuses were monitored for an additional 3 minutes under the exposure criterion defined for each condition. Resulting fetal motions under the 3 conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The test showed that fetuses moved significantly more frequently under condition 3 (mean +/- SD, 3.43 +/- 1.93 movements per minute) than under condition 1 (0.40 +/- 7.33 movements per minute) or condition 2 (0.63 +/- 7.67 movements per minute); P = .004 and .016, respectively. Fetal movements under conditions 1 and 2 did not differ significantly. Diagnostic ultrasound may stimulate fetal body motion.

  4. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  5. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  6. First Trimester Fetal Gender Assignment by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahattin Altunyurt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficiency of genital tubercule angle on detecting fetal gender in first trimester by ultrasonography. Material-Method: Fetal sex assignment by ultrasound was carried out in 172 pregnancies at 11-13+6 weeks between 2007 June and 2007 December. Gestational age was determined by the measurement of crown-rump length (CRL. The ultrasound predictions were compared with actual sex at birth. Mid-sagittal planes of a section of the fetal genital tubercle were performed to identify the gender. Results: 155 of 172 patients’ data were achieved. The overall success rate was 92.3 % in sonographic assignment of fetal sex. The correct assignment rate in female fetuses was significantly higher than males (95.9 % - 88.8 % [p=0,001]. The correct identification of fetal sex improved with advancing gestational age from 89.3 % between 11-11+6 weeks, 92.5 % between 12-12+6 weeks and 93.4 % between 13-13+6 weeks (p=0,96. Conclusion: The fetal sex assignment by ultrasonography between 11-13+6 weeks had high success rate. The sensitivity of fetal sex assignment was not affected with fetus position and gestational age.

  7. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  8. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cervical Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Peng, Baogan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical vertigo is characterized by vertigo from the cervical spine. However, whether cervical vertigo is an independent entity still remains controversial. In this narrative review, we outline the basic science and clinical evidence for cervical vertigo according to the current literature. So far, there are 4 different hypotheses explaining the vertigo of a cervical origin, including proprioceptive cervical vertigo, Barré-Lieou syndrome, rotational vertebral artery vertigo, and migraine-associated cervicogenic vertigo. Proprioceptive cervical vertigo and rotational vertebral artery vertigo have survived with time. Barré-Lieou syndrome once was discredited, but it has been resurrected recently by increased scientific evidence. Diagnosis depends mostly on patients' subjective feelings, lacking positive signs, specific laboratory examinations and clinical trials, and often relies on limited clinical experiences of clinicians. Neurological, vestibular, and psychosomatic disorders must first be excluded before the dizziness and unsteadiness in cervical pain syndromes can be attributed to a cervical origin. Treatment for cervical vertigo is challenging. Manual therapy is recommended for treatment of proprioceptive cervical vertigo. Anterior cervical surgery and percutaneous laser disc decompression are effective for the cervical spondylosis patients accompanied with Barré-Liéou syndrome. As to rotational vertebral artery vertigo, a rare entity, when the exact area of the arterial compression is identified through appropriate tests such as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) decompressive surgery should be the chosen treatment.

  9. Advanced MRI techniques of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepf, V.; Dittrich, E.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Kasprian, G.; Kollndorfer, K.; Prayer, D.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the normal and pathological fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI of the fetal brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used in clinical practice, all other methods are used at a research level. Serving as standard methods in the future. Combined structural and functional data for all gestational ages will allow more specific insight into the developmental processes of the fetal brain. This gain of information will help provide a common understanding of complex spatial and temporal procedures of early morphological features and their impact on cognitive and sensory abilities. (orig.) [de

  10. Fetal abuse and neglect: an emerging controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwirth, J

    1987-04-01

    Advances in fetal medicine have expanded opportunities for protection of fetal health and intrauterine management of an increasing number of fetal disorders. The legal rights and duties of parents to provide necessary medical treatment for the child may extend to the prenatal period. Resolution of the conflict between the rights of the fetus to be born healthy and the pregnant woman's right of privacy is difficult and controversial. It is suggested that intrusion into a woman's individual fundamental rights for the potential benefit of her fetus should be permissible only in narrowly defined circumstances.

  11. Is the cervical spine clear? Undetected cervical fractures diagnosed only at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J F; Rosemurgy, A S; Gill, S; Albrink, M H

    1992-10-01

    Undetected cervical-spine injuries are a nemesis to both trauma surgeons and emergency physicians. Radiographic protocols have been developed to avoid missing cervical-spine fractures but are not fail-safe. Three case reports of occult cervical fractures documented at autopsy in the face of normal cervical-spine radiographs and computerized tomography scans are presented.

  12. Quiste dermoide cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurian Gbenou Morgan

    Full Text Available Los quistes dermoides presentan una incidencia de 1,6 hasta 6,9 % en la región de cabeza y cuello. Se realiza el siguiente reporte de caso clínico con el objetivo de enfatizar en la importancia de un adecuado manejo diagnóstico preoperatorio, para establecer una acertada planificación quirúrgica en la exéresis de este tipo de lesiones de la región cervicofacial. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente masculino, de 13 años de edad, quien hacía 3 años se notaba un crecimiento redondeado en región submentoniana, lo cual le ocasionaba molestias al hablar y ligera afectación de su estética facial. Una vez realizados los estudios complementarios preoperatorios, se decide tratamiento quirúrgico, empleando una cervicotomía medial para la extirpación de la lesión quística, dada la ubicación anatómica por debajo del músculo milohiodeo y su gran dimensión. El diagnóstico histopatológico se corresponde con un quiste epidérmico. Se concluye que resulta imprescindible realizar un exhaustivo examen físico e imagenológico, para lograr resultados satisfactorios en el tratamiento quirúrgico del quiste dermoide cervical.

  13. Leptospira santorosai Serovar Shermani detergent extract induces an increase in fibronectin production through a Toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Yi-Jung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Wu, Mai-Szu; Phillips, Aled; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Leptospirosis can activate inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and may cause renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). We have previously demonstrated that Leptospira santorosai serovar Shermani detergent extract stimulates ECM accumulation in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanistic basis of these previous observations and, in particular, to examine the potential involvement of TLRs. The addition of serovar Shermani detergent extract led to an increase in fibronectin gene expression and production. Inhibition of TLR2 but not TLR4 expression abrogated serovar Shermani detergent extract-mediated increases in fibronectin production. This response was also blocked by the knockdown of the gene expression of the TLR2 downstream transducers myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Serovar Shermani detergent extract also activated nuclear factor-κB, and its inhibition by curcumin-attenuated serovar Shermani detergent extract induced increases in fibronectin production. These effects were also mimicked by the specific TLR2 agonist, Pam(3)CsK(4), a response that was also abrogated by the knockdown of MyD88 and TRAF6. Similarly, the administration of live leptospires to cells also induced fibronectin production that was blocked by inhibition of TLR2 and MyD88 expression. In conclusion, serovar Shermani detergent extract can induce fibronectin production through the TLR2-associated cascade, providing evidence of an association between TLRs and leptospirosis-mediated ECM deposition.

