WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervical extensor muscles

  1. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented.

  2. Investigation of Cervical Fleksor and Extensor Muscle Activation During Isometric Neck Extension Applied by Therraband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önal, Sercan; Can, Filiz; Yakut, Yavuz; Baltacı, Gül

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Therrabands are commonly used for resistive exercises, streching and stabilization exercises and also isometric exercises. However, principles of practice of therrabands are mostly focused on exercise variety. Likewise it is only given point to exercise variety during therrabands’ usage at cervical region. Nevertheless, for effective usage of therrabands and for proper assessment of effectiveness response, it is necessary to know the amount of resistance being given or muscle activation response against the resistance given. The aim of this study was to compare activations of cervical flexor and extensor muscles during isometric extension exercise against the resistance of therraband in healthy individuals. Methods: 14 healthy subjects (8 female,6 male)aged between 19-32 have been included in the study. Subjects with neck problems, systemic diseases, history of trauma or operation were excluded. Neck isometric exercises with therraband was 2 sets with 2 minutes’ intervals and EMG records have been taken during exercises. After preparation of the skin, surface electrodes placed on the motor points of sternocleidomastoideus(SCM) and erector spinae(ES) muscles. After taking the average of 3 measures, the first 10 seconds of muscular activations were recorded. The average of integrated EMG(iEMG) values of each records was used for statistical data. Independent T test and Mann Whitney U test were used for the analysis of findings. Results: There was no significant difference between the right ES and left ES’s mean iEMG during isometric neck extension against therraband (p=0.06). Although there was no difference between right SCM and right ES muscles action potentials(t=-0.895; p=0.379), there was a significant difference between left SCM and left ES muscles’ action potentials (z= -2.435; p=0.01). When all the right and left SCM and ES muscle activations were compared, a significant difference was detected in favour of ES muscles ( t= -2.133; p= 0

  3. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.M. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)]. E-mail: jimelliott@plbb.net; Galloway, G.J. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Jull, G.A. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA (United States); Centeno, C.J. [Centeno Clinic, Westminster, CO, USA (United States); Gibbon, W.W. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years.

  5. Weakness of the neck extensors, possible causes and relation to adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolong, Shen; Xuhui, Zhou; Jian, Chen; Ye, Tian; Wen, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Cervical kyphosis may be congenital, or occur as a result of laminectomy, post-traumatic deformity, infection, neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophies, motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tumor, and inflammation such as ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis was defined as cervical kyphotic deformity of adolescent patient without any cause such as those previously described. As no standard values for "cervical kyphosis" could be found in the literature, many reported studies only report a subjective classification, "kyphotic, straight or lordotic". But this method had proven to be unreliable. Grob et al. defined "straight" for the global curvature as +4° to -4°, and lordotic and kyphotic as +4°, respectively. The etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis remain little understood. Weakness of the neck extensors can result in "dropped head syndrome", a rare disorder characterized by weakness of neck extensor muscles causing an inability to extend the neck and resulting in a chin-on-chest deformity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a possible mechanical cause leading to the kyphotic deformity. We hypothesize that weakness of the neck extensors could be the initiating factor for adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis.

  6. Changes in mechanical load and extensor muscle activity in the cervico-thoracic spine induced by sitting posture modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Stephen J; Sharp, Michael; Symes, Andew; Alhabib, Nawaf; Allison, Garry T

    2011-02-01

    The influence of whole body sitting posture on cervico-thoracic posture, mechanical load and extensor muscle activity was examined in 23 asymptomatic adults. Cervical and upper thoracic extensor muscle activity measured in guided slouched and lumbo-pelvic neutral postures was normalised to that measured in a self-selected habitual posture. Head and neck posture and gravitational load moment measurements were obtained in each posture. Sagittal head translation, upper cervical extension and load moment were significantly greater in the slouched posture (p postures, with cervical extensor activity 40% higher in the slouched posture (p posture than the habitual posture (p = 0.002). The significant changes in extensor muscle activity with postural modification appear to be induced by the associated change in mechanical load moment of the head. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: More neutral sitting postures reduce the demand on the cervical extensor muscles and modify the relative contribution of cervical and thoracic extensors to the control of head and neck posture. Postures that promote these patterns of muscular activity may reduce cervical spine loading and the development of posture-related neck pain.

  7. Variant extensor muscles on the dorsum of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of accessory muscle bellies and tendons in the hand is of great interest to the hand surgeons. Awareness of the variations of the muscles will serve as useful guide for both in studies of human anatomy and in clinical practice today; this knowledge can be borne in mind while performing hand surgeries, tendon rerouting or transplants. These extra muscles often present as a ganglion, soft tissue tumor or mass in the hand, which could be quite misleading to the surgeon. With the purpose of preparation of the teaching and museum specimens, in two of the cadavers of elderly Jamaican African male and female, we observed accessory muscles on the dorsum of the hand. One was inserted to the index finger (extensor digitorum brevis manus and the other was arising deep to the extensor digitorum and inserted to the middle finger (extensor medii proprius.

  8. Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Y

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.

  9. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  10. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner.

  11. Changes in T2-weighted MRI of supinator muscle, pronator teres muscle, and extensor indicis muscle with manual muscle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuya; Akiyama, Sumikazu; Takamori, Masayoshi; Otsuka, D. Eng, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] In order to detect muscle activity with manual muscle testing, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (T2w-MR) images were detected by a 0.2 T compact MRI system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 3 adult males. Transverse T2-weighted multi-slice spin-echo images of the left forearm were measured by a 39 ms echo-time with a 2,000 ms repetition time, a 9.5 mm slice thickness, 1 accumulation and a total image acquisition time of 4 min 16 s. First, T2w-MR images in the resting condition were measured. Then, manipulative isometric contraction exercise (5 sec duration) to the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle or the extensor indicis muscle was performed using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale of 15–17. The T2w-MR images were measured immediately after the exercise. [Results] T2w-MR image intensities increased significantly in the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle and the extensor indicis muscle after the exercise. However, the image intensities in the rest of the muscle did not change. [Conclusion] Using T2w-MR images, we could detect muscle activity in a deep muscle, the supinator muscle, and a small muscle, the extensor indicis muscle. These results also support the reliability of the manual muscle testing method. PMID:28356621

  12. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  13. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE......, CINAHL, and AMED. Eligible studies had to include participants with no radiographic or symptomatic knee osteoarthritis at baseline; have a follow-up time of a minimum of 2 years, and include a measure of knee extensor muscle strength. Hierarchies for extracting data on knee osteoarthritis and knee...... extensor muscle strength were defined prior to data extraction. Meta-analysis was applied on the basis of the odds ratios (ORs) of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis or radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with knee extensor muscle weakness. ORs for knee osteoarthritis and 95% confidence...

  14. Maximum isometric knee flexor and extensor muscle contractions: normal patterns of torque versus time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M P; Baldwin, J M; Gardner, G M; Sepic, S B; Downs, W J

    1977-06-01

    Isometric torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles were recorded for 5 seconds at three knee joint positions. The subjects included healthy men in age groups from 20 to 35 and 45 to 65 years of age. The amplitudes and duration of peak torque and the time to peak torque were measured for each contraction. Peak torque was usually maintaned less than 0.1 second and never longer than 0.9 second. At each of the three angles, the mean extensor muscle torque was higher than the mean flexor muscle torque in both age groups, and the mean torque for both muscle group was higher among the younger than among the older man. The highest average torque was recorded at the knee angle of 60 degrees for the extensor muscles and 45 degrees for the flexor muscles, but this was not always a stereotyped response either for a given individual or among individuals.

  15. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  16. Effect of extensor muscle activation on the response to lumbar posteroanterior forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Esler, M A; Mildren, J; Herbert, R

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal subjects to the application of cyclical lumbar posteroanterior forces which simulated a manipulative therapy technique known as mobilization. The specific aim was to determine whether increases in spinal extensor muscle activity could modify the stiffness of lumbar posteroanterior movements. The lumbar posteroanterior stiffness was measured in eleven asymptomatic subjects in the prone position, both in the relaxed condition and during maximal voluntary isometric muscle contractions. The electromyographic activity of lumbar extensor muscles was measured in the relaxed and maximal contraction conditions during the application of mobilization. The posteroanterior stiffness was found to be significantly greater during maximum activation of the extensor muscles. The results indicate that muscle activity can significantly alter lumbar posteroanterior stiffness. Clinicians often apply posteroanterior forces over a spinous process of a vertebra to assess the resistance to movement. Information about the degree and nature of perceived resistance to posteroanterior movement is used to help make a diagnosis and select treatment techniques. This study has shown that increased activity of the spinal extensor muscles can increase the stiffness of lumbar posteroanterior movements, compared with the case where the subject is relaxed. When interpreting the posteroanterior responses of patients, clinicians should be aware that spinal extensor mucle activity can influence resistance to posteroanterior movement.

  17. Contribution of non-extensor muscles of the leg to maximal-effort countermovement jumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Shinsuke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of non-extensor muscles of the leg (i.e., muscles whose primary function is not leg extension on the kinematics and kinetics of human maximal-effort countermovement jumping. Although it is difficult to address this type of question through experimental procedures, the methodology of computer simulation can be a powerful tool. Methods A skeletal model that has nine rigid body segments and twenty degrees of freedom was developed. Two sets of muscle models were attached to this skeletal model: all (most of major muscles in the leg ("All Muscles" model and major extensor muscles in the leg (i.e., muscles whose primary function is leg extension; "Extensors Only" model. Neural activation input signal was represented by a series of step functions with a step duration of 0.05 s. Simulations were started from an identical upright standing posture. The optimal pattern of the activation input signal was searched through extensive random-search numerical optimization with a goal of maximizing the height reached by the mass centre of the body after jumping up. Results The simulated kinematics was almost two-dimensional, suggesting the validity of two-dimensional analyses when evaluating net mechanical outputs around the joints using inverse dynamics. A greater jumping height was obtained for the "All Muscles" model (0.386 m than for the "Extensors Only" model (0.301 m. For the "All Muscles" model, flexor muscles developed force in the beginning of the countermovement. For the "All Muscles" model, the sum of the work outputs from non-extensor muscles was 47.0 J, which was 13% of the total amount (359.9 J. The quantitative distribution of the work outputs from individual muscles was markedly different between these two models. Conclusion It was suggested that the contribution of non-extensor muscles in maximal-effort countermovement jumping is substantial. The use of a computer

  18. An unusual variety of the extensor digiti muscles: report with notes on repetition strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt Pires, Maria Alexandre; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas de Lemos, Luís; Godinho, Carlos Eduardo; Pais, Diogo; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    In over 500 human cadaveric dissections of arms and forearms, performed to the present date, we find frequent anatomical variations, corresponding to classic descriptions. Last year, we found a singular anatomic variation of the extensor muscles of the forearm, which seems previously undescribed. It is our strong belief that gross anatomy studies, and gross dissection should be updated and reintroduced in modern anatomical studies, for teaching, research, or surgical training purposes. We detected a peculiar anatomical variant of the Superficial Extensor Digiti Muscles in the forearm of a human 73 year old male Caucasian cadaver. We clearly identified a thick bundle of muscular fibres, connecting the main muscular shafts of the Extensor Digiti Minimi, and the Extensor Digitorum Communis Muscles, in a perfectly defined muscular expansion, bridging obliquely downwards and outwards, between the two main muscular shafts. In our series, this is the first occurrence of such anatomical disposition. Anatomical variations of the extensor tendons to the fingers are frequently detected in the wrist, hand and fingers compartments. The careful analysis of the variants of muscular shafts in the forearm compartment, as commonly reported in the earliest anatomical descriptions will bring renewed light to the functional assessment of the extensor mechanism of the human fingers. In this sense, we reviewed the oldest anatomical descriptions, from the 16th century to the present date.

  19. Muscle fibre types of the lumbrical, interossei, flexor, and extensor muscles moving the index finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fibre types of the muscles moving the index fingers in humans. Fifteen forearms of eight adult cadavers were used. The sampled muscles were the first lumbrical (LM), first volar interosseous (VI), first dorsal interosseus (DI), second flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), second flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and extensor digitorum (ED). Six micrometer thick sections were stained for fast muscle fibres. The procedure was performed by applying mouse monoclonal anti-skeletal myosin antibody (fast) and avidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining. Rectangular areas (0.38 mm × 0.38 mm) were photographed and the boundaries of the muscle areas were marked on the translucent film. The numbers and sizes of the muscle fibres in each part were evaluated by the image analyser program and calculated per unit area (1 mm(2)). The proportion of the fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.012) greater in the intrinsic muscles (55.7 ± 17.1%) than in the extrinsic muscles (45.9 ± 17.1%). Among the six muscles, the VI had a significantly higher portion (59.3%) of fast fibres than the FDS (40.6%) (p = 0.005) or the FDP (45.1%) (p = 0.023). The density of the non-fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.015) greater in the extrinsic muscles (539.2 ± 336.8/mm(2)) than in the intrinsic muscles (383.4 ± 230.4/mm2). Since the non-fast fibres represent less fatigable fibres, it is thought that the extrinsic muscles have higher durability against fatigue, and the intrinsic muscles, including the LM, should move faster than the FDS or FDP because the MP joint should be flexed before the IP joint to grip an object.

  20. Effect of visual display height on modelled upper and lower cervical gravitational moment, muscle capacity and relative strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, L; Skoss, R; Burnett, A; Burgess-Limerick, R

    2009-02-01

    Head and neck posture is an important factor in neck pain related to computer use; however, the evidence for an optimal posture is unconvincing. This study measured the 3-D postures of 36 young adults during use of three different display heights. Cervical extensor muscle strain was estimated using modelled gravitational load moments and muscle capacities. The influence of more or less upper vs. lower cervical movement was also explored across a broad range of potential postures. Overall cervical extensor muscle capacity diminished away from a neutral posture whilst gravity moment increased with flexion. Overall cervical extensor muscle strain increased with head flexion but remained stable into head extension. Individual differences in the amount of upper and lower cervical movement had an important effect on strain, particularly for some muscles. Computer display height guidelines are an important component of ergonomics practice, yet the relative strain on neck extensor muscles as a function of display height has not been examined. The current findings provide more detailed biomechanical evidence that ergonomists can incorporate with usability and other evidence to determine appropriate display height recommendations.

  1. Angle- and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, Danny M; Salfetnikov, Yuliya; Campy, Robert M; Coelho, Alan J

    2004-11-01

    The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0 degrees (terminal extension), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70 degrees, and 90 degrees flexion. Knee extensor peak torque (PT), and average torque (AT) were expressed in absolute (N m), relative (N m kg(-1)) and allometric-modeled (N m kg(-n)) units. Vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscle EMG signals were full-wave rectified and integrated over the middle 3 s of each contraction, averaged over the three trials at each knee angle, and normalized to the activity recorded at 0 degrees. Muscle recruitment efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the normalized EMG of each muscle to the allometric-modeled average torque (normalized to the values at 0 degrees flexion), and expressed as a percent. Men generated significantly greater knee extensor PT and AT than women in absolute, relative and allometric-modeled units. Absolute and relative PT and AT were significantly highest at 70 degrees, while allometric-modeled values were observed to increase significantly across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees. VM EMG was significantly greater than the VL and RF muscles across all angles, and followed a similar pattern to absolute knee extensor torque. Recruitment efficiency improved across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees and was highest for the VL muscle. VM recruitment efficiency improved more than the VL and RF muscles across 70-90 degrees flexion. The findings demonstrate angle-, and gender-specific responses of knee extensor torque to maximal-effort contractions, while superficial QF muscle recruitment was most efficient at 90 degrees, and less dependent on gender.

  2. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  3. Contribution of non-extensor muscles of the leg to maximal-effort countermovement jumping

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka Shinsuke; Komura Taku; Nagano Akinori; Fukashiro Senshi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of non-extensor muscles of the leg (i.e., muscles whose primary function is not leg extension) on the kinematics and kinetics of human maximal-effort countermovement jumping. Although it is difficult to address this type of question through experimental procedures, the methodology of computer simulation can be a powerful tool. Methods A skeletal model that has nine rigid body segments and twenty degrees of freedom was ...

  4. Isokinetic Evaluation of Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscle Strength in Behcet’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Durmus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet’s disease (BD is an idiopathic, multisystemic, progressive disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths of Behcet’s patients with that of healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-five (13 male and 12 female patients with BD and 25 (15 male and 10 female healthy individuals were included in the study. Velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec, and 150°/sec were used for the isokinetic muscle strength testing. Patients with active inflammatory knee arthritis were excluded. Peak torque (Nm and peak torque adjusted to body weight (% were taken into consideration for comparison between study groups. Results: Compared to healthy controls, there was a statistically significant decrease in both the bilateral knee extensor and flexor muscle isokinetic peak torques(Nm as well as the peak torques adjusted to body weight (% at velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec and 150°/sec in patients with BD (p < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio of the isokinetic peak torques of knee muscles between the two groups. Conclusion: In light of these findings, we have concluded that both knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths are lower in BD. We therefore recommend careful monitoring of patients with BD in terms of muscle strength.

  5. Myoelectric fatigue profiles of three knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, A; Lanfranco, F; Merletti, R; Minetto, M A

    2009-06-01

    Aims of the present study were to: 1) investigate the differences between the myoelectric fatigue profiles of the vasti muscles of the quadriceps during electrically evoked contractions; 2) compare the myoelectric fatigue profiles of the vasti muscles between sedentary subjects and rowers; 3) analyze motor unit activation order during stimulation of the vasti muscles. In nine sedentary subjects and nine rowers surface EMG signals were detected during electrically elicited contractions of the following three muscles: vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis longus (VML). M-waves were recorded as the muscles were stimulated with both variable (increasing-decreasing) and constant stimulation intensities. Changes in M-wave conduction velocity (CV) during trains with non-constant current were adopted for the study of the motor unit recruitment order. Rates of change of myoelectric signal variables were adopted to assess myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during stimulation trains with constant current. We found that: 1) VL muscle was more fatigable than vastus medialis muscles; 2) VL and VML muscles of rowers resulted less fatigable than sedentary subjects; and 3) in the three muscles, motor units tended to be recruited in order of increasing CV and derecruited in order of decreasing CV with increasing/decreasing stimulation current.

  6. Electromyographic analysis of the vertebral extensor muscles during the Biering-Sorensen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira de Santana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the electromyographic signal of the multifidus, longissimus thoracis and the lumbar iliocostalis muscles during the Biering-Sorensen test in subjects without lower back pain. Twenty volunteers performed the test on three separate occasions. An analysis of variance detected a difference between the three test times (p = 0.0026. For the frequency domain, it was observed that there were differences between the multifidus and the lumbar erectors muscles; longissimus and iliocostalis muscles. However, in the time domain analysis, no difference was observed. As the values of the slope coefficients of median frequencies were higher for the multifidus muscle, compared to the longissimus and lumbar iliocostalis muscles, this may indicate a higher tendency toward muscle fatigue. Therefore, considering the applied methodology, the study of electromyographic signals in the frequency domain should be considered as an instrument to assess fatigue of the spinal extensor muscles in clinical situations.

  7. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Resistance Training on Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantović, Milan; Popović, Boris; Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Jelena

    2015-07-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has recently drawn a lot of attention as means for strengthening of voluntary muscle contraction both in sport and rehabilitation. NMES training increases maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force output through neural adaptations. On the other hand, positive effects of resistance training (RT) on muscle strength are well known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a 5-week program of NMES compared to RT program of same duration. Sample of 15 students' of faculty of sport and physical education (age 22 ± 2) were randomized in two groups: NMES (N = 7) and RT (N = 8). NMES group performed NMES superimposed over voluntary muscle contraction, RT group performed resistance training with submaximal loads. Subjects were evaluated for knee isokinetic dynamometry on both sides (60° and 180° s). After intervention no significant difference between groups were observed in isokinetic dynamometry (p = 0.177). However, applying pair sample t test within each group revealed that peak torque increased in NMES-group (p = 0.002 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.003 for left, respectively, at 60° and p = 0.004 for left knee extensors muscles, at angular velocity 180°). In RT group (p = 0.033 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.029 for right knee flexor muscles, at angular velocity 60°). Our results indicate that NMES has equal potential if not in some way better than classical RT having in mind that overload on locomotor apparatus during NMES is minimal and force of muscle contraction is equal on both sides, for enhancement of knee muscles concentric peak torque.

  8. Strength improvement of knee extensor muscles in patients with chronic heart failure by neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittan, M; Sochor, A; Wiesinger, G F; Kollmitzer, J; Sturm, B; Pacher, R; Mayr, W

    1999-05-01

    Patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer from marked weakness of skeletal muscles. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) proved to be an alternative to active strength training. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of NMES in patients with chronic heart failure. Seven patients (56.0 +/- 5.0 years, CHF for 20 +/- 4 months, left ventricular ejection fraction 20.1 +/- 10.0%) finished an 8 week course of NMES of the knee extensor muscles. The stimulator delivered biphasic, symmetric, constant voltage impulses of 0.7 ms pulse width with a frequency of 50 Hz, 2 s on and 6 s off. No adverse effects occurred. After the stimulation period, the isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor muscles increased by 13% from 101.0 +/- 8.7 Nm to 113.5 +/- 7.2 Nm (p = 0.004). The maximal isometric strength increased by 20% from 294.3 +/- 19.6 N to 354.14 +/- 15.7 N (p = 0.04). This increased muscle strength could be maintained in a 20 min fatigue test indicating decreased muscle fatigue. These results demonstrate that NMES of skeletal muscles in patients with severe chronic heart failure is a promising method for strength training in this group of patients.

  9. Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Annette M; Nelson, Frank E; Roberts, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    The force-velocity properties of skeletal muscle have an important influence on locomotor performance. All skeletal muscles produce less force the faster they shorten and typically develop maximal power at velocities of approximately 30% of maximum shortening velocity (V(max)). We used direct measurements of muscle mechanical function in two ankle extensor muscles of wild turkeys to test the hypothesis that during level running muscles operate at velocities that favor force rather than power. Sonomicrometer measurements of muscle length, tendon strain-gauge measurements of muscle force, and bipolar electromyographs were taken as animals ran over a range of speeds and inclines. These measurements were integrated with previously measured values of muscle V(max) for these muscles to calculate relative shortening velocity (V/V(max)). At all speeds for level running the V/V(max) values of the lateral gastrocnemius and the peroneus longus were low (muscles were capable of producing 90% of peak isometric force but only 35% of peak isotonic power. V/V(max) increased in response to the demand for mechanical power with increases in running incline and decreased to negative values to absorb energy during downhill running. Measurements of integrated electromyograph activity indicated that the volume of muscle required to produce a given force increased from level to uphill running. This observation is consistent with the idea that V/V(max) is an important determinant of locomotor cost because it affects the volume of muscle that must be recruited to support body weight.

  10. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace.

  11. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  12. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  13. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzer, Isaac; Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50-100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors.

  14. Decreased task duration and unchanged trunk muscle activity in low-back pain patients during stair climbing after back extensor muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    2014-01-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a major problem. Spine control and stability mechanisms are important but the knowledge of these parameters in functions is sparse. 7 healthy / 5 recurrent mild-to-moderate LBP patients participated in assessment of abdominal, lumbar and gluteal muscles' surface EMG and video......- and abdominal muscle activity in healthy than in patients in most phases, but during descend transfer patients activity decreased. In LBP patients back extensor fatigue resulted in decreased muscular activity in the trunk muscles during stair stepping compared to healthy. Decreased duration of the motor tasks...... recording during 10 concurrent stair steps pre / post lumbar extensor muscle exhaustion. Duration of gait tasks were shorter in LBP patients generally and longer during load and shorter during transfer in descend stepping after back extensor fatigue. Back extensor fatigue resulted in higher back...

  15. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  16. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  17. Myoelectric Signals from Paretic Wrist Extensor Controlling Electrical Stimulation of the Same Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Thorsen; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1996-01-01

    A device for enhancement of the grip in C5/6 spinal cord lesioned tetraplegics is under development. It uses the myoelectric signal from the paretic wrist extensor for control of electrical stimulation of the same muscle. The tetraplegics shall with the device be able to obtain a passive grip...... between the thumb an the index finger by extension of the wrist. Surface electrodes are used for myoelectric recording and stimulation. Main problems are filtering of the recorded signal and stimulation. Solutions to these problems are addressed and discussed....

  18. Mechanics of cuticular elastic energy storage in leg joints lacking extensor muscles in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2003-02-01

    Certain leg joints in arachnids lack extensor muscles and have elastically deformable transarticular sclerites spanning their arthrodial membranes, an arrangement consistent with a model in which flexor muscles load transarticular sclerites during flexion and energy from elastic recoil is used for extension. This study quantifies the potential contribution of elastic recoil to extension torque at joints of the fourth leg of representative arachnids. Extension torques of isolated joints with and without transarticular sclerites were measured as the joint was rotated through angles and at angular velocities comparable with those used by walking animals. The procedure was repeated with the joint subjected to different internal fluid pressures in order to assess the potential role of hydraulically induced extension. The efficiency of elastic energy storage (resilience) in the absence of internal fluid pressure was 70-90% for joints with well-developed transarticular sclerites, and the magnitude of torque was similar to those produced by different joint extension mechanisms in other arthropods. Increased internal fluid pressure acted synergistically with transarticular sclerites in some joints but had little or no effect in others. Joints that lacked both extensor muscles and transarticular sclerites appeared to be specialized for hydraulic extension, and joints operated by antagonistic muscles lacked apparent specializations for either elastic or hydraulic extension. It is well known that elastic energy storage is a significant contributor to propulsion in running vertebrates and certain arthropods, where elastic elements are loaded as the center of mass falls during one phase of the locomotor cycle. However, transarticular sclerites are apparently loaded by contraction of flexor muscles when the leg is not in contact with the substratum. Hence the mechanism of a transarticular sclerite is more similar to the flight and jumping mechanisms of other arthropods than to

  19. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  20. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  1. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD, and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean.In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90 and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%. Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%. We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016.In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability.This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  2. Changes in the flexion-relaxation response induced by hip extensor and erector spinae muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP is defined by reduced lumbar erector spinae (ES muscle myoelectric activity during full trunk flexion. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of hip and back extensor muscle fatigue on FRP parameters and lumbopelvic kinematics. Methods Twenty-seven healthy adults performed flexion-extension tasks under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load, no fatigue/load, fatigue/no load, and fatigue/load. Total flexion angle corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence, hip flexion angle, lumbar flexion angle and maximal trunk flexion angle were compared across different experimental conditions by 2 × 2 (Load × Fatigue repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The angle corresponding to the ES onset of myoelectric silence was reduced after the fatigue task, and loading the spine decreased the lumbar contribution to motion compared to the hip during both flexion and extension. A relative increment of lumbar spine motion compared to pelvic motion was also observed in fatigue conditions. Conclusions Previous results suggested that ES muscles, in a state of fatigue, are unable to provide sufficient segmental stabilization. The present findings indicate that, changes in lumbar-stabilizing mechanisms in the presence of muscle fatigue seem to be caused by modulation of lumbopelvic kinematics.

  3. Spectral properties of myoelectric signals from different motor units in the leg extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, James M; Rozitis, Antra I

    2004-06-01

    Myoelectric signals measured using intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) in animals have shown that faster motor units generate higher frequencies in their power spectra. However, evidence to relate myoelectric frequency and motor unit type from the surface electromyograms typically measured from man have remained elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine if spectral properties from surface EMG could be related to the different motor units in the muscles of the leg extensors in man. Reflex experiments (both tendon tap and electrically stimulated) and graded isometric contractions were used to generate muscle contractions with different patterns of motor unit recruitment. EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis, rectus femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The EMGs were resolved into their intensities in time-frequency space using wavelet techniques. The intensity spectra were calculated for the reflex responses and for different contractile forces. The spectra were compared using principle component analyses and ANCOVA. Electrical stimulation can result in preferentially faster motor units being recruited, and in this study resulted in higher myoelectric frequencies than for the stretch reflex. During ramped contractions the motor units are recruited in an orderly fashion from slow to fast. As the faster motor units were recruited then higher frequency components appeared within the myoelectric intensity spectra. For all muscles tested there were significant correlations between the stage in contraction and the EMG frequency. Both approaches demonstrated higher frequency components in the myoelectric spectra when the faster motor units could be assumed to be active.

  4. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  5. Amylin evokes protein p20 phosphorylation and insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate effect of amylin on the insulin sensitivity of rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) using in vitro intact muscle incubation in combination with metabolic radioactive labeling. The molecular basis of the amylin action was further examined using proteomic analysis. In particular, proteins of interest were characterized using an integrated microcharacterization procedure that involved in-gel trypsin digestion, organic solvent extraction, high performance liquid chromatography separation, microsequencing and microsequence analysis. We found that amylin significantly decreased the insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen (p < 0.01) and produced a protein spot of approximately 20 ku in size. This amylin responsive protein (hereby designated as amylin responsive protein 1, APR1) was identified to be protein p20. Moreover, ARP1 spots on gels were found to consistently produce a corresponding radioactive spot on X-ray films in 32Pi but not in 35S-methionine labeling experiments. In conclusion, our results showed that in vitro amylin concomitantly evoked the production of ARP1 and caused insulin resistance in EDL muscle. It is suggested that protein p20 may be involved in amylin signal transduction and the appearance of ARP1 may be a step in a molecular pathway leading to the development of insulin resistance. ARP1 might therefore be a useful molecular marker for amylin action, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes.

  6. Effects of methylmercury on the motor and sensory innervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, R.K.; Riley, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    The histochemical study examined the effects of chronic methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication on the motor and sensory innervation of extensor digitorum longus muscles. Light microscopic examination of silver-stained axons in the intramuscular nerve bundles of MeHg-treated rats showed Wallerian-like degeneration and a reduction in the number of nerve fibers. Disrupted axons were predominantly sensory because 22.2% of spindle afferents (I/sub a/) and 90.0% of Golgi tendon organ (I/sub b/) sensory fibers were completely degenerated whereas less than 1% of motor ending were totally destroyed. Partial disruption occurred in the cholinesterase and motor terminals of 13.7% of endplates. Their results demonstrated greater vulnerability of sensory nerves than of motor nerves to MeHg-induced degeneration. Thus, the abnormal reflexes, ataxia, and muscle weakness following MeHg poisoning appear related to reduction of proprioceptive feedback from muscles and tendons irradiation to the documented lesions in the central nervous system.

  7. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.;

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle...

  8. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2-4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from -0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option.

  9. Improved knee extensor strength with resistance training associates with muscle specific miRNAs in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María L; Marsh, Anthony P; Leng, Iris; Nicklas, Barbara J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-02-01

    Regular exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is the only therapy known to consistently improve muscle strength and quality (force per unit of mass) in older persons, but there is considerable variability in responsiveness to training. Identifying sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of responsiveness to RT may inform the design of a more efficient exercise regimen to improve muscle strength in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We quantified six muscle specific miRNAs (miR-1, -133a, -133b, -206, -208b and -499) in both muscle tissue and blood plasma, and their relationship with knee extensor strength in seven older (age=70.5 ± 2.5 years) adults before and after 5 months of RT. MiRNAs differentially responded to RT; muscle miR-133b decreased, while all plasma miRNAs tended to increase. Percent changes in knee extensor strength with RT showed strong positive correlations with percent changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 and with percent changes in plasma and plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio. Baseline level of plasma or plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio further predicts muscle response to RT, while changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 may correlate with muscle TNNT1 gene alternative splicing in response to RT. Our results indicate that RT alters muscle specific miRNAs in muscle and plasma, and that these changes account for some of the variation in strength responses to RT in older adults.

  10. Changes in the activity of trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridge exercises with variations in unilateral knee joint angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juseung; Park, Minchul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared abdominal and hip extensor muscle activity during a bridge exercise with various knee joint angles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy male subjects performed a bridge exercise in which the knee joint angle was altered. While subjects performed the bridge exercise, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscle activity was measured using electromyography. [Results] The bilateral external and internal oblique muscle activity was significantly higher at 0° knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The bilateral gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly different at 0° of knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The ipsilateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly increased at 90° and 60° of knee flexion compared to 120°, and significantly decreased at 0° knee flexion compared with 120°, 90°, and 60°. The contralateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly higher at 60° of knee flexion than at 120°, and significantly higher at 0° of knee flexion than at 120°, 90°, and 60°. [Conclusion] Bridge exercises performed with knee flexion less than 90° may be used to train the ipsilateral semitendinosus. Furthermore, bridge exercise performed with one leg may be used to train abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:27799688

  11. Does dystonic muscle activity affect sense of effort in cervical dystonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carment, Loïc; Maier, Marc A.; Sangla, Sophie; Guiraud, Vincent; Mesure, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Focal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues. Methods Neck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-matching and force-maintaining tasks at 5% and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Three task conditions were tested: i) with visual force feedback, ii) without visual feedback (requiring use of sense of effort), iii) without visual feedback, but with neck extensor muscle vibration (modifying muscle afferent cues). Trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography (EMG). Results CD patients did not differ in task performance from healthy subjects when using visual feedback (ANOVA, p>0.7). In contrast, when relying on sense of effort cues (without visual feedback, 5% MVC), force control was impaired in patients without retrocollis (p = 0.006), but not in patients with retrocollis (p>0.2). Compared to controls, muscle vibration without visual feedback significantly affected performance in patients with retrocollis (p<0.001), but not in patients without retrocollis. Extensor EMG during rest, included as covariate in ANOVA, explained these group differences. Conclusion This study shows that muscle afferent feedback biases sense of effort cues when controlling neck forces in patients with CD. The bias acts on peripheral or central sense of effort cues depending on whether the task involves dystonic muscles. This may explain why patients with retrocollis more accurately matched isometric neck extension forces. This highlights the need to consider clinical features (pattern of dystonic muscles) when evaluating sensorimotor integration in CD. PMID:28192488

  12. Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption in the knee extensor muscles during isometric contractions by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kek, Khai Jun; Miyakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we showed that exercise type- and intensity-dependent regional differences in muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption rate (Vo II) of the knee extensor muscles could be imaged in real time with a multi-channel spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) imaging device. Healthy subjects performed isometric knee extension exercise for 30 s (without- or with-leg-press action) at different exercise intensities [10%, 40% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)]. "Separation-type" probes were attached to the skin over the major knee extensor muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM). Placement of the probes enabled simultaneously measurement of 12 sites over a skin area of about 30 cm2 (temporal resolution = 0.25 s). Local Vo II of each muscle, resting Vo II (Vo II, rest) and recovery Vo II (Vo II, rec ), were determined with arterial occlusion before the start and after the end of contraction, respectively. There was no significant difference between the values of Vo II rest, in the muscles. However, during knee extension exercise without-leg-press action, Vo II rec, value of the RF was significantly greater than the values of the VL and VM at all exercise intensities. In contrast, during exercise with-leg-press action, Vo II rec, values of the RF and VM were greater than those of the VL, especially during exercise at 40% and 70% MVC. In summary, the regional differences in muscle oxygenation and Vo II of the knee extensor muscles, probably due to the differences in relative contributions of muscles to exercise and in muscle architecture, were imaged using SR-NIRS.

  13. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the knee extensor muscles on muscle soreness and different serum parameters in young male athletes: preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Carina; Szekeres, Thomas; Keilani, Mohammad; Fialka‐Moser, Veronika; Crevenna, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle soreness and on a variety of serum parameters during and after NMES of knee extensor muscles of young, well trained subjects over a study period of 96 h. Methods Five male cyclists were included in this clinical observation. NMES (biphasic, asymmetric impulses) was applied through surface electrodes to both knee extensor muscles of each subject for 30 min. To determine changes in serum concentration of muscle proteins, blood samples were drawn at defined measure points before and after NMES. Muscle soreness was evaluated using a visual analogue scale at all measure points. Results There was a maximum (p<0.05) for “muscle pain” during stimulation but no significant changes could be detected after the stimulation period. Serum creatine kinase showed a peak with a significant increase (p<0.05) 24 h after NMES. Serum lactate levels only increased slightly (p = 0.08) during NMES. Conclusions Although the changes of blood parameters measured in the present work correspond to those reported in the literature on eccentric strength training, no delayed onset muscle pain could be detected. Further studies should be carried out, also investigating different stimulation protocols in non‐trained healthy subjects and in patients with less muscle mass. PMID:18037643

  14. Descending control of muscles in patients with cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Munchau, A; Marsden, JF; Lees, A; Bhatia, KP; Brown, P

    2002-01-01

    It was reported recently that specific features in the frequency analysis of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius (SPL) muscles were able to distinguish between rotational idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) and voluntary torticollis in individual subjects. Th

  15. Reduced rate of knee extensor torque development in older adults with knee osteoarthritis is associated with intrinsic muscle contractile deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Damien M; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James R; Ades, Philip A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer; Beynnon, Bruce D; Toth, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of knee osteoarthritis on the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensors in older adults with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA; n=15) and recreationally-active controls (n=15) of similar age, sex and health status, as well as the relationship between RTD and the size and contractility of single muscle fibers. OA participants had lower RTD when expressed in absolute terms (Nm/ms). There were sex differences in peak RTD (Ptorque (PT). In knee OA volunteers, we found strong correlations between the RTD expressed relative to PT and the velocity of contraction of single myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA/X muscle fibers (r=0.652 and 0.862; both Pknee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults is related, in part, to the size and function of single muscle fibers.

  16. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: People with meniscal tears are at high risk to develop or progress knee osteoarthritis. Knee extensor weakness is considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and is often reported in these individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate knee exte...

  17. Linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel mechanomyographic recordings reveal heterogeneous activation of wrist extensors in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (P<0.01). The ARVs were higher while the %REC and %DET were lower in presence of muscle soreness compared with before exercise (P<0.05). The study provides new key information on linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel MMG recordings of the wrist extensor muscles following eccentric exercise that results in muscle soreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness.

  18. Sensitivity of dynamic simulations of gait and dynamometer experiments to hill muscle model parameters of knee flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, F; Van Campen, A; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2010-07-20

    We assessed and compared sensitivities of dynamic simulations to musculotendon (MT) parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments. Our aim with this comparison was to investigate whether dynamometer experiments could provide information about MT-parameters that are important to reliably study MT-function during gait. This would mean that dynamometer experiments could be used to estimate these parameters. Muscle contribution to the joint torque (MT-torque) rather than relative MT-force primarily affects the resulting gait pattern and torque measured by the dynamometer. In contrast to recent studies, therefore, we assessed the sensitivity of the MT-torque, rather than the sensitivity of the relative MT-force. Based on sensitivity of the MT-torque to a parameter perturbation, MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors were classified in three categories: low, medium, and high. For gait, classification was based on the average sensitivity during a gait cycle. For isometric and isokinetic dynamometer experiments, classification was based on the highest sensitivity found in the experiments. The calculated muscle contributions to the knee torque during gait and dynamometer experiments had a high sensitivity to only a limited number of MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors, suggesting that not all MT-parameters need to be estimated. In general, the highest sensitivity was found for tendon slack length. However, for some muscles the sensitivity to the optimal fibre length or the maximal isometric muscle force was also high or medium. The classification of the individual MT-parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments was largely similar. We therefore conclude that dynamometer experiments provide information about MT-parameters important to reliably study MT-function during gait, so that subject-specific estimates of MT-parameters could be made based on dynamometer experiments.

  19. Eccentric wrist extensor contractions and the force velocity relationship in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, R P; Pearson, N; Stymiest, P

    1986-01-01

    The torque produced by the wrist extensors during maximal isometric and isokinetic eccentric contractions has been investigated. The torque produced by eccentric contractions was measured at three different velocities: 0.36, 0.93, and 1.64 cmlsec. The speeds of contraction were generated by a specially designed apparatus, consisting of a gear drive and an electric motor that would maintain its speed irrespective of the load applied. Tenison produced by the wrist extensors was measured using a load cell. The results indicated that eccentric contractions of the wrist extensors exceed those produced by isometric contractions. The force-velocity relationship during eccentric contractions was determined to be different from that during concentric contractions. Force values were found to increase as the velocity of eccentric contraction increased. No signficant effect of wrist joint angle on torque values was found, nor was there an interaction effect of velocity and joint angle. The implications for rehabilitation of these findings are outlined. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(6):288-293.

  20. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  1. Isokinetic and isometric muscle function of the knee extensors and flexors during simulated soccer activity: effect of exercise and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; Williams, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of dehydration during soccer-type intermittent exercise on isokinetic and isometric muscle function. Eight soccer players performed two 90-min high-intensity intermittent shuttle-running trials without (NF) or with (FL) fluid ingestion (5 ml · kg(-1) before and 2 ml · kg(-1) every 15 min). Isokinetic and isometric strength and muscular power of knee flexors and knee extensors were measured pre-exercise, at half-time and post-exercise using isokinetic dynamometry. Sprint performance was monitored throughout the simulated-soccer exercise. Isokinetic knee strength was reduced at faster (3.13 rad · s(-1); P = 0.009) but not slower (1.05 rad · s(-1); P = 0.063) contraction speeds with exercise; however, there was no difference between FL and NF. Peak isometric strength of the knee extensors (P = 0.002) but not the knee flexors (P = 0.065) was significantly reduced with exercise with no difference between FL and NF. Average muscular power was reduced over time at both 1.05 rad · s(-1) (P = 0.01) and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (P = 0.033) but was not different between FL and NF. Mean 15-m sprint time increased with duration of exercise (P = 0.005) but was not different between FL and NF. In summary, fluid ingestion during 90 min of soccer-type exercise was unable to offset the reduction in isokinetic and isometric strength and muscular power of the knee extensors and flexors.

  2. Improved identification of dystonic cervical muscles via abnormal muscle activity during isometric contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E.; Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Forbes, P. A.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; van der Helm, F. C. T.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Happee, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dy

  3. Improved identification of dystonic cervical muscles via abnormal muscle activity during isometric contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; van der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dy

  4. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    ón anatómica del nervio radial con el pedículo del ECRL hace que no sea posible su transferencia como colgajo libre sin sacrificar la rama motora del nervio radial en la mayor parte de los casos.The arterial anatomy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis (ECRL, ECRB flaps is herein described in order to provide the vascular basis to be used as free muscle transfer for facial reanimation. We used 29 fresh above-elbow human arms injected by means of two diferent techniques.Latex-injection was performed in 18 arms and the modified lead oxide-gelatine injection technique was performed in 11 arms. The ECRL and ECRB with their pedicles were dissected, photodocumented and radiographied.The number, length and calibers of the muscle pedicles were recorded. The intramuscular vascular pattern and the relations of the main pedicles of the muscles with the radial nerve were also noted. Two vascular patterns were found following the Mathes and Nahai Classification of the Vascular Anatomy of the Muscles (number of pedicles and its dominance: Type I (37,9% of ECRL and 20,7% of ECRB dissections and Type II (62,1% of ECRL and 79,3% of ECRB dissections. The dominant pedicle for the ECRL (with an average caliber of 1,73 mm and an average length of pedicle of 32,32 mm is a branch of the radial recurrent artery in 100% of the dissections and the dominant pedicle for the ECRB (with an average caliber of 1,11 mm and an average length of pedicle of 27,77 mm a branch of the radial artery in 68,9% of the dissections and a branch of radial recurrent artery in 31,1% of the cases. As a conclusion, ECRL and ECRB muscle flaps present two types of vascular patterns: type I and type II.Type II pattern is the most common in our study. The anatomical features of both muscles (vascular basis,presence of an important fascial layer, contour and length of the muscle, make them reliable as free muscles flaps for facial reanimation, however, the relation between the dominant pedicle for the ECRL

  5. Activation amplitude and temporal synchrony among back extensor and abdominal muscles during a controlled transfer task: comparison of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Butler, Heather L; Kozey, John W

    2012-08-01

    Muscle synergies are important for spinal stability, but few studies examine temporal responses of spinal muscles to dynamic perturbations. This study examined activation amplitudes and temporal synergies among compartments of the back extensor and among abdominal wall muscles in response to dynamic bidirectional moments of force. We further examined whether responses were different between men and women. 19 women and 18 men performed a controlled transfer task. Surface electromyograms from bilateral sites over 6 back extensor compartments and 6 abdominal wall muscle sites were analyzed using principal component analysis. Key features were extracted from the measured electromyographic waveforms capturing amplitude and temporal variations among muscle sites. Three features explained 97% of the variance. Scores for each feature were computed for each measured waveform and analysis of variance found significant (pmuscle main effects and a sex by muscle interaction. For the back extensors, post hoc analysis revealed that upper and more medial sites were recruited to higher amplitudes, medial sites responded to flexion moments, and the more lateral sites responded to lateral flexion moments. Women had more differences among muscle sites than men for the lateral flexion moment feature. For the abdominal wall muscles the oblique muscles responded with synergies related to fiber orientation, with women having higher amplitudes and more responsiveness to the lateral flexion moment than men. Synergies between the abdominal and back extensor sites as the moment demands change are discussed. These findings illustrate differential activation among erector spinae compartments and abdominal wall muscle sites supporting a highly organized pattern of response to bidirectional external moments with asynchronies more apparent in women.