  14. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  15. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  16. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  19. Cervical interfacet spacers and maintenance of cervical lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee A; Straus, David C; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The cervical interfacet spacer (CIS) is a relatively new technology that can increase foraminal height and area by facet distraction. These offer the potential to provide indirect neuroforaminal decompression while simultaneously enhancing fusion potential due to the relatively large osteoconductive surface area and compressive forces exerted on the grafts. These potential benefits, along with the relative ease of implantation during posterior cervical fusion procedures, make the CIS an attractive adjuvant in the management of cervical pathology. One concern with the use of interfacet spacers is the theoretical risk of inducing iatrogenic kyphosis. This work tests the hypothesis that interfacet spacers are associated with loss of cervical lordosis. METHODS Records from patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion at Rush University Medical Center between March 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed. The FacetLift CISs were used in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic data were reviewed and the Ishihara indices and cervical lordotic angles were measured and recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA software. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were identified in whom 154 cervical levels were implanted with machined allograft interfacet spacers. Of these, 15 patients underwent anterior-posterior fusions, 4 underwent anterior-posterior-anterior fusions, and the remaining 45 patients underwent posterior-only fusions. In the 45 patients with posterior-only fusions, a total of 110 levels were treated with spacers. There were 14 patients (31%) with a single level treated, 16 patients (36%) with two levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with three levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with four levels treated, 1 patient (2%) with five levels treated, and 4 patients (9%) with six levels treated. Complete radiographic data were available in 38 of 45 patients (84%). On average, radiographic follow-up was obtained at 256.9 days (range 48-524 days

  20. Fibronectin in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients: correlation with biochemical risk factors for the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Mesquita

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhotic patients (23 with alcoholic cirrhosis, 5 with posthepatitic cirrhosis and 2 with cryptogenic cirrhosis with ascites and portal hypertension were studied and divided into two groups corresponding to high or low risk to develop spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP related to the concentration of total protein in the ascitic fluid (A-TP: group I (high risk: A-TP£1.5 g/dl and group II (low risk: A-TP>1.5 g/dl. Fibronectin (FN, C3 and C4 concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion while total protein was measured by the biuret method. The mean values (group I vs group II of C3 (12.59 ± 4.72 vs 24.53 ± 15.58 mg/dl, C4 (4.26 ± 3.87 vs 7.26 ± 4.14 mg/dl and FN (50.47 ± 12.49 vs 75.89 ± 24.70 mg/dl in the ascitic fluid were significantly lower (P<0.05 in the group considered to be at high risk for SBP. No significant difference was observed in the plasma/ascites fibronectin ratio (3.91 ± 1.21 vs 3.80 ± 1.26 or gradient (131.46 ± 64.01 vs 196.96 ± 57.38 between groups. Fibronectin in ascites was significantly correlated to C3 (r = 0.76, C4 (r = 0.58, total protein (r = 0.73 and plasma FN (r = 0.58 (P<0.05. The data suggest that the FN concentration in ascites is related to the opsonic capacity of this fluid, and that its concentration in the ascitic fluid may be a biochemical risk factor indicator for the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

  1. Effects of emergency cervical cerclage on pregnancy outcome: a retrospective study of 158 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Qiong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Li-Bin; Liu, Ying-Lin; Tian, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of emergency cervical cerclage in women with advanced cervical dilatation and bulging of fetal membranes. The study included 158 women who underwent emergency cervical cerclage because of cervix dilatation and protruding membranes in mid-trimester at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy outcome related to clinical features were analyzed retrospectively. Analysis revealed that the placement of emergency cerclage led to the delivery of live infants with a success rate of 82.28%. The mean interval between cerclage and delivery was 52.16.±26.62 days, with a mean gestation at delivery of 30.3±4.7 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1934.69±570.37 g. No severe maternal complications such as maternal death, hematosepsis, and hysterorrhexis occurred after the operation. Two women (1.25%) had laceration of the cervix, 1 woman (0.61%) suffered pulmonary edema, and 2 women (1.25%) developed deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There were significant correlations between the pregnancy outcome and risk factors, including any presenting symptoms, cervical dilatation, postoperative white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) value. No significant difference was found in women with good vs. poor outcome in terms of maternal age and obstetric histories. Emergency cervical cerclage is effective in prolonging pregnancy and improving neonatal outcome in women with cervical incompetence. It should be considered a viable option for women with a dilated cervix in mid-trimester.

  2. Real-Time Automatic Fetal Brain Extraction in Fetal MRI by Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni; Hashemi, Seyed Raein; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Ouaalam, Abdelhakim; Estroff, Judy A.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Warfield, Simon K.; Gholipour, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Brain segmentation is a fundamental first step in neuroimage analysis. In the case of fetal MRI, it is particularly challenging and important due to the arbitrary orientation of the fetus, organs that surround the fetal head, and intermittent fetal motion. Several promising methods have been proposed but are limited in their performance in challenging cases and in real-time segmentation. We aimed to develop a fully automatic segmentation method that independently segments sections of the feta...

  3. Fetal thrombocytopenia in pregnancies with fetal human parvovirus-B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Nir; Whittle, Wendy; Kelly, Edmond N; Windrim, Rory; Seaward, P Gareth R; Keunen, Johannes; Keating, Sarah; Ryan, Greg

    2015-06-01

    Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19 (hParvo-B19) has been associated mainly with fetal anemia, although data regarding other fetal hematologic effects are limited. Our aim was to assess the rate and consequences of severe fetal thrombocytopenia after fetal hParvo-B19 infection. We conducted a retrospective study of pregnancies that were complicated by fetal hParvo-B19 infection that underwent fetal blood sampling (FBS). The characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with severe thrombocytopenia (B19 infection. A total of 37 pregnancies that were affected by fetal hParvo-B19 infection were identified. Of the 29 cases that underwent FBS and had information regarding fetal platelets, 11 cases (38%) were complicated by severe fetal thrombocytopenia. Severely thrombocytopenic fetuses were characterized by a lower hemoglobin concentration (2.6 ± 0.9 g/dL vs 5.5 ± 3.6 g/dL; P = .01), lower reticulocyte count (9.1% ± 2.8% vs 17.3% ± 10.6%; P = .02), and lower gestational age at the time of diagnosis (21.4 ± 3.1 wk vs 23.6 ± 2.2 wk; P = .03). Both the fetal death rate within 48 hours of FBS (27.3% vs 0%; P = .02) and the risk of prematurity (100.0% vs 13.3%; P B19 infection, can be further worsened by IUT, and may be associated with an increased risk of procedure-related fetal loss after either FBS or IUT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Cervical spondylosis in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, P; Roka, Y B

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain with or without radiculopathy and myelopathy is a very common problem in clinical practice. The incidence is believed to be higher in subgroups carrying load on their head. It has been reported in literature that radiographic spondylosis is appreciable in 25% to 50% of population by the age of 50 years and 75% to 85% by the age of 65 years. One hundred and nineteen lateral X-rays of cervical spine were analyzed as case-control study in patients between 40 and 50 years age with the objective of finding out proportion of cervical spondylosis in this age group and difference in the prevalence between porters and non-porters. Out of the 119 cases 54 (45.4.2%) were porters and 65 (54.6%) were non-porters. There were 98 (82.4%) males and 21 (17.6%) females. The overall prevalence of radiological cervical spondylosis was 69 (58%). The prevalence of cervical spondylosis was significantly lower (x2=14.795, p=0.0001) in porters in comparison to non-porters. The odds ratio was found to be 0.23 (0.10, 0.53) at 95% confidence interval indicating that portering significantly prohibited development of spondylosis. This study concludes that the overall prevalence of cervical spondylosis in the Nepalese population is slightly higher than in the Caucasian and contrary to other studies there is significantly lower prevalence of such degeneration among the Nepalese porters.