  6. Less indication of muscle damage in the second than initial electrical muscle stimulation bout consisting of isometric contractions of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Jubeau, Marc; McGuigan, Michael R; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the first and second exercise bouts consisting of electrically evoked isometric contractions for muscle damage profile. Nine healthy men (31 +/- 4 years) had two electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) bouts separated by 2 weeks. The knee extensors of one leg were stimulated by biphasic rectangular pulses (75 Hz, 400 mus, on-off ratio 5-15 s) at the knee joint angle of 100 degrees (0 degrees , full extension) to induce 40 isometric contractions, while the current amplitude was increased to maintain maximal force generation. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors at 100 degrees , muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were used as indirect markers of muscle damage, and measured before and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after EMS bout, and the changes over time were compared between bouts. The torque produced during exercise was approximately 30% of MVC, and no significant difference between bouts was evident for the changes in peak and average torque over 40 contractions. MVC decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26% immediately and 1 h after both bouts, but the recovery was significantly (P < 0.05) faster after the second bout (100% at 96 h) compared with the first bout (81% at 96 h). Development of muscle soreness and tenderness, and increases in plasma CK activity were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller after the second than the first bout. These results show that changes in muscle damage markers were attenuated in the second EMS bout compared with the initial EMS bout.

  7. Twitch potentiation induced by stimulated and voluntary isometric contractions at various torque levels in human knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of twitch potentiation (TP) after stimulated or voluntary contractions at identical intensities for the human knee extensor muscles. Isometric knee extensions of 10 s were performed at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque level, through percutaneous electrical stimulation of the quadriceps at 80 Hz or voluntary contraction. Twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve percutaneously with supramaximal intensity. The extent of TP after the stimulated contraction was greater than that after the voluntary contraction at the 20% MVC torque level, whereas a stimulated contraction induced a smaller extent of TP than did a voluntary contraction at contraction intensities higher than 40% MVC. We suggest that this contraction intensity dependence of differences in TP after stimulated and voluntary isometric conditioning contractions is responsible for differences in the recruitment pattern of motor units during the conditioning contractions.

  8. Low-intensity eccentric contractions attenuate muscle damage induced by subsequent maximal eccentric exercise of the knee extensors in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kou-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated whether low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors would attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise of the same muscle performed 7 days later using elderly individuals. Healthy older men (66.4 ± 4.6 years) were assigned to control or experimental (Exp) group (n = 13 per group). The control group performed six sets of ten maximal eccentric contractions (MaxECC) of the knee extensors of non-dominant leg. The Exp group performed six sets of ten low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors on a leg extension machine by lowering a weight of 10 % maximal voluntary isometric knee extension strength (10 %ECC) 7 days prior to MaxECC. Changes in maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque (MVC-CON), angle at peak torque, range of motion (ROM), upper thigh circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration and B-mode ultrasound echo-intensity before and for 5 days after MaxECC were compared between groups by a mixed factor ANOVA. No significant changes in any variables were observed following 10 %ECC. Following MaxECC, all variables changed significantly, and changes in all variables except for angle at peak torque were significantly different between groups. MVC-CON and ROM decreased smaller and recovered faster (P eccentric contractions was effective for attenuating muscle damage induced by subsequent MaxECC of the knee extensors for elderly individuals.

  9. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  10. Descending control of muscles in patients with cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Marina A J; Münchau, Alex; Marsden, John F; Lees, Andrew; Bhatia, Kailash P; Brown, Peter

    2002-05-01

    It was reported recently that specific features in the frequency analysis of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius (SPL) muscles were able to distinguish between rotational idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) and voluntary torticollis in individual subjects. Those with CD showed an abnormal drive to muscles at 5 to 7 Hz and an absence of the normal 10 to 12 Hz peak in the autospectrum of SPL. We sought to determine whether the same abnormalities in the frequency domain are found in complex CD, in which the head is displaced in more than two planes. EMG activity was recorded in the SCM, SPL, trapezius, and levator scapulae muscles bilaterally in 10 patients with complex CD. Frequency analysis of EMG was compared with conventional clinical and polymyographic assessment. The autospectrum of SPL during free dystonic contraction showed an absence of a significant peak at 10 to 12 Hz in 8 of the 10 patients. The presence of a 5 to 7 Hz frequency drive showed a significant association with muscle pairs determined as dystonic by means of polymyography (P analysis correlated, suggesting that a low-frequency drive to neck muscle may be a general feature of simple rotational and more complex cervical dystonia. The pattern of coherence between the EMG in different neck muscles may provide a means of identifying leading dystonic muscles, especially in patients with complex cervical dystonia.

  11. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods: A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results: A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82. Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07. However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82 were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions: Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  12. The histochemical profile of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle differentiates after birth and dedifferentiates in senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Age dependent motor unit dedifferentiation is a key component of impaired muscle function in advanced age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat muscle histochemical profile during the lifespan of an individual has an age-specific pattern since comprehensive longitudinal studies of muscle differentiation after birth and dedifferentiation in advanced age are scarce. Our results show that extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL is comprised only of two fiber types after birth, type slow-oxidative (SO and type SDH-intermediate (SDHINT, the latter being indicative for the presence of polyneuronal innervation. In contrast to the constantly growing crosssectional area of the muscle fibers, a dramatic decrease in SDH-INT proportion occurs between day 14 and 21 after birth resulting in a complete loss of fiber type SDH-INT at the age of 90 days (p<0.05. At the age of 270 days, the fiber type composition of rat EDL dedifferentiates as shown by the reappearance of the SDH-INT type with a further increase at the age of 540 days (p<0.05. These changes in histochemical fiber type spectra are brought about by fiber type conversion within the fast twich fibers. The findings of the present study provide further evidence that fiber type conversion is a basic mechanism leading to motor unit differentiation and dedifferentiation during ontogenesis. Fiber type conversion shows a distinct time specific pattern and is also characteristic for motor unit regeneration after peripheral nerve repair. Factors that influence fiber type conversion and thereby motor unit organization may provide a future therapeutic option to enhance the regenerative capacity of motor units.

  13. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    to a substantial increase in net muscle protein degradation, and that a lowering of the starting muscle glycogen content leads to a further increase. The carbon atoms of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamate, aspartate and asparagine, liberated by protein degradation, and the BCAA and glutamate...

  14. Relationship between muscle volume and contractile properties of the human knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Brown, Niklas; Bollinger, Robert; Bubeck, Dieter; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Zschorlich, Volker; Bruhn, Sven; Alt, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between volume and electrically evoked twitch properties of the quadriceps muscle. Supramaximal single and doublet stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to assess contractile properties at 45° and 80° knee flexion. Muscle volume was measured using a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Quadriceps muscle volume was only significantly correlated (r = 0.629) with peak twitch torque induced by doublet stimulation at 80° but not at 45° knee flexion.

  15. Task-dependent activity of motor unit populations in feline ankle extensor muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodson-Tole, E.F.; Pantall, A.; Maas, H.; Farrell, B.J.; Gregor, R.J.; Prilutsky, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functional significance of the morphological diversity of ammalian skeletal muscles is limited by technical difficulties of estimating the contribution of motor units with different properties to unconstrained motor behaviours. Recently developed wavelet and principal components an

  16. ALTERATION OF MUSCLE FUNCTION AFTER ELECTRICAL STIMULATION BOUT OF KNEE EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vanderthommen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10 received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES. Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS, muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex as well as 24h (d+1, 48h (d+2 and 120h (d+5 after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10 were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex; hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex; hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex; CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex. The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles

  17. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  18. Effects of Constant and Doublet Frequency Electrical Stimulation Patterns on Force Production of Knee Extensor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometti, Carole; Babault, Nicolas; Deley, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    This study compared knee extensors' neuromuscular fatigue in response to two 30-minute stimulation patterns: constant frequency train (CFT) and doublet frequency train (DFT). Fifteen men underwent two separate sessions corresponding to each pattern. Measurements included torque evoked by each contraction and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) measured before and immediately after the stimulation sessions. In addition, activation level and torque evoked during doublets (Pd) and tetanic contractions at 80-Hz (P80) and 20-Hz (P20) were determined in six subjects. Results indicated greater mean torque during the DFT stimulation session as compared with CFT. But, no difference was obtained between the two stimulation patterns for MVC and evoked torque decreases. Measurements conducted in the subgroup depicted a significant reduction of Pd, P20 and P80. Statistical analyses also revealed bigger P20 immediate reductions after CFT than after DFT. We concluded that DFT could be a useful stimulation pattern to produce and maintain greater force with quite similar fatigue than CFT.

  19. Effects of Constant and Doublet Frequency Electrical Stimulation Patterns on Force Production of Knee Extensor Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cometti

    Full Text Available This study compared knee extensors' neuromuscular fatigue in response to two 30-minute stimulation patterns: constant frequency train (CFT and doublet frequency train (DFT. Fifteen men underwent two separate sessions corresponding to each pattern. Measurements included torque evoked by each contraction and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC measured before and immediately after the stimulation sessions. In addition, activation level and torque evoked during doublets (Pd and tetanic contractions at 80-Hz (P80 and 20-Hz (P20 were determined in six subjects. Results indicated greater mean torque during the DFT stimulation session as compared with CFT. But, no difference was obtained between the two stimulation patterns for MVC and evoked torque decreases. Measurements conducted in the subgroup depicted a significant reduction of Pd, P20 and P80. Statistical analyses also revealed bigger P20 immediate reductions after CFT than after DFT. We concluded that DFT could be a useful stimulation pattern to produce and maintain greater force with quite similar fatigue than CFT.

  20. A unilateral open door laminoplasty technique: prospective analysis of the relationship between midline extensor muscle preservation and postoperative neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hoon; Jeong, Eui-Kyun; Lee, Moon Kyu; Chul Rhim, Seung; Roh, Sung Woo; Kim, Jeoung Hee; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2015-02-01

    Since laminoplasty was first introduced, several techniques have been developed to reduce postoperative neck pain and progressive kyphosis following this procedure. We describe the importance of deep muscle preservation to prevent postoperative neck pain following cervical posterior surgery, using the inter-muscular plane. We performed cervical laminoplasty on 10 patients from March to July 2012. The mean follow-up duration was 14.6 (range 12-18) months, and the mean age was 58.8 (48-68) years. There were eight men and two women in the study cohort, which consisted of eight cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and two cases of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and neck disability index (NDI) score were assessed before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The numeric rating scale (NRS) for neck pain was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. CT scan was performed immediately after the operation, and a radiograph was performed preoperatively and during the follow-up evaluation at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The preoperative JOA and NDI scores improved in all patients. Although there were two patients who complained of moderate postoperative neck pain (NRS 4 and 5), their condition gradually improved. Seven patients had mild or no neck pain (below NRS 3) at the 12 month follow-up. In addition, the cervical alignment was well maintained in all but one patient. Although larger prospective cohorts, longer follow-up periods, and comparative analyses are still needed, the clinical and radiological outcomes observed in the short 12 month period in this small cohort are promising.

  1. Bifurcated Bicipital Aponeurosis Giving Origin to Flexor and Extensor Muscles of the Forearm - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Swamy, Ravindra S; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Maloor, Prasad A; Dsouza, Melanie R

    2016-02-01

    Bicipital aponeurosis is usually attached to the antebrachial fascia on the medial side of forearm and to posterior border of ulna assisting in the supination of the forearm along with biceps brachii muscle. Variations in the bicipital aponeurosis may lead to neurovascular compression as reported earlier. In the present case, the bicipital aponeurosis had two slips i.e. medial and lateral. Medial slip gave origin to some fibers of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis and the lateral slip gave origin to some fibers of brachioradialis. Such unusual slips of bicipital aponeurosis may distribute the stress concentration and may work in different directions affecting the supination of forearm by biceps brachii muscle and bicipital aponeurosis.

  2. Corticospinal excitability of the ankle extensor muscles is enhanced in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Sakiko; Obata, Hiroki; Endoh, Takashi; Kuno-Mizumura, Mayumi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2014-09-01

    We tested the corticospinal excitability of the soleus muscle in ballet dancers to clarify whether the presumed long-term repetition of the specific plantarflexion results in changes of excitability in this neural pathway. We compared motor evoked potentials of the soleus muscle at rest and during isometric contraction of the plantar flexors in dancers and non-dancers. The amplitudes of motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation during contraction were examined against the background electromyographic activity. A regression line was calculated for each subject. Results showed that the slope of the regression line is significantly greater in the dancer group than in the control group, suggesting that the corticospinal tract of ballet dancers has adapted to long-term repetition of plantarflexion in daily ballet training.

  3. Cervical neuro-muscular syndrome: discovery of a new disease group caused by abnormalities in the cervical muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takayoshi; Ii, Kunio; Hojo, Shuntaro; Sano, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study of whiplash injury found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause autonomic dystonia. Further research has found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause headache, chronic fatigue syndrome, vertigo, and dizziness. We named this group of diseases cervical neuro-muscular syndrome. Patients treated within a 2-year period from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2004 reported good outcomes in 83.8% for headache, 88.4% for vertigo and dizziness, 84.5% for chronic fatigue syndrome, 88.0% for autonomic dystonia, and 83.7% for whiplash-associated disorder. A large number of outpatients present with general malaise, including many general physical complaints without identifiable cause. We propose that treatment of the cervical muscle is effective for general malaise.

  4. Relationship between the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the Biomechanical Measure in Assessing Knee Extensor Muscle Spasticity in Patients with Post-Stroke Hemiparesia:A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nakhostin Ansari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS is a clinical meas-ure that has been recently developed for the assessment of muscle spasticity. There is a dearth of research on the validity of the MMAS. The aim of the present study was to investi-gate the relationship between the MMAS and the biomechanical measure of work-velocity slope in assessing knee extensor muscle spasticity in patients with hemiparesia. Materials & Methods: Fourteen patients with post-stroke hemiparesia were included in this cross sectional study. Knee extensor spasticity was assessed with MMAS. An isokinetic dy-namometer was used to impose knee passive flexion with the angular velocity of 10, 30, 60, and 90 °/Sec to measure Torque-angle data. Work (Joule was calculated at each velocity to determine the slope of the work-velocity curves as the biomechanical measure of muscle spasticity. Results: The mean work decreased as the velocity increased but was not statistically signifi-cant (P = 0.07. The mean slope was – 0.35 [J /(°/Sec]. There was no significant correlation between the MMAS and the work-velocity slope (r =0.31, P = 0.28. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the MMAS and the biomechanical measure of work-velocity slope. Further studies with larger sample size are suggested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2: 131-136

  5. Local Muscle Fatigue and 3D Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Pippig, Torsten; Wall, Rudolf; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to further explore the effects of local muscle fatigue on cervical 3D kinematics and the interrelationship between these kinematic characteristics and local muscle endurance capacity in the unimpaired cervical spine. Twenty healthy subjects (38 ± 10 years; 5 women) performed 2 × 10 maximal cervical flexion-extension movements. Isometric muscle endurance tests (prone/supine lying) were applied between sets to induce local muscle fatigue quantified by Borg scale rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and slope in mean power frequency (MPF; surface electromyography; m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. splenius capitis). Cervical motion characteristics (maximal range of motion [ROM], coefficient of variation of the 10 repetitive movements, mean angular velocity, conjunct movements in transversal and frontal plane) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic movement data. Average isometric strength testing duration for flexion and extension correlated to the cervical ROM (r = .49/r = .48; p parameter following local muscle fatigue (p > .05). Although subjects' cervical muscle endurance capacity and motor output seems to be conjugated, no impact of local cervical muscle fatigue on motor function was shown. These findings underline the importance of complementary measures to address muscular performance and kinematic characteristics in outcome assessment and functional rehabilitation of the cervical spine.

  6. Changes in the Capillarity of the Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle 4 Weeks after Nerve Injury Studied by 2D Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čebašek, Vita; Ribarič, Samo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown by 3D study that 2 weeks after nerve injury there was no change in the length of capillaries per muscle fibre length in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The primary goal of the present 2D study was to determine the capillarity of rat EDL 4 weeks after various modes of nerve injury. Additionally, we wished to calculate the same capillary/fibre parameters that were used in our 3D stereological study. EDL muscles derived from denervated (4 weeks after nerve injury), re-innervated (4 weeks after two successive nerve crushes) and age-matched controls from the beginning (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment were analysed in two ways. Global indices of capillarity, such as capillary density (CD) and capillary/fibre (C/F) ratio, were determined by automatic analysis, local indices as the number (CAF) and the length of capillaries around individual muscle fibres (Lcap) in relation to muscle fibre size were estimated manually by tracing the muscle fibre outlines and the transversally and longitudinally cut segments of capillaries seen in 5-µm-thin muscle cross sections. Four weeks after both types of nerve injury, CD increased in comparison to the CON-2 group (p value to the adapted 2D method used in this study.

  7. Effects of different methods of antagonist muscles pre-activation on knee extensors neuromuscular responses Efeitos da ordem de pré-ativação dos músculos antagonistas nas respostas neuromusculares dos extensores do joelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Carregaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre-activation of antagonistic muscles is used in different modalities of exercise and neuromuscular rehabilitation protocols, but its effectiveness is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To verify the impact of two different methods of pre-activation of knee antagonist muscles in the neuromuscular performance and electromyographic activity of knee extensors. METHODS: Fifteen healthy men (23.9±4.2 years of age, 1.78±0.08 meters and 81.4±10.7 kg performed, on different days, two protocols of isokinetic muscle contraction with 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 60°.s-1 and 1 minute between sets: (1 Reciprocal Contraction (RC: reciprocal concentric exercise of agonist/antagonist muscles (knee flexion [KF] immediately followed by knee extension [KE] and (2 Superset (SS: alternated concentric exercise of agonist/antagonist muscles (KF set followed by a set of KE. A repeated measures ANOVA with least-significant difference post-hoc test was used to detect differences between protocols. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between protocols (p>0.05 for peak torque (PT and total work (Tw. On the SS protocol there was a significant decrease in Tw on the last two sets (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas é utilizada em diferentes modalidades de exercício e em diferentes protocolos de reabilitação neuromuscular, porém suas respostas ainda são controversas. OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto de duas diferentes estratégias de pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas no desempenho neuromuscular e na atividade eletromiográfica dos extensores do joelho. MÉTODOS: Quinze homens sadios (23,9±4,2 anos; 1,78±0,08 m e 81,4±10,7 kg realizaram, em dias distintos, dois protocolos de ações musculares isocinéticas com quatro séries de dez repetições a 60°.s-1 e intervalo de 1 minuto entre séries: 1 contração recíproca (CR: exercício concêntrico recíproco de antagonistas/agonistas (uma repetição de flex

  8. A Comparison of Total and Intrinsic Muscle Stiffness Among Flexors and Extensors of the Ankle, Knee and Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined 3 methods that assessed muscle stiffness. Muscle stiffness has been quantified by tissue reactive force (transverse stiffness), vibration, and force (or torque) over displacement. Muscle stiffness also has two components: reflex (due to muscle sensor activity) and intrinsic (tonic firing of motor units, elastic nature of actin and myosin cross bridges, and connective tissue). This study compared three methods of measuring muscle stiffness of agonist-antagonist muscle pairs of the ankle, knee and elbow.

  9. The susceptibility of the knee extensors to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is not affected by leg dominance but by exercise order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, Pexercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs.

  10. Análise eletromiográfica e força do grupo muscular extensor do punho durante isquemia induzida Electromyographic analysis and strength of the wrist extensor muscle group during induced ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCA Bandeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da isquemia induzida sobre os parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico e a força do grupo muscular extensor do punho (GMEP em mulheres saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Participaram 13 voluntárias, destras, sedentárias, com idade de 23,38±2,32 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC de 20,68±1,87kg/m². Para determinar a força do GMEP, foram realizadas 3 contrações isométricas voluntárias máximas (CIVM, utilizando-se uma célula de carga por 15 segundos, com intervalos de 2 minutos entre cada contração, sendo todo procedimento repetido por 3 dias não consecutivos. A isquemia foi realizada por 5 minutos, utilizando um esfigmomanômetro posicionado no braço dominante e inflado até a ausência do fluxo sanguíneo, confirmada pelo ultrassom Doppler. Para coleta do sinal eletromiográfico do GMEP, utilizou-se o equipamento EMG1000 (Lynx® com eletrodo de superfície diferencial (Lynx®. Foram coletadas 3 CIVM por 15 segundos, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre elas, nas situações de pré-isquemia; isquemia; pós-isquemia imediata (pós-1 e pós-isquemia tardia (pós-2 - após 10 minutos do início da isquemia. Para análise dos parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico, root mean square (RMS, e frequência mediana do espectro de potência do sinal foi utilizado o software MATLAB 6.5.1. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Friedman e ANOVA two-way. RESULTADOS: A isquemia promoveu redução significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of induced ischemia on the parameters of electromyographic signals and the strength of the wrist extensor muscle group (WEMG in healthy women. METHODS: Thirteen right-handed sedentary subjects aged 23.38±2.32 years old, with body mass index (BMI of 20.68±1.87kg/m², took part. To determine WEMG strength, three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were performed using a load cell for 15 seconds, with 2 minutes intervals between contractions. The entire

  11. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (Pknee joint OA.

  12. Muscle selection for treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Kamphuis, D. J.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cervical dystonia, also called spasmodic torticollis, is the most common form of (primary) dystonia. Intramuscular injections with botulinum toxin are the first line of treatment for cervical dystonia. To optimise the treatment response to botulinum toxin correct muscles should be selecte

  13. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. The following muscles were assessed: the right upper trapezius (RtUT), left upper trapezius (LtUT), right cervical erector spinae (RtCES), and left cervical erector spinae (LtCES). A cervical range of motion instrument was attached to the subjects' heads to measure the cervical angle during the experiment. [Results] The RtUT and LtUT showed the highest muscle fatigue at a cervical flexion angle of 50° and the lowest fatigue at an angle of 30°. There was no significant difference in the muscle fatigue of the RtCES and LtCES at any of the cervical flexion angles. [Conclusion] UT muscle fatigue depends on the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone.

  14. Management of Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are very common injuries, which inappropriately treated can cause severe lasting impairment for the patient. Assessment and management of flexor tendon injuries has been widely reviewed, unlike extensor injuries. It is clear from the literature that extensor tendon repair should be undertaken immediately but the exact approach depends on the extensor zone. Zone I injuries otherwise known as mallet injuries are often closed and treated with immobilisaton and conservative management where possible. Zone II injuries are again conservatively managed with splinting. Closed Zone III or ‘boutonniere’ injuries are managed conservatively unless there is evidence of displaced avulsion fractures at the base of the middle phalanx, axial and lateral instability of the PIPJ associated with loss of active or passive extension of the joint or failed non-operative treatment. Open zone III injuries are often treated surgically unless splinting enable the tendons to come together. Zone V injuries, are human bites until proven otherwise requires primary tendon repair after irrigation. Zone VI injuries are close to the thin paratendon and thin subcutaneous tissue which strong core type sutures and then splinting should be placed in extension for 4-6 weeks. Complete lacerations to zone IV and VII involve surgical primary repair followed by 6 weeks of splinting in extension. Zone VIII require multiple figure of eight sutures to repair the muscle bellies and static immobilisation of the wrist in 45 degrees of extension. To date there is little literature documenting the quality of repairing extensor tendon injuries however loss of flexion due to extensor tendon shortening, loss of flexion and extension resulting from adhesions and weakened grip can occur after surgery. This review aims to provide a systematic examination method for assessing extensor injuries, presentation and management of all type of extensor tendon injuries as well as guidance on

  15. Correlation between the 8-repetition maximum test and isokinetic dynamometry in the measurement of muscle strength of the knee extensors: A concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J David; Fletcher, James P

    2013-05-01

    The 8-repetition maximum test has the potential to be a feasible, cost-effective method of measuring muscle strength for clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the 8-repetition maximum test in the measurement of muscle strength by comparing the 8-repetition maximum test to the gold standard of isokinetic dynamometry. Thirty participants (15 males and 15 females, mean age = 23.2 years [standard deviation = 1.0]) underwent 8-repetition maximum testing and isokinetic dynamometry testing of the knee extensors (at 60, 120, and 240 degrees per second) on two separate sessions with 2-3 days between each mode of testing. Linear regression was used to assess the validity by comparing the findings between 8-repetition maximum testing and isokinetic dynamometry testing. Significant correlations were found between the 8-repetition maximum and isokinetic dynamometry peak torque at each testing velocity (r  =  0.71-0.85). The highest correlations were between the 8-repetition maximum and isokinetic dynamometry peak torques at 60 (r  =  0.85) and 120 (r  =  0.85) degrees per second. The findings of this study provide supportive evidence for the use of 8-repetition maximum testing as a valid, alternative method for measuring muscle strength.

  16. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cada...

  17. Comparison of the Cervical Extension Angle and the Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity between Overhead Work and Below-knee Work

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the cervical extension angle and the upper trapezius muscle activity between overhead work and below-knee work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during overhead work and below-knee work. [Results] The results show that the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity were significantly increased during below-knee wor...

  18. Bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome variant secondary to extensor hallucis brevis muscle hypertrophy in a ballet dancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Joshua N; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2014-12-01

    We present a case of bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary EHB hypertrophy in a dancer, with successful treatment with bilateral EHB muscle excisions for decompression. The bilateral presentation of this case with the treatment of EHB muscle excision is the first of its type reported in the literature.

  19. 优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹屈伸肌群生物力学特征%Biomechanical characteristics of waist flexor and extensor muscles in outstanding juvenile male basketball athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 叶展红; 庞杰

    2015-01-01

    背景:目前,等速测试系统在评定各专项运动员肌肉功能的应用越来越受到重视,但运用等速肌力测试技术研究优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹肌力特征的报道较少。目的:研究优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹屈伸肌群生物力学特征,为篮球项目的腰腹力量训练、科学选材和预防腰腹损伤提供依据。方法:采用Cybex-Norm等速肌力测试系统,对广州男子篮球队运动员18人测定腰腹屈伸肌群在慢速60(°)/s和快速180(°)/s的肌力和做功情况。结果与结论:受试者腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩和相对峰力矩在同一测试速度下,伸肌群大于屈肌群(P<0.01);腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩、相对峰力矩、总功均随着测试速度的增加呈减小趋势(P<0.05),伸肌群的峰力矩和相对峰力矩减少更显著(P <0.01);腰腹屈伸肌群的相对功率随着测试速度的增加而呈上升趋势(P <0.01);外线球员腰腹屈伸肌群各测试指标成绩优于内线球员;在等速向心收缩时,随测试速度加快,腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩屈伸比呈递减趋势,躯干稳定性减弱。结果提示,优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹伸肌群肌力大于屈肌群;外线球员腰腹屈伸肌群的肌力优于内线球员;等速快速运动时,腰腹屈伸肌群力量减小,腰腹关节屈伸肌力平衡性减弱,应加强青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹核心肌群快速力量训练。%BACKGROUND:At present, isokinetic testing system has attracted more and more attentions in the evaluation of athlete muscle function, but its application in the detection of waist and abdomen muscle strength characteristics in juvenile male basketbal athletes is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To study the biomechanical characteristics of waist flexor and extensor muscles inoutstanding juvenile male basketbal athletes in order to provide the basis for waist and abdominal strength training

  20. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  1. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Karamanidis

    Full Text Available Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS and quadriceps femoris (QF muscle-tendon unit (MTU capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly.Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry.Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention.This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly

  2. Are cervical multifidus muscles active during whiplash and startle? An initial experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Mark G

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical multifidus muscles insert onto the lower cervical facet capsular ligaments and the cervical facet joints are the source of pain in some chronic whiplash patients. Reflex activation of the multifidus muscle during a whiplash exposure could potentially contribute to injuring the facet capsular ligament. Our goal was to determine the onset latency and activation amplitude of the cervical multifidus muscles to a simulated rear-end collision and a loud acoustic stimuli. Methods Wire electromyographic (EMG electrodes were inserted unilaterally into the cervical multifidus muscles of 9 subjects (6M, 3F at the C4 and C6 levels. Seated subjects were then exposed to a forward acceleration (peak acceleration 1.55 g, speed change 1.8 km/h and a loud acoustic tone (124 dB, 40 ms, 1 kHz. Results Aside from one female, all subjects exhibited multifidus activity after both stimuli (8 subjects at C4, 6 subjects at C6. Neither onset latencies nor EMG amplitude varied with stimulus type or spine level (p > 0.13. Onset latencies and amplitudes varied widely, with EMG activity appearing within 160 ms of stimulus onset (for at least one of the two stimuli in 7 subjects. Conclusion These data indicate that the multifidus muscles of some individuals are active early enough to potentially increase the collision-induced loading of the facet capsular ligaments.

  3. The effects of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles on cervical multifidus muscle dimensions in healthy office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Leila; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Khalkhali Zavieh, Minoo; Noori Kochi, Farhang; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    It is argued that cervical multifidus muscles (CMM) are responsible for providing neck stability. However, whether they are actually activated during the tasks performed by the upper extremities to the neck is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles on the dimensions of CMM. Twenty three healthy males voluntarily participated in this study. Ultrasonography imaging of CMM was conducted at rest and at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction of shoulder muscles in 6 directions of shoulder movements. Anterior-posterior dimension (APD), lateral dimension (LD), shape ratio and multiplied linear dimension (MLD) of cervical multifidus were measured. The APD of CMM was increased while LD and shape ratio were decreased by shoulder muscles contraction (P < 0.01).

  4. Effects of β₂-agonists on force during and following anoxia in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, A; Gissel, H; Ortenblad, N

    2012-01-01

    of salbutamol on force recovery were prevented by blocking the Na(+),K(+)- pumps with ouabain or by blocking glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose. Dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM) or theophylline (1 mM) also improved force recovery remarkably. In anoxic muscles, salbutamol decreased intracellular Na(+), increased (86)Rb uptake...... and K(+) content indicating stimulation of the Na(+),K(+) - pumps. In fatigued muscles salbutamol induced recovery of excitability. Thus, β(2)-agonists reduce the anoxia-induced loss of force leading to partial force recovery. These data strongly suggest that this effect is mediated by cAMP stimulation......Electrical stimulation of isolated muscles may lead to membrane depolarization, gain of Na(+), loss of K(+) and fatigue. These effects can be counteracted with β(2)-agonists possibly via activation of the Na(+),K(+)- pumps. Anoxia induces loss of force; however, it is not known whether β(2...

  5. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:28210036

  6. Facilitation from hand muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve to the extensor carpi radialis motoneurone pool in humans: a study with an electromyogram-averaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Sato, Toshiaki; Nakano, Haruki; Fujii, Hiromi; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Effects of low-threshold afferents of hand muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve on an excitability of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motoneurone pool in humans were examined using an electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) technique. Changes of EMG-A of ECR exhibiting 10% of the maximum contraction by electrical stimulation to the ulnar nerve at the wrist (ES-UN) and mechanical stimulation to the hypothenar muscles (MS-HTM) and first dorsal interosseus (MS-FDI) were evaluated in eight normal human subjects. The ES-UN with the intensity immediately below the motor threshold and MS-HTM and -FDI with the intensity below the threshold of the tendon(T)-reflex were delivered. Early and significant peaks in EMG-A were produced by ES-UN, MS-HTM, and MS-FDI in eight of eight subjects. The mean amplitudes of the peaks by ES-UN, MS-HTM, and MS-FDI were, respectively, 121.9%, 139.3%, and 149.9% of the control EMG (100%). The difference between latencies of the peaks by ES-UN and MS-HTM, and ES-UN and MS-FDI was almost equivalent to that of the Hoffmann(H)- and T-reflexes of HTM and FDI, respectively. The peaks by ES-UN, MS-HTM, and MS-FDI diminished with tonic vibration stimulation (TVS) to HTM and FDI, respectively. These findings suggest that group Ia afferents of the hand muscles facilitate the ECR motoneurone pool.

  7. The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pellegrini, Barbara; Quaglia, Diego; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSC(EFF)) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSC(EFF) was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V(max)). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of V(max)). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSC(EFF) was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSC(EFF) (from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 ± 33 to 290 ± 36N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSC(EFF) was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers.

  8. Newly-discovered muscle in the larva of Patella coerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) suggests the presence of a larval extensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Peter; Dictus, Wim J.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    The development of the muscular system of the gastropod mollusc Patella has been thoroughly studied. As a result, two larval retractors, the main and accessory larval retractor, had been described in the larva of Patella. These muscles were supposed to be responsible for the retraction of the larval

  9. Real-Time Ultrasound Segmentation, Analysis and Visualisation of Deep Cervical Muscle Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ryan J; Harding, Peter J; Loram, Ian D

    2017-02-01

    Despite widespread availability of ultrasound and a need for personalised muscle diagnosis (neck/back pain-injury, work related disorder, myopathies, neuropathies), robust, online segmentation of muscles within complex groups remains unsolved by existing methods. For example, Cervical Dystonia (CD) is a prevalent neurological condition causing painful spasticity in one or multiple muscles in the cervical muscle system. Clinicians currently have no method for targeting/monitoring treatment of deep muscles. Automated methods of muscle segmentation would enable clinicians to study, target, and monitor the deep cervical muscles via ultrasound. We have developed a method for segmenting five bilateral cervical muscles and the spine via ultrasound alone, in real-time. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultrasound data were collected from 22 participants (age: 29.0±6.6, male: 12). To acquire ultrasound muscle segment labels, a novel multimodal registration method was developed, involving MRI image annotation, and shape registration to MRI-matched ultrasound images, via approximation of the tissue deformation. We then applied polynomial regression to transform our annotations and textures into a mean space, before using shape statistics to generate a texture-to-shape dictionary. For segmentation, test images were compared to dictionary textures giving an initial segmentation, and then we used a customized Active Shape Model to refine the fit. Using ultrasound alone, on unseen participants, our technique currently segments a single image in [Formula: see text] to over 86% accuracy (Jaccard index). We propose this approach is applicable generally to segment, extrapolate and visualise deep muscle structure, and analyse statistical features online.

  10. Bifurcated Bicipital Aponeurosis Giving Origin to Flexor and Extensor Muscles of the Forearm – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Maloor, Prasad A; Dsouza, Melanie R

    2016-01-01

    Bicipital aponeurosis is usually attached to the antebrachial fascia on the medial side of forearm and to posterior border of ulna assisting in the supination of the forearm along with biceps brachii muscle. Variations in the bicipital aponeurosis may lead to neurovascular compression as reported earlier. In the present case, the bicipital aponeurosis had two slips i.e. medial and lateral. Medial slip gave origin to some fibers of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis and the lateral slip gave origin to some fibers of brachioradialis. Such unusual slips of bicipital aponeurosis may distribute the stress concentration and may work in different directions affecting the supination of forearm by biceps brachii muscle and bicipital aponeurosis. PMID:27042440

  11. Bifurcated Bicipital Aponeurosis Giving Origin to Flexor and Extensor Muscles of the Forearm – A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Swamy, Ravindra S.; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Maloor, Prasad A; Dsouza, Melanie R

    2016-01-01

    Bicipital aponeurosis is usually attached to the antebrachial fascia on the medial side of forearm and to posterior border of ulna assisting in the supination of the forearm along with biceps brachii muscle. Variations in the bicipital aponeurosis may lead to neurovascular compression as reported earlier. In the present case, the bicipital aponeurosis had two slips i.e. medial and lateral. Medial slip gave origin to some fibers of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis and the lateral slip ...

  12. Extensor tendon repair an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Bin Fayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extensor injuries is more than that of flexor tendon injuries. This is to a great extent because of the extensors being superficially placed and covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue over the distal part of the upper extremity. Thus they are more vulnerable to blunt and sharp trauma, the proximal and distal forearm present with laceration and cut with sharp weapon. Extensor tendon injuries are often taken lightly by many, repairs being taken-up at the ER. Repair is done in or if the retrieval of tendon ends is difficult or the wound is complicated with associated injuries such as fractures or in cases of tendon retraction. Delayed primary repair can be undertaken from 7-10 days. Assessment of the injured finger has to be very meticulous. Extension of finger is brought about by the interossei and lumbricals which are the short muscles of the hand. They extend the proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints and flex metacarpophalangeal joint, these intrinsic muscles are innervated by the ulnar and median nerves. The long extensors are innervated by the radial nerve, they primarily extend the metacarpophalangeal joints and also interphalangeal joints. In cases of injury the intrinsic system may compensate for an extensor deficit. Closed injuries of zone I may be managed by splinting of the distal interphalangeal joints and open injuries in the zone I and II can be treated with tenodermodesis. Proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints are immobilized in zone 3 and 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint is immobilized in full extension and the wrist in 10o extension.

  13. Can a wearable strain sensor based on a carbon nanotube network be an alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlikaya, Ruhan; Ege, Yavuz; Pündük, Zekine; Slobodian, Petr; Meriç, Gökhan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to find out whether a wearable strain sensor including thermoplastic polyurethane composite with a multi-walled carbon nanotube network could be a viable alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength. For the first time, the voltage-torque and angle–time relations of the sensor were determined to allow a comparison between the angle-dependent torque changes of the dynamometer and the sensor. This comparison suggested that the torque–angle relations of the dynamometer and the sensor did not have the same characteristics. In this regard, the sensor may be used in the torque measurements due to the moderate correlation between the torque values determined via the isokinetic dynamometer and the sensor and due to the significant difference between low and high torque values of the sensor. By the same token, the torque-angle graph of the sensor may be more informative than that of the dynamometer in evaluation of knee problems.

  14. Influence of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Musculo-Tendinous Stiffness of the Head-Neck Segment during Cervical Flexion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Portero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine if the fatigue of cervical muscles has a significant influence on the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness.Ten men (aged 21.2 ± 1.9 years performed four quick-release trials of flexion at 30 and 50% MVC before and after the induction of muscular fatigue on cervical flexors. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the sternocleidomastoids (SCM and spinal erectors (SE, bilaterally. Musculo-tendinous stiffness was calculated through the quick-release method adapted to the head-neck segment.We noticed a significant linear increase of the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with the increase of exertion level both before (P < 0.0001 and after the fatigue procedure (P < 0.0001. However, this linear relationship was not different before and after the fatigue procedure. EMG analysis revealed a significant increase of the root mean square for the right SCM (P = 0.0002, the left SCM (P < 0.0001, the right SE (P < 0.0001, and the left SE (P < 0.0001 and a significant decrease of the median power frequency only for the right (P = 0.0006 and the left (P = 0.0003 SCM with muscular fatigue.We did not find significant changes in the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with fatigue of cervical muscles. We found a significant increase in EMG activity in the SCM and the SE after the induction of fatigue of the SCM. Our findings suggest that with fatigue of cervical flexors, neck muscle activity is modulated in order to maintain the musculo-tendinous stiffness at a steady state.

  15. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  16. Effect of Neck Muscle Strength and Anticipatory Cervical Muscle Activation on the Kinematic Response of the Head to Impulsive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, James T.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Joshi, Monica S.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. Hypotheses In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (DV) and peak angular velocity (Dv) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, DV and Dv will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head DV and Dv. Results Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head DV and Dv after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P\\.001). Inverse relationships between neck strength and head DV and Dv presented moderately strong effect sizes (r = 0.417 to r = 0.657), varying by direction of motion and cervical muscle activation. Conclusion In male and female athletes across the age spectrum, greater neck strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation (“bracing for impact”) can reduce the magnitude of the head's kinematic response. Future studies should determine whether neck strength contributes to the observed sex and

  17. The influence of loading intensity on muscle-tendon unit behavior during maximal knee extensor stretch shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Tendon stiffness increases as the magnitude and rate of loading increases, according to its viscoelastic properties. Thus, under some loading conditions tendons should become exceptionally stiff and act almost as rigid force transducers. Nonetheless, observations of tendon behavior during multi-joint sprinting and jumping tasks have shown that tendon strain increases whilst muscle strain decreases as the loading intensity increases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of external loading intensity on muscle-tendon unit (MTU) behavior during a high-speed single-joint, stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) knee extension task. Eighteen men (n = 9) and women (n = 9) performed single-leg, maximum intensity SSC knee extensions at loads of 20, 60 and 90% of their one repetition maximum. Vastus lateralis fascicle length (L(f)) and velocity (v(f)) as well as MTU (L(MTU)) and tendinous tissue (L(t)) length were measured using high-speed ultrasonography (96 Hz). Patellar tendon force (F(t)) and rate of force development (RFDt) were estimated using inverse dynamics. Results showed that as loading intensity increased, concentric joint velocity and shortening v f decreased whilst F t and RFDt increased, but no significant differences were observed in eccentric joint velocity or peak L(MTU) or L(f). In addition, the tendon lengthened significantly less at the end of the eccentric phase at heavier loads. This is the first observation that tendon strain decreases significantly during a SSC movement as loading intensity increases in vivo, resulting in a shift in the tendon acting as a power amplifier at light loads to a more rigid force transducer at heavy loads.

  18. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. ...

  19. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Mark L L M; Krings, Markus; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  20. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L L M Boumans

    Full Text Available Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola, and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  1. Comparison of the Cervical Extension Angle and the Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity between Overhead Work and Below-knee Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the cervical extension angle and the upper trapezius muscle activity between overhead work and below-knee work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20-30 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during overhead work and below-knee work. [Results] The results show that the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity were significantly increased during below-knee work compared to overhead work. [Conclusion] Below-knee work is more likely to cause neck and shoulder pain than overhead work. Therefore, future studies should investigate below-knee work in detail.

  2. Cervical flexion-relaxation response to neck muscle fatigue in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Zreiqat, Majed M; Chowdhury, Suman Kanti

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effect of muscle fatigue on the cervical spine flexion-relaxation response was studied. Twenty healthy participants (10 males and 10 females) were recruited for data collection. The Sorenson protocol was utilized to induce neck muscle fatigue. Surface electromyography and optical motion capture systems were used to measure neck muscle activation and head-neck posture, respectively. A post-fatigue reduction in the Flexion-Relaxation Ratio (FRR) and higher FRR for females compared to males were observed. A post-fatigue decrease was also observed in the onset and offset angles resulting in an expansion of the myoelectric silence period. Gender had no effect on the onset and offset angles of the silence period. Post-fatigue shift in the onset and offset angles and the expansion of the silence period indicate an increased contribution by the passive viscoelastic tissues in stabilizing the cervical spine under fatigued condition.

  3. Effect of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of leg extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, K; Komi, P V; Alén, M

    1985-12-01

    To investigate the influence of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time and on electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle, 10 male subjects went through progressive training which included primarily jumping exercises without extra load and with light extra weights three times a week for 24 weeks. Specific training-induced changes in force-time curve were observed and demonstrated by great (P less than 0.05-0.01) improvements in in parameters of fast force production and by a minor (P less than 0.05) increase in maximal force. The continuous increases in fast force production during the entire training were accompanied by and correlated with the increases (P less than 0.05) in average IEMG-time curve and with the increase (P less than 0.05) in the FT:ST muscle fibre area ratio. The percentage of FT fibres of the muscle correlated (P less than 0.05) with the improvement of average force-time curve during the training. The increase in maximal force was accompanied by significant (P less than 0.05) increases in maximum IEMGs of the trained muscles. However, the hypertrophic changes, as judged from the anthropometric and muscle fibre area data, were only slight during the training. It can be concluded that in training for fast force production considerable neural and selective muscular adaptations may occur to explain the improvement in performance, but that genetic factors may determine the ultimate potential of the trainability of this aspect of the neuromuscular performance.

  4. Trabalho e potência dos músculos extensores e flexores do joelho de pacientes com osteoartrite e com artroplastia total de joelho Work and power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in patients with osteoarthritis and after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bastiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As manifestações inflamatórias decorrentes da osteoartrite (OA de joelho provocam inibição muscular, levando à hipotrofia muscular e à consequente diminuição do trabalho e da potência musculares. A artroplastia total de joelho (ATJ é a cirurgia mais adequada para o tratamento da OA em graus avançados. Entretanto, seus efeitos sobre o comportamento funcional dos músculos ainda não foram bem esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar o trabalho total e a potência dos extensores e flexores do joelho de indivíduos com OA (20 e ATJ (12 em duas velocidades angulares de flexo-extensão de joelho (60º/s e 240º/s. MÉTODOS: O dinamômetro isocinético Biodex foi utilizado para avaliar a potência e o trabalho musculares em contrações isocinéticas. A ANOVA Two-Way para medidas repetidas foi utilizada para comparar os dados de trabalho total e potência entre os grupos (SPSS versão 13.0; nível de significância P 0,05. Também não houve diferença para a potência entre os grupos (extensores e flexores (P > 0,05. Conclusão: O trabalho total e a potência não diferiram entre os grupos com OA e com ATJ, sugerindo que a ATJ não produziu melhora na capacidade funcional, que foi semelhante entre os dois grupos.INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory manifestations of knee osteoarthritis (OA lead to muscle inhibition and hypotrophy, resulting in a reduction in total muscle work and muscle power. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is the most adequate surgery for the treatment of advanced OA. However, its effects on muscle functional behavior have not been well understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare the total work and power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in patients with OA (20 and in patients post-TKA (12 at two angular velocities (60º/sec and 240º/sec. Methods: An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer was used to assess muscle power and total work during isokinetic contractions. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare total muscle

  5. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks.

  6. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiu Cheng

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks.

  7. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per ...

  8. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner.

  9. Does posture of the cervical spine influence dorsal neck muscle activity when lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Marstein, Eivind; McNamara, Timothy; Nolan, Damien; Sjaaberg, Espen; Peolsson, Michael; Jull, Gwendolen; O'Leary, Shaun

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that postural orientations of the neck, such as flexed or forward head postures, are associated with heightened activity of the dorsal neck muscles. While these studies describe the impact of variations in neck posture alone, there is scant literature regarding the effect of neck posture on muscle activity when combined with upper limb activities such as lifting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different neck postures on the activity of the different layers of the dorsal neck muscles during a lifting task. Ultrasound measurements of dorsal neck muscle deformation were compared over two time points (rest, during lift) during a lifting task performed in three different neck postural conditions (neutral, flexed and forward head posture) in 21 healthy subjects. Data were analysed by post-process speckle tracking analysis. Results demonstrated significantly greater muscle deformation induced by flexed and forward head postures, compared to the neutral posture, for all dorsal neck muscles at rest (pposture of the cervical spine influenced the level of muscle deformation not only at rest, but also when lifting. The findings of the study suggest that neck posture should be considered during the evaluation or design of lifting activities as it may contribute to excessive demands on dorsal neck muscles with potential detrimental consequences.

  10. Effect of intermittent, supine cervical traction on the myoelectric activity of the upper trapezius muscle in subjects with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, D U; Falkel, J E; Trombly, C

    1985-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the myoelectric activity of the upper trapezius muscle before, during, and after intermittent, supine cervical traction. Twelve people with diagnosed disease or injury of the cervical spine served as subjects. Electromyographic recordings were taken from the upper trapezius muscle with bipolar surface electrodes. The subjects were treated with 20 minutes of intermittent, cervical traction at a force of 8% of their body weight. Recordings were taken with the subjects in the supine position before the traction, during one pull and release phase of the 10th and 20th minutes of traction, and after completion of the traction treatment. An analysis of variance with repeated measures showed no significant differences in the myoelectrical activity during the six time periods measured. The results of this study do not support the clinical use of intermittent, supine traction to produce cervical muscle relaxation.

  11. Responses of muscle spindles in feline dorsal neck muscles to electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Thunberg, J; Passatore, M; Djupsjöbacka, M

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies performed in jaw muscles of rabbits and rats have demonstrated that sympathetic outflow may affect the activity of muscle spindle afferents (MSAs). The resulting impairment of MSA information has been suggested to be involved in the genesis and spread of chronic muscle pain. The present study was designed to investigate sympathetic influences on muscle spindles in feline trapezius and splenius muscles (TrSp), as these muscles are commonly affected by chronic pain in humans. Experiments were carried out in cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The effect of electrical stimulation (10 Hz for 90 s or 3 Hz for 5 min) of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) was investigated on the discharge of TrSp MSAs (units classified as Ia-like and II-like) and on their responses to sinusoidal stretching of these muscles. In some of the experiments, the local microcirculation of the muscles was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. In total, 46 MSAs were recorded. Stimulation of the CSN at 10 Hz powerfully depressed the mean discharge rate of the majority of the tested MSAs (73%) and also affected the sensitivity of MSAs to sinusoidal changes of muscle length, which were evaluated in terms of amplitude and phase of the sinusoidal fitting of unitary activity. The amplitude was significantly reduced in Ia-like units and variably affected in II-like units, while in general the phase was affected little and not changed significantly in either group. The discharge of a smaller percentage of tested units was also modulated by 3-Hz CSN stimulation. Blockade of the neuromuscular junctions by pancuronium did not induce any changes in MSA responses to CSN stimulation, showing that these responses were not secondary to changes in extrafusal or fusimotor activity. Further data showed that the sympathetically induced modulation of MSA discharge was not secondary to the concomitant reduction of muscle blood flow induced by the stimulation. Hence

  12. Comparison between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG Mapping for Identifying Dystonic Superficial Muscles in Primary Cervical Dystonia: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin [Seoul National University School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Kwang Hong; Lee, Ji Young; Cho, Sook Kyung; Yu, Jang; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkawn University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to compare {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and electromyography (EMG) mapping in patients with primary cervical dystonia (PCD) to find dystonic superficial cervical muscles. Ten consecutive patients with PCD (M:F=5:5, age 44{+-}13 years) whose dystonic posture was not relieved with conventional muscle relaxant therapy were included. Target cervical muscles for the comparison between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping were four representative superficial bilateral cervical muscles: splenius capitis muscle, sternocleidomstoid muscle, upper trapeziums muscle, and levitator scapulae muscle. The diagnostic efficacy was compared between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping using physical exam and measurement of rotation angle as the gold standard. Among 80 muscles evaluated, there were 21 (26%) dystonic superficial cervical muscles assessed with physical exam and motion analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for localizing dystonic muscles were 76, 92, and 88% for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and 95, 66, and 74% for EMG mapping, respectively. The sensitivity of EMG mapping was significantly higher than that of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is more specific and accurate than EMG mapping for finding superficial dystonic cervical muscles. The high sensitivity of EMG mapping suggests that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping are complementary for finding dystonic superficial cervical muscles.

  13. Proximal wrist extensor tendinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ihm, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Proximal wrist extensor tendinopathy, which is also known as tennis elbow, is pain at or just distal to the lateral humeral epicondyle within the proximal wrist extensor tendon. It occurs commonly in certain athletes but can also occur in people with jobs that require repetitive movements of the hand and upper limb. In most cases the tendon involved shows no signs of inflammation or tendonitis, but instead shows fibroblasts, vascular hyperplasia, and disorganized collagen. Diagnosis is often ...

  14. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustalampi, Sirpa; Ylinen, Jari; Korniloff, Katariina; Weir, Adam; Häkkinen, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability. PMID:26828215

  15. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Mustalampi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability.

  16. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  17. The alterations in adenosine nucleotides and lactic acid levels in striated muscles following death with cervical dislocation or electric shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pençe, Halime Hanim; Pençe, Sadrettin; Kurtul, Naciye; Bakan, Ebubekir; Kök, Ahmet Nezih; Kocoglu, Hasan

    2003-01-01

    In this study, changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and lactic acid levels in masseter, triceps, and quadriceps muscles obtained from right and left sides of Spraque-Dawley rats following two different types of death were investigated. The samples were taken immediately and 120 minutes after death occurred either by cervical dislocation or electric shock. ATP concentrations in the muscles of masseter, triceps, and quadriceps were lower in samples obtained 120 minutes after death than that of samples obtained immediately after death. ADP, AMP, and lactic acid concentrations in these muscles were higher in samples obtained 120 minutes after death than those obtained immediately after death. A positive linear correlation was determined between ATP and ADP concentrations in quadriceps muscles of the rats killed with cervical dislocation and in masseter muscles of the rats killed with electric shock. When the rats killed with cervical dislocation and with electric shock were compared, ADP, AMP, and lactic acid concentrations were lower in the former than in the latter for both times (immediately and 120 minutes after death occurred). In the case of electric shock, ATP is consumed faster because of immediate contractions during death, resulting in a faster rigor mortis. This finding was confirmed with higher lactic acid levels in muscles of the rats killed with electric shock than the other group. In the cervical dislocation and electric shock group rats, ATP decreased in different levels in the three different muscle types mentioned above, being much decline in masseter in cervical dislocation and in quadriceps in electric shock group. This may be caused by low mass and less glycogen storage of masseter and by near localisation of electrode to quadriceps. One can conclude that the occurrence of rigor mortis is closely related to the mode of death.

  18. Efeitos da crioterapia e facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva sobre a força muscular nas musculaturas flexora e extensora de joelho Effects of cryotherapy and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscle strength at the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Moreira Mortari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As musculaturas flexora e extensora do joelho são freqüentemente lesionadas devido a um desequilíbrio entre esses grupos. Recursos térmicos, como a crioterapia, e técnicas de alongamento, como a técnica mantém-relaxa da facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP, influenciam a flexibilidade e força muscular, proporcionando maior homogeneidade entre essas musculaturas e diminuindo a incidência de lesões. Este estudo objetivou verificar os efeitos da crioterapia e da FNP sobre a força das musculaturas flexora e extensora de joelho. A amostra foi composta por 18 mulheres com idade entre 18 e 24 anos, não-praticantes de atividade física regular, divididas em dois grupos: um submetido a crioterapia e o outro à técnica mantém-relaxa da FNP. Antes e após uma sessão de aplicação das técnicas foi feita avaliação isocinética. A aplicação da técnica mantém-relaxa provocou aumento da força em ambas as musculaturas em ambos os membros, atingindo nível de significância nos flexores do membro inferior direito (p=0,04. A crioterapia diminuiu a força dos extensores e exerceu efeito contrário sobre os flexores, tendo gerado aumento significativo nos flexores do membro inferior direito (p=0,035. Quando comparadas as técnicas, a técnica mantém-relaxa gerou maiores valores de pico de torque, principalmente nos extensores do membro inferior esquerdo (p=0,042. Conclui-se que a técnica mantém-relaxa da FNP gerou maiores valores no pico de torque em relação à crioterapia.Knee extensor and flexor muscles are often injured due to an imbalance between these groups, which may lead to a deficit in muscle performance. Thermal resources, such as cryotherapy, and stretching techniques, such as the "hold-relax" of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF, influence flexibility and muscle strength and may reduce the chances of muscle tendon injuries. The aim of the study was to verify the effects of cryotherapy and of the PNF

  19. The effects of cervical traction, cranial rhythmic impulse, and Mckenzie exercise on headache and cervical muscle stiffness in episodic tension-type headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cervical traction treatment, cranial rhythmic impulse treatment, a manual therapy, and McKenzie exercise, a dynamic strengthening exercise, on patients who have the neck muscle stiffness of the infrequent episodic tension-type (IETTH) headache and frequent episodic tension-type headache(FETTH), as well as to provide the basic materials for clinical interventions. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects (males: 15, females: 12) who were diagnosed with IETTH and FETTH after treatment by a neurologist were divided into three groups: (a cervical traction group (CTG, n=9), a cranial rhythmic contractiongroup (CRIG, n=9), and a McKenzie exercise group (MEG, n=9). An intervention was conducted for each group and the differences in their degrees of neck pain and changes in muscle tone were observed. [Results] In the within-group comparison of each group, headache significantly decreased in CTG. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the upper trapezius, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. [Conclusion] In the comparison of the splenius capitis muscle between the groups, there was a statistically significant difference on the right side. Hence, compared to the other methods, cervical traction is concluded to be more effective at reducing headaches in IETTH and FETTH patients.

  20. The ratio of change in muscle thickness between superficial and deep cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test and a suggestion regarding clinical treatment of patients with musculoskeletal neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Miran; Kim, Seong-Gil; Jun, Deokhoon

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the imbalance of muscle recruitment in cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test by using ultrasonography and to propose the optimal level of pressure in clinical craniocervical flexion exercise for people with neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 18 students (9 males and 9 females) with neck pain at D University in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, participated in this study. The change in muscle thickness in superficial and deep cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test was measured using ultrasonography. The ratio of muscle thickness changes between superficial and deep muscles during the test were obtained to interpret the imbalance of muscle recruitment in cervical flexor muscles. [Results] The muscle thickness ratio of the sternocleidomastoid muscle/deep cervical flexor muscles according to the incremental pressure showed significant differences between 22 mmHg and 24 mmHg, between 24 mmHg and 28 mmHg, between 24 mmHg and 30 mmHg, and between 26 mmHg and 28 mmHg. [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be applied for examination of cervical flexor muscles in clinical environment, and practical suggestion for intervention exercise of craniocervical flexors can be expected on the pressure level between 24 mmHg and 26 mmHg enabling the smallest activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

  1. Extensor-mechanism-reconstruction of the knee joint after traumatic loss of the entire extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, D; Schüttrumpf, J P; Tezval, M; Stürmer, K M; Balcarek, P

    2014-06-01

    Injuries to the extensor apparatus of the knee joint have an incidence of 0.5% to 6%. Although previous studies have described the advantages and disadvantages of operative treatment in cases of patellar tendon rupture, patella fracture or quadriceps tendon lesions, a report on the reconstruction of the extensor apparatus after traumatic loss of the patella, the patellar tendon, the tibial tuberosity and parts of the lateral quadriceps muscle is absent from the literature. We present the case of a young motorcyclist who underwent a reconstruction of the extensor apparatus using autologous tendon grafts. At a 24-month follow-up, the patient has a nearly physiological range of motion of the knee joint and is able to cope well with everyday life.

  2. Nerve root distribution of deltoid and biceps brachii muscle in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a potential risk factor for postoperative shoulder muscle weakness after posterior decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Fujimoto, Hideaki; Toyoda, Kouichiro; Kawai, Shinya

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nerve root distribution of deltoid and biceps brachii muscle, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded intraoperatively following nerve root stimulation in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A total of 19 upper limbs in 12 patients aged 55-72 years (mean, 65.5 years) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were examined. CMAPs were recorded from deltoid and biceps brachii muscle following C5 and C6 root stimulation. Although both C5 and C6 roots were innervated for deltoid and biceps brachii muscle in all subjects, the amplitude ratio of CMAPs (C5/C6) differed individually depending on the symptomatic intervertebral levels of the spinal cord. The C5 root predominantly innervated both deltoid and biceps brachii in patients with symptomatic cord lesions at the C4-C5 intervertebral level compared to patients with symptomatic cord lesions at the C5-C6 intervertebral level. Although no patients sustained postoperative radiculopathy in our study, severe weakness and unfavorable recovery are expected when the C5 root in patients with C4-C5 myelopathy is damaged. From the electrophysiological aspect, C4-C5 cord lesions are likely to be a potential risk factor for postoperative shoulder muscle weakness in patients with compressive cervical myelopathy.

  3. Proprioceptive control of extensor activity during fictive scratching and weight support compared to fictive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, M C; Enriquez-Denton, M; Hultborn, H

    1999-12-15

    At rest, extensor group I afferents produce oligosynaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurons. During locomotor activity, however, such inhibition is replaced by oligosynaptic excitation. Oligosynaptic excitation from extensor group I afferents plays a crucial role in the regulation of extensor activity during walking. In this study we investigate the possibility that this mechanism also regulates extensor muscle activity during other motor tasks. We show that the reflex pathways responsible for extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during fictive locomotion can be activated during both fictive scratching and fictive weight support (tonic motor activity induced by contralateral scratching). These observations suggest that the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways are open for transmission during several forms of motor activities. We also show that extensor group I input during fictive scratching can affect the amplitude and the timing of extensor activity in a pattern similar to that observed during locomotion. Most likely these effects involve the activation of the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways. Accordingly, it is suggested that extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during motor activities other than locomotion is also used to regulate extensor muscle activity. Furthermore, the similarity of effects from extensor group I input on the rhythmicity during scratching and locomotion supports the hypothesis that both rhythms are generated by a common network.

  4. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  5. Modulation of Muscle Tone and Sympathovagal Balance in Cervical Dystonia Using Percutaneous Stimulation of the Auricular Vagus Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampusch, Stefan; Kaniusas, Eugenijus; Széles, Jozsef C

    2015-10-01

    Primary cervical dystonia is characterized by abnormal, involuntary, and sustained contractions of cervical muscles. Current ways of treatment focus on alleviating symptomatic muscle activity. Besides pharmacological treatment, in severe cases patients may receive neuromodulative intervention such as deep brain stimulation. However, these (highly invasive) methods have some major drawbacks. For the first time, percutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (pVNS) was applied in a single case of primary cervical dystonia. Auricular vagus nerve stimulation was already shown to modulate the (autonomous) sympathovagal balance of the body and proved to be an effective treatment in acute and chronic pain, epilepsy, as well as major depression. pVNS effects on cervical dystonia may be hypothesized to rely upon: (i) the alteration of sensory input to the brain, which affects structures involved in the genesis of motoric and nonmotoric dystonic symptoms; and (ii) the alteration of the sympathovagal balance with a sustained impact on involuntary movement control, pain, quality of sleep, and general well-being. The presented data provide experimental evidence that pVNS may be a new alternative and minimally invasive treatment in primary cervical dystonia. One female patient (age 50 years) suffering from therapy refractory cervical dystonia was treated with pVNS over 20 months. Significant improvement in muscle pain, dystonic symptoms, and autonomic regulation as well as a subjective improvement in motility, sleep, and mood were achieved. A subjective improvement in pain recorded by visual analog scale ratings (0-10) was observed from 5.42 to 3.92 (medians). Muscle tone of the mainly affected left and right trapezius muscle in supine position was favorably reduced by about 96%. Significant reduction of muscle tone was also achieved in sitting and standing positions of the patient. Habituation to stimulation leading to reduced stimulation efficiency was observed and

  6. Análise da resposta da freqüência cardíaca durante a realização de exercício isocinético excêntrico de grupamento extensor de joelho Analysis of heart rate response during eccentric isokinetic exercise of knee extensor muscle group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Malfatti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar a magnitude da resposta da freqüência cardíaca durante o exercício isocinético excêntrico do grupamento extensor do joelho, em diferentes velocidades angulares. Materiais e Métodos: Dez voluntários jovens, sadios e ativos foram submetidos a contração excêntrica máxima do grupo extensor do joelho dominante. Foi utilizado um dinamômetro isocinético, nas velocidades de 30º/s, 60º/s e 120º/s, ordenadas aleatoriamente. A FC foi obtida batimento a batimento, na derivação eletrocardiográfica MC5 modificada, durante 60s pré-exercício, durante o tempo de contração, sendo cinco repetições para cada velocidade, e por 120s após o esforço. Foram calculadas: FC média dos 60s pré-exercício, FC pico atingida ao final do esforço, e variação da FC (DFC, além dos valores do pico de torque. Também foram comparados valores da FC média dos 6 minutos pré-exercício com os 6 minutos de recuperação. Os resultados foram comparados pelo teste de Friedman com post hoc de Dunn. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de 5%. Resultados: Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os valores medianos da FC de repouso (68bpm para 30º/s e 60º/s, 70bpm para 120º/s, FC pico (107bpm para 30º/s, 103 em 60º/s e 100bpm em 120º/s e DFC (37bpm para 30º/s, 35bpmem 60º/s e 27bpm para 120ºs, além do pico de torque (209,5N/m para 30º/s, 217,2N/m em 60º/s e 210,6N/m para 120º/s. A mediana dos valores de FC anteriores ao esforço foi semelhante aos de recuperação (67bpm. Conclusão:A magnitude de resposta da FC foi semelhante, durante atividade muscular excêntrica, indicando uma mesma sobrecarga cardíaca, independente da velocidade angular realizada.Objective: To investigate heart rate response magnitudes during eccentric isokinetic exercise of the knee extensor muscles, at different angular velocities. Method: Ten healthy and active young volunteers underwent maximum eccentric

  7. Influence of prolonged unilateral cervical muscle contraction on head repositioning--decreased overshoot after a 5-min static muscle contraction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Eva-Maj; Karlberg, Mikael; Holmström, Eva; Fransson, Per-Anders; Hansson, Gert-Ake; Magnusson, Måns

    2010-06-01

    The ability to reproduce a specified head-on-trunk position can be an indirect test of cervical proprioception. This ability is affected in subjects with neck pain, but it is unclear whether and how much pain or continuous muscle contraction factors contribute to this effect. We studied the influence of a static unilateral neck muscle contraction task (5 min of lateral flexion at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction) on head repositioning ability in 20 subjects (10 women, 10 men; mean age 37 years) with healthy necks. Head repositioning ability was tested in the horizontal plane with 30 degrees target and neutral head position tests; head position was recorded by Zebris((R)), an ultrasound-based motion analyser. Head repositioning ability was analysed for accuracy (mean of signed differences between introduced and reproduced positions) and precision (standard deviation of the differences). Accuracy of head repositioning ability increased significantly after the muscle contraction task, as the normal overshoot was reduced. An average overshoot of 7.1 degrees decreased to 4.6 degrees after the muscle contraction task for the 30 degrees target and from 2.2 degrees to 1.4 degrees for neutral head position. The increased accuracy was most pronounced for movements directed towards the activated side. Hence, prolonged unilateral neck muscle contraction may increase the sensitivity of cervical proprioceptors.

  8. Localization of dystonic muscles using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in idiopathic cervical dystonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Seung, D. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, E. S.; Sohn, Y. I.; Choi, Y.; Choi, E. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BT) is regarded as a first-line treatment for idiopathic cervical dystonia (ICD), sometimes referred to as spasmodic torticollis. Moreover, because effective treatment involves the injection of BT into most dystonic muscles, the accurate localization of dystonic muscles is clinically important. In this preliminary study, we investigated whether {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is useful for localizing dystonic cervical muscles in ICD by comparing disease severity after and before BT injection into muscles determined to be hypermetabolic by PET/CT. Six consecutive patients (all males; age 37 16 y) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT once (n = 4) or twice (n = 2) in a supine (n = 5) or sitting position (n = 3) during the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake period. Dystonic muscles suitable for BT injection therapy were defined as those showing diffusely increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. To evaluate response to BT injection, the Tsui scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) were applied. On PET/CT, hypermetabolic cervical muscles were identified in all 6 patients (3 in a supine position and 3 in a sitting position during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake periods). In 2 patients who underwent PET/CT in a supine and in a sitting position during 18F-FDG uptake, abnormal hypermetabolic muscles were observed only by PET/CT in a sitting position with patients heads and necks in the assumed abnormal involuntary posture. Symptoms were significantly improved, according to the Tsui (10.0 2.9 to 1.8 1.3, 82% reduction) and TWSTRS scales (severity: 21.3 2.1 to 5.8 5.3, 73% reduction; disability: 19.8 1.9 to 3.8 3.8, 81 % reduction) in all 4 patients who underwent BT injection therapy guided by PET/CT and who were clinically follow-up. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is potentially useful for identifying dystonic cervical muscles in patients with ICD.

  9. DOUBLE-BELLIED EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS MANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia S. Quadros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the anatomical variations are noted during the cadaveric dissections. A rare variation of the Extensor digitorum brevis manus was observed on the dorsal aspect of the right hand of a 69-year-old male cadaver. This atavistic muscle had two bellies which originated from the dorsal aspect of the lower end of radius and the capsule of the wrist joint respectively. The two bellies fused to form a single tendon which inserted into the ulnar side of the dorsal digital expansion of the middle finger. Posterior interosseous nerve innervated the two bellies. This muscle may be involved in the wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a ganglion or a nodule upon radiological examination. This muscle may be used for reconstructive purposes.

  10. 青少年男子划艇运动员肩关节屈伸肌群等速肌力特征研究%Isokinetic Flexors and Extensors Muscle Strength at Shoulder Joint in Elite Male Outrigger Canoe Paddlers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹峰锐

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of flexors and extensors muscle strength at shoulder joint in elite male outrigger canoe paddlers, diagnose the balance between the flexors and extensors and the symmetry between the same muscles, providing the reference for the strength training for outrigger canoe paddlers. Methods: Nineteen elite male outrigger canoe paddlers performed isokinetic concentric flexion and extension strength tests of the shoulder joint on the Cybex-norm isokinetic dynamometer. Results: The relative peak torque of extensors was bigger than flexors. The mean peak torque ratio of flexor to extensor at shoulder joint ranged from 40% to 55%. The bilateral strength asymmetry was more than 10% at flexors and extensors. Conclusion: The muscle strength of extensor at shoulder joint was stronger than flexor. The muscle strength between extensor and flexor was imbalance. The flexor muscle strength at shoulder joint was a little weak. The muscle imbalance phenomenon existed on the same extensors and flexors at shoulder joint.%目的:探讨青少年男子划艇运动员肩关节屈伸肌群等速肌力特征,诊断肩关节屈伸肌群以及两侧肩关节同名肌群肌力均衡性,为运动员的力量训练提供参考。方法:采用美国产CYBEX-NORM型等速测试仪对19名男子划艇运动员肩关节进行等速屈伸测试。测试速度为60°/s 和300°/s。结果:肩关节伸肌群的峰力矩大于屈肌群;屈伸肌群峰力矩比率的平均值在40%-55%之间;左右侧肩关节伸肌群峰力矩差值百分比的均值为12%,屈肌群峰力矩差值百分比的均值为25%。结论:划艇运动员肩关节伸肌群的肌力水平高于屈肌群;划艇运动员肩关节屈伸肌群肌力不均衡,屈肌群肌力偏弱;大部分划艇队员两侧肩关节屈肌群和两侧肩关节伸肌群存在肌力失衡状况,两侧肩关节屈肌群肌力失衡程度大于伸肌群。

  11. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain.

  12. Anomalous extensor tendons of hand: a case report with clinical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Paul

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum muscle of the hand originates from the common extensor origin i.e., from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and ends in four tendons, one for each digit except for the thumb. This paper reports a case, in which the tendon of the extensor digitorum ended as four tendons to the index, middle, ring and little fingers, but displayed variations in the number of tendons to each finger. Two tendons of extensor digitorum were observed in the ring and the little finger. Such an arrangement of the tendons of the extensor digitorum may have clinical importance. The presence of multiple tendons may also alter the kinematics around the site of attachment to the phalanx. Knowledge of abnormal and normal anatomy of the extensor tendons, may be helpful while performing graft and tendon transfer operations.

  13. Anomalous extensor tendons of hand: a case report with clinical importance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Paul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum muscle of the hand originates from the common extensor origin i.e., from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and ends in four tendons, one for each digit except for the thumb. This paper reports a case, in which the tendon of the extensor digitorum ended as four tendons to the index, middle, ring and little fingers, but displayed variations in the number of tendons to each finger. Two tendons of extensor digitorum were observed in the ring and the little finger. Such an arrangement of the tendons of the extensor digitorum may have clinical importance. The presence of multiple tendons may also alter the kinematics around the site of attachment to the phalanx. Knowledge of abnormal and normal anatomy of the extensor tendons, may be helpful while performing graft and tendon transfer operations.

  14. [Somatotopic Representation of the Anterior Horn within Cervical Enlargement: Reappraisal of Known Doctrine Based on Clinicopathological Findings Seen in Hirayama Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Keizo

    2016-05-01

    Clinical features (weakness and amyotrophy of intrinsic hand muscles and obliquely distributed amyotrophy of forearm muscles, figure 1), needle electromyographic findings (distribution of neurogenic activities, figure 2), and pathological findings (ischemic necroses of the anterior horns between C6 and T1, figure 3) of Hirayama disease suggest that understanding of somatotopic representation of the anterior horn innervating arm muscles in the cervical enlargement of spinal cord differs from the known doctrine. Anterior horn cells of the intrinsic hand muscles are located between C7 and T1, those of forearm muscles and triceps brachii muscle as elbow extensor are, contrary to the known doctrine, located in C5 and C6, and those of elbow flexors such as biceps brachii and brachioradialis are located in C4 and above (figure 5). Development of dexterity in human hand may reflect development of cervical enlargement in accord with larger areas representing the hand and fingers on cerebral motor cortex.

  15. A Comparison of the Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Thicknesses in Subjects with and without Neck Pain during Craniocervical Flexion Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ilsub; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the amount of change in the thicknesses of the deep cervical flexor (DCF) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles in subjects with neck pain and subjects without neck pain during craniocervical flexion exercise (CCFE). [Subjects] The total number of subjects was 40, comprising 20 in the no-pain group (males 11, females 9) and 20 in the pain group (males 8, females 12). [Methods] Muscle images were obtained using ultrasound, and the thicknesses of the individual muscles were measured using the NIH ImageJ software. [Results] During CCFE, as pressure increased, the no-pain group recruited the DCF more than the pain group, while the pain group recruited the SCM more. [Conclusion] Selective DCF contraction exercises are considered very useful in the treatment of patients with neck pain.

  16. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram

  17. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05. A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32. Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary.

  18. Effect of the spacing of backpack shoulder straps on cervical muscle activity, acromion and scapular position, and upper trapezius pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the spacing of backpack shoulder straps on cervical muscle activity, acromion and scapular position, and upper trapezius (UT) pain. [Subjects] Fourteen males aged 20-32 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the MPS (midcervical paraspinal) activity, acromial angle, scapular distance, and UT pain after gait carrying a backpack with different shoulder strap spacings. [Results] The MPS, scapular inferior distance, and UT pressure pain threshold was significantly decreased and the acromion angle was significantly increased when carrying a backpack with wide shoulder straps compared to narrow shoulder straps. [Conclusion] A backpack with wide shoulder straps may cause scapular depression syndrome and chronic UT pain.

  19. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0...

  20. Effects of physical and mental task demands on cervical and upper limb muscle activity and physiological responses during computer tasks and recovery periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Szeto, Grace P Y; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of physical and mental workload during computer tasks on muscle activity and physiological measures. Activity in cervical postural muscles and distal forearm muscles, heart rate and blood pressure were compared among three tasks and rest periods of 15 min each in an experimental study design. Fourteen healthy pain-free adults participated (7 males, mean age = 23.2 ± 3.0 years) and the tasks were: (1) copy-typing ("typing"), (2) typing at progressively faster speed ("pacing"), (3) mental arithmetic plus fast typing ("subtraction"). Typing task was performed first, followed by the other two tasks in a random order. Median muscle activity (50th percentile) was examined in 5-min intervals during each task and each rest period, and statistically significant differences in the "time" factor (within task) and time × task factors was found in bilateral cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius muscles. In contrast, distal forearm muscle activity did not show any significant differences among three tasks. All muscles showed reduced activity to about the baseline level within first 5 min of the rest periods. Heart rate and blood pressure showed significant differences during tasks compared to baseline, and diastolic pressure was significantly higher in the subtraction than pacing task. The results suggest that cervical postural muscles had higher reactivity than forearm muscles to high mental workload tasks, and cervical muscles were also more reactive to tasks with high physical demand compared to high mental workload. Heart rate and blood pressure seemed to respond similarly to high physical and mental workloads.

  1. Altered spinal kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine in people with chronic neck pain during functional task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge on the spinal kinematics and muscle activation of the cervical and thoracic spine during functional task would add to our understanding of the performance and interplay of these spinal regions during dynamic condition. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chronic neck pain on the three-dimensional kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine during an overhead reaching task involving a light weight transfer by the upper limb. Synchronized measurements of the three-dimensional spinal kinematics and electromyographic activities of cervical and thoracic spine were acquired in thirty individuals with chronic neck pain and thirty age- and gender-matched asymptomatic controls. Neck pain group showed a significantly decreased cervical velocity and acceleration while performing the task. They also displayed with a predominantly prolonged coactivation of cervical and thoracic muscles throughout the task cycle. The current findings highlighted the importance to examine differential kinematic variables of the spine which are associated with changes in the muscle recruitment in people with chronic neck pain. The results also provide an insight to the appropriate clinical intervention to promote the recovery of the functional disability commonly reported in patients with neck pain disorders.

  2. Relation between cervical posture on lateral skull radiographs and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in caucasian adult women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, S; Tete, S; Festa, F

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cervical posture on lateral skull radiographs and surface electromyographic recordings (sEMG) of head and neck muscles. The sample comprised 40 Caucasian adult females, average age 26.8 (20-48); lateral skull radiographs were obtained in natural head position (mirror position). sEMG activity was bilaterally investigated for the following muscles: masseter, anterior temporalis, digastric, posterior cervical, sternocleidomastoid and upper and lower trapezius. All muscles were monitored at rest and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). A Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed significant correlations (P cervical angulations and sEMG activity of masseter, digastric, lower trapezius, during MVC and anterior temporalis at rest. Significant correlations (P cervical lordosis angle and sEMG activity of masseter (during MVC) and lower trapezius (at rest). In view of transversal method, no conclusion was possible about the mechanism concerning these results. Future longitudinal studies should be directed to understand the extent of environmental and genotype influences by masticatory muscle activity on cervical posture.

  3. Effect of Knee Extensor Strength on Incident Radiographic and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Individuals with Meniscal Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Felson, David T; Segal, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High knee extensor strength may be important to protect against development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in populations at elevated risk, such as individuals with meniscal pathology. We investigated the extent to which high knee extensor muscle strength was associated with a decreased r...

  4. The effectiveness of cervical adjustment therapy, dry needling of the levator scapulae muscle and the combination of the two in the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.Tech. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cervical adjustment therapy, dry needling of the levator scapulae muscle and a combination of the two in the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain. Forty-five patients were recruited via posters and advertisements from in and around the University of Johannesburg. The participants had to present with bilateral neck pain, decreased range of motion and an active levator scapulae muscles trigger point, which was diagnosed u...

  5. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, Andreas; Harridge, Stephen D R; Mizuno, Masao;

    2003-01-01

    induced stimulation of the wrist extensor muscles in spinal cord injury (SCI) increases fatigue resistance independent of training pattern. However, only the Hr protocol increased muscle strength and was shown to improve muscle aerobic metabolism after training. Muscle Nerve 27: 72-80, 2003...

  6. Effects of Massage Treatment on Cervical Muscles Mechanics in Cervical Spondylopathy%推拿对颈型颈椎病患者颈部肌群力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺融; 沈国权; 张喜林; 吴耀持

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察推拿治疗对颈型颈椎病患者颈部肌群力学的影响.方法:37例颈型颈椎病患者(治疗组)采用推拿治疗,共10次;另选取37例无颈椎病人群作对照(正常组).应用等速运动测试仪测定两组颈部后伸和前屈肌群总功及主动/拮抗比值的变化.结果:颈椎病患者颈部后伸和前屈肌群总功及主动/拮抗比值较正常人群低(P<0.01);经推拿治疗后,治疗组的总功及主动/拮抗比值有明显改善(P<0.01).结论:推拿治疗可通过改善颈部肌群的协调性以治疗颈型颈椎病.%Objective: To observe the effects of massage treatment on the mechanics of cervical muscles in cervical spondylop-athy. Methods; Thirty-seven cases of cervical spondylopathy were treated by massage for 10 times (treatment group) and another 37 healthy people were enrolled as control (control group). An isokinetic test system was used to detect the total work (TW) and agon/antag ratio of extended and anteflexed muscles of all participants' neck. Results: The patients * cervical biomechanics such as TW and agon/antag ratio were lower than those in the healthy people ( P < 0.01); after massage, the TW and agon/antag ratio were improved obviously ( P < 0.01). Conclusion: Massage can balance cervical muscles to treat cervical spondylopathy.

  7. The relationship between superficial muscle activity during the cranio-cervical flexion test and clinical features in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Shaun; Falla, Deborah; Jull, Gwendolen

    2011-10-01

    Changes in motor behavior are a known feature of chronic mechanical neck pain disorders. This study examined the strength of the association between reported levels of pain and disability from 84 individuals (63 women, 21 men) with chronic mechanical neck pain and levels of electromyographic activity recorded from superficial cervical flexor (sternocleidomastoid; SCM and anterior scalene; AS) muscles during progressive stages of the cranio-cervical flexion muscle test. A significant positive association was observed between superficial muscle activity and pain intensity (P 0.5) or perceived disability (P > 0.21). The strongest relationship between pain intensity and superficial muscle activity occurred at the final increment of the cranio-cervical flexion test (inner-range test position) for both the SCM and AS muscles (R(2) = 0.16). Although a positive and significant relationship between pain intensity and superficial muscle activity was shown, the relationship was only modest (16% explained variance), indicating that multiple factors contribute to the altered motor function observed in individuals with chronic mechanical neck pain.

  8. Extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallusis brevis transplantation for treatment of long-standing facial pa-ralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-qing; FANG Bai-rong; FANG Xue-quan; WANG Chang-jun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of free transplan-tation of denervated muscles and vessels in the treatment of long-standing facial paralysis.Methods: A total of 26 patients with facial paralysis (10 males and 16 females, aged 16-65 years, mean: 47 years) were enrolled in this study to receive transplantation of denervated extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) and extensor hallusis brevis (EHB). The muscle tendon was slung to the ala nasi, the middle point of the nasolabial sulcus, the angu-lus otis and the chin to correct the nasal and oral deformity. The muscle belly was buried around the nerves that inner-vated the masseter muscle. Microsurgery was applied to anastomosing the tarsus lateral vessels to the superficial temporalis vessels.Results: After operation, all the patients immediately obtained satisfied static appearance. The movement of the paralyzed comer of the mouth could be obtained one month later and the smile of the paralyzed side could be restored after 3 months of training. And 88% patients achieved per-fect results, 8% obtained satisfactory results, and 4% got improvement 6 months after operation according to Stennert's paresis scoring system.Conclusions: Free transplantation of denervated muscles and vessels for the treatment of long-standing fa-cial paralysis, which seldom causes atrophy or liquefaction of the transferred muscles, can maintain muscle viability and induce reliable nerve regeneration. Therefore, it is a safe and efficient treatment method for the patients suffer-ing from facial paralysis.

  9. Bilateral variations of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis: Surgical significance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles are known to exhibit numerous variations. Aims: We would like to put across an accidental unusual finding of APL and EPB muscles. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaveric dissection of a 52 year old female cadaver, we found an unusual APL and EPB muscles variations bilaterally. Results: Duplication of APL tendon was noted, one showing normal attachment and the additional one on trapezium. EPB muscle had an ...

  10. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after major knee resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Angelini, Andrea; Pala, Elisa; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Ruggieri, Pietro; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2012-05-01

    In periarticular knee resections, the relative lack of soft tissue coverage and need to reattach the extensor mechanism after en bloc resection of the tibial tuberosity with the tumor specimen complicate reconstructions and decrease postoperative function and stability of the knee joint. Distal femoral reconstructions are less problematic; muscular attachments are relatively few, neurovascular structures are not immediately adjacent to bone, and the knee extensor mechanism is usually not compromised from bone tumors. In the proximal tibia, the close proximity of the neurovascular structures in the popliteal fossa and peroneal nerve at the lateral aspect of the leg make reconstruction more difficult. Poor function is mostly related to unreliable options for knee extensor mechanism reattachment and poor soft tissue coverage. Successful and reliable attachment of the soft tissues has been a significant advance that improved functional outcomes.This article describes techniques for the reconstruction of the extensor mechanism of the knee after proximal tibia resections. Combined reconstruction techniques using direct reattachment of the patellar tendon with synthetic materials to megaprosthetic or allograft reconstructions for immediate stability, augmentation with autologous bone graft or substitutes at the attachment site, and coverage with the medial gastrocnemius muscle flap and supplementary flaps for long-term stability of the reattachment are currently considered the gold standard.

  11. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy - significance of pelvic extensors in sagittal spinal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Sung; Kang, Suk Jung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Yung-Tae; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-11-01

    Although facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common inherited myopathy, cases of infantile or early-childhood onset have rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to describe a case of early-onset FSHD with lumbar hyperlordosis, which shows the significance of the dynamic component of sagittal spinal imbalance. An 11-year-old girl presented with progressive gait disturbance and lumbar hyperlordosis. The motor power of her pelvic extensor muscles was grade 3. Pelvic tilt and hip flexion were markedly increased as determined by gait analysis. The most important factor in the development of hyperlordosis is the weakness of the pelvic extensor muscles, and the results of gait analysis exquisitely explain the pathophysiology. The patient stands with her spine hyperextended to maintain upright posture by a compensatory mechanism of relatively strong back extensor muscles. Corrective surgery for lumbar hyperlordosis was not considered because it could have eliminated the compensatory lumbar hyperextension, thus making the spine of the patient stoop forward through her hip joint during walking by the weakness of her pelvic extensor muscles. This FSHD case is an impressive example of a patient showing the concept that weak pelvic extensor muscles cannot keep the spine upright and balanced.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON PAIN AND CERVICAL RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH MYOFASCIAL PAIN IN UPPER TRAPEZIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srikanth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Myofascial trigger point (MTPt can be defined as a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. MTPt is associated with pain on compression, the pain is typically of a referred type. MTPt symptoms, cause severe discomfort and inability to work. The pain is aggravated with activity or stress. Untreated, chronic cases might lead to symptoms like depression, fatigue and behavioural disturbances. The objective of the study is to examine the effectiveness of MET on pain with VAS and cervical ROM with inch tape method in patients with myofascial pain in upper trapezius. Methods: participants were randomized into intervention group (n =15 and control group (n = 15.The intervention group was given muscle energy technique, ischemic compression and ultrasound. The control group was given only ischemic compression and ultrasound. Ultrasound 1 MHz continuous mode, intensity 1.5W/cm2 for 5 minutes. Home exercises taught to both the groups. This program designed for daily for 1 week. Outcome measures: Pain-VAS, ROM-Inch tape method (cervical lateral flexion. Results: values within the groups were compared by using paired `t` test. According to obtained values, the pre & posttest values of pain and ROM had an significant effect on p-values 0.00 in experimental group. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores of 95% confidence intervals for each outcome variable was reported. Conclusion: After 1 week of intervention protocol, the present study concludes that MET has significant improvement in pain, ROM in intervention group.