  5. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: methods and techniques; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie: Methoden und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Stuhr, F.; Lindner, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    Since the introduction of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into prenatal diagnostics, advances in coil technology and development of ultrafast sequences have further enhanced this technique. At present numerous sequences are available to visualize the whole fetus with high resolution and image quality, even in late stages of pregnancy. Taking into consideration the special circumstances of examination and adjusting sequence parameters to gestational age, fetal anatomy can be accurately depicted. The variety of sequences also allows further characterization of fetal tissues and pathologies. Fetal MRI not only supplies additional information to routine ultrasound studies, but also reveals fetal morphology and pathology in a way hitherto not possible. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) in die praenatale Diagnostik wurde das Verfahren durch neue Spulentechniken und die Entwicklung ultraschneller Sequenzen kontinuierlich weiter entwickelt. Gegenwaertig steht eine Vielzahl von Sequenzen zur Verfuegung, die es erlauben, mit hoher Bildqualitaet und raeumlicher Aufloesung selbst in fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaftsstadien den gesamten Feten darzustellen. Unter Beruecksichtigung der speziellen Untersuchungsbedingungen und des Schwangerschaftsalters kann so die fetale Anatomie genau abgebildet werden. Die Vielfalt an Sequenzen und deren gezielter Einsatz ermoeglichen es weiter, fetale Gewebe und Pathologien naeher zu charakterisierten. Auf diese Weise liefert die fetale MRT nicht nur Zusatzinformationen zur Routineultraschalluntersuchung, sie gibt auch Aufschluss ueber bestimmte fetale Morphologien und Pathologien, die bisher nicht darstellbar waren. (orig.)

  6. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [de

  7. Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Nelson, Priscilla; Gurewitsch, Edith D.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during the 32nd week of pregnancy were recorded in 100 maternal-fetal pairs using a digitized data collection system. The 18-minute guided imagery relaxation manipulation generated significant changes in maternal heart rate, skin conductance, respiration period, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Significant alterations in fetal neurobehavior were observed, including decreased fetal heart rate (FHR), increased FHR variability, suppression of fetal...

  8. Recurrence of second trimester miscarriage and extreme preterm delivery at 16 to 27 weeks of gestation with a focus on cervical insufficiency and prophylactic cerclage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneider, Kirstine; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to describe recurrence rates of second trimester miscarriage and extreme preterm delivery by phenotype and use of prophylactic cerclage in a register-based cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included women with a first second trimester miscarriage......, multiple gestation, uterine anomaly, placental insufficiency, antepartum bleeding, cervical insufficiency, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and intrauterine fetal death. Recurrence rate after a second trimester miscarriage/spontaneous delivery in the period was calculated based on the register data....... In cervical insufficiency outcome was stratified by prophylactic cerclage applied Overall recurrence rate was 7.3% (n = 452), a rate that differed by phenotype from

  9. Cesarean section on request at 39 weeks: impact on shoulder dystocia, fetal trauma, neonatal encephalopathy, and intrauterine fetal demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Gary D V; Clark, Shannon M; Munn, Mary B

    2006-10-01

    .15% for vaginal deliveries and applying it to the 3 million deliveries>or=39 weeks EGA, approximately 4500 cases of brachial plexus palsy would occur. If only 15% of these injuries were permanent, 675 permanent brachial plexus palsies would occur annually. If the risk of permanent injury is 1 in 10,000 as reported by Chauhan, 300 permanent brachial plexus palsies would occur annually in the United States. The range then for permanent brachial plexus injury that could be avoided with cesarean section on request would appear to vary between 1 in 5000 and 1 in 10,000 vaginal births. Fetal trauma: The incidence of significant birth trauma varies from 0.2 to 1 to 2 per 1000 births. The use of sequential instruments, for example, vacuum followed by forceps or vice versa, is specifically associated with an unacceptably high injury rate. Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths of vertex singleton fetuses with birthweights>2500 g from traumatic cranial or cervical spine injury secondary to vacuum- or forceps-assisted vaginal delivery are still occurring. Overall, the frequency of significant fetal injury is significantly greater with vaginal delivery, especially operative vaginal delivery, than with cesarean section for the nonlaboring woman at 39 weeks EGA or near term when early labor has been established. Neonatal encephalopathy: The prevalence of moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy is 3.8/1000 term live births with a neonatal fatality rate of 9.1%. In 4% to 10% of cases, the etiology appears to be pure intrapartum hypoxia. Intrapartum hypoxia superimposed on antepartum risk factors may account for up to 25% of the moderate to severe encephalopathies, according to one cohort. A paradox in the data thus far is that infants born to nonlaboring women delivered by cesarean section had an 83% reduction in the occurrence of moderate or severe encephalopathy. Considering a prevalence of moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy of 0.38% and applying it to the 3 million deliveries

  10. Animal models in fetal medicine and obstetrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Maria; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Duvald, Christina Søndergaard

    2018-01-01

    Animal models remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms occurring in fetal medicine and obstetric diseases, such as intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. These vary regarding the employed method used for induction of the disease, and vary regardin...

  11. Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

  12. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... checklists in obstetrics Coding update of the SMFM definition of low risk for cesarean delivery from ICD- ... DC 20024 Email: smfm@smfm.org © 2000-2017, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. All rights reserved The ...

  13. Fetal MRI of pathological brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.C.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the superior tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiplanar capabilities, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict fetal brain pathologies with high accuracy. Pathological fetal brain development may result from malformations or acquired conditions. Differentiation of these etiologies is important with respect to managing the actual pregnancy or counseling future pregnancies. As a widened ventricular system is a common hallmark of both maldevelopment and acquired conditions, it may cause problems in the differential diagnosis. Fetal MRI can provide detailed morphological information, which allows refinement of the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement in a large number of cases. Systematic work-up of morphological details that may be recognized on MR images provides an approach for achieving a correct diagnosis in cases of ventricle enlargement. (orig.) [de

  14. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  15. Evaluation of fetal anomalies with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.C.; Platt, L.D.; Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty pregnant women underwent MR imaging (0.5 T) after US disclosed a significant fetal anomaly. The ability of MR imaging to depict the abnormalities was assessed. Of 20 abnormalities, 17 were visualized with MR imaging. Abnormalities included conjoined twins, omphalocele, gastroschisis, hydrocephalus, hydronephrosis, fetal ascites, facial teratoma, anencephaly, bladder outlet obstruction, thanatophoric dwarfism, cystic, hygroma, and fetal ovarian cyst. Thirteen of 14 abnormalities in third-trimester fetuses were visualized, as were four of six abnormalities in second-trimester fetuses. Associated polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios was evident in six of six cases. Anomalies were best delineated with T1-weighted sequences. The study suggests that MR imaging is potentially useful as a complementary imaging modality in the evaluation of fetal anomalies

  16. [Effect of music on fetal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, M; Malinova, M

    2004-01-01

    Antenatal music stimulation shown to elicit fetal heart rate and body movement responses, indicating that prenatal experience with music influences auditory functional development. The slower tempo resulted in less movement variation.

  17. Fusion around cervical disc prosthesis: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Donk, R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cervical arthroplasty is a relatively new method to maintain motion after cervical anterior discectomy. Two cases are presented in which bony fusion occurred around a cervical disc prosthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman underwent a

  18. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  19. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  20. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  1. Cervical Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary risk factor for cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Most cases of cervical cancer are preventable by routine screening and by treatment of precancerous lesions. Find evidence-based information on cervical cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  2. Fetal MR imaging of Kniest dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Zeynep; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Laor, Tal; Tinkle, Bradley T.

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of Kniest dysplasia, a rare form of the type II collagenopathies, with prenatal MRI. Sonography revealed only short limbs in the fetus. Fetal MRI findings included enlarged hyaline cartilaginous structures with abnormally high T2 signal intensity, delayed ossification of the pubic and ischial bones, and platyspondyly. By delineating the cartilaginous abnormalities, fetal MRI can contribute to the prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasias. (orig.)