  13. Cervical Muscle Dysfunction in the Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Grade II (WAD-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marc J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Baten, Chris T.M.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Study Design: In a cross-sectional study, surface electromyography measurements of the upper trapezius muscles were obtained during different functional tasks in patients with a chronic whiplash associated disorder Grade II and healthy control subjects. - Objectives: To investigate whether muscle d

  14. Total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. METHODS: The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. CONCLUSION: The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.

  15. Clinical interest of postural and vestibulo-ocular reflex changes induced by cervical muscles and skull vibration in compensated unilateral vestibular lesion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome C; Herpin, Guillaume; Magnusson, Måns; Perrin, Philippe P

    2013-01-01

    Skull vibration induces nystagmus in unilateral vestibular lesion (UVL) patients. Vibration of skull, posterior cervical muscles or inferior limb muscles alters posture in recent UVL patients. This study aimed to investigate the postural effect of vibration in chronic compensated UVL patients. Vibration was applied successively to vertex, each mastoid, each side of posterior cervical muscles and of triceps surae in 12 UVL patients and 9 healthy subjects. Eye movements were recorded with videonystagmography. Postural control was evaluated in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Sway area, sway path, anteroposterior and medio-lateral sways were recorded.A vibration induced nystagmus (VIN) beating toward the healthy side was obtained for each UVL patient during mastoid vibration. In EO, only sway path was higher in UVL group during vibration of mastoids and posterior cervical muscles.The EO postural impairments of UVL patients could be related to the eye movements or VIN, leading to visual perturbations, or to a proprioceptive error signal, providing an erroneous representation of head position. The vibration-induced sway was too small to be clinically useful. Vestibulo-ocular reflex observed with videonystagmography during mastoid vibration seems more relevant to reveal chronic UVL than vestibulo-spinal reflex observed with posturography.

  16. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior c

  17. Effect of Weight-bearing Too Early in Lower Limbs on Extensor Muscle Spasm and Knee Hyperextension of Affected Limb in Acute Stroke Patients with Hemiplegia%急性脑卒中患者过早下肢负重与患肢伸肌痉挛及膝过伸的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永霞; 刘建国; 戚晓昆

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of weight-bearing too early in the lower limbs on extensor muscle spasm and knee hyperextension of affected limbs in acute stroke patients with hemiplegia. Methods; Eighty acute stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited and the clinical data was analyzed. Results: All the cases were divided into control and weight-bearing groups according to their compliance in rehabilitation training. All the cases were given canonical rehabilitation program for 2 months, and the cases in the weight-bearing group started weight-bearing too early. Results: The number of cases with extensor muscle spasm and knee hyperextension of affected limbs in the weight-bearing group was higher than that in the control group (P<0. 05) after 2 months of treatment. Conclusion: Weight-bearing too early could increase the risk of extensor muscle spasm and knee hyperextension in acute stroke patients with hemiplegia.%目的:研究下肢过早负重对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能的影响.方法:急性脑卒中患者80例,对全部患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:根据患者康复过程中的依从性,分为规范康复组和过早负重组,各40例,2组均接受康复治疗2个月,但过早负重组患者康复治疗期间过早下肢负重;治疗2个月后,过早负重组患者下肢出现伸肌痉挛及膝过伸的例数均高于规范康复组(P<0.05).结论:过早下肢负重容易使脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢出现伸肌痉挛及膝过伸.

  18. Effects of manipulation of the thorax and intensity of the pressure biofeedback unit on the superficial cervical flexors muscle during craniocervical flexion exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin Mo; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of manipulation of the thorax and the intensity of the pressure biofeedback unit on the superficial cervical flexors muscle during craniocervical flexion exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty three subjects participated in the experiment. Thirty three healthy people without any orthopedic history were also selected. The subjects could monitor the pressure applied to cervical vertebra 3 of the craniocervical junction by markings on the pressure biofeedback unit. Craniocervical flexion exercise was performed for 20 seconds per pressure, and two minutes of rest was allowed after exercise to reduce muscle fatigue. [Results] Significant differences in the post-training gains in the sternocleidomastoid and scalene were observed between the thorax fixation group and thorax non-fixation group. The thorax fixation group showed that muscle activation of the sternocleidomastoid and scalene was increased when the pressure biofeedback unit intensity was 40 mmHg than when pressure biofeedback unit intensity was 20 mmHg and 30 mmHg in the post-hoc result. The thorax non-fixation group showed that muscle activation of the sternocleidomastoid and scalene was higher when the pressure biofeedback unit intensity was 40mmHg compared to that when the pressure biofeedback unit intensity was 20mmHg in the post-hoc result. [Conclusion] Craniocervical flexion exercise is a clinically effective method that reduces the superficial neck flexor muscle activation. PMID:28265158

  19. Cervical Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder Grade 2: The Relevance of the Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marc J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Turk, Dennis C.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    Study Design. Surface electromyography measurements of the upper trapezius muscles were performed in patients with a chronic whiplash-associated disorder Grade 2 and those with nonspecific neck pain. Objective. To determine the etiologic relation between acceleration–deceleration trauma and the pre

  20. Duplication of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfred, T; Adamsen, S

    1986-05-01

    Three cases are presented, in which an anomalous tendon slip between the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and the extensor apparatus of the fifth finger was found. One of the patients was a violinist, who had serious impairment of the left wrist joint and the small finger due to the anomaly. The symptoms disappeared after excision.

  1. Impact responses of the cervical spine: A computational study of the effects of muscle activity, torso constraint, and pre-flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Roger W; Sganga, Jake; Cutcliffe, Hattie; Bass, Cameron R 'Dale'

    2016-02-29

    Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models, which are predicated on a better understanding of the neck response during dynamic loading. Previous studies have shown that the tolerance of the neck is dependent on its initial position and its buckling behavior. This study uses a computational model to examine three important factors hypothesized to influence the loads experienced by vertebrae in the neck under compressive impact: muscle activation, torso constraints, and pre-flexion angle of the cervical spine. Since cadaver testing is not practical for large scale parametric analyses, these factors were studied using a previously validated computational model. On average, simulations with active muscles had 32% larger compressive forces and 25% larger shear forces-well in excess of what was expected from the muscle forces alone. In the short period of time required for neck injury, constraints on torso motion increased the average neck compression by less than 250N. The pre-flexion hypothesis was tested by examining pre-flexion angles from neutral (0°) to 64°. Increases in pre-flexion resulted in the largest increases in peak loads and the expression of higher-order buckling modes. Peak force and buckling modality were both very sensitive to pre-flexion angle. These results validate the relevance of prior cadaver models for neck injury and help explain the wide variety of cervical spine fractures that can result from ostensibly similar compressive loadings. They also give insight into the mechanistic differences between burst fractures and lower cervical spine dislocations.

  2. Knee extensor strength is associated with pressure pain thresholds in adults with fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Michael Hooten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Individuals with fibromyalgia (FM have lower muscle strength and lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between muscle strength and PPT in adults with FM to test the hypothesis that greater measures of muscle strength would be associated with greater values of PPT. Secondary aims included determining the effects of pain severity and the peak uptake of oxygen (VO2 on the associations between muscle strength and PPT. METHODS: Knee extensor and flexor strength (N = 69 was measured in the dominant leg using a dynamometer, and PPT was assessed using an electronic algometer. Pain severity was determined using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and peak VO2 uptake was quantified using an electronically braked cycle ergometer. RESULTS: Univariable linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between PPT (dependent variable and isometric knee extensor (P<.001, isokinetic (60°/s knee extensor (P = .002, and isokinetic (60°/s knee flexor strength (P = .043. In a multiple variable linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, body mass index and peak VO2 uptake, a significant association was found between PPT and isometric knee extensor strength (P = .008. In a similar multiple variable analysis, a significant association was found between PPT and isokinetic knee extensor strength (P = .044. CONCLUSION: Greater measures of isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were significantly associated with greater values of PPT in both univariable and multiple variable linear regression models. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01253395.

  3. Extracting Extensor Digitorum Communis Activation Patterns using High-Density Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions.The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7×9 surface electromyogram (EMG recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic. Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal-distal direction than in the radial-ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders.

  4. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  5. Muscle Strength Characteristic of Chinese Freestyle Skiing Aerials Players' Knee Flexors and Extensor%自由式滑雪空中技巧国家队运动员膝关节屈伸肌群肌肉力量特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆福; 郭峰; 周臣泽

    2015-01-01

    目的:为了观察我国自由式滑雪空中技巧队男女运动员下肢膝关节屈伸肌群力量特点,发现目前下肢力量训练中存在的问题,以便为力量训练提供参考依据。方法:使用美国BIODEX公司生产的biodex system4等动测试系统对自由式滑雪空中技巧队男女运动员(男5名,女6名)的下肢膝关节屈伸肌群进行向心收缩的等动测试,测试速度分别为60°/s和180°/s。结果:男女运动员伸肌群的相对峰值力矩和相对平均功率都要显著高于屈肌群(P0.05)。结论:了解到目前我国自由式滑雪空中技巧队男女运动员下肢肌肉的力量特点,其中男女运动员下肢膝关节屈伸肌比(H/Q)较低,应该注重发展股后肌群的力量,以提升屈伸肌比值。左右腿肌肉力量发展比较均衡。%Objective, as a references for the strength training of freestyle skiing aerials, it is to observe the muscle strength characteristics of the skiers' knee flexors and extensors from Chinese team, to find out the problems existing in lower limbs training. methods, by using the biodex system to test the concentric muscle strength of (5 male, 6 female)skiers' knee flexors and extensors at isokinetic 60°/s and 180°/s. results, the extensors' peak torque/weight and avgerage power/weight are higher than the flexors' ones (P0.05). Conclusions, by analyzing the muscle strength characteristic of the players' lower limbs from Chinese freestyle skiing aerials, and their low peak torque flex/ext (H/Q) knee flexors, it thinks that it should be to pay attention to the strength of posterior thigh muscle group for improving the torque Flex/Ext and balancing the development of right and left lower limbs' strength.

  6. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Secondary to Dropped Head Syndrome: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dropped head syndrome (DHS is a disabling condition caused by severe weakness of the neck extensor muscles causing progressive reducible kyphosis of the cervical spine and the inability to hold the head up. Weakness can occur in isolation or in association with a generalized neuromuscular disorder. Isolated cases are owed to the late onset of noninflammatory myopathy designated as INEM, where persistent chin to chest deformity may gradually cause or aggravate preexisting degenerative changes of the cervical spine and ultimately result in myelopathy. In review of the literature, we could find only 5 cases, with no unique guidelines to address the management of these two concomitant pathologies. Herein, a 69-year-old man who had developed cervical myelopathy 2 years after being affected by isolated dropped head syndrome is presented. Chin to chest deformity and cervical myelopathy were managed through three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF combined with decompressive cervical laminectomy and stabilization with C2 to C7 pedicle screw-rod construct. At 4-month follow-up, despite recovery in patient’s neurological status, flexion deformity reappeared with recurrence of dropped head due to C7 pedicle screws pull-out. However, this was successfully managed with extension of the construct to the upper thoracic levels.

  7. What is a clinically meaningful improvement in leg-extensor power for mobility-limited older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Muscle power is a key predictor of physical function in older adults; however, clinically meaningful improvements in leg-extensor muscle power have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study is to establish the minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and substantial improvem...

  8. Physio-therapeutical methods after injuries of the flexor and extensor tendons of a hand

    OpenAIRE

    MUROŇOVÁ, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis entitled ``Physio-therapeutical methods after injuries of the flexor and extensor tendons of a hand{\\crqq} describes the anatomy of forearm and hand muscles, as well as fascia and tendon loops. The main objective is to summarize a basic knowledge on injuries of the hand{\\crq}s flexor and extensor tendons and physiotherapy of this problem. The work also includes the application of this knowledge into practice by elaboration of case reports of patients with injuries of the h...

  9. Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve pain, strengthen neck muscles, and improve range of motion. In some cases, traction can be used to ... Learn more about surgery for radiculopathy online at Cervical ... a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions and injuries. All articles are ...

  10. Utilização do esfigmomanômetro na avaliação da força dos músculos extensores e flexores da articulação do joelho em militares Utilización del esfigmomanómetro en la evaluación de la fuerza de los músculos extensores y flexores de la articulación de la rodilla en militares Use of the sphygmomanometer in the evaluation of the knee joint flexor and extensor muscle strength in militaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudionor Delgado

    2004-10-01

    ón se obtuvieron en la prueba de ejecución (Make test, en la mesa flexo-extensora Inbaf y registradas por EM Tycos. El análisis de los datos fue descriptiva, aplicándose la prueba "t" de Student para comparar los valores promedios, adoptándose un nivel de significancia de p 0,05. En los ángulos de 90 grados para la extensión y 30 grados para la flexión de la rodilla, no se observaron diferencias significativas intragrupos (p BASES AND OBJECTIVE: This is a comparative and descriptive study that aims at analyzing the strength for the different angles of the knee flexion and extension in militaries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee joint for different angles by means of the Modified Sphygmomanometer (MS in healthy militaries. METHODS: The sample was composed of 31 militaries as follows: 19 male and 12 female with average age of 26.5 ± 5.8 years; respective average height of 162.00 ± 0.06 (cm and 175.00 ± 0.06 (cm and average body mass of 56.83 ± 5.85 (kg and 73.25 ± 10.46 (kg. The evaluation methodology was the one proposed by Helewa, Goldsmith and Smithe (1981 using Modified Sphygmomanometer (MS. The maximal isometric contractions at 30º of flexion and 30º/90º of extension were obtained in the Make test, in the Inbaf flexion-extension table and recorded by the MS Tycos. The data was analyzed using the "t" Student-test to compare the averages, and the significance level adopted was p > 0.05. RESULTS: In both the female and the male groups, significant difference was only observed between angles of 30 and 90 degrees of the right knee extension (p > 0.05. At angles of 90 degrees for the knee extension and of 30 degrees for knee flexion, no intra-groups significant differences were observed (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Militaries present strength differences between knee joint anterior and posterior muscular groups at the different angles studied. The methodology used showed to be satisfactory for the strength

  11. Muscle power is an important measure to detect deficits in muscle function in hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Christensen, Helle Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    : The symptomatic extremity in patients was significantly (p extremity for five hip muscles (8-17%), knee extensors (11%) and leg extensor power (19%). Healthy older adults had asymmetry in knee extensor strength (6%, p ... in patients, but had no asymmetry in leg extensor power. CONCLUSIONS: Patients had generalized weakening of the affected lower extremity and numerically the largest asymmetry was evident for leg extensor power. In contrast, healthy peers had no asymmetry in leg extensor power. These results indicate...... that exercise interventions focusing on improving leg extensor power of the symptomatic lower extremity and reducing asymmetry may be beneficial for patients with hip osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Even in patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement a generalized muscle weakening...

  12. Atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais e amplitude de movimento da coluna cervical em indivíduos com e sem DTM Electrical activity of cervical muscles and range of movement of cervical column in individuals with and without DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade elétrica e a dor à palpação dos músculos cervicais, a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna cervical e a relação entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical em indivíduos com e sem desordem temporomandibular (DTM. Participaram do estudo 53 voluntários, sendo 24 com DTM e 29 sem, de ambos os gêneros, com 18 a 32 anos de idade. A DTM foi diagnosticada pelo critério de diagnóstico em pesquisa para DTM (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. A eletromiografia dos músculos esternocleidomastoídeo (ECOM e trapézio superior foi realizada bilateralmente, na situação de repouso, com frequência de 2 KHz e filtro passa-faixa de 10-1000 Hz. As medidas de ADM de flexão, extensão, lateroflexão e rotação foram realizadas com um flexímetro e a comparação entre os grupos contou com o teste de Mann Whitney. O teste de Spearman foi aplicado para a correlação entre as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. Não foi verificada nenhuma diferença na ADM cervical entre os grupos. A atividade elétrica demonstrou-se significativamente maior nos músculos ECOM direito (p=0,0130, trapézio superior direito (p=0,0334 e esquerdo (p=0,0335 no grupo DTM em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve correlação significante entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical. A dor nos músculos cervicais apresentou-se significativamente maior apenas no músculo ECOM direito (p=0,0055. Conclui-se que os grupos estudados registraram diferença na atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais, sendo esta maior em indivíduos com DTM.The aim of the research was to evaluate the electrical activity and pain on palpation of the cervical muscles, the cervical range of motion (ROM and the relationship between electrical activity and ROM in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD. Fifty three volunteers took part in the study, being 24 with TMD and 29 without, both genders

  13. Myofascial force transmission is increasingly important at lower forces: firing frequency-related length-force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Effects of submaximal stimulation frequencies on myofascial force transmission were investigated for rat anterior crural muscles with all motor units activated. - Methods: Tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus (TAEHL) muscles were kept at constant muscle-tendon complex length, but exte

  14. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s(-1)±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P biomechanics were unaffected by the presence of DOMS (P > 0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P biomechanics during running.

  15. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  16. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population.

  17. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561

  18. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  19. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  20. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex induces opposite modulation of reciprocal inhibition in wrist extensor and flexor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Klomjai, Wanalee; Bussel, Bernard; Katz, Rose; Roche, Nicolas

    2014-09-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used as a noninvasive tool to modulate brain excitability in humans. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that tDCS applied over the motor cortex also modulates spinal neural network excitability and therefore can be used to explore the corticospinal control acting on spinal neurons. Previously, we showed that reciprocal inhibition directed to wrist flexor motoneurons is enhanced during contralateral anodal tDCS, but it is likely that the corticospinal control acting on spinal networks controlling wrist flexors and extensors is not similar. The primary aim of the study was to explore the effects of anodal tDCS on reciprocal inhibition directed to wrist extensor motoneurons. To further examine the supraspinal control acting on the reciprocal inhibition between wrist flexors and extensors, we also explored the effects of the tDCS applied to the ipsilateral hand motor area. In healthy volunteers, we tested the effects induced by sham and anodal tDCS on reciprocal inhibition pathways innervating wrist muscles. Reciprocal inhibition directed from flexor to extensor muscles and the reverse situation, i.e., reciprocal inhibition, directed from extensors to flexors were studied in parallel with the H reflex technique. Our main finding was that contralateral anodal tDCS induces opposing effects on reciprocal inhibition: it decreases reciprocal inhibition directed from flexors to extensors, but it increases reciprocal inhibition directed from extensors to flexors. The functional result of these opposite effects on reciprocal inhibition seems to favor wrist extension excitability, suggesting an asymmetric descending control onto the interneurons that mediate reciprocal inhibition.

  1. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Pivonka, Peter; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS) was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD) and areal (ΔaBMD) BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8%) and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%), respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes. PMID:28168080

  2. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD and areal (ΔaBMD BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8% and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%, respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes.

  3. The Research Process of Manipulation in Improving Muscle Function in Cervical Spondylosis%手法治疗颈椎病改善肌肉功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊新; 仲卫红; 王诗忠

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of cervical spondylosis is closely related to the motion imbalance and tissue lesions of neck muscles. As one of the most commonly used treatment of cervical spondylosis, manipulation has definite therapeutic effect on improving functions of neck muscles in patients with cervical spondylosis. This article would review the researches about manipulation for cervical spondylosis that from the point of view of improv-ing neck muscle functions, in order to provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment.%颈椎病的发生多与颈部肌肉运动平衡失调及肌肉组织病变有关。手法作为颈椎病的常用治疗方法之一,对颈椎病患者颈部肌肉功能的改善有确切疗效。本文将从关于颈部肌肉功能方面对手法治疗颈椎病的研究进行综述,为临床治疗提供理论依据。

  4. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Flouris, Andreas D; Fouris, Andreas D; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level.

  5. Comparison of Upper Cervical Flexion and Cervical Flexion Angle of Computer Workers with Upper Trapezius and Levator Scapular Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The uppe...

  6. Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P < 0.01). Post hoc analysis revealed that facilitative KT treatment resulted in higher knee extensor peak torque performance than inhibitory KT treatment (P = 0.036, effect size 0.26). There were, however, no significant differences in the reflex latency (F(2,54) = 2.84, P = 0.067) nor in the EMG values (F(2,54) = 0.18, P = 0.837) in the patellar reflex between the 3 taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation.

  7. Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S.; Yeung, Ella W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P < 0.01). Post hoc analysis revealed that facilitative KT treatment resulted in higher knee extensor peak torque performance than inhibitory KT treatment (P = 0.036, effect size 0.26). There were, however, no significant differences in the reflex latency (F(2,54) = 2.84, P = 0.067) nor in the EMG values (F(2,54) = 0.18, P = 0.837) in the patellar reflex between the 3 taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. PMID:26825916

  8. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  9. Abnormal coactivation of knee and ankle extensors is related to changes in heteronymous spinal pathways after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbonnais Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal coactivation of leg extensors is often observed on the paretic side of stroke patients while they attempt to move. The mechanisms underlying this coactivation are not well understood. This study (1 compares the coactivation of leg extensors during static contractions in stroke and healthy individuals, and (2 assesses whether this coactivation is related to changes in intersegmental pathways between quadriceps and soleus (Sol muscles after stroke. Methods Thirteen stroke patients and ten healthy individuals participated in the study. Levels of coactivation of knee extensors and ankle extensors were measured in sitting position, during two tasks: maximal isometric voluntary contractions in knee extension and in plantarflexion. The early facilitation and later inhibition of soleus voluntary EMG evoked by femoral nerve stimulation were assessed in the paretic leg of stroke participants and in one leg of healthy participants. Results Coactivation levels of ankle extensors (mean ± SEM: 56 ± 7% of Sol EMG max and of knee extensors (52 ± 10% of vastus lateralis (VL EMG max during the knee extension and the ankle extension tasks respectively were significantly higher in the paretic leg of stroke participants than in healthy participants (26 ± 5% of Sol EMG max and 10 ± 3% of VL EMG max, respectively. Early heteronymous facilitation of Sol voluntary EMG in stroke participants (340 ± 62% of Sol unconditioned EMG was significantly higher than in healthy participants (98 ± 34%. The later inhibition observed in all control participants was decreased in the paretic leg. Levels of coactivation of ankle extensors during the knee extension task were significantly correlated with both the increased facilitation (Pearson r = 0.59 and the reduced inhibition (r = 0.56 in the paretic leg. Measures of motor impairment were more consistently correlated with the levels of coactivation of biarticular muscles than those of monoarticular

  10. Effects of the optimal flexor/extensor ratio on G-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Sub; Choi, Jean; Kim, Jung Woon; Jeon, Sang Yun; Kang, Sunghwun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the flexor/extensor ratio of the knee joints and compare it with the results of Korean Air Force students in G-tolerance test. [Subjects and Methods] The body composition of Korea Air Force students (n=77) was measured by an impedance method. A muscular function test was performed using a Humac Norm (USA) at angular speeds of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and an isokinetic muscular function test was also conducted. [Results] In the failed C and passing groups, muscle mass and fat percentages were significantly higher than those of students in the failed A group. The BMI of the failed C and passing groups were significantly higher than that of the failed A group. The group that passed had a significantly higher value of left knee 60°/sec flexion peak torque than the failed B group. Moreover, the total work of left knee extension of the failed C group and the passing group was significantly higher than that of the failed A group. The C group and the passing group had significantly higher values of the trunk 60°/sec flexor/extensor ratio than the failed A group, and the total work flexor/extensor ratio of the passing group was significantly higher than that of the failed A group. [Conclusions] Based on these results, balance the right and left knee flexor/extensor ratio, and a high flexor/extensor ratio of the trunk are required to endure a high G-tolerance test (+6G/30 sec). Moreover, an improvement in the maximum muscular strength is necessary to endure a situation of rapidly increasing acceleration in the early stage.

  11. Distribution of different fibre types of M. extensor carpi radialis longus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A de C; Silva M dal, D; Pai, V D

    1994-12-01

    As revealed by the NADH-diaphorase and myosine ATPase, the M. extensor carpi radialis longus of the rat possesses at least 3 main kinds of fibres, with different distribution on the superficial and deep portions of the muscle. The superficial portion revealed that 67.68% are FG (fast-twitch-glycolytic) fibres, 14.72% are FOG (fast-twitch-oxidative) fibres and 17.60% are SO (slow-twitch-glycolytic) fibres. Already the deep portion revealed that 71.29% are SO (slow-twitch-glycolytic) fibres, 17.46% are FOG (fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic) fibres and 11.25% are FG (fast-twitch-glycolytic) fibres. The miosine ATPase reaction was used to demonstrate contracting characteristics. These findings suggest that the movements of fast contraction of the M. extensor carpi radialis longus are predominant.

  12. Extensor mechanism-sparing paratricipital posterior approach to the distal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, Thomas A; Nork, Sean E; Mills, William J; Henley, M Bradford

    2003-05-01

    Adequate exposure of the articular surface of the distal humerus and elbow joint is required for operative stabilization of bicolumnar distal humerus fractures. The transolecranon approach, which provides complete posterior visualization and access to the distal humerus, is commonly used. Nevertheless, an olecranon osteotomy and other extensor mechanism-disrupting approaches have risks and possible complications. Alternative exposures have been described primarily for total elbow arthroplasty, but these involve extensive and potentially devascularizing dissections. In extra-articular (OTA type A) and simple articular distal humeral fractures with simple or multifragmentary metaphyseal involvement (OTA type C1 and C2), extensile approaches may not be necessary. For these fracture patterns, an alternative exposure is the extensor mechanism-sparing paratricipital posterior approach to the distal humerus through a midline posterior incision. This approach avoids an osteotomy and mobilizes the triceps and anconeus muscle off the posterior humerus and the intermuscular septae and provides adequate exposure for open reduction and internal fixation.

  13. Evaluation of the immediate effect of acupuncture on pain, cervical range of motion and electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with nonspecific neck pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonspecific neck pain can cause considerable suffering, possible disability and reductions in quality of life and productivity. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the immediate effect of acupuncture on pain, cervical range of motion and electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with nonspecific neck pain. Methods/Design A total of 12 patients with nonspecific neck pain and 12 healthy subjects will be enrolled in a randomized, single-blind crosso...

  14. Suspected feigned knee extensor weakness: usefulness of 3D gait analysis. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaler, Joaquim; Müller, Bertram; Maiques, Anna; Pujol, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present case report is to show the potential for use of 3D gait analysis as an assessment method of feigned muscle weakness. We describe a patient complaining of right leg pain and weakness. Physical examination showed severe quadriceps muscle weakness in a highly abnormal gait pattern context. Conventional diagnostic workup did not show any relevant findings. Three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis was performed with a 3D motion capture system. Joint angles, internal moments and powers were computed from the motion data. Lower leg muscle surface-electromyography was also performed. During the late stance phase, flexor moment and negative power peaks (indicating eccentric knee extensor activity) were generated in the knee, together with relevant Rectus femoris activity. All findings were highly inconsistent with true quadriceps weakness and gave objective ground to suspect insincerity of patient complaints. 3D gait analysis might be a valuable clinical assessment tool in suspected feigned lower limb muscle weakness.

  15. Morphological and mechanical properties of muscle and tendon in highly trained sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro; Yata, Hideaki; Tomita, Minoru; Okada, Masaji

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle and tendon properties in highly trained sprinters and their relations to running performance. Fifteen sprinters and 15 untrained subjects participated in this study. Muscle thickness and tendon stiffness of knee extensors and plantar flexors were measured. Sprinter muscle thickness was significantly greater than that of the untrained subjects for plantar flexors, but not for knee extensors (except for the medial side). Sprinter tendon stiffness was significantly lower than that of the untrained subjects for knee extensors, but not for plantar flexors. The best official record of a 100-m race was significantly correlated to the muscle thickness of the medial side for knee extensors. In conclusion, the tendon structures of highly trained sprinters are more compliant than those of untrained subjects for knee extensors, but not for plantar flexors. Furthermore, a thicker medial side of knee extensors was associated with greater sprinting performance.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING PROTOCOLS IN IMPROVEMENT OF EXTENSOR LAG IN OSTEOARTHRITIC KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shukla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis of knee is a widespread, slowly developing disease with a high prevalence with age, with greater body weight and in post menopausal women. The main causes of functional dysfunction in osteoarthritic knee are pain and quadriceps muscle weakness. Physical rehabilitation usually includes quadriceps exercises i.e. isometric and isotonic exercises for the maintenance of joint range of motion and muscle strength. Biofeedback is a process that can be combined with it to increase the awareness about the extent of muscle work done by quadriceps muscle. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of different quadriceps strengthening protocols with or without biofeedback in improvement of extensor lag in osteoarthritic knee joint. Materials & Methods: Sixty osteoarthritic knee patients with twenty patients each in three groups were randomly selected from Guru Harkrishan Hospital, Sarai Kale khan and Physical rehabilitation clinics in Delhi. Patients were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C. Research Design was Experimental study. Dependent Variables were Quardiceps Lag and Knee ROM .Independent Variables were Biofeedback and Modified Quadriceps Exercise which were introduced to the subjects. ANOVA test was applied to find out the statistical level of significance. Results: There was a great improvement of extensor lag in group C who had received Modified Quadriceps Sets with Biofeedback when compared with group B and group A. The percentage of reduction in pain was more and ROM was more increased in group C when compared with group B and A. Discussion & Conclusion: Modified quadriceps sets with biofeedback are better than the quadriceps sets and quadriceps sets with biofeedback in improvement of extensor lag in osteoarthric knee patients.

  17. Extensor mechanism allograft in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Tozi, Mateus Ramos; Félix, Alessandro Monterroso; Angelini, Fábio Janson; Pécora, José Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the experience with allograft transplantation of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty and compare results with the international experience. Methods We retrospectively evaluated three cases of extensor mechanism allograft after total knee arthroplasty performed in our hospital with the aid of one of the few tissue banks in Brazil and attempt to establish whether our experiences were similar to others reported in the world literature regarding patient indication, techniques, and outcomes. Results Two cases went well with the adopted procedure, and one case showed bad results and progressed to amputation. As shown in the literature, the adequate tension of the graft, appropriate tibial fixation and especially the adequate patient selection are the better predictors of good outcomes. Previous chronic infection can be an unfavorable predictor. Conclusion This surgical procedure has precise indication, albeit uncommon, either because of the rarity of the problem or because of the low availability of allografts, due to the scarcity of tissue banks in Brazil. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453688

  18. UPDATING OF THE ANATOMY OF THE EXTENSOR MECHANISM OF THE KNEE USING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWING TECHNIQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Oliveira, Saulo Gomes; Badra, Ricardo; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Jalikjian, Wahi; Golanó, Pau; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    The knee extensor mechanism is a complex structure formed by the quadriceps muscle and tendon, the patella, the patellar tendon and the ligaments that surround and help stabilize the knee. Through using a three-dimensional viewing technique on images of the knee extensor apparatus, we aimed to didactically show the structures that compose this bone-muscle-ligament complex. Anatomical dissection of the knee with emphasis on the structures of its extensor mechanism was performed, followed by taking photographs using a camera and lenses suitable for simulating human vision, through a technique for constructing three-dimensional images. Then, with the aid of appropriate software, pairs of images of the same structure from different angles simulating human vision were overlain with the addition of polarizing layer, thereby completing the construction of an anaglyphic image. The main structures of the knee extensor mechanism could be observed with a three-dimensional effect. Among the main benefits relating to this technique, we can highlight that in addition to teaching and studying musculoskeletal anatomy, it has potential use in training for surgical procedures and production of images for diagnostic tests.

  19. Skeletal Muscles With Antagonistic Muscular Actions: Morphological, Contractile And Metabolic Characteristics [músculo Esquelético Con Acción Muscular Antogonista:características Metabólicas, Contratiles Y Morfológicas

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas C.E.A.; Freitas S.B.Z.; Lopes F.S.; dal Pai-Silva M.; Picarro I.C.

    2009-01-01

    The muscles can perform the same function in a specific segment (muscles of fast and slow contraction), and at the same time be antagonistic in relation to muscular action (flexors or extensors). The present research aimed to study the morphology, frequency and metabolism of fiber types and the contractile characteristics of extensor and flexors muscles of rabbit. We studied muscles anterior tibialis (AT), flexor digitorum supeficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and posterior tibi...

  20. Triple extensor digiti minimi tendon: An anatomic variation

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Sari

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes an unusual variation of the extensor digiti minimi tendon discovered during extensor tendon repair in the emergency room. Knowledge of this variation may be helpful for the tendon transfers and tendon surgery that need tendon graft. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000): 56-58

  1. Competitive inhibition of the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rocuronium on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in the rat superior cervical ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Zhang, Jinmin; Qiu, Haibo; Sun, Yuming; Yang, Liqun; Wu, Feixiang; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-05-01

    A number of case reports now indicate that rocuronium can induce a number of serious side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects might be mediated by the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Conventional patch clamp recordings were used to study the effects of rocuronium on nAChR currents from enzymatically dissociated rat SCG neurons. We found that ACh induced a peak transient inward current in rat SCG neurons. Additionally, rocuronium suppressed the peak ACh-evoked currents in rat SCG neurons in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner, and it increased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs. The inhibitory rate of rocuronium on nAChR currents did not change significantly at membrane potentials between -70 and -20 mV, suggesting that this inhibition was voltage independent. Lastly, rocuronium preapplication enhanced its inhibitory effect, indicating that this drug might prefer to act on the closed state of nAChR channels. In conclusion, rocuronium, at clinically relevant concentrations, directly inhibits nAChRs at the SCG by interacting with both opened and closed states. This inhibition is competitive, dose dependent, and voltage independent. Blockade of synaptic transmission in the sympathetic ganglia by rocuronium might have potentially inhibitory effects on the cardiovascular system.

  2. The Effects of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Balance – A Study with Elite Amateur Rugby League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gosselin, Michael J. Fagan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neck muscle fatigue has been shown to alter an individual’s balance in a similar way to that reported in subjects suffering from neck pain or subjects that have suffered a neck injury. The main purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of neck fatigue on neck muscle electromyography (EMG activity, balance, perceived fatigue and perceived stability. Forty four elite amateur rugby league players resisted with their neck muscles approximately 35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC force for 15 minutes in eight different directions. Sway velocity and surface electromyography were measured. Questionnaires were used to record perceived effort and stability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that after 15 minutes isometric contraction, significant changes were seen in sway velocity, perceived sway and EMG median frequency. There were no differences in perceived efforts. The changes in sway velocity and median frequency were more pronounced after extension and right and left posterior oblique contractions but there was no significant difference in sway velocity after contraction in the right lateral flexion, right anterior oblique and left anterior oblique direction of contraction. All the subjects showed oriented whole-body leaning in the plane of the contraction. The experiment produced significantly altered and perceived altered balance in this group of physically fit individuals. The results may contribute to our understanding of normal functional capacities of athletes and will provide a basis for further investigation in healthy non-athletes and participants that have suffered neck injuries. This may ultimately help develop accurate and valid rehabilitation outcome measures.

  3. Repair of multiple cervical root avulsion with sural nerve graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chuang, Tien-Yow; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Lee, Liang-Shong; Cheng, Henrich

    2004-09-01

    To obtain easier access to avulsed roots in the intradural space for patients suffering cervical root avulsion, the authors of this study developed a novel repair method. This involves using nerve grafts to bridge corresponding segments of the spinal cord and the trunk or cord level of the plexus, respectively, in two surgical stages. All eight patients admitted to this study received pre- and post-operative workups of electrophysiological evaluations and muscle power grading through Medical Research Council (MRC) scores. The degrees of impairment were also graded according to a modified version of Dumitru's and Wilbourn's scale (mild = 1; moderate = 2; severe = 3). The preoperative versus post-operative differences in the severity of the injuries and in the grading of the target muscle power were calculated according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The preoperative degree of the severity of the injuries, as measured by electromyography (EMG), was 3.00 +/- 0.00 (mean +/- S.D.). The post-operative result was 2.125 +/- 0.641. Significant change took place after repair (P = 0.0313). Moreover, although little improvement was observed in the triceps, brachioradialis (BR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and intrinsic hand muscles, the MRC grading showed significant yet not prominent motor recovery in the deltoid and biceps brachii (both P = 0.0313). We were impressed that the initial significant statistical results of differences in pre- and post-operative severity of the injuries and muscle power grading, demonstrated that regeneration does occur with this repair strategy.

  4. Effects of lumbar extensor fatigue and surface inclination on postural control during quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingding; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2012-11-01

    A number of work environments require workers to perform tasks on inclined surfaces. Such tasks, along with muscle fatigue, can impair postural control and increase falling risks. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of surface inclination angle, standing direction, and lumbar extensor fatigue on postural control during quiet standing. A group of 16 young, healthy participants were tested while standing on inclined surfaces before and after lumbar extensor fatigue (induced by repetitive isotonic exercise). Three inclination angles (0°, 18° and 26°) and three standing directions (uphill, downhill, and lateral facing) were examined. Postural control was assessed using several measures derived from center-of-pressure time series and subjectively perceived stability. Significant main and interactive effects of inclination angle and standing direction were found for all dependent measures. The adverse effects of standing on inclined surfaces were found to differ between the three standing directions. In general, dose-response relationships with inclination angle were evident, particularly in the lateral-facing direction. Fatigue-related effects differed between conditions, suggesting that the adverse effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural control depend on inclination angle and standing direction. These findings may facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions for work involving inclined surfaces.

  5. Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael D; Springer, Bryan D

    2015-02-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption is a rare and potentially devastating complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. Disruption can occur at the quadriceps or patellar tendons or, in the setting of a fracture, at the patella. Recognition of the risk factors for disruption and prevention via meticulous surgical technique are critical to avoid this complication. Various management techniques and the challenges associated with treatment have been described. Nonsurgical management consists of the use of walking aids and/or knee braces, which may not be acceptable for the active patient. Surgical options include primary repair and reconstructive techniques using allograft, autograft, synthetic material, and gastrocnemius rotational flaps. However, no single method has reliably demonstrated satisfactory outcomes. Although research on reconstructive procedures with synthetic materials has been promising, further study is need to assess the use of these materials.

  6. Proprioceptive control of wrist extensor motor units in humans: dependence on handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimonetti, J M; Morin, D; Schmied, A; Vedel, J P; Pagni, S

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of the monosynaptic proprioceptive assistance to the wrist extensor motoneurone activity was investigated during voluntary contraction in relation to the subjects' handedness. The reflex responses of 411 single motor units to homonymous tendon taps were recorded in the wrist extensor carpi radialis muscles in both arms of five right-handed and five left-handed subjects. In the right-handed subjects, the motor unit reflex responses were clearly lateralized in favour of their right arm, whereas no side-related differences were observed in the left-handed subjects, whatever the motor units' mechanical properties and firing rates. When the muscle spindle sensitivity was by-passed by electrically stimulating the primary afferents in both arms of three right-handed and three left-handed subjects, no side-related differences were observed in the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude in either of the two lateralization groups. The effectiveness of the primary afferent synapses on to the motoneurones therefore does not seem to depend on the subject's handedness. Without excluding the possibility of structural changes being involved at the periphery, the comparisons carried out on the data obtained using electrical vs mechanical stimulation suggest that the asymmetrical effectiveness of the proprioceptive assistance observed in favour of the right arm in the right-handed subjects might result from either the gamma or beta drive being more efficient. This asymmetry might result from the preferential use of the right hand in skilled movements. In a predominantly right-handed world, however, left-handed people might tend to develop the ability to use their right arm almost as skillfully as their preferred left arm, which could explain the symmetrical effectiveness of the proprioceptive assistance observed here in the left-handers' wrist extensor muscles.

  7. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  8. Morphology of peroneus tertius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S D; Joshi, S S; Athavale, S A

    2006-10-01

    Peroneus tertius (PT) muscle is peculiar to man, and man is the only member among the primates in whom this muscle occurs. The muscle is variable in its development and attachment. Because of functional demands of bipedal gait and plantigrade foot, part of extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) has migrated upwards into the leg from the dorsum of foot. PT is a muscle that evolution is rendering more important. In a total of 110 cadavers, extensor compartment of leg and dorsum of foot were dissected in both the lower limbs and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and PT muscles were dissected and displayed. PT was found to be absent in 10.5% limbs, the incidence being greater on the right side. The remaining limbs in which the PT muscle was present had a very extensive origin from lower 3/4th of extensor surface of fibula (20% on right and in 17% on left), and the EDL was very much reduced in size. In approximately 12%, the tendon of PT was thick or even thicker than the tendon of EDL. In 4%, the tendon extended beyond fifth metatarsal up to metatarsophalangeal joint of fifth toe, and in 1.5%, it extended up to the proximal phalanx of little toe. In two cases (both on the right side), where PT was absent, it was replaced by a slip from lateral margin of EDL. We conclude that PT, which is preeminently human, is extending its purchase both proximally and distally.

  9. Frequency tuning of the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) recorded from multiple sites along the sternocleidomastoid muscle in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Jeffcoat, Ben; Mustain, William; Zhu, Hong; Eby, Thomas; Zhou, Wu

    2013-02-01

    Frequency tuning of tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) is used clinically to assess vestibular function. Understanding the characteristics of cVEMP is important for improving the specificity of cVEMP testing in diagnosing vestibular deficits. In the present study, we analyzed the frequency tuning properties of the cVEMPs by constructing detailed tuning curves and examining their morphology and dependence on SCM tonic level, sound intensity, and recording site along the SCM. Here we report two main findings. First, by employing nine tone frequencies between 125 and 4,000 Hz, some tuning curves exhibited two distinct peaks, which cannot be modeled by a single mass spring system as previously suggested. Instead, the observed tuning is better modeled as linear summation of two mass spring systems, with resonance frequencies at ~300 and ~1,000 Hz. Peak frequency of cVEMP tuning curves was not affected by SCM tonic level, sound intensity, and location of recording site on the SCM. However, sharpness of cVEMP tuning was increased at lower sound intensities. Second, polarity of cVEMP responses recorded from the lower quarter of the SCM was reversed as compared to that at the two upper sites. While more studies are needed, these results suggest that cVEMP tuning is mediated through multiple generators with different resonance frequencies. Future studies are needed to explore implications of these results on development of selective VEMP tests and determine the nature of polarity inversion at the lower quarter of SCM.

  10. Parsonage-Turner syndrome and a localised swelling around the extensor tendons of the hand: a clinical sign indicating increased risk of rupture of the tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedung, Torbjörn

    2012-10-01

    Two patients presented with intense pain in the shoulder followed by weakness and paralysis of muscles in the shoulder and arm, together with a peculiar swelling on the hand. The swelling seems to predispose to rupture of the extensor tendon. If this tumour is a regular finding in Parsonage-Turner syndrome, it may also help in making a definitive diagnosis.

  11. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  13. Pressure pain mapping of the wrist extensors after repeated eccentric exercise at high intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfa de la Morena, José M; Samani, Afshin; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Hansen, Ernst A; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate adaptation mechanisms after 2 test rounds consisting of eccentric exercise using pressure pain imaging of the wrist extensors. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed over 12 points forming a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow in 12 participants. From the PPT assessments, pressure pain maps were computed. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced in an initial test round of high-intensity eccentric exercise. The second test round performed 7 days later aimed at resulting in adaptation. The PPTs were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the 2 test rounds of eccentric exercise. For the first test round, the mean PPT was significantly lower 24 hours after exercise compared with before exercise (389.5 ± 64.1 vs. 500.5 ± 66.4 kPa, respectively; p = 0.02). For the second test round, the PPT was similar before and 24 hours after (447.7 ± 51.3 vs. 458.0 ± 73.1 kPa, respectively; p = 1.0). This study demonstrated adaptive effects of the wrist extensors monitored by pain imaging technique in healthy untrained humans. A lack of hyperalgesia, i.e., no decrease in PPT underlined adaptation after the second test round of eccentric exercise performed 7 days after the initial test round. The present findings showed for the first time that repeated eccentric exercise performed twice over 2 weeks protects the wrist extensor muscles from developing exacerbated pressure pain sensitivity. Thus, the addition of eccentric components to training regimens should be considered to induce protective adaptation.

  14. Isokinetic testing and analysis of flexor-extensor muscle of the knee joint of women field hockey athletes%女子曲棍球运动员膝关节屈伸肌群等速测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹峰锐; 邹亮畴; 彭森

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, isokinetic test has been widely used by scientific research personnel to evaluate the strengthcharacter of athletes of different sport events. However, there are few reports describing the characteristics of the field hockeyplayer by isokinetic test.OBJECTIVE: This study tested the flexor and extensor torque of the knee joint of women field hockey athletes from Guangdongprovince to provide some results for the training of sport teams and scientific research.METHODS: The flexor and extensor torque of knee joint of 14 women field hockey athletes from Guangdong province wasperformed isokinetic test using CON-TREX isokinetic testing machine. Detection indices include peak torque/body weight, peaktorgue ratio of hamstring to quadriceps, average power, total work and fatigue index.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under the testing velocity of 60° per second, the peak torque/body weight values of extensorwere significantly greater than those of the flexor (P < 0.01). Under three different velocities, the hamstring/quadriceps ratio of theleft knee joint was 66%-77%, and the ratio of the right knee joint was 82%-88%. The average power of the extensor of left kneejoint was significantly greater than that of the flexor (P < 0.01). The total work of the extensor of the left and right flexor wassignificantly greater than that of the flexor (P < 0.01). The fatigue index of extensor and flexor of the knee joint was 0.24-0.48.The most strength of knee joint extensor was greater than that of the flexor. The peak torgue ratio of hamstring to quadriceps ofthe left knee joint was slightly low at 240°/s, while the peak torgue ratio of hamstring to quadriceps of the right knee joint wasslightly high at low speed. The results showed that the speed strength of the left knee joint of the women field hockey athleteswas slightly low, the maximum strength of the right knee joint extensor was relatively low, the speed strength of the extensor wasgreater than

  15. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirking, Meghan; Berrios Barillas, Reivian; Nelson, Philip Andrew; Hunter, Sandra Kay; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women) with chronic stroke (≥6 months) and 23 (12 men, 11 women) nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability) than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min). Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min). Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups. PMID:28085089

  16. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kirking

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women with chronic stroke (≥6 months and 23 (12 men, 11 women nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min. Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min. Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups.

  17. Anticipatory and Reactive Response to Falls: Muscle Synergy Activation of Forearm Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Greg; Kerr, Graham

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the surface electromyogram response of six forearm muscles to falls onto the outstretched hand. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were sampled from eight volunteers who underwent ten self-initiated falls. All muscles initiated prior to impact. Co-contraction is the most obvious surface electromyogram feature. The predominant response is in the radial deviators. The surface electromyogram timing we recorded would appear to be a complex anticipatory response to falling modified by the effect on the forearm muscles following impact. The mitigation of the force of impact is probably more importantly through shoulder abduction and extension and elbow flexion rather than action of the forearm muscles.

  18. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, especially suitable for use on the elderly population and on infants. While performing Tuina, the therapist concentrates his mind, regulates his breathing, and actuates the Qi and power of his entire body towards his hands. For a better result is recommended to try to combine acupuncture with tuina treatment. Tuina can help relieve the pain associated with spondylosis. After this kind of treatment, the symptomes produced by irritated nerves and sore muscles can find some relief. Tuina helps patients with cervical spondylosis regain muscle control, nerve function and flexibility, all through the restoration of the life force flow.

  19. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  20. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  1. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  2. The Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMPs) Recorded Along the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles During Head Rotation and Flexion in Normal Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Alexander; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Chunming; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Eby, Thomas; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu

    2016-08-01

    Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) are widely used to assess the vestibular function. Since the cVEMP response is mediated by the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) pathways, it is important to understand how the cVEMPs are determined by factors related to either the sensory components (vestibular end organs) or the motor components (SCM) of the VCR pathways. Compared to the numerous studies that have investigated effects of sound parameters on the cVEMPs, there are few studies that have examined effects of SCM-related factors on the cVEMPs. The goal of the present study is to fill this knowledge gap by testing three SCM-related hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that contrary to the current view, the cVEMP response is only present in the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The second hypothesis is that the cVEMP response is not only dependent on tonic level of the SCM, but also on how the tonic level is achieved, i.e., by head rotation or head flexion. The third hypothesis is that the SCM is compartmented and the polarity of the cVEMP response is dependent on the recording site. Seven surface electrodes were positioned along the left SCMs in 12 healthy adult subjects, and tone bursts were delivered to the ipsilateral or contralateral ear (8 ms plateau, 1 ms rise/fall, 130 dB SPL, 50-4000 Hz) while subjects activated their SCMs by head rotation (HR condition) or chin downward head flexion (CD condition). The first hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the contralateral cVEMPs were minimal at all recording sites for all the tested tones during both HR and CD conditions. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the ipsilateral cVEMPs were larger in HR condition than in CD condition at recording sites above and below the SCM midpoint. Finally, the third hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the cVEMPs exhibit reversed polarities at the sites

  3. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19-21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity.

  4. MUSCLE POWER, SITTING UNSUPPORTED AND TRUNK ROTATION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGROOT, L; HOPKINS, B; TOUWEN, B

    1995-01-01

    Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active mus

  5. Comparison of upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually.

  6. Cervical Angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

  7. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents.

  8. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  9. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1 concentric contraction without preactivation (CON, (2 concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO. Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees. Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  10. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19–21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slo...

  11. Skeletal muscle responses to unweighting in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of earth-based studies is presented emphasizing the data on muscular strength and size derived from experiments under simulated microgravity. The studies involve the elimination of weight-bearing responsibility of lower-limb human musculature to simulate the unweighting effects of space travel in the absence of exercise. Reference is given to bedrest and unilateral lower-limb suspension, both of which provide data that demonstrate the decreased strength of the knee extensors of 20-25 percent. The response is related to the decrease in cross-sectional area of the knee extensors which is a direct indication of muscle-fiber atrophy. Most of the effects of unweighting are associated with extensor muscles in the lower limbs and not with postural muscles. Unweighting is concluded to cause significant adaptations in the human neuromuscular system that require further investigation.

  12. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  13. Voluntary activation of human knee extensors measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, S; Romer, L M; Ross, E Z

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and reliability of a transcranial magnetic stimulation twitch interpolation technique for measuring voluntary activation of a lower limb muscle group. Cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensors was determined in nine healthy men on two separate visits by measuring superimposed twitch torques evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during isometric knee extensions of varying intensity. Superimposed twitch amplitude decreased linearly with increasing voluntary torque between 50 and 100% of mean maximal torque, allowing estimation of resting twitch amplitude and subsequent calculation of voluntary activation. There were no systematic differences for maximal voluntary activation within day (mean +/- s.d. 90.9 +/- 6.2 versus 90.7 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.98) or between days (90.8 +/- 6.0 versus 91.2 +/- 5.7%; P = 0.92). Systematic bias and random error components of the 95% limits of agreement were 0.23 and 9.3% within day versus 0.38 and 7.5% between days. Voluntary activation was also determined immediately after a 2 min maximal voluntary isometric contraction; in four of these subjects, voluntary activation was determined 30 min after the sustained contraction. Immediately after the sustained isometric contraction, maximal voluntary activation was reduced from 91.2 +/- 5.7 to 74.2 +/- 12.0% (P knee extensors.

  14. Natural cutaneous stimulation induces late and long-lasting facilitation of extensor motoneurons in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieppati, M; Crenna, P

    1984-02-20

    An investigation was made of the effects of physiological cutaneous stimulation on the excitability of extensor motoneurons in spinal unanesthetized cats. The time course of changes in the monosynaptic reflex (MSR) amplitude of the soleus (Sol) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) was studied after conditioning stimulation with air jets (delivered to different regions of the skin of the ipsilateral hind limb), pinpricks, or stretching of the skin of the heel induced by passive rotation of the tibio-tarsal joint. Low-intensity electrical stimulation of the sural or saphenous nerves was also employed in order to condition the MSRs of the triceps surae muscles. Hair bending, skin indentation or stretching, as well as electrical nerve stimulation, can induce a similar biphasic excitability cycle of the extensor MSRs, characterized by an early inhibition followed by a late facilitatory period (LFP). The LFP started approximately 20 ms after the arrival of the cutaneous afferent volley, and lasted about 80 ms. Conditioned MSRs could attain values corresponding to 200% or more of controls. The receptive field of the LFP evoked by the air jet proved to be as large as the whole leg and foot skin surface. No significant differences were found in the extent of the late facilitation in the MSRs of Sol, GM and GL, conditioned by electrical stimulation. The LFP was also present, after conditioning stimulation of the same types as above, in intact (and spinal) chloralose-anesthetized cats.

  15. Hazards of steroid injection: Suppurative extensor tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Colin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local steroid injections are often administered in the office setting for treatment of trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain′s tenosynovitis, and basal joint arthritis. If attention is paid to sterile technique, infectious complications are rare. We present a case of suppurative extensor tenosynovitis arising after local steroid injection for vague symptoms of dorsal hand and wrist pain. The progression of signs and symptoms following injection suggests a natural history involving bacterial superinfection leading to tendon rupture. We discuss the pitfalls of local steroid injection and the appropriate management of infectious extensor tenosynovitis arising in such situations.

  16. Morphology of Donor and Recipient Nerves Utilised in Nerve Transfers to Restore Upper Limb Function in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Messina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss of hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI impacts heavily on independence. Multiple nerve transfer surgery has been applied successfully after cervical SCI to restore critical arm and hand functions, and the outcome depends on nerve integrity. Nerve integrity is assessed indirectly using muscle strength testing and intramuscular electromyography, but these measures cannot show the manifestation that SCI has on the peripheral nerves. We directly assessed the morphology of nerves biopsied at the time of surgery, from three patients within 18 months post injury. Our objective was to document their morphologic features. Donor nerves included teres minor, posterior axillary, brachialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis and supinator. Recipient nerves included triceps, posterior interosseus (PIN and anterior interosseus nerves (AIN. They were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and embedded in Araldite Epon for light microscopy. Eighty percent of nerves showed abnormalities. Most common were myelin thickening and folding, demyelination, inflammation and a reduction of large myelinated axon density. Others were a thickened perineurium, oedematous endoneurium and Renaut bodies. Significantly, very thinly myelinated axons and groups of unmyelinated axons were observed indicating regenerative efforts. Abnormalities exist in both donor and recipient nerves and they differ in appearance and aetiology. The abnormalities observed may be preventable or reversible.

  17. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  18. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  19. The trigemino-cervical reflex in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, I; Bogdanova, D; Ishpekova, B

    2001-01-01

    There are only few reports on the trigemino-cervical reflex in humans and there is debate over the best method of reflex examination. The aim of this study was, comparing different methods, to provide a reproducible method for evaluating the trigemino-cervical reflex. The trigemino-cervical reflex was studied in 32 healthy volunteers. The stimulation was applied to the supraorbital, infraorbital or mental nerve. Recordings were performed bilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles at rest. The reflex was also examined during maximal voluntary contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle after supraorbital nerve stimulation. It presented as a two-component reflex if recorded from a tonically active muscle and as a one-component reflex if recorded from a relaxed muscle. The most reproducible reflex responses were obtained from the resting sternocleidomastoid muscle after stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. In conclusion, the trigemino-cervical reflex may be most easily obtained from the relaxed sternocleidomastoid muscle after supraorbital nerve stimulation.

  20. Outcome of early active mobilization after extensor tendon repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Narender

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally the repaired extensor tendons have been treated postoperatively in static splints for several weeks, leading to formation of adhesions and prolonged rehabilitation. Early mobilization using dynamic splints is common, but associated with many shortcomings. We attempted to study the results of early active mobilization, using a simple static splint, and easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study 26 cases of cut extensor tendons in Zone V to VIII were treated with primary or delayed primary repair. Following this, early active mobilization was undertaken, using an easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. The results were assessed according to the criteria of Dargan at six weeks and one year. Results: All the 26 patients were followed up for one year. 20 out of 26 patients were below 30 years of age, involving the dominant hand more commonly (16 patients, 62%. Agriculture instruments were the most common mode of injury (13 patients, 50%. The common site for injury was extensor zone VI (42%, n = 11. Conclusion: Rehabilitation done for repaired extensor tendon injuries by active mobilization plan using a simple static splint has shown good results.

  1. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  2. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spine showing extension of the spine following a cervical laminoplasty. B) Post-operative lateral x-rays of the same patient showing flexion. Note that the range of motion is maintained after the laminoplasty and that no ...

  3. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... therapist). Sometimes, a few visits will help with neck pain. Cold packs and heat therapy may help your ...

  4. Effect of mental fatigue on induced tremor in human knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine; Durbaba, Rade; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the effects of mental fatigue on mechanically induced tremor at both a low (3-6Hz) and high (8-12Hz) frequency were investigated. The two distinct tremor frequencies were evoked using two springs of different stiffness, during 20s sustained contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) before and after 100min of a mental fatigue task, in 12 healthy (29±3.7years) participants. Mental fatigue resulted in a 6.9% decrease in MVC and in a 9.4% decrease in the amplitude of the agonist muscle EMG during sustained 30% MVC contractions in the induced high frequency only. Following the mental fatigue task, the coefficient of variation and standard deviation of the force signal decreased at 8-12Hz induced tremor by 31.7% and 35.2% respectively, but not at 3-6Hz induced tremor. Similarly, the maximum value and area underneath the peak in the power spectrum of the force signal decreased by 55.5% and 53.1% respectively in the 8-12Hz range only. In conclusion, mental fatigue decreased mechanically induced 8-12Hz tremor and had no effect on induced 3-6Hz tremor. We suggest that the reduction could be attributed to the decreased activation of the agonist muscles.

  5. Alternate technique in managing adhesions after zone 3 extensor tendon repair: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangatharam, Sudhagar; LeBlanc, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are given less importance than the flexor tendon injuries; however, the extensor mechanism is more complicated than flexor tendon system, and regaining satisfactory function is a challenge. It has been reported that loss of digital flexion would affect grasp and power grip imposing greater functional loss than digital extensor lag. Zone 3 extensor tendon management is complex because of excessive scar formation limiting composite digital flexion and extension. The adhesions are more common if the tendon is immobilized for long period. The purpose of this care report is to describe the alternate technique in managing adhesion after prolong immobilization in zone 3 extensor tendon injuries.

  6. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  7. [The cutaneous extensor plantar reflex (Babinski, 1896/1898)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Souza, R; de Figueiredo, W M

    1995-06-01

    The extensor plantar reflex was described by Babinski in 1896. Given the obvious relevance of the sign for internal medicine as well as the paucity of translations of the original sources into Portuguese, we thought it timely to recall the ingenious arguments Babinski used to demonstrate his views on the "toe phenomenon", as he would call it. A careful analysis of Babinski's writings suggests, further, that he was driven by keen intuition as well as by medico-legal interests.

  8. EXERCISE WITH THE BARBELL-EXTENSOR CONCENTRIC DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiu Bogdan Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study has shown that exercise performed with concentric barbell-extensor system that forearm flexion-extension defeat both elastic and gravitational resistance (oriented in the same direction can lead to considerable progress of muscular force. Exercise has a complex character because requesting simultaneously both biceps and triceps. Developing passive force can be used to relieve elbow joint pain and for diversification of bodybuilding programs.

  9. Fatigue effects on tracking performance and muscle activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Looze, M.P. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that fatigue affects proprioception and consequently movement accuracy, the effects of which may be counteracted by increased muscle activity. To determine the effects of fatigue on tracking performance and muscle activity in the M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR), 11 female part

  10. The effect of a newly developed wheelchair with thoracic and pelvic support on cervical movement and muscle activity in healthy elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, N; Hatta, T; Kishigami, H.; Shimizu, M; Yoda, T; Goda, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: As the population ages, the number of elderly individuals using a wheelchair is increasing. A standard wheelchair with a vertical backrest (S-WC) pushes on a kyphotic spine and exacerbates forward head posture. Forward head posture limits cervical movement. We used a new wheelchair (N-WC) that does not exacerbate thoracic kyphosis. The N-WC does not have a flat backrest, but has a support belt for the thorax and pelvis. The purpose of this study was to compare head-neck angle, cer...

  11. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after proximal tibia endoprosthetic replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickels, J; Wittig, J C; Kollender, Y; Neff, R S; Kellar-Graney, K; Meller, I; Malawer, M M

    2001-10-01

    The proximal tibia is a difficult area in which to perform a wide resection of a bone tumor. This difficulty is due to the intimate relationship of tumor in this location to the nerves and blood vessels of the leg, inadequate soft tissue coverage after endoprosthetic reconstruction, and the need to reconstruct the extensor mechanism. Competence of the extensor mechanism is the major determinant of functional outcome of these patients. Between 1980 and 1997, 55 patients underwent proximal tibia resection with endoprosthetic reconstruction for a variety of malignant and benign-aggressive tumors. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism included reattachment of the patellar tendon to the prosthesis with a Dacron tape, reinforcement with autologous bone-graft, and attachment of an overlying gastrocnemius flap. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years; 6 patients (11%) had a transient peroneal nerve palsy, 4 patients (7.2%) had a fasciocutaneous flap necrosis, and 2 patients (3.6%) had a deep wound infection. Full extension to extension lag of 20 degrees was achieved in 44 patients, and 8 patients required secondary reinforcement of the patellar tendon. Function was estimated to be good to excellent in 48 patients (87%). Reattachment of the patellar tendon to the prosthesis and reinforcement with an autologous bone-graft and a gastrocnemius flap are reliable means to restore extension after proximal tibia endoprosthetic reconstruction.

  12. [Cervical vertebral column--anatomy, fractures, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosiński, Michał; Sienkiewicz-Zawilińska, Justyna; Lipski, Marcin; Zawiliński, Jarosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with anatomy of human cervical spine. It shows close relation between knowledge on the normal structure and methods of treatment of different kinds of spine injuries. It describes detailed anatomy and mechanical features of cervical vertebral column, including the structure of distinct vertebrae, their joints and arrangement of muscles. It reviews also historical methods of treatment of fractures in this region considering current methods.

  13. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P power in healthy men and women.

  14. Effect of shoulder angle on the activation pattern of the elbow extensors during a submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew W; Rice, Charles L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of shoulder angle on the electromyographic (EMG) activation pattern of the elbow extensors during a fatiguing contraction. Ten young men (23.5 ± 1.7) were tested on two occasions with the elbow angle at 90° and the shoulder at either 0° or 90° of flexion. EMG was recorded by fine wire electrodes inserted into the lateral, medial, and long heads of the triceps brachii and the anconeus. An EMG-torque relationship was determined prior to a sustained isometric contraction at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until target failure. Endurance time was shorter, and postfatigue MVC torque was lower at 90° (40.4 ± 12.7 Nm) versus 0° (47.9 ± 14.7 Nm) of flexion. EMG activity of the long head during the final 10% of the fatiguing contraction was significantly greater at 90° versus 0° with no effect of shoulder angle on any other muscle portions. The findings suggest that measures from one muscle portion of the elbow extensors are not representative of the whole group, and the relative activation of the two-joint long head was changed depending on shoulder angle during a fatigue task.

  15. Moments of muscular strength of knee joint extensors and flexors during physiotherapeutic procedures following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate maximal muscular strength moments of knee joint extensors and flexors in males subjected to physiotherapeutic procedures. 120 males were selected for the study. The first group consisted of 54 patients who underwent a 6 month physiotherapy programme following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The control group comprised 54 males without knee joint injuries. The measurement of muscular strength moments was performed in healthy and affected knee joint flexor and extensor muscles postoperatively, during the 13th and 21st week of physiotherapy. The patients' results were next compared with the results obtained in the control group. During the 13th week of physiotherapy, the values of postoperative maximal strength moments in knee joints were significantly lower compared to the results obtained in non-operated limbs and in the control group. The introduction of individual loads adjusted to the course of ACL graft reconstruction and fixation in the bone tunnel resulted in the improvement of maximal muscle strength values in the patients' knee joints from 13 to 21 weeks postoperatively. During the 21st week of physiotherapy, the values of the muscular strengths in the operated limbs were similar to those obtained in non-operated limbs of the patients and in the control group.

  16. Correlação entre força muscular (torque muscular) de flexores e extensores de joelho e risco de quedas em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Roberta Bolzani de Miranda; Wibelinger, Lia Mara

    2012-01-01

    Falls are common and frequent among the elderly, being in the rank among the most serious clinical problems affecting this population. About 30% of elderly fall at least once a year and about half falls on a recurring basis. Aim: To correlate the risk of falls in older women with muscle torque of knee flexors and extensors. Methods: The sample consisted of 19 elderly women, between 60 and 90 years old. The instruments for data collection used were the Downton fall risk index and muscle streng...

  17. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  18. The influence of a semi-reclined seated posture on head and neck kinematics and muscle activity while reading a tablet computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ethan C; Gallagher, Kaitlin M

    2017-04-01

    Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p computer monitor (6.39%ROM). Head flexion in the semi-reclined posture (19.7%ROM) and muscle activity (8.88%MVC) were similar to when reading from a standard computer monitor. Despite potentially reducing the gravitational moment produced by the head, the semi-reclined position could still compromise the force capabilities of the neck extensor musculature and result in increased strain on the passive tissues of the spine. Future work should assess how the semi-reclined position influences cervical intervertebral angles and passive tissue properties of the cervical spine. Overall, more research needs to be conducted on thoracic spine kinematics while reading a tablet computer.

  19. Effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity capacities of the leg extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Palmer, Ty B; Stock, Matt S

    2014-10-01

    Declines in muscle strength and power are commonly reported as a consequence of aging; however, few studies have investigated the influence of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics of the leg extensor muscles. Twenty-three young (age=25±3yrs) and twenty-one old (72±4yrs) men performed three leg extension maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) at 240°·s(-1) and at maximum unloaded velocity (Vmax). Vmax was calculated as the highest velocity attained during the unloaded MVC and RVD was the linear slope of the velocity-time curve for the 240deg·s(-1) (RVD240) and maximum unloaded velocity (RVD-Vmax) contractions. The old men exhibited lower (Pmuscle to generate velocity rapidly versus the ability to generate maximal velocity. Such findings highlight the importance of time-dependent velocity measures when assessing the effects of aging on rapid velocity capacities.

  20. Effect of remote voluntary contractions on knee extensor torque and rate of velocity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Emily A; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J

    2010-09-01

    Remote voluntary contractions (RVCs) are described as a muscle action of the prime mover while performing a simultaneous muscle action with another part of the body. Previous studies have shown that RVCs may elicit augmented performance of the prime mover. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of RVCs on knee extensor rate of velocity development (RVD) and peak torque. Fourteen men and 16 women who were regularly active and free of any knee pathology for the past year took part in this study. Subjects performed 3 maximal dynamic knee extensions at 3 velocities with and without an RVC condition. The RVC condition consisted of holding hand dynamometers in each hand and maximally gripping while performing a maximal knee extension movement. The NO-RVC condition was the same only without gripping. Men produced greater peak torque and RVD than did women across speeds and conditions. Analysis demonstrated that RVC had no effect on knee extension peak torque, but RVD decreased in the RVC condition (NO-RVC 2,012.07 [46.52] degrees xs-1xs-1; RVC 1,882.61 [51.84] degrees xs-1xs-1). Grip strength of the left hand at 180 degrees xs-1decreased from 42.03 (14.40) to 38.83 (14.65) kg in the RVC condition. In conclusion, RVC should not be used when attempting to maximize RVD, because it may hinder results when performing a single joint movement.

  1. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery.

  2. Comparison of contractile responses of single human motor units in the toe extensors during unloaded and loaded isotonic and isometric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-08-01

    Much of the repertoire of muscle function performed in everyday life involves isotonic dynamic movements, either with or without an additional load, yet most studies of single motor units measure isometric forces. To assess the effects of muscle load on the contractile response, we measured the contractile properties of single motor units supplying the toe extensors, assessed by intraneural microstimulation of single human motor axons, in isotonic, loaded isotonic, and isometric conditions. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve, and single motor axons (n = 10) supplying the long toe extensors were electrically stimulated through the microelectrode. Displacement was measured from the distal phalanx of the toe with either an angular displacement transducer for the unloaded (i.e., no additional load) and loaded (addition of a 4-g mass) isotonic conditions or a force transducer for the isometric conditions. Mean twitch profiles were measured at 1 Hz for all conditions: rise time, fall time, and duration were shortest for the unloaded isotonic conditions and longest for the isometric conditions. Peak displacements were lower in the loaded than unloaded isotonic conditions, and the half-maximal response in the loaded condition was achieved at lower frequencies than in the unloaded isotonic condition. We have shown that the contractile responses of single motor units supplying the human toe extensors are influenced by how they are measured: twitches are much slower when measured in loaded than unloaded isotonic conditions and slowest when measured in isometric conditions.

  3. Comparative evaluation of surgical alternatives in the treatment of acute cervical myelopathy and in the decompression of cervical spinal canal

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Czigléczki; Zoltán Papp; Csaba Padányi; Péter Banczerowski

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of cervical myelopathy are caused by the compression of the cervical spinal cord in the narrowed spinal canal. Several techniques including less invasive and minimally invasive methods have been developed with the aim of decompressing the cervical spinal canal, preserving posterior motion segments and paraspinal muscles as much as possible, reducing iatrogenic consequences and promoting faster recoveries of patients. The purpose of this article is to summarize these procedures and ev...

  4. Torze kolenních extenzorových svalů během izometrických cvičení a ruská elektrická stimulace po zranění kolenních vazů Knee extensor muscles' torque during isometric exercises and russian electrical stimulation following a knee ligament injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dobrovolné izometrické cvičení (VOL i neuromuskulární elektrická stimulace (NMES jsou metody rozvoje statické svalové síly. Používají se v programech pro rozvoj síly u zdravých svalů a také pro zotavování svalové funkce za určitých ortopedických podmínek. Obě metody se používají pro zpomalování svalové atrofie a ztráty síly v důsledku imobilizace kolena po zranění (Eriksson & Häggmark, 1979; Ingemann-Hansen & Halkjær-Kristensen, 1985; Johnson, 1988; Wigerstad-Lossing, Tromby, Jonsson, Morelli, Peterson, & Rentröm, 1988. NMES může vyvolat záškuby nebo tetanické svalové kontrakce, a to v závislosti na frekvenci proudových impulsů. Během tetanické stimulace jsou hlavními rysy nácvikových režimů: 1 cyklus zapnutí/vypnutí (pracovní cyklus, tvořený dobou kontrakce a dobou uvolnění; 2 počet kontrakcí; 3 intenzita kontrakcí (dána proudovou amplitudou nebo tolerancí subjektu. Voluntary isometric exercise (VOL and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES are both methods of static muscle strength and girth training. They are applied in strength training programs to healthy muscle as well as for muscle function recovery under certain orthopaedic conditions. Both methods are used to retard muscle atrophy and strength loss resulting from post injury knee immobilization (Eriksson & Häggmark, 1979; Ingemann-Hansen & Halkjær-Kristensen, 1985; Johnson, 1988; Wigerstad-Lossing, Tromby, Jonsson, Morelli, Peterson, & Rentröm, 1988. NMES can elicit twitch or tetanic muscle contractions, determined by current pulse frequency. During tetanic stimulation, the main features of training regimes are: 1 on/off cycle (or duty cycle, made up of the time of contraction plus rest time; 2 the number of contractions; 3 the intensity of contractions (determined by the current amplitude and/or the subject’s tolerance.

  5. 温经通络方联合疏经通督推拿对颈椎病患者颈肌力学性能的影响分析%Impact Analysis of Warming and Activating Meridian Prescription Combined with Meridian Activating Massage on Cervical Muscle Mechanical Properties of Patients with Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红根; 孙可望; 金宏柱

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of warming and activating meridian prescription combined with meridian activating massage on cervical mechanical properties of patients with cervical spondylosis.Methods:Two hundred and twenty cases with cer-vical spondylosis were selected from massage outpatient in our hospital during the period from July 2013 to July 2014,and were di-vided into observation group and control group according to a random number table,110 cases in each group.Control group were given warming and activating meridian prescription combined with conventional massage,the observation group were given warming and activating meridian prescription combined with meridian activating massage,the median frequency (MF)and maximum value of active contraction force (MVC)with neck flexion and extension 50% of the of cervical paraspinal muscles,trapezius and sterno-cleidomastoid were measured in isokinetic speedometer and surface electromyography.Results:MVC value with flexion and exten-sion movement exercise 50% after treatment of the observation group significantly increased,the difference was statistically signifi-cant compared with before treatment (P <0.05),and the difference was statistically significant compared with the control group (P <0.05);MF values of cervical paraspinal muscles,trapezius and sternocleidomastoid of the observation group after the treat-ment significantly increased,the difference was statistically significant compared with before treatment (P <0.05),and the differ-ence was statistically significant compared with the control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:Warming and activating meridian pre-scription combined with meridian activating massage in treatment of cervical spondylosis has better clinical efficacy,can signifi-cantly improve the mechanical properties of cervical patients.%目的:探讨温经通络方联合疏经通督推拿对颈椎病患者颈肌力学性能的影响。方法:选取2013年7月到2014年7月我院推

  6. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus: clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Wolovelsky, Alejandro; Rinott, Micha; Rozen, Nimrod

    2011-11-01

    The extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a consistent structure with rare anomalies, the most common being a group of different tendon duplications passing through the fourth compartment without symptoms. The second form comprises anomalies in the course of the EPL having significant clinical importance due to the predisposition for creating tenosynovitis of the EPL mimicking other types of tendon tenosynovitis. Clinical symptoms of radial dorsal wrist pain mimicking intersection syndrome or de-Quervain disease with the "absent snuff box" sign should raise suspicions for an anomaly in the course of the EPL.

  7. The envelope of motion of the cervical spine and its influence on the maximum torque generating capability of the neck muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Sorin; Caravaggi, Paolo; Tangorra, James; Milone, Mary; Namani, Ramya; Marchetto, Paul A

    2015-10-15

    The posture of the head and neck is critical for predicting and assessing the risk of injury during high accelerations, such as those arising during motor accidents or in collision sports. Current knowledge suggests that the head's range-of-motion (ROM) and the torque-generating capability of neck muscles are both dependent and affected by head posture. A deeper understanding of the relationship between head posture, ROM and maximum torque-generating capability of neck muscles may help assess the risk of injury and develop means to reduce such risks. The aim of this study was to use a previously-validated device, known as Neck Flexibility Tester, to quantify the effects of head's posture on the available ROM and torque-generating capability of neck muscles. Ten young asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in the study. The tri-axial orientation of the subjects' head was controlled via the Neck Flexibility Tester device. The head ROM was measured for each flexed, extended, axially rotated, and laterally bent head's orientation and compared to that in unconstrained neutral posture. Similarly, the torque applied about the three anatomical axes during Isometric Maximum Voluntary Contraction (IMVC) of the neck muscles was measured in six head's postures and compared to that in fully-constrained neutral posture. The further from neutral the neck posture was the larger the decrease in ROM and IMVC. Head extension and combined two-plane rotations postures, such as extension with lateral bending, produced the largest decreases in ROM and IMVC, thus suggesting that these postures pose the highest potential risk for injury.

  8. Bilateral extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty in two morbidly obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Zachary H; Yi, Paul H; Haughom, Bryan D; Hellman, Michael D; Levine, Brett R

    2015-05-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism as a result of patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon but devastating complication after total knee arthroplasty. Treating a disrupted extensor mechanism can be challenging, particularly in patients who are morbidly obese, due to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Therefore, despite the debilitating nature of extensor mechanism disruption, many community surgeons do not feel comfortable pursuing more complex cases like revision total knee arthroplasty with extensor mechanism allograft on morbidly obese patients, and consequently many of these patients are referred to tertiary-care centers for reconstruction secondary to the complexity of this patient cohort. The authors report 2 cases of bilateral extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty in patients who are morbidly obese. One patient experienced trauma leading to her initial rupture; however, her contralateral atraumatic disruption was subsequently diagnosed at a later date. The second patient did not experience trauma leading to either of her extensor mechanism disruptions. Despite substantial medical comorbidities and morbid obesity, revision total knee arthroplasties with extensor mechanism allografts were recommended in both cases in a staged bilateral fashion. The surgical technique is described and the unique challenges afforded by the marked obesity are detailed. The current literature on this subject is reviewed. Despite early complications related to recumbency, this report serves as an example of successful repairs of extensor mechanism disruptions in patients who are morbidly obese, suggesting that extensor mechanism allograft is viable even in patients with high risk of complications.

  9. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Bobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67 completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p<0.05. However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p<0.05 in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  11. Anxiety and personality traits in patients with muscle related temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallegama, R W; Ranasinghe, A W; Weerasinghe, V S; Sitheeque, M A M

    2005-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients with cervical muscle pain exhibit greater degree of psychological distress compared with patients without cervical muscle pain and controls. Thirty-eight muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients including 10 patients with cervical muscle pain and 41 healthy individuals as controls participated in the study. State and trait anxiety levels were assessed with the Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. Personality traits (extroversion, neuroticism, psychoticism and social desirability) were assessed using the Eysenck's personality questionnaire, and the pain intensities described over the muscles were recorded using a 100 mm visual analogue scale. The muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients, in general, exhibited significantly higher degrees of neuroticism and trait anxiety. The patients with cervical muscle pain demonstrated a significantly higher level of psychoticism compared with the patients without cervical muscle pain and the controls and a significantly higher state anxiety level than the controls. They also demonstrated higher pain intensities in masseter and temporalis muscles compared with patients without cervical muscle pain. It has been suggested that either subjects with psychological distress are prone to temporomandibular disorders, or psychological distress is a manifestation of existing chronic pain conditions. The present findings demand further investigations and broader approach in management, as muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients with cervical muscle pain were both physically and psychologically compromised to a greater degree compared with patients without cervical muscle pain.

  12. Activation and intermuscular coherence of distal arm muscles during proximal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Landers, Katlin; Harris-Love, Michelle L

    2014-03-01

    In the human upper extremity (UE), unintended effects of proximal muscle activation on muscles controlling the hand could be an important aspect of motor control due to the necessary coordination of distal and proximal segments during functional activities. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of concurrent activation of elbow muscles on the coordination between hand muscles performing a grip task. Eleven healthy subjects performed precision grip tasks while a constant extension or flexion moment was applied to their elbow joints, inducing a sustained submaximal contraction of elbow muscles to counter the applied torque. Activation of four hand muscles was measured during each task condition using surface electromyography (EMG). When concurrent activation of elbow muscles was induced, significant changes in the activation levels of the hand muscles were observed, with greater effects on the extrinsic finger extensor (23.2 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.003) than extrinsic finger flexor (14.2 % increase under 30 % elbow flexor activation; p = 0.130). Elbow muscle activation also induced involuntary changes in the intrinsic thumb flexor activation (44.6 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.005). EMG-EMG coherence analyses revealed that elbow muscle activation significantly reduced intermuscular coherence between distal muscle pairs, with its greatest effects on coherence in the β-band (13-25 Hz) (average of 17 % decrease under 30 % elbow flexor activation). The results of this study provide evidence for involuntary, muscle-specific interactions between distal and proximal UE muscles, which may contribute to UE motor performance in health and disease.

  13. High altitude increases alteration in maximal torque but not in rapid torque development in knee extensors after repeated treadmill sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eGIRARD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 x 5-s all-out sprints (passive recovery = 25 s on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%, at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.6% and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3% normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively. Explosive (∼1 s; fast instruction and maximal (∼5 s; hard instruction voluntary isometric contractions (MVC of the knee extensors, with concurrent electromyographic (EMG activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100 and -200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P>0.05 in all conditions. A larger (P0.05. Irrespectively of condition (P>0.05, peak RTD (-6±11%; P0.05, whereas it increased (P<0.05 for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF TENS VERSUS INTERMITTENT CERVICAL TRACTION IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a dysfunction of nerve root of the cervical spine where C6& C7 nerve roots are the most commonly affected. It encompasses important symptoms other than pain, such as paresthesia, numbness and muscle weakness in dermatomal or myotomal distribution of an affected nerve root. A multitude of physical therapy interventions have been proposed to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy, including mechanical cervical traction, manipulation, therapeutic exercises and TENS. Studies to find out the effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction among patients with Cervical Radiculopathy are sparse. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out and compare effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction a newer technique towards betterment in treatment of cervical radiculopathy patients. Methodology: 30 patients from Baroda association for the blind (Lions club of Baroda, Subhanpura & Sushrut Physiotherapy Clinic, Akota were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given TENS with Isometric neck exercises and active neck movements. Group B comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given Intermittent Cervical Traction with Isometric neck exercise and active neck movements. VAS Scale & Neck Disability Index (NDI were used as outcome measures pre & post treatment. Results: The pre test evaluation showed that, there is no significant difference (P> 0.05 between the two groups for all the variables measured. The post-test evaluation of both groups showed a very high significance (P< 0.05 within the group for all the outcome measurements. A post-test comparison of measured variables, between the groups showed that the Group A demonstrated a statistically significant (P< 0.05 reduction in pain and Neck Disability Index. Conclusion: From the above study concluded that TENS was more effective

  15. Biomechanical Analysis of Force Distribution in Human Finger Extensor Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of the function and structure of human fingers have long been recognised. The in vivo forces in the human finger tendon network during different activities are critical information for clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, prosthetic finger design, and biomimetic hand development. In this study, we propose a novel method for in vivo force estimation for the finger tendon network by combining a three-dimensional motion analysis technique and a novel biomechanical tendon network model. The extensor mechanism of a human index finger is represented by an interconnected tendinous network moving around the phalanx’s dorsum. A novel analytical approach based on the “Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy” is used to calculate the forces and deformations throughout the tendon network of the extensor mechanism when subjected to an external load and with the finger posture defined by measurement data. The predicted deformations and forces in the tendon network are in broad agreement with the results obtained by previous experimental in vitro studies. The proposed methodology provides a promising tool for investigating the biomechanical function of complex interconnected tendon networks in vivo.

  16. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Cibu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night. Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted.

  17. History of the extensor plantar response: Babinski and Chaddock signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2002-12-01

    The testing of reflexes involving the lower extremities is a pivotal part of the modern neurological examination. The normal response to noxious stimulation of the foot is plantar flexion of the toes, causing them to curl downward toward the undersurface of the foot. In 1896, Joseph Babinski described an extensor toe response that he claimed was a consistent finding among patients with pyramidal tract lesions of the cortex, subcortex, brain stem, or spinal cord. He considered it a distinct sign of organic disease and found it to be absent in cases of hysterical weakness. Charles Gilbert Chaddock admired the work of Babinski and described a modification of the Babinski technique, demonstrating that stimulation of the lateral surface of the foot could induce the same type of toe extension in patients with pyramidal tract lesions. The two reflexes are complementary, and each can occur without the other, although both are usually present in cases of pyramidal tract impairment. Although these two reflexes are the most commonly described pathological reflexes indicative of pyramidal tract disruption, the names of other celebrated neurologists are also linked to the study of extensor toe signs, each having identified a variant of the Babinski sign.

  18. Comparison of elasticity of human tendon and aponeurosis in knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2005-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the elasticity of tendon and aponeurosis in human knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo and to examine whether the maximal strain of tendon was correlated to that of aponeurosis. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis during isometric knee extension (n = 23) and ankle plantar flexion (n = 22), respectively, were determined using a real-time ultrasonic apparatus, while the participants performed ramp isometric contractions up to voluntary maximum. To calculate the strain values from the measured elongation, we measured the respective length of tendon and aponeurosis. For the knee extensors, the maximal strain of aponeurosis (12.1 +/- 2.8 %) was significantly greater than that of the patella tendon (8.3 +/- 2.4 %), p aponeurosis in ankle plantar flexors (2.7 +/- 1.4 %), p plantar flexors there was no significant correlation between maximal strain of tendon and aponeurosis. These results would be important for understanding the different roles of tendon and aponeurosis during human movements and for more accurate muscle modeling.

  19. Sarcomere length organization as a design for cooperative function amongst all lumbar spine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwambag, Derek P; Ricketts, T Alexander; Brown, Stephen H M

    2014-09-22

    The functional design of spine muscles in part dictates their role in moving, loading, and stabilizing the lumbar spine. There have been numerous studies that have examined the isolated properties of these individual muscles. Understanding how these muscles interact and work together, necessary for the prediction of muscle function, spine loading, and stability, is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure sarcomere lengths of lumbar muscles in a neutral cadaveric position and predict the sarcomere operating ranges of these muscles throughout full ranges of spine movements. Sarcomere lengths of seven lumbar muscles in each of seven cadaveric donors were measured using laser diffraction. Using published anatomical coordinate data, superior muscle attachment sites were rotated about each intervertebral joint and the total change in muscle length was used to predict sarcomere length operating ranges. The extensor muscles had short sarcomere lengths in a neutral spine posture and there were no statistically significant differences between extensor muscles. The quadratus lumborum was the only muscle with sarcomere lengths that were optimal for force production in a neutral spine position, and the psoas muscles had the longest lengths in this position. During modeled flexion the extensor, quadratus lumborum, and intertransversarii muscles lengthened so that all muscles operated in the approximate same location on the descending limb of the force-length relationship. The intrinsic properties of lumbar muscles are designed to complement each other. The extensor muscles are all designed to produce maximum force in a mid-flexed posture, and all muscles are designed to operate at similar locations of the force-length relationship at full spine flexion.

  20. The Effect of Visual Impairment on the Strength of Children's Hip and Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L.; Ng, G. Y.

    1997-01-01

    A test of 32 children's hip and knee extensors found that children born blind or with low vision are at risk of developing weak lower-limb extensors, with congenitally blind children at greatest risk. After correcting for lean body weight, the differences between sighted children and those with low vision were insignificant. Results support the…

  1. US and MR imaging of the extensor compartment of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joshua M; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Bencardino, Jenny T; Restrepo-Velez, Zoraida; Ciavarra, Gina A; Adler, Ronald Steven

    2013-01-01

    Injuries to the extensor compartment of the ankle are uncommon and often are overlooked or misinterpreted at clinical presentation. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play a critical role in the diagnosis and evaluation of these injuries. US is a dynamic, quick, cost-effective imaging method for assessing ankle extensor compartment injuries as an alternative or adjunct to MR imaging. MR imaging provides multiplanar cross-sectional delineation of regional anatomic structures and also can be used to assess the predisposing cause, estimate the extent of injury, and aid in preoperative planning for requisite surgical repair. The spectrum of pathologic conditions affecting the ankle extensor compartment ranges from tendinosis secondary to degenerative, inflammatory, or depositional disease to traumatic tendon or retinacular rupture and entrapment neuropathy. Major components of the ankle extensor compartment at risk for injury include the anterior tibial, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus tendons; the extensor retinacular mechanism; and the anterior tarsal tunnel. Familiarity with the normal anatomic appearance and pathologic features of the ankle extensor compartment at US and MR imaging as well as potential imaging pitfalls is critical for accurate injury evaluation.

  2. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  3. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after neck injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltsios, Michail; Savvidou, Olga; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kaspiris, Angelos; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-07-01

    The normal sagittal alignment of the cervical spine is lordotic and is affected by the posture of the head and neck. The question of whether loss of cervical lordosis is the result of muscle spasm after injury or a normal variation, and the clinical significance of such changes in sagittal profile of the cervical spine has been an issue of several studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the incidence of normal cervical lordosis and its changes after neck injury compared to the healthy population. We studied the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of 60 patients with neck injury compared to 100 patients without a neck injury. Lateral radiographs were obtained in the standing or sitting position, and the curvature of the cervical spine was measured using the angle formed between the inferior end plates of the C2 and C7 vertebrae. In the patients without neck injury, lordotic and straight cervical spine sagittal alignment was observed in 36.5% each, double curvature in 17%, and kyphotic in 10%. In the patients with neck injury, lordotic sagittal alignment was observed in 36%, straight in 34%, double curvature in 26% and kyphotic in 4%. No significant difference between the two groups regarding all types of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was found (p > 0.100). The alterations in normal cervical lordosis in patients with neck injury must be considered coincidental. These alterations should not be associated with muscle spasm caused by neck pain.