  3. Metabolomics Application in Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an “embryonic” science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, prete...

  4. Fetal Exposure to Environmental Neurotoxins in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 m...

  5. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Loren P.; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

  6. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  7. Fetal MR imaging of Kniest dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tinkle, Bradley T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We present a case of Kniest dysplasia, a rare form of the type II collagenopathies, with prenatal MRI. Sonography revealed only short limbs in the fetus. Fetal MRI findings included enlarged hyaline cartilaginous structures with abnormally high T2 signal intensity, delayed ossification of the pubic and ischial bones, and platyspondyly. By delineating the cartilaginous abnormalities, fetal MRI can contribute to the prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasias. (orig.)

  8. Selective cervical myelography. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical ways of subarachnoid puncture - lumbal and suboccipital - require a considerable quantity of air in performing segmental cervical pneumomyelography. An examination technique is described, based on the recently suggested lateral subarachnoid puncture within the interarcus space at C 1 -C 2 level. Emphasis is laid on the possibilities of carrying out various neuro-roentgenological studies through contrast medium introduction in the fashion described, namely: pontocerebellar cistemography and cervical myelography with AMIPAQUE - a water soluble contrast medium. On the basis of literature data and personal experience it is stated that the risk in lateral subarachnoid puncture is by no means higher than in suboccipital puncture. The main advantages of selective cervical myelography effected by contrast medium injection through lateral subarachnoid puncture include the possibility to perform investigation with a minimum amount of air (4-8 cm 3 ) and to study patients with fixed, direct skull fraction after Crutchfield under maximum sparing conditions. (author)

  9. Binding and orientation of fibronectin on polystyrene surfaces using immobilized bacterial adhesin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, U; Bryers, J D; Kreutzer, D L

    2003-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to bind to bacteria via high affinity receptors on bacterial surfaces known as adhesins. The binding of bacteria to FN is thought to have a key role in foreign device associated infections. For example, previous studies have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus adhesins bind to the 29 kDa NH(3) terminus end of FN, and thereby promote bacteria adherence to surfaces. Recently, the peptide sequences within the S. aureus adhesin molecule that are responsible for FN binding have been identified. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that functional FN can be bound and specifically oriented on polystyrene surfaces using bacterial adhesin-related (BRP-A) peptide. We further hypothesize that monoclonal antibodies that react with specific epitopes on the FN can be used to quantify both FN binding and orientation on these surfaces. Based on this hypothesis, we initiated a systematic investigation of the binding and orientation of FN on polystyrene surfaces using BRP-A peptide. To test this hypothesis, the binding and orientation of the FN to immobilized BRP-A was quantified using (125)I-FN, and monoclonal antibodies. (125)I-FN was used to quantitate FN binding to peptide-coated polystyrene surfaces. The orientation of bound FN was demonstrated by the use of monoclonal antibodies, which are reactive with the amine (N) or carboxyl (C) termini of the FN. The results of our studies demonstrated that when the BRP-A peptide was used to bind FN to surfaces that: 1. functional FN was bound to the peptide; 2. anti-C terminus antibodies bound to the peptide FN; and 3. only limited binding of anti-N terminus antibodies to peptide-bound FN occurred. We believe that the data that indicate an enhanced binding of anti-C antibodies reactive to anti-N antibodies are a result of the FN binding in an oriented manner with the N termini of FN bound tightly to the BRP-A on the polystyrene surface. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 36

  10. Myocardial repair with long-term and low-dose administration of a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor. Myofibroblasts, type III collagen and fibronectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessanha Mônica Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the healing process of the myocardium in hypertensive rats undergoing inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. METHODS: Two groups of animals were studied: one received L-NAME, 12mg/kg/day, and the other was a control group. The presence of type III collagen, fibronectin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Fibronectin was seen in both early and late lesions, while type III collagen was seen mainly in areas of incomplete healing, situated among myocytes and around the intramyocardial branches of the coronary arteries. Areas representing early and late lesions showed a population of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that these cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin. CONCLUSION: In the myocardium of hypertensive rats, the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells are related to the accumulation of type III collagen and fibronectin in the areas of myocardial damage.

  11. Maternal methadone dosing schedule and fetal neurobehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Velez, Martha; Elko, Andrea; Knauer, Heather; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Daily methadone maintenance is the standard of care for opiate dependency during pregnancy. Previous research has indicated that single-dose maternal methadone administration significantly suppresses fetal neurobehaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if split-dosing would have less impact on fetal neurobehavior than single-dose administration. Methods Forty methadone-maintained women were evaluated at peak and trough maternal methadone levels on single- and split-dosing schedules. Monitoring sessions occurred at 36 and 37 weeks gestation in a counterbalanced study design. Fetal measures included heart rate, variability, accelerations, motor activity and fetal movement-heart rate coupling (FM-FHR). Maternal measures included heart period, variability, skin conductance, respiration and vagal tone. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to evaluate within-subject changes between split- and single-dosing regimens. Results All fetal neurobehavioral parameters were suppressed by maternal methadone administration, regardless of dosing regimen. Fetal parameters at peak were significantly lower during single vs. split methadone administration. FM-FHR coupling was less suppressed from trough to peak during split-dosing vs. single-dosing. Maternal physiologic parameters were generally unaffected by dosing condition. Conclusion Split- dosed fetuses displayed less neurobehavioral suppression from trough to peak maternal methadone levels as compared to single-dosed fetuses. Split-dosing may be beneficial for methadone-maintained pregnant women. PMID:19085624

  12. Ultrasonographic Findings of Fetal Congenital Intracranial Teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Min, Jee Yeon; Moon, Min Hwan; Kim, Jeong Ah [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of fetal congenital intracranial teratoma. From 1994 to 2002, of the 11 fetuses which had been diagnosed with fetal intracranial tumors after second level fetal ultrasonography, the six that were confirmed after autopsy as congenital intracranial teratomas were included in our study. The sonographic findings, including size, homogeneity, echogenicity compared with surrounding normal brain tissues, cystic components, and tumor related calcification, were retrospectively evaluated. The incidence of fetal congenital intracranial teratoma out of all fetal intracranial tumors was 54.5% (6 of 11 cases) during the 8-year period. The mean mass size was 7.4 cm (3.0-15.0 cm). Two thirds of (4/6) of the teratoma cases showed high echogenicity compared with normal brain tissues, and two thirds (4/6) showed heterogeneous echogenicity. Four teratoma cases (67%) showed cysts in the mass with a mean size of 1.9cm. One third (2/6) showed calcifications within the tumor. Out of the six cases, two had oropharyngeal teratoma with extension into the intracranial portion (so called epignathus) and showed homogenous mass without any cysts or calcifications. The typical sonographic appearance of intracranial teratoma was a heterogeneous, hyperechoic mass with cysts. In the epignathus cases, the sonographic appearances differed somewhat from the others. An understanding of the sonographic findings of fetal intracranial teratoma will help in the timely counseling of the parents and in obstetric decision making

  13. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  14. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, P; Scopesi, F; Serra, G

    2006-01-01

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise

  15. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  16. Cervical spinal cord injuries in patients with cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbogen, V S; Rogers, L F; Atlas, S W; Kim, K S

    1986-02-01

    Eighty-eight patients over age 40 with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and comparison was made with 35 spinal cord injury patients under age 36. While most older patients sustained obvious bony and/or ligamentous damage commensurate with their neurologic findings, 25 (28%) of the 88 patients had no demonstrable bony abnormalities and 17 (20%) of the 88 patients had only minimal evidence of bony injury. Of particular interest are the patients with severe cord injuries, yet no bony abnormalities, who seem to form a distinct subgroup of the cervical spinal cord injury patient on the basis of radiographic and clinical features. Of these 25 patients, 24 (96%) had severe cervical spondylosis. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were injured in falls, five (36%) of these 14 being of a seemingly trivial nature. Of the 42 patients with minimal or no demonstrable bony abnormalities, 33 (79%) were evaluated with plain tomography and no occult fractures or other significant pathology was demonstrated. Pantopaque myelography in 27 (64%) of the 42 cases revealed no extruded disk or other surgical lesion in any patient. In large measure, these injuries can be attributed to cervical spondylosis, which narrows the canal and makes the cord more susceptible to compression by the bulging ligamenta flava during hyperextension.