  4. Muscle functional MRI analysis of trunk muscle recruitment during extension exercises in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, E M D; Van Oosterwijck, J O; Vleeming, A; Vanderstraeten, G G; Danneels, L A

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the activity levels of the thoracic and lumbar extensor muscles during different extension exercise modalities in healthy individuals. Therefore, 14 subjects performed four different types of extension exercises in prone position: dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, and dynamic-static leg extension. Pre- and post-exercise muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from the latissimus dorsi, the thoracic and lumbar parts of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and multifidus were performed. Differences in water relaxation values (T2-relaxation) before and after exercise were calculated (T2-shift) as a measure of muscle activity and compared between extension modalities. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed higher lumbar extensor activity during trunk extension compared with leg extension (T2-shift of 5.01 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively) and during the dynamic-static exercise performance compared with the dynamic exercise performance (T2-shift of 4.77 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively). No significant differences in the thoracic extensor activity between the exercises could be demonstrated. During all extension exercises, the latissimus dorsi was the least activated compared with the paraspinal muscles. While all extension exercises are equivalent effective to train the thoracic muscles, trunk extension exercises performed in a dynamic-static way are the most appropriate to enhance lumbar muscle strength.

  5. Isometric knee extensor fatigue following a Wingate test: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M

    2013-02-01

    Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC.

  6. Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA. PMID:27004156

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the cervical spine musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, John; Perriman, Diana M; Pickering, Mark R; Buirski, Graham; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    The anatomy of the cervical spine musculature visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images is poorly described in the literature. However, the correct identification of individual muscles is clinically important because certain conditions of the cervical spine, for example whiplash associated disorders, idiopathic neck pain, cervical nerve root avulsion and cervical spondylotic myelopathy, are associated with different morphological changes in specific muscles visible on MR images. Knowledge of the precise structure of different cervical spine muscles is crucial when comparisons with the contralateral side or with normal are required for accurate description of imaging pathology, management and assessment of treatment efficacy. However, learning the intricate arrangement of 27 muscles is challenging. A multi-level cross-sectional depiction combined with three-dimensional reconstructions could facilitate the understanding of this anatomically complex area. This paper presents a comprehensive series of labeled axial MR images from one individual and serves as a reference atlas of the cervical spine musculature to guide clinicians, researchers, and anatomists in the accurate identification of these muscles on MR imaging. Clin. Anat. 29:643-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Re-innervation of fast and slow twitch muscle following nerve crush at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, J J; Sansone, F M

    1977-10-01

    1. The frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) was significantly greater in the fast twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle (extensor) than in the slow twitch soleus, even though end-plate surface area was greater for fibres in the latter muscle. 2. Crush of the sciatic nerve at birth did not prevent the appearance of this difference in m.e.p.p. frequency. However, the frequency of the potentials in the re-innervated muscles was less than normal, even though the regenerated neuromuscular junction was qualitatively normal in morphology. 3. Though the re-innevated muscles were differentiated with respect to twitch time course, the extensor muscle was more responsive than normal to the contracture-inducing action of caffeine. 4. The Z line of the re-innervated extensor muscle was similar to that of the normal soleus in thickness. 5. Resting potential, passive electrical properties and action potential generating mechanism of the sarcolemma were normal. 6. Since the re-innervated muscles lacked muscle spindles, a role of sensory feed-back in the function of the neuromuscular junction as well as the neutrotrophic regulation of muscle is discussed.

  9. Changes in Hip and Knee Muscle Strength in Patients Following Total Hip Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Ohata, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Kawanabe, Keiich; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mata, Toshihiro; Kimura, Misaka; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes in hip and knee muscle strength in patients before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA) in comparison with that in healthy adults. Methods: The study included 21 women who underwent unilateral THA (THA group) and 21 age-matched healthy women (healthy group). Maximal isometric strengths of hip flexors, extensors, and abductors, and knee extensors and flexors were measured before surgery and at 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Results: Before surgery, musc...

  10. Reliability of isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee flexors and extensors in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak

  11. Hypertrophy of chronically unloaded muscle subjected to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P A; Trieschmann, J T; Ekberg, A

    2004-04-01

    In an effort to simulate the compromised function and atrophy of lower limb muscles experienced by astronauts after spaceflight, 21 men and women age 30-56 yr were subjected to unilateral lower limb unloading for 5 wk. Whereas 10 of these subjects performed unilateral knee extensor resistance exercise (ULRE) two or three times weekly, 11 subjects (UL) refrained from training. The exercise regimen consisted of four sets of seven maximal actions, using an apparatus that offers concentric and eccentric resistance by utilizing the inertia of rotating flywheel(s). Knee extensor muscle strength was measured before and after UL and ULRE, and knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor muscle volumes were determined by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Surface electromyographic activity measured after UL inferred increased muscle use to perform a given motor task. UL induced an 8.8% decrease (P 0.05) strength. Ankle plantar flexor muscle volume of the unloaded limb decreased (P 0.05) in muscle volume or strength. The results of this study provide evidence that resistance exercise not only may offset muscle atrophy but is in fact capable of promoting marked hypertrophy of chronically unloaded muscle.

  12. A Standardized Rat Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury for the Development of Tissue Engineering Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    conditions, making this assessment advantageous for the study of VML. However, hypertrophy of the EDL muscle in response to VML injury (Table 1) would...prevents com- pensatory hypertrophy of overloaded mouse extensor digito- rum longus muscle . J Appl Physiol. 1992;73:2538–2543. 34. Rosenblatt JD, Yong...D, Parry DJ. Satellite cell activity is re- quired for hypertrophy of overloaded adult rat muscle . Muscle Nerve. 1994;17:608–613. 35. Corona BT

  13. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. METHODS: Baseli...

  14. Proximo-distal organization and fibre type regionalization in rat hindlimb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, LC; Kernell, D

    2000-01-01

    Five muscles of the rat's lower hindlimb were compared with regard to their histochemical fibre type distribution at seven different proximo-distal levels. The muscles were: extensor digitorum longus (ED), flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FD), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), peroneus longus (PE) a

  15. Effects of aging on muscle mechanical function and muscle fiber morphology during short-term immobilization and subsequent retraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars; Aagaard, Per; Justesen, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of aging and disuse as separate factors causing deterioration in muscle mechanical function. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 wk of immobilization followed by 4 wk of retraining on knee extensor muscle...... to the deleterious effects of short-term muscle disuse on muscle fiber size and rapid force capacity than YM. Furthermore, OM seems to require longer time to recover and regain rapid muscle force capacity, which may lead to a larger risk of falling in aged individuals after periods of short-term disuse....

  16. Driver kinematic and muscle responses in braking events with standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints: validation data for human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Jonas; Olafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males. The range of activity during steady state braking for males and females was 13-44% in the cervical and lumbar extensors, while antagonistic muscles showed a co-contraction of 2.3-19%. Seat belt pre-tension affects both the kinematic and muscle responses of drivers. In autonomous braking with standard restraints, muscle activation occurred in response to the inertial load. With pre-tensioned seat belts, EMG onset occurred earlier; between 71 ms and 176 ms after belt pre-tension. The EMG onset times decreased with repeated trials and were shorter for females than for males. With the results from this study, further improvement and validation of human models that incorporate active musculature will be made possible.

  17. The determination of isokinetic performance values of knee joint and Hamstring (flexor/Quadriceps (extensor ratios differences in Volleyball players’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenigün

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determined the values of isokinetic performance in knee joint and the ratios of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q between volleyball players and controls. 30 male volleyball players (age: 19,46±2,1 and 30 male controls (age: 19,66±2,0 were participated in this study. This study investigated hamstring and quadriceps muscles strength ratio obtained during concentric muscle contraction. The ratio of H/Q muscle strength which was an indicator of normal balance between the knee flexors and extensor and it is important to estimate of the capacity for stabilization of knee joint and the preventation of disability. Knee flexion and extension measurements were tested on biodex system–3 dynamometer in %60, %180 and %300 deg/sec test protocols. The range of motion of knee Joint was evaluated by biodex system–3 dynamometer. There was no statistical difference in the ROM of the knee joint between volleyball players and controls (p>0,05. The isokinetic values of volleyball players were significantly higher than controls (p<0,05. H/Q values must be determined to prevent disability. For the aim of get ready for the season and supply the continuity of performance level increases, preseason isokinetic testing of athletes may be helpful to test for strength imbalance and to determine the correct exercises which is suitable for remove the H/Q disproportion.

  18. Cervical Myomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study Suggests ... Myomas are benign tumors composed partly of muscle tissue. They seldom develop in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus. When they do, they ...

  19. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  20. "Extensor toe sign" by various methods in spastic children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D; Pradhan, S

    1998-05-01

    Upper motor neuron lesion in adults is usually associated with spasticity and "extensor toe sign" on plantar stimulation (extensor plantar response). There are various methods of eliciting this sign including the classic method by Babinski. Other methods produce this response when the area of reflexogenic zone is increased due to upper motor neuron lesion. There are varying reports of Babinski positivity in spastic cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity of different methods of eliciting "extensor toe sign." An attempt has also been made to correlate the severity of spasticity with the combined "extensor toe sign" positivity by various methods and with the increase in reflexogenic zone. Eighty-one children with spastic cerebral palsy were examined. Twelve had hemiplegia; therefore, a total of 150 limbs were tested. "Extensor toe sign" was elicited by 12 different methods in each patient. The sensitivity of each method was calculated and compared with each other one. The assessment of spasticity was done using the Ashworth Tone Scale. The severity of spasticity was correlated with "extensor toe sign" positivity using various methods. Classic Babinski reflex was positive in 75% of cases, whereas Gonda-Allen sign was positive in 90% of cases followed by Allen-Cleckley (82%), Chaddock (74%), and Cornell (54%). All other signs had sensitivity of less than 30%. There was no increase in sensitivity after combining them. There was significant negative correlation between the spasticity and the combined "extensor toe sign" positivity (by all the methods). This study, therefore, suggests that the majority of patients with spastic cerebral palsy have positive "extensor toe sign." The Gonda-Allen method is more sensitive than the classic Babinski method. A positive "extensor toe sign" is negatively correlated to the degree of spasticity.

  1. Wrist posture affects hand and forearm muscle stress during tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Chen, Hua; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-11-01

    Non-neutral wrist posture is a risk factor of the musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. This study aimed to assess internal loads on hand and forearm musculature while tapping in different wrist postures. Ten healthy subjects tapped on a key switch using their index finger in four wrist postures: straight, ulnar deviated, flexed and extended. Torque at the finger and wrist joints were calculated from measured joint postures and fingertip force. Muscle stresses of the six finger muscles and four wrist muscles that balanced the calculated joint torques were estimated using a musculoskeletal model and optimization algorithm minimizing the squared sum of muscle stress. Non-neutral wrist postures resulted in greater muscle stresses than the neutral (straight) wrist posture, and the stress in the extensor muscles were greater than the flexors in all conditions. Wrist extensors stress remained higher than 4.5 N/cm² and wrist flexor stress remained below 0.5 N/cm² during tapping. The sustained high motor unit recruitment of extensors suggests a greater risk than other muscles especially in flexed wrist posture. This study demonstrated from the perspective of internal tissue loading the importance of maintaining neutral wrist posture during keying activities.

  2. Tenossinovite e sinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor do punho: o que o ultrassonografista precisa saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Arend

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A tenossinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor é uma enfermidade frequente, cercada por mitos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar cientificamente alguns dos aspectos mais pertinentes ao ultrassonografista sobre sua terminologia, fisiopatogenia, diagnóstico e acompanhamento.

  3. RELIABILITY AND AGREEMENT OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS OF THE COMMON LATERAL EXTENSORS OF THE ELBOW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teggeler, Marlijn; Schmitz, Marc; Fink, Alexandra; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Pisters, Martijn F.

    2015-01-01

    In individuals with lateral elbow tendinopathy, the thickness of the common lateral extensors tendon can be evaluated by musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSU) for diagnostic and evaluative purposes. The reproducibility of these thickness measurements should be established before integrating it into

  4. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures.......Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  8. Knee extensor torque of men with early degrees of osteoarthritis is associated with pain, stiffness and function Homens com graus iniciais de osteoartrite apresentam correlação entre torque extensor do joelho e dor, rigidez e função

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. M. S. Serrão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic-degenerative disease. The knee is the most commonly affected joint and the symptoms are generally attributed to quadriceps muscle weakness. However, few studies have evaluated this relationship in a population with early stages of knee OA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a correlation among the knee extensor torque and the three subscales of the WOMAC questionnaire in men with early stages of knee OA exists. METHOD: Twenty-one men with knee OA grades I or II (according to Kellgren and Lawrence criteria participated in this study. The concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque were assessed using a Biodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer, at a speed of 90º/s. Self-reported symptoms and disability were assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the dependent variables (three subscales of WOMAC questionnaire and the independent variables (average knee extensor peak torque. RESULTS: We found a strong negative correlation between the concentric extensor torque and pain (r=-0.7, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A osteoartrite (OA é uma doença crônico-degenerativa. O joelho é a articulação mais afetada, e os sintomas geralmente são atribuídos à fraqueza do músculo quadríceps. Entretanto, poucos estudos têm avaliado essa relação em indivíduos com graus iniciais de OA. OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e as seções dor, rigidez e função física do questionário WOMAC de homens com OA de joelho nos graus iniciais. MÉTODO: Participaram deste estudo 21 homens com OA de joelho graus I ou II (segundo critérios de Kelgren e Lawrence. Foi avaliado o torque extensor concêntrico e o excêntrico do joelho por meio do dinamômetro isocinético (Biodex System 3 Pro®, na velocidade de 90º/s. O autorrelato de sintomas e incapacidades foi avaliado por meio do questionário WOMAC. O

  9. Atualização da anatomia do mecanismo extensor do joelho com uso de técnica de visualização tridimensional Updating of the anatomy of the extensor mechanism of the knee using a three-dimensional viewing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O mecanismo extensor do joelho é uma estrutura complexa formada pelo músculo e tendão quadricipital, a patela, o tendão patelar e os ligamentos que os circundam e auxiliam na estabilização do joelho. Através do uso de técnica de visualização tridimensional de imagens do aparelho extensor do joelho pretendemos mostrar de forma didática as estruturas que compõem este complexo ósteo-músculo-ligamentar. Dissecção anatômica do joelho com ênfase nas estruturas do seu mecanismo extensor foi realizada seguida de fotografias com câmera e lentes adequadas para simulação da visão humana através de técnica de construção de imagem tridimensional. Em seguida, com a ajuda de software apropriado, as duas imagens da mesma estrutura de diferentes ângulos simulando a visão humana são sobrepostas com adição de camada polarizante, concluindo a construção da imagem anaglífica. As principais estruturas do mecanismo extensor do joelho podem ser observadas com efeito tridimensional. Dentre os principais benefícios relacionados a esta técnica, destacamos, além do ensino e estudo da anatomia musculoesquelética, o potencial uso em treinamento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e a realização de imagens em exames diagnósticos.The knee extensor mechanism is a complex structure formed by the quadriceps muscle and tendon, the patella, the patellar tendon and the ligaments that surround and help stabilize the knee. Through using a three-dimensional viewing technique on images of the knee extensor apparatus, we aimed to didactically show the structures that compose this bone-muscle-ligament complex. Anatomical dissection of the knee with emphasis on the structures of its extensor mechanism was performed, followed by taking photographs using a camera and lenses suitable for simulating human vision, through a technique for constructing three-dimensional images. Then, with the aid of appropriate software, pairs of images of the same structure from

  10. Complications of common hand and wrist surgery procedures: flexor and extensor tendon surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Abzug, Joshua M; Osterman, A Lee; Stern, Peter J; Chang, James

    2014-01-01

    Orthopaedic and hand surgeons frequently treat disorders of the flexor and extensor tendon systems. Common conditions, such as trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, extensor tendon injury, and zone II flexor tendon injury, can be challenging to treat. Complications that limit normal hand function still occur despite advances in surgical techniques and therapy protocols. It is helpful to be aware of the complications related to the treatment of these hand disorders and understand surgical techniques to minimize their frequency.

  11. A comparison of customized strategies to manage muscle fatigue in isometric artificially elicited muscle contractions for incomplete SCI subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del-Ama Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue due to functional electrical stimulation still prevents its widespread use as a gait rehabilitation tool for spinal cord injured subjects. Although there is an active research towards optimization of pulse parameters to delay muscle fatigue, changes in stimulated muscle's performance during repeated contractions due to fatigue have not been yet determined. In this work, a study conducted in two phases with a sample of incomplete spinal cord injured patients is presented. In the first phase, a fatigue protocol based on submaximal isometric contractions allowed to obtain an objective criterion for estimation of fatigue of knee muscles from initial changes in muscle performance. The criterion is incorporated in the fatigue protocol in the second phase of the study, to compare two novel customized fatigue management strategies. Results showed that knee flexor muscles develop less force and lower fatigue than extensor muscles. Muscle fatigue management strategies based on customized modulations of stimulation frequency are valid to delay muscle fatigue.

  12. Increased intensity and reduced frequency of EMG signals from feline self-reinnervated ankle extensors during walking do not normalize excessive lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantall, Annette; Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Gregor, Robert J; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2016-06-01

    Kinematics of cat level walking recover after elimination of length-dependent sensory feedback from the major ankle extensor muscles induced by self-reinnervation. Little is known, however, about changes in locomotor myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated muscles. We examined the myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated muscles and intact synergists to determine the extent to which patterns of muscle activity change as almost normal walking is restored following muscle self-reinnervation. Nerves to soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) of six adult cats were surgically transected and repaired. Intramuscular myoelectric signals of SO, LG, medial gastrocnemius (MG), and plantaris (PL), muscle fascicle length of SO and MG, and hindlimb mechanics were recorded during level and slope (±27°) walking before and after (10-12 wk postsurgery) self-reinnervation of LG and SO. Mean myoelectric signal intensity and frequency were determined using wavelet analysis. Following SO and LG self-reinnervation, mean myoelectric signal intensity increased and frequency decreased in most conditions for SO and LG as well as for intact synergist MG (P myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated SO and LG are discussed.

  13. Differential diagnosis of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinwu; NI Weifeng; LI Qi; XU Jianguang; ZHU Haibo; ZHAO Binghui; GUO Shangchun; ZENG Bingfang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to study the mechanism of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen and its difierential diagnosis with cervical spondylosis.Diagnostic treatment with muscle relaxant,vasodilator,neurotrophic medicine and celecoxib (COX)-2 inhibitor were performed in 20 patients with cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen and 20 patients with cervical spondylosis confirmed by operation.Diagnostic local block therapy was performed additionally in cases showing little effect after diagnostic treatment.All the patients were followed up postoperatively for more than one year.Fifteen cases with cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen were healed by the diagnostic treatment.The other five cases had a short-term remission and there was no recurrence after diagnostic local block therapy.Diagnostic treatment led to short-term alleviation of the symptom in 20 cases with cervical spondylosis confirmed by operation,the results of which was far from satisfactory and operation was undertaken finally in all the 20 cases.The etiology of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the extemal intervertebral foramen lies in the compression of the cervical plexus,brachial plexus and cervical dorsal rami by the tendinous decussating fibers of the scalenus anticus,medius,minimus and the posterior muscles of the neck.Diagnostic treatment was propitious to differentiate cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen from cervical spondylosis.

  14. Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netreba, A; Popov, D; Bravyy, Ya; Lyubaeva, E; Terada, M; Ohira, T; Okabe, H; Vinogradova, O; Ohira, Y

    2013-03-01

    Responses of m. vastus lateralis to 8-week resistive training of various types at leg press mashine were investigated in 30 male subjects. Training loads were 25, 65 and 85% of one repetition maximum for low (LI), medium (MI), and high intensity (HI) training groups respectively, while angular velocities of contraction differed considerably between groups. The total work done during training session was identical. The maximum strengths during isokinetic knee extension in LI and HI groups were increased at most angular velocities. In group MI increments were obtained only during concentric contractions. Significant improvement of fatigue resistance and maximum oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) was seen only in group MI and LI, respectively. The training-related increase of cross-sectional area in type II fibers in m. vastus lateralis was in the order of HI > MI > LI group, and that of type I fibers was opposite. The increased myonuclear number was found for HI group. The data suggest that fiber hypertrophy, fatigue resistance and V(O2max) changes were related to the type of training.

  15. Short-term Efficacy of Cervical Laminoplasty Preserving the Unilateral Ligament with Muscle Complex:Comparative Study%保留单侧肌肉韧带复合体颈椎椎板成形术近期疗效的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淼; 孙宇; 刘忠军; 潘胜发; 张凤山

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the short-term efficacies of traditional open-door cervical laminoplasty and cervical laminoplasty with unilateral preservation of the muscular-ligament complex and reconstruction of the insertion of cervical extensive muscle. Methods From November 2006 to November 2008, 82 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy received cervical laminoplasty in our hospital; among them, traditional open-door cervical laminoplasty was performed on 36 cases (anchor group), and cervical laminoplasty preserving the unilateral ligament and muscle complex was carried out in 46 patients ( preservation group). The pre-operative, and 3- and 12-month postoperative JOA, VAS, and NDI, as well as maximum cervical flexion/extension angles and range of motions were compared between the two groups. During follow-up, the union of the lamina hinge and that of spinous processlamina in the preservation group were observed by CT scanning. Results In both the groups, thc JOA, VAS, and maximum cervical flexion/extension angles and motion range were improved significantly after the treatments (P = 0.00, 0.00, 0.03, 0.00, and 0.00 respectively). Furthermore, the 3- and 12-month postoperative VAS, maximum cervical flexion/extension of the preservation group were superior to those in the anchor group ( P = 0.00, 0.03, 0.0l ,and 0.00 respectively). Whereas, the postoperative union of the lamina hinge in the anchor group was superior to that in the preservation group ( P = 0.00 ). In the preservation group, the rate of spinous process-lamina union was related with the rate of lamina hinge union ( Spearman R = 0. 254, P = 0.00). Conclusions By cervical laminoplasty preserving the unilateral ligament and muscle complex, both spinal and axial symptoms can be alleviated while maintaining the cervical kinetic functions. The lamina hinge union rate of the procedure is lower than that of the traditional open-door technique.%目的 比较颈后路传统单开门(锚定组)和保留单侧

  16. [Investigation of muscle tone in patients with Parkinson's disease in unloading conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvanskiĭ, Iu P; Ivanenko, L A; Chernikov, L A

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, ones of the main symptoms of which are hypertonicity and emergent difficulties during performance of stepping movements due to increased muscle stiffness. Biomechanical (stiffness) and electrophysiological (shorting reaction) characteristics of hip and shank muscles were examined in 25 patients with mild and moderate stages of PD (1 to 3 of Hoehn & Yahr Rating Scale, 61 +/- 9 years) and 22 age-matched healthy controls in unloading leg conditions during passive flexion/extension of hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as the changes of tonic state under levodopa influence. The data obtained were compared with similar findings of healthy subjects. Essentially greater stiffness in all leg muscle groups (with the exception of foot extensors) were observed in patients as compared with healthy. During passive movements the shorting reactions (SR) in hip and shank muscles were often observed, in healthy subjects the SR were observed more rarely. In patients with PD the values of SR in extensors of hip and shank, as well as in flexor and extensor muscles of foot were essentially greater then in healthy. The medicine essentially reduced the stiffness of hip flexors and flexors and foot extensors. The SR were persisted but the frequency of its appearance was decreased in half of investigated muscles, and significant decreasing of SR amount was observed in extensors of foot. The medicine did not exert influence upon SR in proximal muscles. Thus, increasing muscle stiffness in patients with PD is manifested in uncorrected reactions on external disturbances and reflected in increasing of reflectory reaction of muscles.

  17. In vivo muscle force and muscle power during near-maximal frog jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Timothy R.; Kaya, Motoshi; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Frogs’ outstanding jumping ability has been associated with a high power output from the leg extensor muscles. Two main theories have emerged to explain the high power output of the frog leg extensor muscles, either (i) the contractile conditions of all leg extensor muscles are optimized in terms of muscle length and speed of shortening, or (ii) maximal power is achieved through a dynamic catch mechanism that uncouples fibre shortening from the corresponding muscle-tendon unit shortening. As in vivo instantaneous power generation in frog hind limb muscles during jumping has never been measured directly, it is hard to distinguish between the two theories. In this study, we determined the instantaneous variable power output of the plantaris longus (PL) of Lithobates pipiens (also known as Rana pipiens), by directly measuring the in vivo force, length change, and speed of muscle and fibre shortening in near maximal jumps. Fifteen near maximal jumps (> 50cm in horizontal distance) were analyzed. High instantaneous peak power in PL (536 ± 47 W/kg) was achieved by optimizing the contractile conditions in terms of the force-length but not the force-velocity relationship, and by a dynamic catch mechanism that decouples fascicle shortening from muscle-tendon unit shortening. We also found that the extra-muscular free tendon likely amplifies the peak power output of the PL by modulating fascicle shortening length and shortening velocity for optimum power output, but not by releasing stored energy through recoiling as the tendon only started recoiling after peak PL power had been achieved. PMID:28282405

  18. EMG Activity of Selected Trunk and Hip Muscles During a Squat Lift: Effect of Varying the Lumbar Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of a muscle group during lifting can provide insight into the force developed by that muscle (Anderrson, 1977...Jonsson, 1985). Myoelectric activity of a muscle has been found to vary linearly with the tension developed, in similar activities and non-fatigue...the lumbar spine in a kyphotic position would result in a significant increase in the amount of myoelectric activity seen in the hip extensor muscles

  19. Classification and Management of Pediatric Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Casey J; Johnston, James M

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years. Future studies of outcomes for children with subaxial cervical spine injury should focus on injury classification and standardized outcome measures to ensure continued improvement in quality of care for this patient population.

  20. Hill-type muscle model parameters determined from experiments on single muscles show large animal-to-animal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Marcus; Guschlbauer, Christoph; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Hooper, Scott L; Büschges, Ansgar

    2012-11-01

    Models built using mean data can represent only a very small percentage, or none, of the population being modeled, and produce different activity than any member of it. Overcoming this "averaging" pitfall requires measuring, in single individuals in single experiments, all of the system's defining characteristics. We have developed protocols that allow all the parameters in the curves used in typical Hill-type models (passive and active force-length, series elasticity, force-activation, force-velocity) to be determined from experiments on individual stick insect muscles (Blümel et al. 2012a). A requirement for means to not well represent the population is that the population shows large variation in its defining characteristics. We therefore used these protocols to measure extensor muscle defining parameters in multiple animals. Across-animal variability in these parameters can be very large, ranging from 1.3- to 17-fold. This large variation is consistent with earlier data in which extensor muscle responses to identical motor neuron driving showed large animal-to-animal variability (Hooper et al. 2006), and suggests accurate modeling of extensor muscles requires modeling individual-by-individual. These complete characterizations of individual muscles also allowed us to test for parameter correlations. Two parameter pairs significantly co-varied, suggesting that a simpler model could as well reproduce muscle response.

  1. Technical tip: Side-to-side tendon suture as escape plan during extensor indicis tendon plasty in distal extensor pollicis longus rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleh, Andrea Christina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In case of a short distal recipient stump after extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon rupture, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP tendon using a conventional Pulvertaft tendon-weaving technique may be difficult or impossible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical tip to manage this rare, but clinically important scenario of a very short distal EPL recipient tendon.Methods: A side-to-side tendon suture (SSTS was used for EIP transfer to restore thumb extension in 3 patients who had sustained a distal rupture of their extensor pollicis longus near the interphalangeal joint. The SSTS was performed with an overlap of 2 cm in 2 patients and in one patient.Results: A stable SSTS was achieved which allowed early active mobilization and resulted in good functional recovery of thumb extension after a mean follow-up of 8 months.Conclusion: Extensor indicis transfer using SSTS is a reliable and technically simple escape plan in a distal rupture of the EPL near the phalangeal joint. It provides very stable tendon-to-tendon attachment with high loading capacity and good gliding qualities.

  2. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements.

  3. Reliability of In Vivo Determination of Forearm Muscle Volume Using 3.0 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C. Smeulders; S. van den Berg; J. Oudeman; A.J. Nederveen; M. Kreulen; M. Maas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for quantifying muscle volume of forearm muscles feasibility and reliability of volume estimation of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU). Materials and Methods: Forearms of 10 subjects were scanned twice. Mu

  4. Paraneoplastic SIADH and Dermatomyositis in Cervical Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Jones

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first known case of a patient with cervical squamous cell carcinoma complicated by paraneoplastic syndromes of both dermatomyositis and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. The patient in this case presented with generalized body pain and vaginal bleeding. Her cervical cancer was diagnosed as stage IIB by physical exam, imaging, and cervical biopsy, her dermatomyositis was confirmed by muscle and skin biopsy, and her SIADH was diagnosed based on laboratory findings.

  5. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  6. An approach to counteracting long-term microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P. A.; Buchanan, P.; Dudley, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    To find means of alleviating muscle atrophy induced by long-term microgravity, the effects of a 19-week-long heavy-resistance training regime (using either concentric muscle actions only or concentric and eccentric muscle actions) on the strengths of the exercised knee extensor muscle group were investigated in two groups of male human subjects performing two types of training exercises: supine leg press or/and seated knee extension. Results show that a training program in which both the concentric and the eccentric muscle action was performed led to substantially greater increases in maximal muscle strength than when only concentric exercises were performed.

  7. Impact of high intensity exercise on muscle morphology in EAE rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, I; Dalgas, U; Verboven, K;

    2015-01-01

    paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. EAE reduced muscle fiber CSA of TA, EDL and SOL. In general, exercise...... was not able to affect CSA, whereas it delayed hindquarter paralysis peak. CON muscle work peaked and declined, while it remained stable in EAE. BDNF-responses were not affected by EAE or exercise. In conclusion, EAE affected CSA-properties of TA, EDL and SOL, which could, partly, explain the absence of peak...

  8. The significance of a crossed extensor hallucis response in neurologic disorders: a comparison with the Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindfelt, B; Rosén, I; Hanko, J

    1976-04-01

    The significance of a crossed extensor hallucis response on active flexion of the hip was analysed in various neurological disorders. It is concluded that this sign, not formerly described, is a pathological reflex or synkinesia. In the cooperative patient the crossed extensor response is a more sensitive indicator of a minor disturbance within the cortico-spinal motor pathways than the Babinski sign. With lesions above the foramen magnum a crossed extensor hallucis response is observed more frequently than the Babinski sign.

  9. Chondropathia patellae and knee muscle control. An electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, T; Gleitz, M; Egert, S; Hopf, T

    1996-01-01

    The activity of knee-related muscles was registered via exercising on a bicycle ergometer by 17 patients with clinically diagnosed chondropathia patellae. M. quadriceps activity was shorter and the hamstring activity longer in the chondropathy group compared with a matched healthy control group. The changes in m. quadriceps occurred to an almost equal extent in lateral and medial sections. In five patients with unilateral complaints, the electromyographic changes were nevertheless noted on both sides. The study shows that chondropathia patellae involves a change in muscle control affecting not only the knee extensors but also the hamstrings. Through the changed innervation pattern the coactivation phase, i.e. the phase of simultaneous activation of knee flexors and extensors at the end of the extension phase, takes place at a higher angle of flexion. Physiotherapy should involve all knee-related muscles and should include not only isometric but also dynamic exercises.

  10. Skeletal muscle adaptations following blood flow-restricted training during 30 days of muscular unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Summer B; Brown, Kimberly A; Deruisseau, Keith; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LL(BFR)) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LL(BFR) three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at 20% of the subject's isometric maximum voluntary contraction coupled with a suprasystolic blood flow restriction. After 30 days of limb suspension, the ULLS + Exercise group experienced minimal and insignificant losses in knee extensor cross-sectional area and strength (1.2% and 2.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Muscular endurance in the knee extensors improved 31% in the ULLS + Exercise group, while it decreased 24% in the ULLS group (P = 0.01). No changes were seen in hormone concentrations throughout the study. In conclusion, LL(BFR) of the knee extensors is effective in maintaining muscle strength and size during 30 days of ULLS and results in improved knee extensor muscular endurance.

  11. PLASTICITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE STUDIED BY STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  12. [Cervicogenic dysphagia: swallowing difficulties caused by functional and organic disorders of the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine disorders which can cause swallowing difficulties (cervicogenic dysphagia; CD) are: chronic multisegmental/MS dysfunction (dysfunction=functional blockade) of the facet joints, changes in physiological curvature of the cervical spine, degenerative changes (anterior osteophytes, anterior disc herniation, osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis), inflammatory rheumatic diseases, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, injuries, conditions after anterior cervical spine surgery, congenital malformations and tumors. According to our clinical observations, degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints and chronic MS dysfunction of the cervical spine facet joints are disorders which can cause swallowing difficulties. However, these disorders have not been recognized enough as the causes of dysphagia and they are not even mentioned in differential diagnosis. Because of the close anatomical relationship of cervical spine with the pharynx and cervical part of esophagus, the consequences of the degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints and chronic MS dysfunction of the cervical spine facet joints such as the changes in the physiological curvature of the cervical spine, changes in elasticity and contractility in the neck muscles and decreased mobility of the cervical spine, adversely affect the dimensions of the pharynx and cervical part of esophagus, that is, swallowing capacity which can result in dysphagia. Degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints are common additional cause of dysphagia in elderly people with disorders of the central control of swallowing (stroke, Parkinson's disease, senile dementia etc). The most important therapeutic options in patients with CD are: medicamentous therapy, physical therapy, manual therapy, kinesiotherapy and surgical treatment. The aim of the conservative therapy in patients with CD is to improve the swallowing capacity (for example, soft tissue techniques, stretching of the

  13. Rheumatoid wrist deformity and risk of extensor tendon rupture evaluated by 3DCT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Horizono, Hidehiro; Ishii, Katsushi; Seki, Eiko [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata city, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It causes immediate dysfunction of the hand and surgical reconstruction is usually required. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of extensor tendon rupture by quantifying wrist deformity on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. Three-dimensional CT images of 108 wrists in 102 patients with RA and 38 wrists in 38 healthy volunteers were analyzed retrospectively. All of the rheumatoid wrists had caused persistent pain for more than 6 months despite ongoing medical treatment. Extensor tendon rupture was noted in 49 wrists in 47 patients, and no rupture was noted in 59 wrists in 56 patients. The dorsal subluxation ratio (DSR) of the ulnar head and the carpal supination angle (CSA) were measured utilizing a new technique. The average DSR and CSA in the rupture group (n = 49), the non-rupture group (n = 59), and the normal wrist group (n = 38) were 37%, 19%, and 26%, and 15 , 11 , and 6 respectively. The cut-off values for extensor tendon rupture in the wrists of patients with RA were 32% (sensitivity; 70%, specificity; 75%) in the DSR, and 14 (71%, 68%) in the CSA. By utilizing 3DCT imaging of the rheumatoid wrist, these parameters can help improve our ability to predict extensor tendon rupture. (orig.)

  14. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles in different types of high heels during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during standing while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8 cm. [Subjects and Methods] The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225-230 mm and a normal gait pattern. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during standing while wearing 8-cm-high wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels was then measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each, and the mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The levels of muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles induced by standing on wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels in the cervical and lumbar areas were significantly higher than those induced by standing on bare feet. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. [Conclusion] The height of the heels presented a greater variable than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. Therefore, wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problems in the cervical and/or lumbar spine.

  15. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard; Gagnon, Robert; Delisle, Marie-France; Gagnon, Robert; Bujold, Emmanuel; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Gouin, Katy; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank; Senikas, Vyta

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour but de fournir un cadre de référence que les cliniciens pourront utiliser pour identifier les femmes qui sont exposées aux plus grands risques de connaître une insuffisance cervicale, ainsi que pour déterminer les circonstances en présence desquelles la mise en place d’un cerclage pourrait s’avérer souhaitable. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine cervical incompetence ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « cervical insufficiency », « cerclage », « Shirodkar », « cerclage », « MacDonald », « cerclage », « abdominal », « cervical length », « mid-trimester pregnancy loss »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en janvier 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Les femmes qui sont enceintes ou qui planifient connaître une grossesse devraient faire l’objet d’une évaluation visant les facteurs de

  16. An experimental study on enzyme and twitch muscle fiber in spasmodic muscle after cervical perivalcular sympathectomy%颈总动脉周交感神经网剥脱切除术后痉挛肌肉内酶与肌纤维结构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨交感神经切断后,痉挛肌肉内酶与肌纤维结构的改变。方法 将20只wistar大白鼠作成痉挛性模型,分成两组,随机选择1组行颈总动脉周交感神经网剥脱切除术,另1组作为对照,于术后第20天切取两组大鼠部分肱三头肌组织,采用(Ellman)爱尔蒙法及AU1000检测仪测定肌组织内乙酰胆碱酯酶活性和肌酸激酶含量,在IBAS图像分析仪上观察两组肌组织内快收缩肌纤维与慢收缩肌纤维的改变情况。结果 交感神经切断后,乙酰胆碱酯酶活性和肌酸激酶含量明显下降,分别从(3.37±1.01) U/g降至(2.15±1.42) U/g(P<0.01);(3 582.90±1 561.7) IU/L降至(420.10±73.55) IU/L(P<0.01),快肌纤维明显减少,从(275 727.31±98 240.23) μm2降至(96 554.35±43 345.35) μm2(P<0.01);慢肌纤维显著增加,由(42 710.78±28 858.37) μm2增至(27 0764.02±66 642.46) μm2(P<0.01)。结论 交感神经切断后痉挛肌肉兴奋性下降。%Objective To investigate the change of enzyme and twitch muscle fiber in spasmodic muscle after sympathectomy.  Methods Spasmodic model was developed in 20 wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2 groups: one group received cervical perivalcular sympathectomy and the other group served as a control. The AchE and CK in musculsus triceps brachii of rats in the 2 groups were tested by using Ellman and AU 1000. The fast twitch muscle fibers and slow twitch muscle in musculsus triceps brachii were examined by using IBAS graph device at 20th day after sympathectomy. Results After sympathectomy, the AchE, CK and the fast muscle fibers were obviously decreased from (3.37±1.01) U/g to (2.15±1.42) U/g (P<0.01), (3 582.90±1 561.7) IU/L to (420.10±73.55) IU/L (P<0.01) and from (275 727.31±98 240.23) μm2 to (96 554.35±43 345.35) μm2 (P<0.01), respectively, while the slow twitch muscle fibers significantly increased from

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  18. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  19. Acupoints for cervical spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihe; Arsovska, Blagica; Vasileva, Dance; Petkovska, Sofija; Kozovska, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck, as well as the contents of the spinal canal. This is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the spine. The disease can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Symptoms that are distinctive for cervical spondylosis are: tingling, numbness and weakness in the limbs, lack of coordination, stiff neck, shoulder pain, occipital pain, vertigo, poor...

  20. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  1. Radiographic analysis of factors predisposing toward tendon tears in the knee extensor mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To review radiographs of patients who suffered tendon tears of the knee extensor apparatus and observe alterations that might be factors predisposing toward this type of injury.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 60 cases of injury to the knee extensor mechanism that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. Four patients were excluded due to poor quality of the examination.Results:Of the 56 patients evaluated, 23 were considered to be normal and 33 presented radiographic alterations. Among these, eight (24.3% presented suprapatellar osteophytes alone; seven (21.2%, infrapatellar calcification; seven (21.2%, suprapatellar calcification; six (18.2%, supra- and infrapatellar osteophytes; and five (15.1%, infrapatellar osteophytes alone.Conclusion:Radiographic alterations were frequently observed in patients with extensor mechanism tears.

  2. Intramuscular fatty acid metabolism in contracting and non-contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Saltin, B; Osada, T

    2002-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the fate of blood-borne non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) entering contracting and non-contracting knee extensor muscles of healthy young individuals. [U-(13)C]-palmitate was infused into a forearm vein during 5 h of one-legged knee extensor exercise.......05) in the contracting muscle, whereas it was unchanged in the non-contracting muscle. The uptake of plasma NEFA, as well as the proportion directed towards oxidation, was higher in the exercising compared to the non-exercising leg, whereas the rate of palmitate incorporation into mTAG was fourfold lower (0.70 +/- 0.......14 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.04 micromol (g dry wt)(-1) h(-1); P contracting and non-contracting muscle, respectively. These findings demonstrate that mTAG in human skeletal muscle is continuously synthesised...

  3. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  4. Warner-Bratzler shear evaluations of 40 bovine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, J B; Brooks, J C; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W

    2003-08-01

    Forty muscles from each of 20 beef carcass sides were used to perform Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force determinations for within and among muscle effects. The M. triceps brachii differed (P psoas major, and M. semimembranosus all had significant location effects. Muscles were allocated into "very tender," "tender," "intermediate" or "tough" categories. Those muscles considered "very tender" (WBS iliacus, M. psoas major, M. serratus ventralis, M. biceps brachii, M. obliquus internus abdominis, and M. vastus medius. Muscles considered "tender" (3.2 kg 4.6 kg) were the M. extensor carpi radialis, M. trapezius, M. brachialis, M. pectoralis profundus, and M. flexor digitorum superficialis (hind limb). The diaphragm muscle was the most tender (WBS=2.03 kg), and the M. flexor digitorum superficialis was the toughest (WBS=7.74 kg). Tenderness, as measured by WBS, varied among and within bovine muscles, and knowledge of this variation allows for more appropriate use for specific purposes in the marketplace.

  5. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  6. Muscular and skeletal changes in cervical dysphonic in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menoncin, Laiza Carine Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vocal and neck are associated with the presence of tension and cervical muscle contraction. These disorders compromise the vocal tract and musculoskeletal cervical region and, thus, can cause muscle shortening, pain and fatigue in the neck and shoulder girdle. Objective:To evaluate and identify cervical abnormalities in women with vocal disorders, and neck pains comparing them to women without vocal complaints independent of the neck. Method: This prospective study of 32 subjects studied in the dysphonic group and 18 subjects in the control group, aged between 25 and 55 year old female. The subjects underwent assessments, ENT, orthopedic, physical therapy and voice recording. Results: At Rx cervical region more patients in the control group had this normal, however, with regard to the reduction of spaces interdiscal dysphonic patients prevailed. Furthermore, postural assessment, the kyphosis of the 1st thoracic vertebra occurred in 77.0% of non-dysphonic group (p = 0.0091, while cervical rotation was present in 83% of control (p = 0.0051. Conclusion: Significant cervical abnormalities in both groups, but cannot be inferred that the changes are directly related to dysphonia.

  7. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... effects against muscle fatigue and ultrastructural damages, preventing or reducing the loss in mechanical muscle function after running. Subjects were tested before and after IERT protocol for maximal isometric, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extensor strength (60° and 180° s(-1)). In a second...... session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...

  8. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP. He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  9. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  10. Scapular Winging as a Symptom of Cervical Flexion Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Yaguchi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ikuko; Tashiro, Jun; Tsuji, Sachiko; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2007-01-01

    A 23-year-old man complained of weakness of the right arm that he first noted six years prior to his visit. Neurological examination revealed atrophy and weakness of the triceps and serratus anterior muscle on the right side, which resulted in scapular winging on that side. MRI with neck flexion revealed compression of the cervical cord enabling a diagnosis of flexion myelopathy. Proximal muscle weakness and atrophy in flexion myelopathies including Hirayama disease are extremely rare. Here, ...

  11. Long latency trigemino-cervical reflex in patients with cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ayşegül; Ergin, Hayal; Kızıltan, Meral E

    2015-01-01

    Trigemino-cervical reflex (TCR) is elicited by stimulation of face using various modalities. TCR reflects the interaction between trigeminal system and cervical motoneurons. Such a specific interaction is assumed to play role in development of cervical dystonia (CD) through superior colliculus. In this study, we aimed to investigate alterations of the functional relationship between those structures in CD and in a subgroup with dystonic tremor. A total of consecutive 23 patients with primary CD (7 men, 16 women) and 16 age and sex matched control subjects (7 men, 9 women) were included in this study. TCR was obtained after percutaneous electrical stimulation (with duration of 0.5 ms) of infraorbital branch of trigeminal nerve while recording over splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Presence and onset latencies of TCR did not differ significantly between patients with CD and controls, and same pattern of muscle activation occurred in both groups. Responses of patient group seemed to have higher amplitudes and to be more persistent. There were no significant side-to-side differences of TCR probability, latency, amplitude or duration with respect to the side of head deviation in CD. Increased amplitudes and durations of responses probably reflect increased excitability of the reflex circuit. We suggest that similar latencies and response pattern in comparison to healthy individuals decrease the possibility of structural disturbance. TCR is probably under bilateral basal ganglia and dopaminergic control. Alterations of trigemino-cervical pathway are more extensive and are not solely due to local changes of brainstem interneurons.

  12. The uremic environment and muscle dysfunction in man and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Eidemak, I.;

    2006-01-01

    patients prior to and after a session of hemodialysis (HD) treatment, alongside in vitro measurements of muscle function in isolated rat muscles incubated in normal or uremic conditions approximating to those found in uremic rats (rat uremic: RU) or uremic humans (human uremic: HU). Results: HD......-twitch). In isolated rat muscles, a uremic environment had no significant effect on slow-twitch soleus during field stimulation, however, in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, a significant 23% (RU) and 22% (HU) faster rate of decline in force was measured, compared to controls (p

  13. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to spaceflight: Cosmos rhesus project. Cosmos 2044 and 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1994-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medial gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These effects were assessed by examining the biochemical and morphological properties of muscle fibers obtained from biopsies in young Rhesus monkeys (3-4 Kg). Biopsies taken from ground base experiments were analyzed to determine: (1) the effects of chair restraint at 1 G on muscle properties and (2) the growth rate of flexor and extensor muscles in the Rhesus. In addition, two sets of biopsies were taken from monkeys which were in the flight pool and the four monkeys that flew on the Cosmos 2044 and 2229 biosatellite missions. Based on data collected in rats it is generally assumed that extensors atrophy to a greater extent than flexors in response to spaceflight or hindlimb suspension. Consequently, the finding that fibers in the TA (a fast flexor) of the flight monkeys atrophied, whereas fibers in the Sol (a predominantly slow extensor) and MG (a fast extensor) grew after a 14-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) and 12-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2229) was unexpected. In Cosmos 2044, the TA in both flight monkeys had a 21 percent decrease in fiber size, whereas the Sol and MG both had a 79 percent increase in fiber size. In Cosmos 2229, the TA in both flight monkeys showed significant atrophy, whereas the Sol and MG showed slight growth in one monkey (906) and slight atrophy in the other monkey (151).

  14. Peak muscle perfusion and oxygen uptake in humans: importance of precise estimates of muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Râdegran, G; Blomstrand, E; Saltin, B

    1999-12-01

    The knee extensor exercise model was specifically developed to enable in vivo estimates of peak muscle blood flow and O(2) uptake in humans. The original finding, using thermodilution measurements to measure blood flow in relation to muscle mass [P. Andersen and B. Saltin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 366: 233-249, 1985], was questioned, however, as the measurements were two- to threefold higher than those previously obtained with the (133)Xe clearance and the plethysmography technique. As thermodilution measurements have now been confirmed by other methods and independent research groups, we aimed to address the impact of muscle mass estimates on the peak values of muscle perfusion and O(2) uptake. In the present study, knee extensor volume was determined from multiple measurements with computer tomography along the full length of the muscle. In nine healthy humans, quadriceps muscle volume was 2.36 +/- 0.17 (range 1. 31-3.27) liters, corresponding to 2.48 +/- 0.18 (range 1.37-3.43) kg. Anthropometry overestimated the muscle volume by approximately 21-46%, depending on whether quadriceps muscle length was estimated from the patella to either the pubic bone, inguinal ligament, or spina iliaca anterior superior. One-legged, dynamic knee extensor exercise up to peak effort of 67 +/- 7 (range 55-100) W rendered peak values for leg blood flow (thermodilution) of 5.99 +/- 0.66 (range 4.15-9.52) l/min and leg O(2) uptake of 856 +/- 109 (range 590-1,521) ml/min. Muscle perfusion and O(2) uptake reached peak values of 246 +/- 24 (range 149-373) and 35.2 +/- 3.7 (range 22.6-59. 6) ml. min(-1). 100 g muscle(-1), respectively. These peak values are approximately 19-33% larger than those attained by applying anthropometric muscle mass estimates. In conclusion, the present findings emphasize that peak perfusion and O(2) uptake in human skeletal muscle may be up to approximately 30% higher than previous anthropometric-based estimates that use equivalent techniques for blood flow

  15. Muscle damage induced by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Kazunori; Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Jubeau, Marc; Chen, Trevor C

    2011-10-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) induces muscle damage that is characterised by histological alterations of muscle fibres and connective tissue, increases in circulating creatine kinase (CK) activity, decreases in muscle strength and development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage is induced not only by eccentric contractions with ES but also by isometric contractions evoked by ES. Muscle damage profile following 40 isometric contractions of the knee extensors is similar between pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 μs) and alternating current (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 μs) ES for similar force output. When comparing maximal voluntary and ES-evoked (75 Hz, 200 μs) 50 isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, ES results in greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction strength, increases in plasma CK activity and DOMS. It appears that the magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES-evoked isometric contractions is comparable to that induced by maximal voluntary eccentric contractions, although the volume of affected muscles in ES is not as large as that of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. It seems likely that the muscle damage in ES is associated with high mechanical stress on the activated muscle fibres due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment (i.e., non-selective, synchronous and spatially fixed manner). The magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES is significantly reduced when the second ES bout is performed 2-4 weeks later. It is possible to attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage by "pre-conditioning" muscles, so that muscle damage should not limit the use of ES in training and rehabilitation.

  16. The role of phonophoresis in dyshpagia due to cervical osteophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Unlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeliha Unlu1, Sebnem Orguc2, Gorkem Eskiizmir3, Asim Aslan3, Saliha Tasci11Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; 2Department of Radiology; 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Celal Bayar University School of Medicine, Manisa, TurkeyObjective: Treatment of patients with anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia includes conservative treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, antibiotics, and an appropriate soft diet. Physical therapy with its advantages may be an alternative method in the treatment, which was not reported previously.Case description: Phonophoresis therapy is applied in nine patients with dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes.Results: The symptom of dysphagia regressed in various degrees in all patients after phonophoresis therapy.Conclusions: Phonophoresis might be an alternative method for the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID treatment in patients with dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes.Keywords: cervical, osteophyte, dysphagia, physical therapy

  17. EFFECTS OF BETWEEN-SET INTERVENTIONS ON NEUROMUSCULAR FUNCTION DURING ISOKINETIC MAXIMAL CONCENTRIC CONTRACTIONS OF THE KNEE EXTENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cometti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presents study investigated the effects of between-set interventions on neuromuscular function of the knee extensors during six sets of 10 isokinetic (120°·s-1 maximal concentric contractions separated by three minutes. Twelve healthy men (age: 23.9 ± 2.4 yrs were tested for four different between-set recovery conditions applied during two minutes: passive recovery, active recovery (cycling, electromyostimulation and stretching, in a randomized, crossover design. Before, during and at the end of the isokinetic session, torque and thigh muscles electromyographic activity were measured during maximal voluntary contractions and electrically-evoked doublets. Activation level was calculated using the twitch interpolation technique. While quadriceps electromyographic activity and activation level were significantly decreased at the end of the isokinetic session (-5.5 ± 14.2 % and -2.7 ± 4.8 %; p < 0.05, significant decreases in maximal voluntary contractions and doublets were observed after the third set (respectively -0.8 ± 12.1% and -5.9 ± 9.9%; p < 0.05. Whatever the recovery modality applied, torque was back to initial values after each recovery period. The present results showed that fatigue appeared progressively during the isokinetic session with peripheral alterations occurring first followed by central ones. Recovery interventions between sets did not modify fatigue time course as compared with passive recovery. It appears that the interval between sets (3 min was long enough to provide recovery regardless of the interventions

  18. MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1 the injury degree of CET; (2 associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. RESULTS: Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe. Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01 was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL. CONCLUSION: Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.

  19. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  20. Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup; Jacobsen, Jacob Ole; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of 8 days of immobilization during a Special Support and Reconnaissance mission (SSR) on muscle mass, contraction dynamics, maximum jump height/power, and body composition. METHODS: Unilateral maximal voluntary contraction, rate...... extensor maximal voluntary contraction (-10%). Furthermore, rate of force development was severely affected (-15-30%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight days of immobilization during a covert SSR mission by Special Forces soldiers led to substantial decrements in maximal muscle force and especially in rapid muscle force...

  1. Cross-spectral analysis of physiological tremor and muscle activity; 1, Theory and application to unsynchronized EMG

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, J; Pfleger, W; Deuschl, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the extensor electromyogram (EMG) and tremor time series in physiological hand tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention is directed to the phase spectrum and the effects of observational noise. We calculate the theoretical phase spectrum for a second order linear stochastic process and compare the results to measured tremor data recorded from subjects who did not show a synchronized EMG activity in the corresponding extensor muscle. The results show that physiological tremor is well described by the proposed model and that the measured EMG represents a Newtonian force by which the muscle acts on the hand.

  2. Histoenzymatic and Morphometric Analysis of Muscle Fiber Type Transformation during the Postnatal Development of the Chronically Food-Deprived Rat

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the effect of chronic undernourishment on extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle maturation in the rat. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and alkaline ATPase histoenzymatic techniques were used to determine the relative proportion of different fiber types (oxidative/glycolytic and type I, IIa/IId, or IIb, respectively) and their cross-sectional area in control and undernourished EDL muscles at several postnatal (PN) ages. From PN days 15 to 45, undernourished EDL muscles showed predominan...

  3. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  4. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  5. Notalgia paresthetica associated with cervical spinal stenosis and cervicothoracic disk disease at C4 through C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Nili N; Skinner, Harry B; Nabili, Siamak T; Jeffes, Edward; Shahrokni, Seyed; Saemi, Arash M

    2010-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a common refractory, sensory, neuropathic syndrome with the hallmark symptom of localized pruritus of the unilateral infrascapular back. It generally is a chronic noncurable condition with periodic remissions and exacerbations. While the dermatologic syndrome may be multifactorial in etiology, a possible association with underlying cervical spine disease should be evaluated for proper treatment. Collaborative multispecialty evaluation by dermatology, radiology, orthopedic surgery, and neurology may be indicated for primary management of this condition. First-line therapy for NP with associated cervical disease may include nondermatologic noninvasive treatments such as spinal manipulation, physical therapy, massage, cervical traction, cervical muscle strengthening, and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. Notalgia paresthetica may in fact be a cutaneous sign of an underlying degenerative cervical spine disease. We report a case of a patient with cervical spinal stenosis that corresponded directly with the clinical findings of NP.

  6. The Analysis of the Reliability and Factorial Validity in the Basic Characteristics of Isometric F-t curve of the Leg Extensors in Well Trained Serbian Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopsaj, Milivoj; Ivanović, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the reliability and factorial validity of different isometric basic characteristics of F-t curve related to leg extensors in well trained and healthy Serbian males and females. Sample consisted of 159 examinees. In order to assess characteristics of the F-t isometric leg extensor force, tensiometric probe and standardized "seating leg extension" test were used. The measurement range was defined by 4 variables regarding the contractile characteristics of the leg extensor isometric muscle force - 1) the level of the achieved maximal force - FmaxLegExtISO, 2) the indicator of basic (general) level of rate of force development - RFDBASICLegExtISO, 3) the time necessary to reach maximal force - tFmaxLegExtISO, 4) basic synergy index. The results showed a high statistical significance of p<0.001 in representability, generalizability and reliability for all the characteristics observed in both genders (Spearman-Brown r - 0.715 to 0.967 for males and 0.713 to 0.941 for females). As for the methodology aspect of testing, the factor analysis demonstrated the necessity of conducting at least three trials, choosing the best result from the two last trials.

  7. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  8. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur ... minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  9. Surgical and anatomical studies on De Quervain's tenosynovitis syndrome: Variations in the first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Randal Pires J and uacute;nior

    2016-08-01

    Clinical relevance: As septation of the first extensor compartment and multiple APL tendons appears to represent risk factors for the development of DQT, prior knowledge of the frequency of such anomalies may assist surgeons in pre-operative evaluation and perioperative procedures. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 50-55

  10. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We systematically identified and methodologically...

  11. The effects of imagery on fast isometric knee extensor torque development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de C.J.; Hutter, R.I.; Icke, C; Groen, B; Gemmink, A; Smilde, H; Haan, de A.

    2012-01-01

    0.05) to significant increases of knee extensor rectified surface EMG at torque onset (EMG40). In conclusion, only physical training led to a knee angle specific increase of contractile impulse that was significantly different from placebo and controls and that was related to improved onset of neuro

  12. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow St...... State University, Russia. PMID: 10833635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  13. Injury patterns of finger extensor tendons in population of Ivanovo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Vashetsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute injury of finger extensor tendons constitute a significant part in overall causes for hospital admission.Purpose of the study: to evaluate injury patterns of finger extensor tendons in population of Ivanovo region.Material and methods. The authors performed the retrospective statistical analysis of 163 medical histories of patients who underwent hospital treatment in the period from January 2011 till December 2014 at department of wrist reconstructive surgery and microsurgery of Ivanovo regional clinical hospital of war veterans. The study was carried out in full compliance with medical ethics. Excel 7.0 was applied for statistical analysis.Results. Injury patterns of patients with finger extensor tendons demonstrated prevalence of males aging from 21 to 40 years old. Most frequent is the left hand trauma at home while handling devices with high-speed rotation mechanism. Most lesions occur in time interval from noon till 6 p.m. Patients with combined injuries prevailed. The authors observed hospital admittance within first 6 hours after trauma.Conclusion. A typical patient with finger extensor tendons trauma is an active age male injured in everyday life and often in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

  14. Reduced glycogen availability is associated with an elevation in HSP72 in contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febbraio, Mark A; Steensberg, Adam; Walsh, Rory;

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a decrease in intramuscular glycogen availability may stimulate heat shock protein expression, seven men depleted one leg of muscle glycogen the day before performing 4-5 h of exhaustive, two-legged knee extensor exercise at 40 % of leg peak power output. Subjects...

  15. Training and muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism in humans during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T E; Turcotte, L P; Kiens, Bente

    1995-01-01

    We studied the responses of NH3 and amino acids (AA) to prolonged exercise (3 h) in trained (Tr; n = 6) and untrained (Utr; n = 6) men. Each subject exercised the knee extensor muscles of one leg at 60% of maximum capacity. Thigh blood flow and femoral arteriovenous differences (0, 30, 60, 120, 1...

  16. Multiple regeneration from axolotl limb stumps bearing cross-transplanted minced muscle regenerates : brief note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlson, Bruce M.

    1975-01-01

    Flexor and extensor muscles in the upper arms of axolotls were minced and cross-transplanted. The limbs were amputated 5 and 30 days after mincing. In each experiment a high percentage of the regenerates consisted of multiple limbs. This demonstrates that the morphogenetic information which produces

  17. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight...

  18. Differential modulation of reciprocal inhibition in ankle muscles during rhythmic arm cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragert, Katie; Zehr, E Paul

    2013-02-08

    Interlimb neural linkages relay activity related to rhythmic arm movement to the lumbar spinal cord. This is detected by modulated reflex amplitudes in muscles remote from the rhythmic movement. Improved understanding of modulation in ankle flexor and extensor muscles due to rhythmic arm movement can be gained using modulation of spinal excitability as a probe. The modulatory effect of rhythmic arm movement on Ia reciprocal inhibition (RI) between functional antagonists at the ankle has not been studied. We investigated the influence of rhythmic arm cycling on short latency (∼55ms post-stimulus) RI between ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA) and extensor (soleus, SOL) muscles at varying (0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0× motor threshold (MT)) stimulus intensities. We hypothesized that arm cycling would increase RI between antagonists, but that movement conditioning would vary depending on stimulus intensity used to evoke the RI response. Amplitude of RI deduced from suppression of ongoing EMG activity was compared in static and arm cycling conditions. Arm cycling significantly (p0.05). Descending signals arising from rhythmic arm movement significantly alter transmission in RI pathways between ankle flexor and extensor muscles differentially. This may be due to differences in descending supraspinal inputs to ankle flexors vs. extensors, and could be related to functional requirements during locomotion.

  19. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (Pstrength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females.

  20. Relationship between Isometric Strength of Six Lower Limb Muscle Groups and Motor Skills among Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckinx, F; Croisier, J L; Reginster, J Y; Petermans, J; Goffart, E; Bruyère, O

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the correlation between isometric muscle strength of the lower limb and motor skills. This is a cross sectional study performed among volunteer nursing home residents included in the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. The present analysis focused on isometric muscle strength of 6 lower limb muscle groups (i.e. knee extensors, knee flexors, hip abductors, hip extensors, ankle flexors and ankle extensors), assessed using a validated hand-held dynamometer (i.e. the MicroFET2 device), and motor skills evaluated using the Tinetti test, the Timed Up and Go test, the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB) and the walking speed. The relationship between all these parameters was tested by means of a multiple correlation, adjusted on age, sex and body mass index. 450 nursing home residents (69.8% of women) with a mean age of 83.1±9.4 years were included in this study. Our results showed a significant inverse correlation between lower limb muscle strength and the time required to perform the TUG test or gait speed, except for ankle flexors and ankle extensors. The relationship between the Tinetti test or the SPPB score, and lower limb muscle strength was significant, except for ankle flexors and ankle extensors. In conclusion, a positive association between lower limb muscle strength of the four main muscle groups and motor skills of the elderly nursing residents was found in this research. Therefore, special attention should be given to these muscle groups during rehabilitation programs.

  1. Percutaneous Release of the First Dorsal Extensor Compartment: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Ali; Türkmen, Faik; Toker, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficiency of the percutaneous 18-G needle technique in releasing the fibro-osseous sheath over the first dorsal extensor compartment of the hand. Methods: Using anatomic landmarks, percutaneous release was performed with an 18-G needle on 48 wrists of 24 cadavers. The specimens were then dissected and examined for the completeness of the first dorsal extensor compartment release and any tendon or neurovascular injuries. The tunnel length, number of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, presence of an intertendinous septum, and the effects of these parameters on percutaneous release were evaluated. Results: Percutaneous release was performed on all of the wrists, and the evaluation of the adequacy of release revealed 25 complete releases, 21 partial releases, and 2 missed releases. There were 19 cases of tendon complications. No neurovascular injuries were noted. The mean tunnel length was 2.66 ± 30 cm, and the mean number of tendons was 2.75 ± 0.86. A septum was present in 33.3% of cases. Tunnel length and tendon number had no statistically significant effect on release, whereas the presence of a septum was significantly associated with inadequate tunnel release and the development of tendon complications. Conclusions: Percutaneous release of the first dorsal extensor compartment using an 18-G needle was associated with high rates of incomplete release and tendon damage in the presence of an intertendinous septum. Further study is required under ultrasound guidance to determine the usefulness of percutaneous release in the first dorsal extensor compartment. Clinical Relevance: Release with a percutaneous needle tip in De Quervain’s syndrome may provide the advantages of better cosmetic results with less scar formation and an early return to work. PMID:27826460

  2. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the pelvic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Rhodes, L; Andrews, J; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle-tendon architecture and geometry of the pelvic limb of an elite sprint athlete, the racing greyhound. Specifically, muscle masses, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and muscle moment arms were measured. Maximum isometric force and power of muscles, the maximum muscle torque at joints and tendon stress and strain were estimated. We compare data with that published for a generalized breed of canid, and other cursorial mammals such as the horse and hare. The pelvic limb of the racing greyhound had a relatively large volume of hip extensor muscle, which is likely to be required for power production. Per unit body mass, some pelvic limb muscles were relatively larger than those in less specialized canines, and many hip extensor muscles had longer fascicle lengths. It was estimated that substantial extensor moments could be created about the tarsus and hip of the greyhound allowing high power output and potential for rapid acceleration. The racing greyhound hence possesses substantial specializations for enhanced sprint performance.

  3. Estudo anatômico das inserções distais do tendão extensor longo do polegar Anatomical studies of the distal insertion of the extensor pollicis longus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Benedito Ferreira Caetano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Registramos pelo presente estudo que o músculo (ELP e seu tendão apresentaram poucas variações anatômicas. Não registramos a presença de tendões acessórios e nem a ausência desse músculo ou de seu tendão. Verificamos em todas as preparações a passagem do tendão pelo terceiro compartimento osteofibroso, cruzando sobre os extensor radial curto (ERCC e longo (ERLC do carpo e dirigindo-se ao polegar. A alteração no trajeto tendinoso, desviando-se no sentido radial foi verificada em uma das preparações (1,6%. A duplicação parcial do tendão proximal a articulação metacarpofalângica (AMFP foi verificada em 3 observações (4,8%, sendo 1 bilateral, e distal à articulação em 5 (8,3%, 2 bilateralmente. A inserção óssea na base da falange distal (BFD foi encontrada em todas as observações. Durante sua passagem pela articulação metacarpofalângica, registramos sua inserção na cápsula articular em 14 observações (23,3%, porém não registramos a inserção óssea nesse local. O padrão mais comum em relação ao músculo ELP foi a presença constante de 1 tendão, passando pelo terceiro compartimento osteofibroso dorsal do punho com inserção óssea na base da falange distal do polegar.We recorded with this study that the EPL muscle and its tendon show a few anatomical variations. Any accessories tendons either the absence of this muscle or its tendon was found. In all preparation the passage of the tendon through the third osteofibroses compartment, crossing on the ERBC and ERLC going to the thumb was seen. The change of the tendinuous trajectory, deviating itself to the radial direction in one of the preparations was checked (1,6%. The partial duplication of the proximal tendon to the metacarpophalangeal joint (AMP was seen in three observations (4,8%, one bilateral and distal to the articulation in five (8,3%, 2 bilaterally. The bone insertion at the base of distal (BFD phalanx in all observations were found

  4. TRAPEZOID SHAPED OMOHYOIDEUS MUSCLE: An Anatomic Variation seen in Functional Neck Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Lokman Uzun; Numan Kokten; Gul Ozbilen Acar

    2015-01-01

    Omohyoid muscle (Om) is an important anatomical landmark in cervical lymph node partition, neck dissection for head and neck cancers and cervical spine surgery. It consists of two bellies united at an angle by an intermediate tendon. Variations in the origin and insertion of the muscle, absence or duplication of the superior or inferior bellies, aberrant position in relation to IJV and sternocleideomastoid muscle have been reported. We report a rare anatomical variation of the Om in this repo...

  5. Spinal osteoblastoma: relationship between paravertebral muscle abnormalities and scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, 45-51 Bolsover Street, London W1P 8AQ (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Sherazi, Z. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Shaikh, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Natali, C. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Ransford, A.O. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Pringle, J.A.S. [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Objective. To illustrate the variety of paravertebral muscle abnormalities as seen on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in association with spinal osteoblastomas and correlate the findings with the presence of scoliosis. Design. In a retrospective study the clinical notes, plain radiographic, CT and/or MRI features were reviewed for the presence of scoliosis and paravertebral muscle abnormality (either inflammation or atrophy). Patients. Twelve patients (7 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 17 years were studied. Three lesions occurred in the cervical spine, five in the thoracic spine and four in the lumbar spine. Results and conclusions. Nine patients had scoliosis. All patients with a thoracic or lumbar lesion and scoliosis (n=8) had an associated abnormality of the paravertebral muscles (usually atrophy with fatty replacement). One patient with a lumbar lesion and no scoliosis had normal paravertebral muscles. One patient with a cervical lesion had thoracic scoliosis but no muscle abnormality in the cervical region, while two patients with cervical lesions and no scoliosis showed muscle abnormalities. The results support the clinical hypothesis that scoliosis in patients with spinal osteoblastoma is due to paravertebral muscle spasm, although this would not appear to be the case for cervical lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Isokinetic assessment of the flexor-extensor balance of the knee in athletes with total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament Avaliação isocinética do equilíbrio flexo-extensor do joelho nos atletas com ruptura total do ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio A. P. Terreri

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the flexor-extensor group of muscles of the knee in young athletes diagnosed with a total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Eighteen knees of 18 athletes (14 men and 4 women with an average age of 21.6 years (range 16-32 years were assessed with a Cybex 6000 model isokinetic apparatus. The average interval between occurrence of the injury and assessment was 10.2 months (range 2 - 48 months. There was an associated meniscal injury in eight of the knees. Athletes with any other kind of associated injury, limitation, or blockage of the movement of the joint, significant pain during the exam, or interval between injury and exam of less than two months were excluded from the study. The parameters studied were the peak torque-velocity and flexor-extensor relationships at the constant angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec. Previous warming-up was done by means of an ergometric bicycle and adaptation with 3 submaximal repetitions. The contra-lateral side, which presented no injury, was used as control. Peak torque (PT at the constant velocity of 60°/sec was greater than that at 240°/sec for knees with and without injuries. However, there was no significant difference between the injured and uninjured sides at 60°/sec or at 240°/sec. The average value for the flexor-extensor relationship at 60°/sec on the injured was 60% (( 6, compared to 57% (( 10 on the contra-lateral side. At 240°/sec, the average value was 75% ((10 on the injured side, and 65% ((12 on the contra-lateral side. In conclusion, despite the complete rupture of the ACL of one knee, the average values for the flexor-extensor relationship were similar on the injured and uninjured sides at the velocity of 60°/sec. As the velocity increased, an increase in the values for the flexor-extensor relationship of the knee also occurred, indicating a tendency of the performance of the flexor muscle group to approach that of the

  7. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl...

  8. Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Özdeşlik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2013-10-01

    Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.

  9. Cervical dystonia : Improved treatment response to botulinum toxin after referral to a tertiary centre and the use of polymyography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Standaar, T. S. M.; Postma, Marten; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cervical dystonia is the most common form of (primary) dystonia. The first line of treatment for cervical dystonia is intramuscular injections with botulinum toxin. To optimise the response to botulinum toxin proper muscles selection is required. Pre-treatment polymyographic EMG in additi

  10. Influência do treinamento excêntrico nas razões de torque de flexores/extensores do joelho Knee torque ratio after eccentric training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Juner Lanferdini

    2010-03-01

    intragroups between assessments, with (significance level set at p<0.05. In EG a reduction in torque ratios was found from the initial assessment (AS1 to the other three ones: AS1x AS2, p=0.005; AS1x AS3, p=0.001; and AS1x AS4, p<0.001. At the last evaluation, EG torque ratios were lower than those of CG's (p=0.041. Eccentric training hence changes balance between knee flexor and extensor muscles: a 12-week training program leads to lower Hecc:Qecc ratio and to extensor torque increase, with no significant change in flexor torque, being thus suitable for rehabilitation aimed at strengthening knee extensor muscles.

  11. Na+-K+ pump location and translocation during muscle contraction  in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction may up-regulate the number of Na+-K+ pumps in the plasma membrane by translocation of subunits. Since there is still controversy about where this translocation takes place from and if it takes place at all, the present study used different techniques to characterize...... subunits were associated with Cav-3 in soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and mixed muscles, respectively. For the a2, the corresponding values were 17%, 5% and 16%. In conclusion; muscle contraction induces translocation of the a subunits, which is suggested to be caused partly by structural changes...... the translocation. Electrical stimulation and biotin labeling of rat muscle revealed a 40% and 18% increase in the amounts of the Na+-K+ pump a2 subunit and caveolin-3 (Cav-3), respectively, in the sarcolemma. Exercise induced a 36% and 19% increase in the relative amounts of the a2 subunit and Cav-3, respectively...

  12. MRI of the tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle: a rare accessory muscle and normal anatomical variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Yaron; Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); St Mary' s Hospital, Imaging Department, QEQM, London (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Nadeem [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man who sustained a hyperplantar flexion injury of his right ankle, and was evaluated using computed tomography and MRI to assess for osseous and ligamentous injury. The MRI and CT studies demonstrated a tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle in the lower limb's anterior compartment. To our knowledge, the imaging of this muscle has not been previously described. The TAAG muscle arises from the lower third of the anterolateral tibia and the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passes laterally, deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, and inserts onto the anterior superolateral neck of the talus in a fan-like manner. Knowledge and recognition of this tendon are important for both diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning, and could potentially be used as a tendon transfer or graft in the appropriate clinical setting. The presence of this accessory muscle should not be confused with a pathological condition. (orig.)

  13. High-intensity, unilateral resistance training of a non-paretic muscle group increases active range of motion in a severely paretic upper extremity muscle group after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Urbin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Limited rehabilitation strategies are available for movement restoration when paresis is too severe following stroke. Previous research has shown that high-intensity resistance training of one muscle group enhances strength of the homologous, contralateral muscle group in neurologically-intact adults. How this cross education phenomenon might be exploited to moderate severe weakness in an upper extremity muscle group after stroke is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to examine adaptations in force-generating capacity of severely paretic wrist extensors resulting from high-intensity, dynamic contractions of the non-paretic wrist extensors. A secondary, exploratory aim was to probe neural adaptations in a subset of participants from each sample using a single-pulse, transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol. Separate samples of neurologically-intact controls (n=7 and individuals > 4 months post stroke (n=6 underwent 16 sessions of training. Following training, one-repetition maximum of the untrained wrist extensors in the control group and active range of motion of the untrained, paretic wrist extensors in the stroke group were significantly increased. No changes in corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition or interhemispheric inhibition were observed in control participants. Both stroke participants who underwent TMS testing, however, exhibited increased voluntary muscle activation following the intervention. In addition, motor-evoked potentials that were unobtainable prior to the intervention were readily elicited afterwards in a stroke participant. Results of this study demonstrate that high-intensity resistance training of a non-paretic upper extremity muscle group can enhance voluntary muscle activation and force-generating capacity of a severely paretic muscle group after stroke. There is also preliminary evidence that corticospinal adaptations may accompany these gains.

  14. Is pressure pain sensitivity over the cervical musculature associated with neck disability in individuals with migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Claudia; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Dach, Fabíola; Fernández-De-Las-Penãs, Cesar; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine if disability due to neck pain is correlated with pressure pain sensitivity in the cervical muscles in patients with migraine. Thirty-two volunteers with migraine completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and linear regression models (α cervical muscles correlated moderately and was inversely proportional in patients with migraine, but the association was not linear, so both outcomes should be considered in the assessment of this population.

  15. Posterior muscle chain activity during various extension exercises: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    De Ridder, Eline MD; Oosterwijck, Jessica O; Vleeming, Andry; Vanderstraeten, Guy G.; Danneels, Lieven A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Back extension exercises are often used in the rehabilitation of low back pain. However, at present it is not clear how the posterior muscles are recruited during different types of extension exercises. Therefore, the present study will evaluate the myoelectric activity of thoracic, lumbar and hip extensor muscles during different extension exercises in healthy persons. Based on these physiological observations we will make recommendations regarding the use of extensions exercises...

  16. A feasibility study of the effect of intra-articular corticosteroid injection on isokinetic muscle strength in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Damien; Ostring, Genevieve; Broderick, Carolyn; Chaitow, Jeffrey; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the magnitude of changes in isokinetic muscle strength in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) before and after treatment with intra-articular corticosteroid injection and assessed the feasibility of a larger study of the same effect. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to measure peak knee extension and flexion torque in 12 children before and after treatment for unilateral knee arthritis. Extensor and flexor strength was reduced on the affected side before treatment (-0.56 Nm/kg, p = .004 and -0.24 Nm/kg, p = .02 respectively). Increases in extensor strength were observed at two weeks (p = .01) and twelve weeks postinjection (p = .03). Improvements at 6 weeks approached but did not reach statistical significance (p = .17). Improvements in flexor strength were not observed until 12 weeks postinjection (p = .03). Despite significant improvements in extensor strength, low peak knee extensor torque continued to be observed at 12 weeks (p = .01). Knee extensor and flexor strength is reduced in children with JIA with active arthritis and improves following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Significant improvements in knee extensor and flexor strength were seen postinjection; however deficits in extensor strength were still evident at three months. Isokinetic dynamometry was safe and well tolerated in our sample of children with JIA with active arthritis.

  17. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  18. Comparison in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage among four limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Lin, Kun-Yi; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Lin, Ming-Ju; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2011-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise would be smaller for the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) compared with the elbow flexors (EF) and extensors (EE). A total of 17 sedentary men performed five sets of six maximal isokinetic (90° s(-1)) eccentric contractions of EF (range of motion, ROM: 90°-0°, 0 = full extension), EE (55°-145°), KF (90°-0°), and KE (30°-120°) using a different limb with a 4-5-week interval in a counterbalanced order. Changes in maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic strength, optimum angle, limb circumference, ROM, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, muscle soreness, and echo-intensity of B-mode ultrasound images before and for 5 days following exercise were compared amongst the four exercises using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. All variables changed significantly following EF, EE, and KF exercises, but KE exercise did not change the optimum angle, limb circumference, and echo-intensity. Compared with KF and KE, EF and EE showed significantly greater changes in all variables, without significant differences between EF and EE. Changes in all variables were significantly greater for KF than KE. For the same subjects, the magnitude of change in the dependent variables following exercise varied among the exercises. These results suggest that the two arm muscles are equally more susceptible to muscle damage than leg muscles, but KF is more susceptible to muscle damage than KE. The difference in the susceptibility to muscle damage seems to be associated with the use of muscles in daily activities.

  19. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  20. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  1. Bilateral assessment of knee muscle relationships in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Regina Santos dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric performance of flexor and extensor muscles of the knee may be a risk factor for knee injuries, especially the anterior cruciate ligament. Additionally, asymmetries in power and work may have correlations with fatigue and performance during functional tasks. Among untrained individuals, such asymmetries may be of potential interest for training prescription. Here, we investigated the bilateral performance of knee flexors and extensors muscle groups of untrained individuals. We quantified the torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, as well as work, power and asymmetry indexes in 20 untrained male (25 ± 4 years old; height 1.74 ± 0.05 m; body mass 76 ± 9 kg. No significant asymmetry was observed for torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, work and power output for knee flexor and extensor muscle groups (p < .05. Our results suggest that untrained male present symmetry in the knee flexion and extension bilateral performance. Changes in this behavior due to physical training must be monitored.

  2. Relationship between active cervical range of motion and flexion-relaxation ratio in asymptomatic computer workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Ra

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of neck and shoulder pain is present in the working population, especially sedentary workers. Recent findings have indicated that the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio in the cervical erector spinae (CES) muscles might be a significant criteria of neuromuscular impairment and function. Additionally, the active cervical range of motion (ROM) is frequently used for discriminating between individuals with pain and those who are asymptomatic. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio in a sample of regular visual display terminal (VDT) workers. In total, 20 asymptomatic male VDT workers were recruited. Active cervical ROM was measured by a cervical ROM (CROM) instrument. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect myoelectrical signals from the CES muscles, and the FR ratio was calculated for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio. The values obtained for the FR ratio in the right CES muscles correlated significantly with the active cervical ROM measured in flexion (r=0.73, pcervical FR ratio had a positive correlation with cervical movements, and that changes of the activation patterns in CES demonstrated as cervical FR ratio are associated with reduction of the cervical range of motion including flexion and lateral flexion. In addition, muscular dysfunction of the CES could occur in regular computer workers prior to occurrence of pain; this means that the FR ratio could be used to evaluate the potential risk of neck discomfort in computer workers.

  3. Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Svendsen, Morten B; Nørreslet, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...... joint abductor moment. Several EMG parameters increased significantly when walking on high-heels. The results indicate a large increase in bone-on-bone forces in the knee joint directly caused by the increased knee joint extensor moment during high-heeled walking, which may explain the observed higher...

  4. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    frequency (2 Hz) percutaneous electrical stimulation. Twitch forces were measured before, immediately after and 15 minutes into recovery of an extensor isometric wrist extension for ten minutes at 15 % Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC). RESULTS: The average MVC wrist extension force and baseline...... response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...

  5. Muscle Strength Imbalance in the Hip Joint Caused by Fast Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontaga, I.

    2003-07-01

    Eleven male sportsmen at the age of 24.3 ± 4.5 were examined. Their hip joint flexors and extensors were tested by an "REV-9000" Technogym dynamometer system during isokinetic movements at angular velocities of 100 (low) and 200 (high) °/s. The range of hip joint movements was from 30 (in flexion) to 130° (in extension). Torque values and their ratios for hip flexors and extensors at different angular positions were obtained and compared. It is shown that, at high speeds, the flexion movement significantly raises ( p muscles at fast movements.

  6. Relations Between Lower Body Isometric Muscle Force Characteristics and Start Performance in Elite Male Sprint Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Beretić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was twofold. The first aim was to examine the influence of absolute and relative lower body muscle force on kinematic component which determine the start performance. The second aim was to create multiregressional model which could use as a tool for swimming coaches with the purpose to start performance control and improvement. Twenty seven high-level trained male competitive swimmers all members of the Serbian National Youth and Senior Swimming Team (Age = 21.1 ± 4.3 yrs., Height = 1. 89 ± 0.10 m, Weight = 81.6 ± 8.4 kg, 50m freestyle - long course = 24.36 ± 0.86 s performed two trials of standing leg extensors isometric muscle force testing and three swimming start trials corresponding to 10m distance. The average start time significantly correlated with variables of leg extensors maximum voluntary force (Fmax, r = -0.559, p = 0.002, leg extensors relative muscle voluntary force (Frel, r = -0.727, p < 0.001, leg extensors specific rate of force development (RFD50%, r = -0.338, p = 0.047 and leg extensors relative value of specific rate of force development (RFD50%rel, r = -0.402, p = 0.040. Regression equation for t10m prediction was defined by following variables: maximum voluntary isometric force of leg extensors muscles at absolute and relative level (Fmax and Frel, as well as a specific rate of force development of the same muscle groups (RFD50% and RFD50%rel at absolute and relative level too with 74.4% of explained variance. Contractile abilities indicators of the leg extensors muscles included consideration: Fmax, RFD50%, Frel and RFD50%rel showed significant correlation with swimming start times on 10m. Additionally, the results suggest that swimmers, who possess greater isometric maximum force and specific rate of force development at absolute and relative levels, tend to be able to swim faster on initial 10m swim start perforamnce.

  7. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF CRANIO-CERVICAL TRAINING OVER MYOFACIAL PAIN SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi. S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a syndrome presenting with acute or chronic regional pain originating from trigger points (TPs localized in the muscles or the fascia. TPs are local points showing high irritability, sensitivity to finger pressure and causing characteristic referred pain. The aim of this case study is to assess the effectiveness of cranio-cervical training on neck disability, endurance of deep cervical muscles and pressure pain threshold in a patient with cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Case description: A 36 year old female who was diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. She received cranio cervical training, a low load endurance exercises in order to train and/or to regain muscle control of the cervicoscapular and craniocervical regions. The patient received the treatment program for 10 to 15 minutes. The frequency of treatment is five days in a week for a period of 3 weeks. Outcome: The outcome measures were neck disability index, pressure pain threshold and deep cervical endurance test, which were measured prior to treatment and at the end of third week. Conclusion: The craniocervical training programme for a patient with myofascial pain syndrome found to be effective in reducing neck disability, improving the pressure pain threshold and deep cervical flexor muscle endurance.

  9. Correlation between signs of temporomandibular (TMD) and cervical spine (CSD) disorders in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bertolli, Fabiana; Holtz, Amanda; Costa, Dirceu

    2005-01-01

    Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders. This study was performed to evaluate and correlate TMD, CSD in asthmatic and non-asthmatic. Thirty asthmatic children (7.1 +/- 2.6 years old), 30 non-asthmatic predominantly mouth breathing children (Mouth Breathing Group - MBG) (8.80 +/- 1.61 years) and 30 non-asthmatic predominantly nasal breathing children (Nasal breathing Group - NBG) (9.00 +/- 1.64 years) participated in this study and they were submitted to clinical index to evaluate stomatognathic and cervical systems. Spearman correlation test and Chi-square were used. The level of significance was set at p temporomandibular joint (TMJ), TMJ sounds, pain during cervical extension and rotation, palpatory tenderness of sternocleidomastoids and paravertabrae muscles and a severe reduction in cervical range of motion were observed in AG. Both AG and MBG groups demonstrated palpatory tenderness of posterior TMJ, medial and lateral pterygoid, and trapezius muscles when compared to NBG. Results showed a positive correlation between the severity of TMD and CSD signs in asthmatic children (r = 0.48). No child was considered normal to CSD and cervical mobility. The possible shortening of neck accessory muscles of respiration and mouth breathing could explain the relationship observed between TMD, CSD signs in asthmatic children and emphasize the importance of the assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine regions in asthmatic children.

  10. The evolution of hindlimb tendons and muscles on the line to crown-group birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R

    2002-12-01

    The anatomy and functions of muscle-tendon complexes and their bony attachments in birds and their outgroups show how the major pelvic limb muscle groups evolved. Fossils reveal that most changes evolved after the divergence of archosaurs in the Triassic, particularly in the dinosaurian precursors to birds. Three-dimensional limb control became concentrated at the hip joint; more distal joints and muscles were restricted to flexion or extension early in dinosaur evolution. Hip extensors expanded even though the primary femoral retractor M. caudofemoralis longus was reduced. Hip flexors and two-joint "hamstring" muscles were simplified to a few large heads. Knee extensors increased their sizes and moment arms early in bipedal dinosaurs, but the patella and cranial cnemial crest evolved later in birds. Lower limb muscles expanded as ossifications such as the hypotarsus increased their moment arms. The ossification of lower limb tendons, particularly in extensors, is a recent novelty of birds. Muscles and tendons that develop large forces, stresses, and moments to stabilize or move the limbs became increasingly prominent on the line to birds. Locomotion evolved in a stepwise pattern that only recently produced the derived limb control mechanisms of crown-group birds, such as the strongly flexed hip and knee joints.