  17. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  18. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  19. Extracellular matrix inspired surface functionalization with heparin, fibronectin and VEGF provides an anticoagulant and endothelialization supporting microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Kun; Maitz, Manfred F.; Pan, Changjiang; Chen, Junying; Huang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modification with fibronectin, heparin and VEGF could selectively anticoagulant and promote endothelialization. • The bioactivity of biomolecules was more efficiently maintained via specific intermolecular interaction. • Poly-l-lysine interlayer was more feasible and the degradation product had no harm to human body. - Abstract: The biocompatibility of currently used coronary artery stent is still far from perfect, which closely related to insufficient endothelialization and thrombus formation. In this study, heparin, fibronectin and VEGF were immobilized on Ti surface to construct a multifunctional microenvironment with favorable properties to inhibit thrombosis formation and promote endothelialization simultaneously. The microenvironment on Ti surface was characterized in detail and demonstrated that the Hep/Fn/VEGF biofunctional coating was constructed successfully on Ti surface. The influence of surface properties such as chemical composition, roughness, hydrophilicity, and binding density of biomolecules on the performances of hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility was evaluated and discussed. Modified surface significantly enhanced the AT III binding density and prolonged the clotting time. In vitro platelet adhesion and activation assays further proved that the modified surface presented favorable anti-coagulant property. In addition, the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) on the Hep/Fn/VEGF biofunctional coating was significantly promoted. In conclusion, the Hep/Fn/VEGF biofunctional coating was successfully constructed with desirable anticoagulant and endothelialization supporting properties. This work may provide a promising approach for biofunctional surface modification of coronary artery stent to acquire a desired multifunctional microenvironment

  20. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Christopher L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  1. Urinary fibronectin levels in patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin for superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danişman, A; Bulut, K; Kukul, E; Ozen, I; Sevük, M

    2000-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, but the precise mechanism of action of BCG remains poorly understood. Fibronectin (FN), an important component of the extracellular matrix, has been found to play a role in BCG therapy. Some studies have shown that the soluble form of FN can compete efficiently with the matrix form of binding to the specific receptors on the bacteria and could consequently diminish the effect of BCG treatment. To evaluate a possible correlation between the urinary levels of FN and the efficacy of BCG therapy, we determined prospectively the urinary FN levels in 38 patients with TCC of the bladder and in 25 control subjects without malignancy matched for age and sex. All TCC patients were treated with transurethral tumor resection plus 6 weekly intravesical BCG instillations. After an average follow-up of 30 months, 8 patients (21.1%) had recurrent tumors, while 30 (78.9%) were free of tumor after intravesical BCG therapy. Urinary levels of FN in cancer patients have been shown to be significantly higher than controls (p 0. 05). It was also found that the mean urinary FN levels were not statistically significant between patients with recurrence and complete remission. The data suggest that BCG-bladder tumor cell binding is not influenced by soluble fibronectin and urinary FN may not be a ideal marker for selecting patients to BCG therapy. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. mRNA Display Selection of a High-Affinity, Modification-Specific Phospho-IκBα-Binding Fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. Anders; Liao, Hsiang-I; Sun, Ren; Roberts, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of the human proteome is greatly expanded by post-translational modifications. New tools capable of recognizing these modifications in a sequence-specific fashion provide a route to purify these modified proteins, to alter protein trafficking, and to visualize signal transduction in real time. Here, we have evolved novel, modification-specific ligands that target phosphorylated IκBα. To do this, we employed mRNA display-based in vitro selection using a 30-trillion-member protein library based on the fibronectin type III domain. The selection yielded one fibronectin molecule, 10C17C25, that binds a phospho-IκBα peptide with Kd = 18 nM and is over 1000-fold specific compared to the nonphosphorylated peptide. 10C17C25 specifically recognizes endogenous phosphorylated IκBα from mammalian cell extract and stabilizes phospho-IκBα in vivo. We also incorporated 10C17C25 into a FRET indicator that detects IκB kinase (IKK) activity in vitro, demonstrating the utility of selecting designed adaptors for kinase activity sensors. PMID:18590330

  3. mRNA display selection of a high-affinity, modification-specific phospho-IkappaBalpha-binding fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C Anders; Liao, Hsiang-I; Sun, Ren; Roberts, Richard W

    2008-08-15

    The complexity of the human proteome is greatly expanded by post-translational modifications. New tools capable of recognizing these modifications in a sequence-specific fashion provide a route to purify these modified proteins, to alter protein trafficking, and to visualize signal transduction in real time. Here, we have evolved novel, modification-specific ligands that target phosphorylated IkappaBalpha. To do this, we employed mRNA display-based in vitro selection using a 30-trillion-member protein library based on the fibronectin type III domain. The selection yielded one fibronectin molecule, 10C17C25, that binds a phospho-IkappaBalpha peptide with K d = 18 nM and is over 1000-fold specific compared to the nonphosphorylated peptide. 10C17C25 specifically recognizes endogenous phosphorylated IkappaBalpha from mammalian cell extract and stabilizes phospho-IkappaBalpha in vivo. We also incorporated 10C17C25 into a FRET indicator that detects IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity in vitro, demonstrating the utility of selecting designed adaptors for kinase activity sensors.

  4. Cervical bracing practices after degenerative cervical surgery: a survey of cervical spine research society members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, David J; Krag, Martin H; Mauser, Nathan S; Lee, Joon Y; Donaldson, William H; Kang, James D

    2018-05-21

    Context: Prior studies have shown common use of post-operative bracing, despite advances in modern day instrumentation rigidity and little evidence of brace effectiveness. To document current practice patterns of brace use after degenerative cervical spine surgeries among members of the Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS), to evaluate trends, and to identify areas of further study. A questionnaire survey METHODS: A 10 question survey was sent to members of the Cervical Spine Research Society to document current routine bracing practices after various common degenerative cervical spine surgical scenarios, including fusion and non-fusion procedures. The overall bracing rate was 67%. This included 8.4% who used a hard collar in each scenario. Twenty-two percent of surgeons never used a hard collar, while 34% never used a soft collar, and 3.6% (3 respondents) did not use a brace in any surgical scenario. Bracing frequency for specific surgical scenarios varied from 39% after foraminotomy to 88% after multi-level corpectomy with anterior & posterior fixation. After one, two and three level anterior cervical discectomy & fusion (ACDF), bracing rates were 58%, 65% and 76% for an average of 3.3, 4.3 and 5.3 weeks, respectively. After single level corpectomy, 77% braced for an average of 6.2 weeks. After laminectomy and fusion, 72% braced for an average of 5.4 weeks. Significant variation persists among surgeons on the type and length of post-operative brace usage after cervical spine surgeries. Overall rates of bracing have not changed significantly with time. Given the lack evidence in the literature to support bracing, reconsidering use of a brace after certain surgeries may be warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cervical Vertigo: Historical Reviews and Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan

    2018-01-01

    Vertigo is one of the most common presentations in adult patients. Among the various causes of vertigo, so-called cervical vertigo is still a controversial entity. Cervical vertigo was first thought to be due to abnormal input from cervical sympathetic nerves based on the work of Barré and Liéou in 1928. Later studies found that cerebral blood flow is not influenced by sympathetic stimulation. Ryan and Cope in 1955 proposed that abnormal sensory information from the damaged joint receptors of upper cervical regions may be related to pathologies of vertigo of cervical origin. Further studies found that cervical vertigo seems to originate from diseased cervical intervertebral discs. Recent research found that the ingrowth of a large number of Ruffini corpuscles into diseased cervical discs may be related to vertigo of cervical origin. Abnormal neck proprioceptive input integrated from the signals of Ruffini corpuscles in diseased cervical discs and muscle spindles in tense neck muscles secondary to neck pain is transmitted to the central nervous system and leads to a sensory mismatch with vestibular and other sensory information, resulting in a subjective feeling of vertigo and unsteadiness. Further studies are needed to illustrate the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms of cervical vertigo and to better understand and manage this perplexing entity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intrapartum fetal monitoring by ST-analysis of the fetal ECG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, M.E.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Intrapartum fetal monitoring aims to identify fetuses at risk for neonatal and long-term injury due to asphyxia. To serve this purpose, cardiotocography (CTG) combined with ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a relatively new method, may be used. The main aim of this

  7. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. The radiographic observation of the cervical strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chung Sik

    1972-01-01

    A total of 100 cases of cervical disorders were analysed of clinical signs and symptoms. The cervical strain is proved by the loss of normal lordotic curvature of the cervical spinal column on the lateral x-ray film in Ewha University Hospital from January, 1970 to december 1971 with the following results. 1. The 53 cervical strain was diagnosed in radiographic study for its abnormal locations. The hyperextension with abnormal curve is twice more after than hyperflection type. 2. The most frequent location of the cervical strain is demonstrated in the 4-6 th cervical spinal bodies (80%). 3. Most pronounced symptoms of cervical strain are local tenderness (40%), limitation of motion (17%) and radiating pain (15%). 4. The ratio of the sex incidence of male female was 3:2

  9. The radiographic observation of the cervical strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    A total of 100 cases of cervical disorders were analysed of clinical signs and symptoms. The cervical strain is proved by the loss of normal lordotic curvature of the cervical spinal column on the lateral x-ray film in Ewha University Hospital from January, 1970 to december 1971 with the following results. 1. The 53 cervical strain was diagnosed in radiographic study for its abnormal locations. The hyperextension with abnormal curve is twice more after than hyperflection type. 2. The most frequent location of the cervical strain is demonstrated in the 4-6 th cervical spinal bodies (80%). 3. Most pronounced symptoms of cervical strain are local tenderness (40%), limitation of motion (17%) and radiating pain (15%). 4. The ratio of the sex incidence of male female was 3:2.

  10. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta

    Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...... vs. 4, p=0.06) decreased the number of fcmbs, whereas coitus the evening before increased the number (4 vs. 3, p=0.11). Conclusion: The number of fcmbs is affected by normal activities. This should be taken into account when planning collection of fetal cells in connection for prenatal diagnosis...

  11. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  12. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  14. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  15. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Spinal surgery - cervical - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems include: pain that interferes with daily activities neck pain that extends (radiates) to the shoulder or arm ... done while the patient is deep asleep and pain-free (general anesthesia). For the neck (cervical spine), an incision may be made either in ...

  17. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  18. Amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity: will it become obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Stephen; Sherman, Craig; Lewis, David; Owens, Sheri; Bodie, Frankie; McCathran, C Eric; Holliday, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    AMNIOCENTESIS FOR FETAL LUNG MATURITY HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN PERFORMED FOR MANY REASONS: uterine and placental complications, maternal comorbidities, fetal issues, and even obstetric problems. Even though the risks associated with third trimester amniocentesis are extremely low, complications have been documented, including preterm labor, placental abruptions, intrauterine rupture, maternal sepsis, fetal heart rate abnormalities, and fetal-maternal hemorrhage. This review presents the types of tests for fetal lung maturity, presents the indications and tests utilized, and discusses recommendations for when amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity may be appropriate.

  19. Value of preoperative cervical discography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Joon Woo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the method and the value of cervical discography as correlated with the MR findings. Twenty-one discs in 11 consecutive patients who underwent cervical discography were analyzed. MR and CT discography (CTD) were performed in all patients. Discography was performed after swallowing barium for visualizing the pharynx and the esophagus to prevent penetration. We also analyzed the preceding causes of the subjects' cervical pain. The results of the pain provocation test were classified into concordant pain, discordant pain and a negative test. MRI was analyzed according to the T2-signal intensity (SI) of the disc, disc height, annular bulging and disc herniation. The CTD was analyzed for degeneration or radial tear of the disc, epidural leakage of the contrast agent and pooling of the contrast agent at the periphery of the disc. The pain provocation tests were correlated with the MR and CTD findings. We used the chi-square test to analyze the results. Concordant pain was observed in 14 cases, discordant pain in 3 cases and there were negative tests in 4 cases. There were no complications related to the procedure. Four patients had undergone anterior cervical fusion and four patients that developed after traffic injuries. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI, disc degeneration and peripheral pooling of the contrast agent on CT were significantly correlated with pain provocation. When the diagnosis of disc disease is difficult with performing MRI, cervical discography with using swallowed barium solution to reduce the penetration of the esophagus or hypopharynx may play be helpful. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI correlated significantly with a positive result on the pain provocation test

  20. INTRAUTERINE FETAL DEATH CASES AT TERTIARY CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Bishnoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intrauterine fetal death is a tragic event for the parents and a great cause of stress for the caregiver. It is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Aim and Objective- This was an Analytical study aimed to evaluate and understand the prevalence, socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD methodology should not be mixed with aims and objectives MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out at March 2017 to June 2017 (4 months study which was conducted at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. IUD is defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500g. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and method of delivery and fetal outcomes and investigation reports were recorded. RESULTS A total of 227 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6264 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. 192 (84.56% deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised and 133 (58.59% belonged to rural population and 126 (55.5% were preterm and 221 (97.55% were singleton pregnancy. Among the identifiable causes hypertensive disorders (24.22% and severe anemia (13.10% were most common followed by placental causes (9.97%. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.39% and unidentifiable causes were 11.01%. Induction was done in 103 patients, 94 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 30 patients. Incidence of intrauterine foetal demise gradually decreased as parity advanced. CONCLUSION Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would

  1. [Embryo-fetal diseases in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; Alba, E; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    Embryo-fetal diseases are the consequence of prenatal (progenetic and metagenetic or environmental) and intranatal (of a traumatic, infective, toxic nature) pathological factors. In multiple pregnancies this complex etiopathogenesis also includes an altered didymous embriogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the pathologies affecting the fetus in multiple pregnancy, a special biological situation leading to the potential onset of severe fetal and neonatal damage. The authors studied 205 patients with multiple pregnancies, including 199 bigeminal, 5 trigeminal and 1 quadrigeminal, admitted to the Department B of the Obstetrics and Gynecological Clinic of Turin University between 1989-1999. Possible embyro-fetal damage was examined using a chronological criterion: namely following the development of the multiple fetuses from the zygotic to the neonatal phase. Pregnancies were biamniotic bichorionic in 54% of cases, biamniotic monochorionic in 45% and monochorionic monoamniotic in 1%. There were a total of 154 (79.38%) premature births out of 194 and neonatal birth weight was always SGA (small for gestational age). 66.84% of newborns were LBW (<2500 g) and 7.14% were VLBW (<1500 g). Fetal mortality (2.29%) was higher than early neonatal mortality (1.53%). Perinatal mortality (3.82%) was three times higher than in all neonates from the same period (1.03%). The severe embryo-fetal and neonatal damage found in multiple pregnancies is a clinical reality that calls for adequate diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and above all specific medical and social prevention to limit maternal pathogenic risks.

  2. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  3. Development of a highly metastatic model that reveals a crucial role of fibronectin in lung cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xianghuo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of metastasis is the most common cause of death in patients with lung cancer. A major implement to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer metastasis has been the lack of suitable models to address it. In this study, we aimed at establishing a highly metastatic model of human lung cancer and characterizing its metastatic properties and underlying mechanisms. Methods The human lung adeno-carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell line was used as parental cells for developing of highly metastatic cells by in vivo selection in NOD/SCID mice. After three rounds of selection, a new SPC-A-1sci cell line was established from pulmonary metastatic lesions. Subsequently, the metastatic properties of this cell line were analyzed, including optical imaging of in vivo metastasis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT makers and trans-well migration and invasion assays. Finally, the functional roles of fibronectin in the invasive and metastatic potentials of SPC-A-1sci cells were determined by shRNA analysis. Results A spontaneously pulmonary metastatic model of human lung adeno-carcinoma was established in NOD/SCID mice, from which a new lung cancer cell line, designated SPC-A-1sci, was isolated. Initially, the highly metastatic behavior of this cell line was validated by optical imaging in mice models. Further analyses showed that this cell line exhibit phenotypic and molecular alterations consistent with EMT. Compared with its parent cell line SPC-A-1, SPC-A-1sci was more aggressive in vitro, including increased potentials for cell spreading, migration and invasion. Importantly, fibronectin, a mesenchymal maker of EMT, was found to be highly expressed in SPC-A-1sci cells and down-regulation of it can decrease the in vitro and in vivo metastatic abilities of this cell line. Conclusions We have successfully established a new human lung cancer cell line with

  4. Development of a highly metastatic model that reveals a crucial role of fibronectin in lung cancer cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Deshui; Yao, Ming; Yan, Mingxia; Wang, Xiaomin; Hao, Xiangfang; Liang, Linhui; Liu, Lei; Kong, Hanwei; He, Xianghuo; Li, Jinjun

    2010-01-01

    The formation of metastasis is the most common cause of death in patients with lung cancer. A major implement to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer metastasis has been the lack of suitable models to address it. In this study, we aimed at establishing a highly metastatic model of human lung cancer and characterizing its metastatic properties and underlying mechanisms. The human lung adeno-carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell line was used as parental cells for developing of highly metastatic cells by in vivo selection in NOD/SCID mice. After three rounds of selection, a new SPC-A-1sci cell line was established from pulmonary metastatic lesions. Subsequently, the metastatic properties of this cell line were analyzed, including optical imaging of in vivo metastasis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) makers and trans-well migration and invasion assays. Finally, the functional roles of fibronectin in the invasive and metastatic potentials of SPC-A-1sci cells were determined by shRNA analysis. A spontaneously pulmonary metastatic model of human lung adeno-carcinoma was established in NOD/SCID mice, from which a new lung cancer cell line, designated SPC-A-1sci, was isolated. Initially, the highly metastatic behavior of this cell line was validated by optical imaging in mice models. Further analyses showed that this cell line exhibit phenotypic and molecular alterations consistent with EMT. Compared with its parent cell line SPC-A-1, SPC-A-1sci was more aggressive in vitro, including increased potentials for cell spreading, migration and invasion. Importantly, fibronectin, a mesenchymal maker of EMT, was found to be highly expressed in SPC-A-1sci cells and down-regulation of it can decrease the in vitro and in vivo metastatic abilities of this cell line. We have successfully established a new human lung cancer cell line with highly metastatic potentials, which is subject to EMT and possibly

  5. Surface functionalization of inorganic nano-crystals with fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera synergistically accelerates trans-gene delivery into embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsuzawa, K.; Chowdhury, E.H.; Nagaoka, M.; Maruyama, K.; Akiyama, Y.; Akaike, T.

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells holding great promises in regenerative medicine have the potential to be differentiated to a specific cell type through genetic manipulation. However, conventional ways of gene transfer to such progenitor cells suffer from a number of disadvantages particularly involving safety and efficacy issues. Here, we report on the development of a bio-functionalized inorganic nano-carrier of DNA by embedding fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera on the carrier, leading to its high affinity interactions with embryonic stem cell surface and accelerated trans-gene delivery for subsequent expression. While only apatite nano-particles were very inefficient in transfecting embryonic stem cells, fibronectin-anchored particles and to a more significant extent, fibronectin and E-cadherin-Fc-associated particles dramatically enhanced trans-gene delivery with a value notably higher than that of commercially available lipofection system. The involvement of both cell surface integrin and E-cadherin in mediating intracellular localization of the hybrid carrier was verified by blocking integrin binding site with excess free fibronectin and up-regulating both integrin and E-cadherin through PKC activation. Thus, the new establishment of a bio-functional hybrid gene-carrier would promote and facilitate development of stem cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine

  6. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg

    2008-01-01

    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules II...

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Stimulates Fibronectin Gene Expression in Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-21

    Complications of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus exhibits symptoms of polyuria , glycosuria, and acidosis. Although the discovery of insulin in 1921 by...Professor Department of Physiology Elevated fibronectin levels have been observed in the matrix of diabetic blood vessels and renal "glomeruli. Growth...1 A. Specific Goal ........... ..................... .. 1 B. Background and Significance ..................... 2 1. Complications of Diabetes

  8. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and abdominal malformations; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie thorakaler und abdomineller Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woitek, R.; Asenbaum, U.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Brugger, P.C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fetal thoracic and abdominal malformations. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In cases of suspected pathologies based on fetal ultrasound MRI can be used for more detailed examinations and can be of assistance in the differential diagnostic process. Improved imaging of anatomical structures and of the composition of different tissues by the use of different MRI sequences. Fetal MRI has become a part of clinical routine in thoracic and abdominal malformations and is the basis for scientific research in this field. In cases of thoracic or abdominal malformations fetal MRI provides important information additional to ultrasound to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic evaluation and surgical planning. (orig.) [German] Diagnose und Differenzialdiagnose fetaler thorakaler und abdomineller Malformationen. Ultraschall, MRT. MRT zur weiteren Abklaerung und genaueren Differenzierung bei vielen im Ultraschall gestellten Verdachtsdiagnosen. Verbesserte anatomische Darstellung mittels MRT und Darstellung unterschiedlicher Gewebezusammensetzung mittels verschiedener MR-Sequenzen. Die fetale MRT ist bei der angegebenen Fragestellung in die klinische Routine eingegangen und liefert weiterhin die Basis fuer wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen in diesem Bereich. Die fetale MRT liefert beim Vorliegen thorakaler oder abdomineller Malformationen komplementaer zum Ultraschall wichtige Zusatzinformationen, um die diagnostische Genauigkeit zu erhoehen, die Prognoseabschaetzung zu verbessern und ggf. eine bessere chirurgische Planung zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  10. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...... hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient's first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident...... growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during...

  11. STORY AND HISTORY IN FETAL BEHAVIOR RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Karen

    2015-09-01

    In their monograph, DiPietro, Costigan, and Voegtline present an important and thoughtful portrait of low-risk fetal development during the last trimester of gestation, and they also pay tribute to the Fels Longitudinal Study investigators' early work in this area. In this commentary, the history and legacy of the Fels Institute is further explored within the broader context of fetal research, and DiPietro et al.'s findings are placed in alignment with contemporary dynamic systems' theoretical approaches that emphasize longitudinal analysis of emergent behavior and process during early development. The commentary puts forth the assertion that the work reported by DiPietro and her colleagues tells a story that sets the stage for a new generation of technology-enhanced and culturally expanded investigations of fetal behavior. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Glucocorticoids and fetal programming part 1: Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisiadis, Vasilis G; Matthews, Stephen G

    2014-07-01

    Fetal development is a critical period for shaping the lifelong health of an individual. However, the fetus is susceptible to internal and external stimuli that can lead to adverse long-term health consequences. Glucocorticoids are an important developmental switch, driving changes in gene regulation that are necessary for normal growth and maturation. The fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is particularly susceptible to long-term programming by glucocorticoids; these effects can persist throughout the life of an organism. Dysfunction of the HPA axis as a result of fetal programming has been associated with impaired brain growth, altered behaviour and increased susceptibility to chronic disease (such as metabolic and cardiovascular disease). Moreover, the effects of glucocorticoid-mediated programming are evident in subsequent generations, and transmission of these changes can occur through both maternal and paternal lineages.

  13. Fetal programming and eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Candace; Pearce, Brad; Barrera, Ingrid; Mummert, Amanda

    2017-09-07

    Fetal programming describes the process by which environmental stimuli impact fetal development to influence disease development later in life. Our analysis summarizes evidence for the role of fetal programming in eating disorder etiology through review of studies demonstrating specific obstetric complications and later eating risk of anorexia or bulimia. Using Pubmed, we found thirteen studies investigating obstetric factors and eating disorder risk published between 1999 and 2016. We then discuss modifiable maternal risk factors, including nutrition and stress, that influence anorexia or bulimia risk of their offspring. Translation of these findings applies to preventative strategies by health organizations and physicians to provide optimal health for mothers and their children to prevent development of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanisms of Fetal Programming in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Events that occur in the early fetal environment have been linked to long-term health and lifespan consequences in the adult. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which may occur as a result of nutrient insufficiency, exposure to hormones, or disruptions in placental structure or function, may induce the fetus to alter its developmental program in order to adapt to the new conditions. IUGR may result in a decrease in the expression of genes that are responsible for nephrogenesis as nutrients are rerouted to the development of more essential organs. Fetal survival under these conditions often results in low birth weight and a deficit in nephron endowment, which are associated with hypertension in adults. Interestingly, male IUGR offspring appear to be more severely affected than females, suggesting that sex hormones may be involved. The processes of fetal programming of hypertension are complex, and we are only beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  15. RT-PCR Analysis of ED-A,ED-B, and IIICS Fibronectin Domains: A New Screening Marker For Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadi Javid

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibronectin seems to play a very important role in the progression and invasion of bladder cancer. EDA, EDB, and IIICS domains of fibronectin are not expressed in the adult persons but they’re expressed in different cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the mRNA of fibronectin in transitional carcinoma cells (TCC of bladder to study these domains. Methods: A total of 20 patients with known bladder cancer were studied. Two of them excluded since their excised tissues were not enough for both the pathological examination and RNA study. Another 20 (control group were normal volunteers who needed bladder operations. The excised tissue was immediately transferred to RNAlater (Ambion,TX. RNA was extracted via RNAWIZ (Ambion, TX. cDNA was made via RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Fermentas. PCR of the cDNAs was performed using primers for EDA, EDB, and IIICS (Eurogentec,Belgium. Results: For the first time, we present the expression of the oncofetal fibronectin mRNA in the transitional cell carcinoma of bladder. The high grade muscle invasive (G3T2 tumor, expressed ED-A, ED-B, and IIICS. Expression of ED-A, ED-B, and IIICS was confirmed in the two patients with G3T1 TCC. The four patients with G2Ta and G3Ta expressed both ED-A and ED-B. The four patients with G1T1 tumor expressed ED-A only, similar to the nine patients with G1Ta tumor. None of the normal volunteers expressed the oncofetal extra domains. The sensitivity of ED-A positive fibronectin RNA for detecting TCC of any kind is 100%, and of ED-B was only 35%. The specificity of ED-B positive fibronectin RNA for the high grade TCC is 100%. Conclusion: ED-A, ED-B, and IIICS could be used as useful markers for the diagnosis and following up of bladder carcinoma. Keywords: Transitional Cell Carcinoma, bladder cancer, fibronectin, RT-PCR, oncofetal.

  16. Fetal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology examinations are frequently performed in all countries because of the benefit that the patient derives from the resultant diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed it is inevitable that there will be occasions when the planned exposure of a woman who is known to be pregnant is contemplated. In these circumstances, there must be rigorous justification of the examination and the procedure itself must be optimised as well. Radiation risks from fetal irradiation are well established. These risks fall into three categories: 1) a cancer induction risk (mainly leukaemia); 2) hereditary effects (as the fetus is a potential parent); 3) a risk of serious mental retardation (if the fetus is exposed in the critical 8-15 weeks period when the forebrain is being developed). Risk factors for these effects have been reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Special rules apply to the radiology of women who are or who may be pregnant. These rules have been developed to avoid he unintended irradiation of the fetus. These rules have been variously referred to as the 10-day rule and the 28-day rules, in which radiology of potentially pregnant women is restricted to the first 10 or 28 days following menstruation. It is apparent that the advice provided by national bodies varies, as different rules apply internationally, due presumably to a lack of an international consensus on the subject. The advice from the National Radiological Protection Board, the College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists applies in the United Kingdom. In summary, the advice is that women of child bearing age are asked before a diagnostic radiology examination in which the pelvis is in, or near, the primary beam are asked if they are, or may be, pregnant. If pregnancy can be excluded then the examination can proceed. If it is likely that the patient is pregnant, then the proposed examination must undergo rigorous justification. If

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  18. Routine screening for fetal anomalies: expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, James D

    2004-03-01

    Ultrasound has become a routine part of prenatal care. Despite this, the sensitivity and specificity of the procedure is unclear to many patients and healthcare providers. In a small study from Canada, 54.9% of women reported that they had received no information about ultrasound before their examination. In addition, 37.2% of women indicated that they were unaware of any fetal problems that ultrasound could not detect. Most centers that perform ultrasound do not have their own statistics regarding sensitivity and specificity; it is necessary to rely on large collaborative studies. Unfortunately, wide variations exist in these studies with detection rates for fetal anomalies between 13.3% and 82.4%. The Eurofetus study is the largest prospective study performed to date and because of the time and expense involved in this type of study, a similar study is not likely to be repeated. The overall fetal detection rate for anomalous fetuses was 64.1%. It is important to note that in this study, ultrasounds were performed in tertiary centers with significant experience in detecting fetal malformations. The RADIUS study also demonstrated a significantly improved detection rate of anomalies before 24 weeks in tertiary versus community centers (35% versus 13%). Two concepts seem to emerge from reviewing these data. First, patients must be made aware of the limitations of ultrasound in detecting fetal anomalies. This information is critical to allow them to make informed decisions whether to undergo ultrasound examination and to prepare them for potential outcomes.Second, to achieve the detection rates reported in the Eurofetus study, ultrasound examination must be performed in centers that have extensive experience in the detection of fetal anomalies.

  19. Hemivertebra of the cervical spine: an uncommon background for neck pain, cervical scoliosis, and torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Stavrev, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with neck pain accompanied by cervical scoliosis, on the existence of torticollis. Although rare, hemivertebra of the cervical spine is a congenital deformation associated with these three clinical features.

  20. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.