  11. No Critical Peripheral Fatigue Threshold during Intermittent Isometric Time to Task Failure Test with the Knee Extensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that group III and IV muscle afferents provide inhibitory feedback from locomotor muscles to the central nervous system, setting an absolute threshold for the development of peripheral fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to test the validity of this theory. Thus, we asked whether the level of developed peripheral fatigue would differ when two consecutive exercise trials were completed to task failure. Ten trained sport students performed two exercise trials to task failure on an isometric dynamometer, allowing peripheral fatigue to be assessed 2 s after maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) post task failure. The trials, separated by 8 min, consisted of repeated sets of 10 × 5-s isometric knee extension followed by 5-s rest between contractions. In each set, the first nine contractions were performed at a target force at 60% of the pre-exercise MVC, while the 10th contraction was a MVC. MVC and evoked force responses to supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation on relaxed muscles were assessed during the trials and at task failure. Stimulations at task failure consisted of single stimulus (SS), paired stimuli at 10 Hz (PS10), paired stimuli at 100 Hz (PS100), and 50 stimuli at 100 Hz (tetanus). Time to task failure for the first trial (12.84 ± 5.60 min) was longer (P < 0.001) than for the second (5.74 ± 1.77 min). MVC force was significantly lower at task failure for both trials compared with the pre-exercise values (both P < 0.001), but there were no differences in MVC at task failure in the first and second trials (P = 1.00). However, evoked peak force for SS, PS100, and tetanus were all reduced more at task failure in the second compared to the first trial (P = 0.014 for SS, P < 0.001 for PS100 and tetanus). These results demonstrate that subjects do not terminate exercise at task failure because they have reached a critical threshold in peripheral fatigue. The present data therefore question the existence of a

  12. The effect of passive movement training on angiogenic factors and capillary growth in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Rufener, Nora; Bojsen-Møller, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The effect of a period of passive movement training on angiogenic factors and capillarization in skeletal muscle was examined. Seven young males were subjected to passive training for 90 min, four times/week in a motor-driven knee extensor device that extended one knee passively at 80...... legs. Acute passive movement increased (P effect, determined in vitro, of the muscle interstitial fluid ~16-fold compared to perfusate. These increases were similar for active exercise. The results demonstrate...... that a period of passive movement promotes endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenic factors and initiates capillarization in skeletal muscle. Key words: angiogenesis, passive movement, shear stress, passive stretch, skeletal muscle, microdialysis....

  13. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  14. Overuse Cervical Dystonia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Elliot; Tagliati, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background Overuse or task-specific dystonia has been described in a number of professions characterized by repetitive actions, typically affecting the upper extremities. Cervical dystonia (CD), however, has rarely been associated with overuse. Case Report We present a case report of typical CD that developed in the context of chronic repetitive movements associated with the patient’s professional occupation as an office manager who spent many hours per day holding a phone to his ear. Discussion Overuse CD should be suspected when typical symptoms and signs of CD develop in the context of chronic repetitive use or overuse of cervical muscles, especially where exacerbating tasks involve asymmetric postures. PMID:27708983

  15. Activation patterns in forearm muscles during archery shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, H; Kentel, B; Tümer, S T; Korkusuz, F

    2003-02-01

    A contraction and relaxation strategy with regard to forearm muscles during the release of the bowstring has often been observed during archery, but has not well been described. The purpose of this study was to analyze this strategy in archers with different levels of expertise; elite, beginner and non-archers. Electromyography (EMG) activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum were recorded at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz, together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap, for twelve shots by each subject. Raw EMG records, 1-s before and after the clicker pulse, were rectified, integrated and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for each group. All subjects including non-archers developed an active contraction of the M. extensor digitorum and a gradual relaxation of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis with the fall of the clicker. In elite archers release started about 100 ms after the fall of the clicker, whereas in beginners and non-archers release started after about 200 and 300 ms, respectively. Non-archers displayed a preparation phase involving extensive extensor activity before the release of the bowstring, which was not observed in elite and beginner archers. In conclusion, archers released the bowstring by active contraction of the forearm extensors, whereas a clear relaxation of the forearm flexors affecting the release movement was not observed.

  16. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves;

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the firing profiles exhibited by lumbar flexor or extensor motoneurons in response to injection of depolarizing/repolarizing currents. Motoneurons were recorded intracellularly in the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord of newborn rats (P4-P7). They were...... population of flexor motoneurons solely exhibited the type II profile, characterized by a frequency-current (F-I) relationship with a clockwise hysteresis. In contrast, in addition to this type II profile, the other three profiles of repetitive firing (type I, III and IV) were observed in extensor...... motoneurons; a linear F-I relationship (type I profile), a self-sustained discharge pattern together with a linear F-I relationship (type III profile) and a self-sustained firing pattern together with an F-I relationship showing a counter-clockwise hysteresis (type IV profile). Thus, during the early...

  17. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  18. Tendon transfer or tendon graft for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, U S; Kim, J H; Seo, W S; Lee, K H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical outcome of tendon reconstruction using tendon graft or tendon transfer and the parameters related to clinical outcome in 51 wrists of 46 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with finger extensor tendon ruptures. At a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the mean metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint extension lag was 8 degrees (range, 0-45) and the mean visual analogue satisfaction scale was 74 (range, 10-100). Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between tendon grafting and tendon transfer. The MP joint extension lag correlated with the patient's satisfaction score, but the pulp-to-palm distance did not correlate with patient satisfaction. We conclude that both tendon grafting and tendon transfer are reliable reconstruction methods for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.

  19. A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi

    2017-01-16

    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.

  20. Longitudinal split tear of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonen, Leo T; Ferguson, Christopher; Ketschke, Rhett A

    2015-02-01

    Two patients presented with radial-sided wrist pain and longitudinal split tears of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. Surgical debridement and repair was performed on the first patient with good results. Early diagnosis in the second patient led to successful treatment with immobilization alone. If diagnostic maneuvers for de Quervain tenosynovitis produce pain in a location other than the radial styloid, advanced imaging should be considered to identify other anatomic causes for the pain.

  1. Modifications to the transverse Caspar cervical retractor blades optimized for a single-level anterior cervical discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, F H; Tamargo, R J; Weingart, J D

    1993-02-01

    A modification of the transverse Caspar cervical soft-tissue retractor blades for their use in a single-level anterior cervical discectomy is presented. These modified retractor blades are similarly inserted into the elevated anterior mesial portion of the longus colli muscles. However, they allow a smaller skin incision, less soft-tissue dissection, and do not require use of the superior and inferior smooth retractor blades, while providing the same surgical vision and operative ability in the disc space as does the four-bladed Caspar retractor system.

  2. Preliminary study of neck muscle size and strength measurements in females with chronic non-specific neck pain and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezasoltani, Asghar; Ali-Reza, Ahmadipor; Khosro, Khademi-Kalantari; Abbass, Rahimi

    2010-08-01

    Neck muscle weakness and atrophy are two common causes of pain and disability among office workers. The aim of this study was to compare the strength of the neck extensor and flexor muscles and the size of the semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNNP) and healthy subjects. Twenty female office workers (10 patients with CNNP and 10 healthy subjects) participated in this study. The strength of the neck extensor and flexor muscles was measured by an isometric device and the SECM size was measured by ultrasonography. Neck muscle strength, size of the SECM and the ratios of neck strength to body weight, neck extensor strength to SECM size, SECM size to body weight and neck flexor to extensor strength were all significantly lower in patients compared to controls (P neck strength, the size of the SECM and the ratio of neck muscle strength to SECM size appear to be useful parameters in appraising patients with CNNP.

  3. Effects of Growth on Muscle, Tendon, and Aponeurosis Tissues in Rabbit Shank Musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böl, Markus; Leichsenring, Kay; Siebert, Tobias

    2016-12-20

    There exist several studies using morphological analyses of skeletal muscles to obtain a better understanding of muscle structure. The structural information obtained are primarily determined from single muscle components using individual animals of discrete ages. Further, little is known about changing dimensions of the aponeurosis, which is an important load-transferring interface in muscle mechanics. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine how the muscle, tendon, and particularly the aponeurosis geometry of the rabbit shank musculature (M. soleus, M. extensor digitorum longus, and M. plantaris) change during growth. In doing so, morphological studies on muscles of eighty-nine female rabbits aged between 18 and 108 days were conducted. We found an almost linear increase over time in all of the geometrical parameters observed. The aponeurosis of the muscles exhibited lower growth rates in width than in length. The distal and proximal aponeurosis areas were nearly identical. The ratio of aponeurosis area to the physiological cross-sectional area was 2.54, 2.54, and 1.88 for M. soleus, M. extensor digitorum longus, and M. plantaris, respectively. M. extensor digitorum longus and M. soleus exhibited a nearly similar tendon-muscle fascicle length ratio during growth, increasing from 2.86 to 5.30 and 3.48 to 6.16, respectively. Interestingly, the tendon-muscle fascicle length ratio of the M. plantaris started initially with a much higher value (∼8) and increased to ∼18. Taken together, these results provide insight into the structure of the muscle-tendon complex and thus, a general understanding of muscle growth. Anat Rec, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  5. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle contraction may be directly linked to muscle fatigue.

  6. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  7. Early active mobilisation versus immobilisation after extrinsic extensor tendon repair: A prospective randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether to splint the extensor tendon repairs or to mobilise them early is debatable. Recently, mobilisation has shown favourable results in a few studies. This study was aimed to compare the two favoured protocols (immobilisation vs. early active motion in Indian population. Patients and Methods: Between June 2005 and June 2007, patients with extensor tendon injuries in zones V-VIII were randomly distributed in two groups: Group A, early active motion; and group B, immobilisation. Their results at 8 and 12 weeks and 6 months were compared. Results: Patients in early active motion group were found to have better total active motion and early return to work. This difference was statistically significant up to 12 weeks, but not at 6 months. Conclusion: Early active motion following extensor tendon repair hastens patients′ recovery and helps patients to gain complete range of motion at earlier postoperative period. With improved grip strength, the early return to work is facilitated, though these advantages are not sustained statistically significantly over long term.

  8. Energy conservation attenuates the loss of skeletal muscle excitability during intense contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, W A; Ørtenblad, N; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    2007-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation of skeletal muscle has long been associated with ionic perturbations, resulting in the loss of membrane excitability, which may prevent action potential propagation and result in skeletal muscle fatigue. Associated with intense skeletal muscle contractions are large...... changes in muscle metabolites. However, the role of metabolites in the loss of muscle excitability is not clear. The metabolic state of isolated rat extensor digitorum longus muscles at 30 degrees C was manipulated by decreasing energy expenditure and thereby allowed investigation of the effects of energy...... conservation on skeletal muscle excitability. Muscle ATP utilization was reduced using a combination of the cross-bridge cycling blocker N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (BTS) and the SR Ca2+ release channel blocker Na-dantrolene, which reduce activity of the myosin ATPase and SR Ca2+-ATPase. Compared...

  9. 手法整复结合颈部肌肉锻炼治疗寰枢关节紊乱的临床效果分析%Clinical analysis effect of manipulative reduction combined with cervical muscle exercise in treatment of atlantoaxial joint disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业广; 曹亚飞; 何升华; 李仕斌; 谭伟伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical curative effect of manipulative reduction combined with cervical muscle exercise in treatment of atlantoaxial joint disorder. Methods 208 cases of patients with atlantoaxial joint disorder syn-drome treated in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 were selected as the research object and were ran-domly divided into the control group(n=104) and observation group(n=104) after admission.The patients in control group were given the treatment of manipulative reduction while the patients in observation group were given the treatment of neck muscle exercise on the basis of the treatment in control group.The changes of atlanto-odontoid interval,cervical curvature index,depth,angle and clinical symptom scores of the patients between two groups was compared before and after the treatment respectively.The total efficiency between the two groups was compared. Results Before the treat-ment,the clinical indexes of patients between two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).But after the treat-ment,the clinical indexes between two groups of patients was significantly improved respectively.The atlanto-odontoid interval and clinical symptom scores in observation group was significantly lower than that of control group respectively (P0.05),治疗后,两组患者各临床指标均明显改善,观察组寰齿前隙、临床症状评分显著低于对照组(P<0.05),其余指标均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),观察组总有效率显著高于对照组(96.15%v s 79.81%,χ²=13.139,P=0.000)。结论手法整复结合颈部肌肉锻炼治疗寰枢关节紊乱综合征患者,能显著改善其临床症状,疗效确切,值得临床推广应用。

  10. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

  11. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  12. Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Febbraio, M A; Osada, T

    2001-01-01

    1. Prolonged exercise results in a progressive decline in glycogen content and a concomitant increase in the release of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from contracting muscle. This study tests the hypothesis that the exercise-induced IL-6 release from contracting muscle is linked...... is associated with alterations in the rate of IL-6 production and release in contracting skeletal muscle....... to the intramuscular glycogen availability. 2. Seven men performed 5 h of a two-legged knee-extensor exercise, with one leg with normal, and one leg with reduced, muscle glycogen content. Muscle biopsies were obtained before (pre-ex), immediately after (end-ex) and 3 h into recovery (3 h rec) from exercise in both...

  13. Intrinsic muscle strength and voluntary activation of both lower limbs and functional performance after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M; Beltman, Marijke J; Gerrits, Karin H; Koppe, Peter; Janssen, Thomas W; Elich, Peter; de Haan, Arnold

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nature of muscle weakness in both legs after stroke compared with able-bodied control individuals and to examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of muscle weakness and coactivation of knee extensors and flexors as well as voluntary activation capacity of knee extensors of both paretic and non-paretic legs and indices of functional performance. Maximal voluntary isometric torques of knee extensors (MVCe) and flexors (MVCf) were determined in 14 patients (bilaterally) and 12 able-bodied controls. Simultaneous measurements were made of torque and surface EMG from agonist and antagonist muscles. Coactivation was calculated. Supramaximal triplets were evoked with electrical stimulation to estimate maximal torque capacity and degree of voluntary activation of knee extensors. MVCs, activation and coactivation parameters were correlated to scores of seven functional performance tests. MVCe, MVCf and voluntary activation were lower in paretic lower limb (PL) compared with both non-paretic lower limb (NL) and control. Besides, all these parameters of NL were also lower than control. Electrically evoked torque capacity of knee extensors of PL was about 60% of both NL and control, which were not significantly different from each other. Strong significant correlations between strength, as well as voluntary activation, and functional performance were found. Coactivation did not correlate well with functional performance. Thus, whereas for NL activation failure can explain weakness, for PL both activation failure and reduced intrinsic torque capacity are responsible for the severe weakness. Activation capacity and muscle strength correlated strongly to functional performance, while coactivation did not.

  14. Delineation of extensor tendon of the hand by MRI: usefulness of "soap-bubble" mip processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yumiko; Ryoke, Koji; Yamagami, Nobuo; Uchio, Yuji; Tanaka, Shigeko

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the capability of the "Soap-Bubble" maximum intensity projection (MIP) processing technique in visualisation of extensor tendons of the hand, 36 intact subjects and seven patients with surgically confirmed extensor tendon rupture were examined. Three-dimensional T1-weighted turbo spin echo (3DT1TFE) MRI was performed using a sensitivity encoding flex coil, followed by Soap-Bubble MIP processing. For patients with extensor tendon ruptures, MRI findings and intraoperative findings were compared. As results, with only 3DT1TFE sequence, the entire extensor tendons that run along the arch of the hand were not shown on one image, but were visualised with addition of Soap-Bubble MIP. Although delineation of the extensor pollicis longus was poor in 27/43 subjects, it was much improved by the combination of water-suppression technique. MRI findings and intraoperative findings agreed in all patients. Soap-Bubble MIP processing with addition of water-suppression technique is considered useful for visualising the extensor tendons of the hand.

  15. Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Aminata, Iman Widya; Hong, Han-Pyo; Yoon, Jong-Pil

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Methods From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity. PMID:25436064

  16. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher–Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, −0.849, and −0.741; P = 0.002, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). The AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  17. Precocious locomotor behavior begins in the egg: development of leg muscle patterns for stepping in the chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young U Ryu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chicken is capable of adaptive locomotor behavior within hours after hatching, yet little is known of the processes leading to this precocious skill. During the final week of incubation, chick embryos produce distinct repetitive limb movements that until recently had not been investigated. In this study we examined the leg muscle patterns at 3 time points as development of these spontaneous movements unfolds to determine if they exhibit attributes of locomotion reported in hatchlings. We also sought to determine whether the deeply flexed posture and movement constraint imposed by the shell wall modulate the muscle patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Synchronized electromyograms for leg muscles, force and video were recorded continuously from embryos while in their naturally flexed posture at embryonic day (E 15, E18 and E20. We tested for effects of leg posture and constraint by removing shell wall anterior to the foot. Results indicated that by E18, burst onset time distinguished leg muscle synergists from antagonists across a 10-fold range in burst frequencies (1-10 Hz, and knee extensors from ankle extensors in patterns comparable to locomotion at hatching. However, burst durations did not scale with step cycle duration in any of the muscles recorded. Despite substantially larger leg movements after shell removal, the knee extensor was the only muscle to vary its activity, and extensor muscles often failed to participate. To further clarify if the repetitive movements are likely locomotor-related, we examined bilateral coordination of ankle muscles during repetitive movements at E20. In all cases ankle muscles exhibited a bias for left/right alternation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the findings lead us to conclude that the repetitive leg movements in late stage embryos are locomotor-related and a fundamental link in the establishment of precocious locomotor skill. The potential importance of differences

  18. Invasive cervical resorption: treatment challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption. It is characterized by invasion of cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue derived from the periodontal ligament. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption occurring in maxillary lateral incisor, following damage in cervical cementum from avulsion and intracoronal bleaching procedure. Flap reflection, debridement and restoration with glass ionomer cement were performed in an attempt to...

  19. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis in infant: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiavetto, Renata Rennó

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Necrotizing fasciitis is a bacterial infection characterized by extensive necrosis of tissues, and may include skin and muscles. It's more frequent in adults than in children and generally involves the trunk and extremities. Head and neck area is less commonly affected. The most frequently isolated pathogens are the Streptococcus pyogenes (group A and Staphylococcus aureus. The anatomopathological exam is the best diagnostic method, which early identifies the disease. The clinical support, surgical debridement, and the intravenous antibiotic therapy, are fundamental for the treatment. Objective: To report a case of an infant who suffered from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis. Case Report: Infant, male sex, white, 2 months old, previously healthy, with Necrotizing Fasciitis involving the frontal and right lateral cervical regions. After adequate treatment the patient obtained excellent recovery without presenting important aesthetic or functional alterations. Conclusion: The Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis is uncommon in children. The early surgical debridement is necessary to control the infection, even if it may result in great and deep injuries. The wide spectrum antibiotic therapy and hemodynamic support are also basic for the therapeutic success.

  20. Deep cervical infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammatory cervical swelling may have several causes. The jugular vein thrombosis is a rare entity, often forgotten. Most frequently arises due to a cervical sepsis by the use of a central venous catheter or intravenous drug abuse (drug addicts. Rarely, is secondary to a hypercoagulability state associated with a visceral carcinoma (Trousseau Syndrome. Material and Methods: The authors present the case of a 65 years old male, who used the ENT Emergency Service due to a painful left cervical swelling with local and systemic inflammatory signs of 3 days duration. Results: An cervical ultrasound suggested a neck abscess. CT was performed and confirmed the ultrasound results. Because of its location in the path of the internal jugular vein, we requested re-evaluation by CT with intravenous contrast and doppler ultrasound, obtaining the diagnosis of thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Further studies were conduct to clarify the hypercoagulability state, since the patient had no known predisposing factor. Finally the diagnosis of unresectable gastric carcinoma was made. Discussion and Conclusion: The ENT must be aware and be able to understand any cervical imagiologic studies. A deep knowledge of the anatomical imagiología is important for the diagnosis of jugular thrombosis. When we have a case of spontaneous jugular thrombosis, we must look for possible visceral carcinoma.

  1. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  2. Early rehabilitation with weight-bearing standing-shaking-board exercise in combination with electrical muscle stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kingo; Hayashi, Masamichi; Fujii, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Kenji; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of early rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to increase the muscle strength of the lower extremities. Closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise induces co-contraction of the agonist and antagonist muscles. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative muscle strength/mass of subjects who performed our new CKC exercise (new rehabilitation group:group N) from week 4, and subjects who received traditional rehabilitation alone (traditional rehabilitation group:group T). The subjects stood on the device and maintained balance. Then, low-frequency stimulation waves were applied to 2 points each in the anterior and posterior region of the injured thigh 3 times a week for 3 months. Measurement of muscle strength was performed 4 times (before the start, and then once a month). Muscle mass was evaluated in CT images of the extensor and flexor muscles of 10 knees (10 subjects) in each group. The injured legs of group N showed significant improvement after one month compared to group T. The cross-sectional area of the extensor muscles of the injured legs tended to a show a greater increase at 3 months in group N. This rehabilitation method makes it possible to contract fast-twitch muscles, which may be a useful for improving extensor muscle strength after ACL reconstruction.

  3. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (P<0.0001) and in females (P=0.0015 to P<0.0001). The lumbar but not the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased significantly with aging, only in females (P<0.0001). Spinal inclination increased significantly with aging in both males (P=0.002) and females (P<0.0001). Back extensor strength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females.

  4. Impact of high intensity exercise on muscle morphology in EAE rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, I; Dalgas, U; Verboven, K

    2015-01-01

    paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. EAE reduced muscle fiber CSA of TA, EDL and SOL. In general, exercise......The impact of high-intensity exercise on disease progression and muscle contractile properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. Control (CON) and EAE rats were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Before onset (experiment 1, n=40) and after hindquarter...... was not able to affect CSA, whereas it delayed hindquarter paralysis peak. CON muscle work peaked and declined, while it remained stable in EAE. BDNF-responses were not affected by EAE or exercise. In conclusion, EAE affected CSA-properties of TA, EDL and SOL, which could, partly, explain the absence of peak...

  5. Resistance Exercise Reduces Skeletal Muscle Cachexia and Improves Muscle Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease associated with cachexia (reduced muscle and increased fat. Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2 if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. A needle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the RA subject before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. Knee extensor strength increased by 13.6% and fatigue decreased by 2.8% Muscle mass increased by 2.1%. Average muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased by 49.7%, and muscle nuclei increased slightly after strength training from 0.08 to 0.12 nuclei/μm2. In addition, there was a slight decrease (1.6% in the number of apoptotic muscle nuclei after resistance training. This case study suggests that resistance training may be a good tool for increasing the number of nuclei per fiber area, decreasing apoptotic nuclei, and inducing fiber hypertrophy in persons with RA, thereby slowing or reversing rheumatoid cachexia.

  6. Posture, muscle activity and muscle fatigue in prolonged VDT work at different screen height settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghers, Jan; Jochem, Arnaud; Spaepen, Arthur

    2003-06-10

    With the increasing use of video display terminals (VDTs), there is growing concern over the corresponding increase in the number of health problems reported. Although much research has focused on identifying the optimal screen height, there is to date no consensus. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prolonged (89 min) VDT work at four different screen heights on head-neck posture, muscle activity and the development of muscle fatigue. The results show that lowering screen height, starting from 15 cm above the baseline (i.e. top of the screen level with eye height while sitting), decreased the ear-eye angle, increased the viewing angle, increased the viewing angle relative to the ear-eye line, and increased the muscle activity of the neck extensor muscles. There were also some significant time effects on postural angles and muscle activity. In this study there were only rare occurrences of muscle fatigue, defined as a simultaneous increase in EMG amplitude and a shift of the EMG power spectrum to lower frequencies. Muscle activity increased significantly in some muscles and for certain screen heights.

  7. Cervical intraspinal microstimulation evokes robust forelimb movements before and after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Michael D.; Cho, Frances S.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Fechko, Amber S.; Kasten, Michael R.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for reanimating paralyzed limbs following neurological injury. ISMS within the cervical and lumbar spinal cord is capable of evoking a variety of highly-functional movements prior to injury, but the ability of ISMS to evoke forelimb movements after cervical spinal cord injury is unknown. Here we examine the forelimb movements and muscles activated by cervical ISMS both before and after contusion injury. Approach. We documented the forelimb muscles activated and movements evoked via systematic stimulation of the rodent cervical spinal cord both before injury and three, six and nine weeks following a moderate C4/C5 lateralized contusion injury. Animals were anesthetized with isoflurane to permit construction of somatotopic maps of evoked movements and quantify evoked muscle synergies between cervical segments C3 and T1. Main results. When ISMS was delivered to the cervical spinal cord, a variety of responses were observed at 68% of locations tested, with a spatial distribution that generally corresponded to the location of motor neuron pools. Stimulus currents required to achieve movement and the number of sites where movements could be evoked were unchanged by spinal cord injury. A transient shift toward extension-dominated movements and restricted muscle synergies were observed at three and six weeks following injury, respectively. By nine weeks after injury, however, ISMS-evoked patterns were similar to spinally-intact animals. Significance. The results demonstrate the potential for cervical ISMS to reanimate hand and arm function following spinal cord injury. Robust forelimb movements can be evoked both before and during the chronic stages of recovery from a clinically relevant and sustained cervical contusion injury.

  8. Acute cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Yul; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won

    2010-06-01

    We report an extremely rare case of traumatic cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to intracranial injury. There has been no report on traumatic cervical spinal subdrual hematoma not related to intracranial injury. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room due to severe neck pain and right arm motor weakness after car collision. On admission, she presented with complete monoplegia and hypoesthesia of right arm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed subdural hematoma compressing spinal cord. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 210,000 red blood cells/mm(3). She was managed conservatively by administrations of steroid pulse therapy and CSF drainage. Her muscle power of right arm improved to a Grade III 16 days after admission. Follow-up MRI taken 16th days after admission revealed almost complete resolution of the hematoma. Here, the authors report a traumatic cervical spinal SDH not associated with intracranial injury.

  9. The trigemino-cervical reflex in tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, R; Tezzon, F

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the pathophysiology of tension-type headache (TTH) with special reference to central mechanisms and to the involvement of the trigeminal system. Short latency responses can be recorded in tonically active sternocleidomastoid muscle after stimulation of the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (the trigemino-cervical reflex). This brainstem reflex was studied in 15 healthy subjects, in 15 patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) and in 15 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) outside of the pain attacks. The trigemino-cervical response was abnormal, in the size or latency, in 13 patients with CTTH and in only one patient with ETTH. This finding strongly suggests that only in the CTTH the underlying pathophysiology involves the trigeminal system. The trigemino-cervical reflex is a sensitive method to evaluate the involvement of the trigeminal brainstem neurones in TTH and their assessment may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information.

  10. Trigemino-cervical reflex in patients with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, I; Bogdanova, D

    2003-02-01

    Neurophysiological studies have shown abnormal activity of some brainstem nuclei in headache patients. The trigemino-cervical reflex is an anti-nociceptive reflex that gives an opportunity for evaluation of the brainstem interneurone activity. It has not been previously examined in headache patients. We studied 15 patients with predominantly unilateral chronic tension-type headache, 15 patients with migraine without aura and 32 healthy subjects. The trigemino-cervical reflex was recorded bilaterally from the resting sternocleidomastoid muscle using surface electromyographic recordings. In all headache patients the trigemino-cervical reflex on the painful side was with shortened latency compared with the non-painful side and with healthy persons. The results suggest decreased activity of the brainstem inhibitory interneurones. We suggest that although the pathophysiological mechanisms of tension-type headache and migraine are different, they share common mechanisms of abnormal pain control.

  11. Cervical deciduosis imitating dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Diederik Anthony; Hellebrekers, Bart; van Haaften, Anne-Marie; Natté, Remco

    2015-09-22

    Ectopic cervical deciduosis is generally an accidental finding during pregnancy, and usually presents without any symptoms or need for therapeutic intervention. However, it can sometimes imitate dysplasia or carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year-old G2P0, with a history of cervical dysplasia, presenting at 11 weeks of gestation, with vaginal blood loss. During examination, lesions mimicking dysplasia were found on the cervix. Histological examination reported cervical deciduosis. Deciduosis is a benign change during pregnancy and will resolve spontaneously. With the increasing use of cytology and colposcopy, the reported incidence is growing. When it is hard to differentiate between dysplasia and deciduosis, histological confirmation should be considered.

  12. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  13. Muscle glycogen content and glucose uptake during exercise in humans: influence of prior exercise and dietary manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; van Hall, Gerrit; Keller, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    on two occasions: one after 60 min of two-legged cycling (16 h prior to the experimental trial) followed by a high carbohydrate diet (HCHO) and the other after the same exercise followed by a low carbohydrate diet (LCHO) (Series 2). Muscle glycogen was decreased by 40 % when comparing the pre-exercised......There are many factors that can influence glucose uptake by contracting skeletal muscle during exercise and although one may be intramuscular glycogen content, this relationship is at present not fully elucidated. To test the hypothesis that muscle glycogen concentration influences glucose uptake...... during exercise, 13 healthy men were studied during two series of experiments. Seven men completed 4 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise 16 h after reducing of muscle glycogen by completing 60 min of single-legged cycling (Series 1). A further six men completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise...

  14. A Case of Reverse Palmaris Longus Muscle- An Additional Muscle in the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ashwini Lagadamane Sathynarayana; Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu

    2016-01-01

    It is uncommon to have additional muscles in the upper limb. Some of them may restrict the movements or compress the nerves and vessels, while others may go unnoticed. During the routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm in about 60-year-old male cadaver. The muscle had a prominent belly and a long tendon. Distally, it was attached to the flexor retinaculum by a short and thick tendon. Proximally, long tendon of the muscle passed between the flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus and was attached to the common aponeurosis shared by the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles. The additional muscle belly was supplied by a branch from the anterior interosseous nerve. The ulnar nerve and artery was passing deep to the fleshy belly of the muscle. The muscle reported here might compress the ulnar nerve and artery and may produce neurovascular symptoms. On the other hand, the tendon and fleshy belly of the muscle could be useful in muscle/tendon grafts. The observations made by us in the present case will supplement our knowledge of variations of the muscles in this region which could be useful for surgeons during the forearm and hand surgeries. PMID:27134851

  15. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully.

  16. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOMETRIC EXERCISES WITH AND WITHOUT STRETCHING EXERCISES IN NON SPECIFIC CERVICAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical pain is a common condition and almost two thirds of population suffers with this condition. Cervical region is the commonest region for non-traumatic neck pain. Neck pain generates many muscular disturbances in the neck region and may result in tightness of muscles of cervical region. Stretching is considered as an effective mean of treating cervical pain. Isometric exercise is used to enhance the performance of muscles because it provides strength required to perform dynamic exercise. Both of the regimens either separately or combined are used in clinical settings to treat nonspecific cervical pain. This study aims to compare the results of cervical isometrics with and without stretching exercises in reducing non-specific cervical pain Methods: A randomized controlled trial research was performed at physiotherapy department of Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. A convenience sample of 40 participants was divided into two groups. The cervical isometric exercise was applied to group A and stretching plus isometric exercise to group B for 3 weeks. Nonspecific neck pain was analyzed by using visual analogue scale and goniometry for pre and post treatment assessment. Results: Isometric exercises play an effective role in relieving pain (p value is 0.03 and minimizing inability of the body to perform functional activities (p value is 0.004 in contrast to the patients of group A. Isometric exercises were applied to the patients of group A (Level of pain: pain value is 0.172 and (physical inability to perform functional activities has P value 0.201. Conclusion: The result showed that the patients with the complain of non-specific neck discomfort who were treated by cervical isometric alone, showed less improvement in pain relief in contrast to the patients who were treated by the cervical isometric long with stretching.

  17. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury%重复功能性磁刺激联合腹直肌电刺激对颈髓损伤患者肺通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 袁华; 牟翔; 杜起; 毛利; 惠楠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury.Methods Twenty-five patients with cervical spinal cord injury were randomized into an experimental group (n =13) and a control group (n =12).The control group was given comprehensive rehabilitation treatment,including upper limb movements,standing training and training of respiratory function,while the experimental group was given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and abdominal muscle electrical stimulation in addition to the comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.The patients' maximum lung capacity (VC),forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1),peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and tidal volume (VT) were measured at the outset and after 3 months of treatment.Results The lung function indexes increased in both groups after treatment,but each index improved significantly more in the experimental group,on average,than in the control group.Conclusion As a supplement to routine respiratory function training,repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal intermediate frequency electrical stimulation can improve the pulmonary ventilation function of patients with middle and lower cervical spinal cord injury.%目的 观察重复功能性磁刺激(rFMS)联合腹直肌电刺激对中、低位颈髓损伤(CSCI)患者肺通气功能的影响.方法 共选取25例中、低位CSCI患者,采用随机数字表法将其分为治疗组及对照组.对照组给予上肢主动运动、站立训练、呼吸功能训练等综合康复治疗,治疗组在此基础上辅以rFMS及腹直肌中频电刺激.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后对2组患者肺功能[包括最大肺活量(VC)、1秒钟用力呼气量(FEV1)、呼气峰值流速(PEF)及潮气量(VT)等指标]进行评定.结果 2组患者分别经3个

  18. Comparative evaluation of surgical alternatives in the treatment of acute cervical myelopathy and in the decompression of cervical spinal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Czigléczki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of cervical myelopathy are caused by the compression of the cervical spinal cord in the narrowed spinal canal. Several techniques including less invasive and minimally invasive methods have been developed with the aim of decompressing the cervical spinal canal, preserving posterior motion segments and paraspinal muscles as much as possible, reducing iatrogenic consequences and promoting faster recoveries of patients. The purpose of this article is to summarize these procedures and evaluate their efficacy with comparing them to each other. The applicable methods are presented shortly but the differences between them are discussed in details. Comprehensive examination did not reveal the proven superiority of any techniques and in most cases the less invasive or minimally invasive treatment choices should be individually determined, considering the location and extension of pathology and the familiarity of surgeon with techniques.

  19. Comparative evaluation of surgical alternatives in the treatment of acute cervical myelopathy and in the decompression of cervical spinal canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gbor Cziglczki; Zoltn Papp; Csaba Padnyi; Pter Banczerowski

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of cervical myelopathy are caused by the compression of the cervical spinal cord in the narrowed spinal canal.Several techniques including less invasive and minimally invasive methods have been developed with the aim of decompressing the cervical spinal canal, preserving posterior motion segments and paraspinal muscles as much as possible, reducing iatrogenic consequences and promoting faster recoveries of patients.The purpose of this article is to summarize these procedures and evaluate their efficacy with comparing them to each other. The applicable methods are presented shortly but the differences between them are discussed in details.Comprehensive examination did not reveal the proven superiority of any techniques and in most cases the less invasive or minimally invasive treatment choices should be individually determined, considering the location and extension of pathology and the familiarity of surgeon with techniques.

  20. Microbiological characterization and effect of resin composites in cervical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Bonfanti; Piccinelli, Giorgio; Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Cerutti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Non carious cervical lesions associated to muscle hyperfunctions are increasing. Microhybrid resin composites are used to restore cervical abfractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate if resin composites modify tooth plaque, inducing an increment of cariogenic microflora and evaluate their effect, in vivo and in vitro, against S. mutans. Material and Methods Eight abfractions were restored with two microhybrid resin composites (Venus, Heraeus-Kulzer® and Esthet-X, Dentsply®), after gnatological therapy, in three patients with muscle hyperfunctions. For each abfraction three samples of plaque were taken from the cervical perimeter: before the restoration, one week and three months after restoration. The samples were evaluated both by traditional microbiological methods and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In vitro, disk-shaped specimens of the two composites were prepared to estimate the effects against pre-cultured S. mutans, after incubation at 37°C for 24h and assessed by a turbidimetric technique. Results In vivo no differences were found in plaque growth, for all samples, before and after restoration with both composites; in vitro, instead, a significant reduction of S. mutans growth was found between specimens of two composites (Mann-Whitney U-test p>0,06). Conclusions In this study a relevant consideration was elicited: composite materials, in vivo, do not modify plaque composition of non carious cervical lesions to a potential cariogenic plaque. Key words:Abfraction, restoration, S. mutans, composite, class V. PMID:28149461

  1. [Application of finite element analysis in Chinese cervical manipulation biomechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihao; Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Wang, Huihao; Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng

    2013-10-01

    Clinical advantages of Chinese spinal manipulation therapy (CSMT) were recognized for spinal chronic lesions of soft tissues and bones, such as cervical spondylosis, etc. However, the security of CSMT and the hypotheses of practice mechanisms were questioned for lacking of the relevant basic researches. Researches have proved that these methods could be used to observe the dynamic effects of spine with application of finite element analysis (FEA) computer technology. Combining with other biomechanical experimental methods and applying advanced FEA technology for mechanical problems of CSMT, we may not only find the mechanisms of action and provide theoretical supports for the traditional Chinese therapy, but also standardize the key techniques and optimize the treatment options improving clinical outcomes, and even promote spreading of CSMT. Computer models are ideally suited for studying phenomena that cannot be satisfactorily investigated with other models. However, computer models of CSMT practice remain to be further refined. The results which had been acquired so far not only verified some of the traditional points of view, but also revised and specified some perspectives of the past. This paper intends to review FEA studies with Chinese cervical manipulation therapy (CCMT) for cervical spinal chronic lesions of soft tissues and bones, involving different effects for cervical spine joints (pulling/traction and thrusting) with practice techniques and cervical spine soft tissues (including vessels and its hemodynamics, muscles and fasciae, etc).

  2. 临床偏瘫病人早期上肢功能性电刺激屈肌和伸肌与伸肌功能性电刺激的比较%Clinical patients with hemiplegia early upper limb functional electrical stimulationflexor and extensor compared with extensor functional electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一帆; 姚敬宇; 莫天才; 杨维维

    2015-01-01

    objective to patients with hemiplegia early upper limb functional electrical stimulation fiexor and extensor was compared with the extensor functional electrical stimulation.Methods acute onset in patients with hemiplegia, hemiplegic side body let in phase delay of 20 patients with hemiplegia patients at random points in the control group (n = 10) and observation group (n = 10), the control group to maintain nerve functional electrical stimulation upper limb muscle of wrist and the reach anconeus and function of routine rehabilitation training, observation group nerve functional electrical stimulation upper limbfiexor muscle of wrist and elbow fiexion with fiexor muscle tension change stimulation wrist, elbow muscle group.Before and 3 weeks after treatment with modified ashworth (Mas), concise fugl - Meyer evaluation form, out of assessment.results after treatment, no obvious difference was found between two groups of Mas, concise fugl - Meyer exercise evaluation form, out the assessment, the observation group statistically significant meaningful (P < 0.05).conclusion early fiexor functional electrical stimulation out instead of extensor muscle tension stimulation, for upper hand function in patients with hemiplegia rehabilitation and separatist movements appear faster.%目的:早期偏瘫病人上肢功能性电刺激屈肌和伸肌与伸肌功能性电刺激的比较。方法急性期发病偏瘫患者,偏瘫侧肢体任处于迟缓期的偏瘫病人20例,随机分对照组(n=10)和观察组(n=10),对照组维持神经功能性电刺激上肢伸腕肌及伸肘肌和常规康复功能训练,观察组神经功能电刺激上肢屈腕肌及屈肘肌随着屈肌张力改变刺激伸腕、伸肘肌群。治疗前及治疗3周后采用改良ashworth(Mas)、简明fugl-Meyer运动评定表、Brunnstrom进行评定。结果治疗后,两组Mas无明显差异,简明fugl-Meyer运动评定表、Brunnstrom运动评定观察组有统计学差异,有意义(P<0

  3. Cervical dystonia : effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program; study design and protocol of a single blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dool, Joost; Visser, Bart; Koelman, J. Hans T. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions of the neck and abnormal head positions that affect daily life activities and social life of patients. Patients are usually treated with botulinum toxin injections into affected neck muscles to relief pain and improve

  4. Load and speed effects on the cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP represents a well-studied neuromuscular response that occurs in the lumbar and cervical spine. However, the cervical spine FRP has not been investigated extensively, and the speed of movement and loading effects remains to be characterized. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the influence of load and speed on cervical FRP electromyographic (EMG and kinematic parameters and to assess the measurement of cervical FRP kinematic and EMG parameter repeatability. Methods Eighteen healthy adults (6 women and 12 men, aged 20 to 39 years, participated in this study. They undertook 2 sessions in which they had to perform a standardized cervical flexion/extension movement in 3 phases: complete cervical flexion; the static period in complete cervical flexion; and extension with return to the initial position. Two different rhythm conditions and 3 different loading conditions were applied to assess load and speed effects. Kinematic and EMG data were collected, and dependent variables included angles corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence as well as the root mean square (RMS values of EMG signals. Repeatability was examined in the first session and between the 2 sessions. Results Statistical analyses revealed a significant load effect (P Conclusions The load increase evoked augmented FRP onset and cessation angles as well as heightened muscle activation. Such increments may reflect the need to enhance spinal stability under loading conditions. The kinematic and EMG parameters showed promising repeatability. Further studies are needed to assess kinematic and EMG differences between healthy subjects and patients with neck pain.

  5. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  6. Diabetes and cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, John K; Lenart, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the typical physical findings associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as coexisting diabetic neuropathy may dampen expected hyperreflexia and also produce non-dermatomal extremity numbness. Most large studies of surgically treated diabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy have focused upon infection rates rather than exploring any differences in the presenting physical signs. We conducted a retrospective study of the pattern of presenting neurological signs and symptoms and of the clinical outcomes in 438 patients surgically treated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 79 of whom had diabetes. Compared with non-diabetic patients, those with diabetes were slightly older and had lower preoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores. Those with diabetes also had a significantly higher incidence of hyporeflexia and a higher incidence of a positive Babinski sign, but there was no difference in the appearance of the Hoffman sign. The magnitude of mJOA improvement after surgery was comparable. We conclude that diabetes may alter the typical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and suggest that knowledge of the differences may aid in securing a prompt and accurate diagnosis.

  7. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  8. Evaluation of characteristics and surgical outcomes in cervical spondylotic amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA is a rare clinical syndrome resulting from cervical spondylosis. Surgical treatment includes anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF, and laminoplasty with or without foraminotomy. Some studies indicate that ACDF is an effective method for treating CSA because anterior decompression with or without medial foraminotomy can completely eliminate anterior and/or anterolateral lesions. We retrospectively evaluated outcome of surgical outcome by anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF. Materials and Methods: 28 CSA patients, among whom 12 had proximal type CSA and 16 had distal type CSA, treated by ACDF, were evaluated clinicoradiologically. The improvement in atrophic muscle power was assessed by manual muscle testing (MMT and the recovery rate of the patients was determined on the basis of the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA scores. Patient satisfaction was also examined. Results: The percentage of patients, who gained 1 or more grades of muscle power improvement, as determined by MMT, was 91.7% for those with proximal type CSA and 37.5% for those with distal type CSA (P < 0.01. The JOA score-based recovery rates of patients with proximal type and distal type CSA were 60.8% and 41.8%, respectively (P < 0.05. Patient satisfaction was 8.2 for those with proximal type CSA and 6.9 for those with distal type CSA (P < 0.01. A correlation was observed among the levels of improvement in muscle power, JOA score based recovery rate, patient satisfaction and course of disease (P < 0.05. Conclusion: ACDF can effectively improve the clinical function of patients with CSA and result in good patient satisfaction despite the surgical outcomes for distal type CSA being inferior to those for proximal type CSA. Course of disease is the fundamental factor that affects the surgical outcomes for CSA. We recommend that patients with CSA undergo surgical intervention as early as possible.

  9. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP.

  10. Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Greig

    Full Text Available This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture.

  11. Ultrasound of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Subluxation in a Tennis Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Paul J; Romesberg, Amanda; Kamineni, Srinath; Beaman, Francesca D

    2016-06-01

    Wrist pain is common among competitive tennis players. Subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon has gained recognition as a cause of ulnar-side wrist pain in athletes. In tennis, the wrist is forcibly flexed, supinated, and ulnar deviated. These repetitive motions stress the ECU tendon stabilizers allowing tendon subluxation from the ulnar groove, especially in cases of anatomic variations such as a shallow groove. We present the presurgical and postsurgical imaging findings of recurrent ECU tendon subluxation in an elite tennis player.

  12. Changes in the human muscle force-velocity relationship in response to resistance training and subsequent detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Magnusson, S Peter

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies show that cessation of resistance training, commonly known as "detraining," is associated with strength loss, decreased neural drive, and muscular atrophy. Detraining may also increase the expression of fast muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The present study examined...... the effect of detraining subsequent to resistance training on contractile performance during slow-to-medium velocity isokinetic muscle contraction vs. performance of maximal velocity "unloaded" limb movement (i.e., no external loading of the limb). Maximal knee extensor strength was measured in an isokinetic...... contractions were evoked in the passive vastus lateralis muscle. MHC isoform composition was determined with SDS-PAGE. Isokinetic muscle strength increased 18% (P

  13. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans