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Sample records for cervical extensor muscles

  1. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 ± 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 ± 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash

  2. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.M. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)]. E-mail: jimelliott@plbb.net; Galloway, G.J. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Jull, G.A. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA (United States); Centeno, C.J. [Centeno Clinic, Westminster, CO, USA (United States); Gibbon, W.W. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years

  5. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  6. Cervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, T; Parker, R.; Burgess, T.

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC) in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM) disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE) muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with c...

  7. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  8. Truncated dystrophins reduce muscle stiffness in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of mdx mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Chady H.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Muscle stiffness is a major clinical feature in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is the most common lethal inherited muscle-wasting disease in boys, and it is caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein. We recently showed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mdx mice (a DMD mouse model) exhibits disease-associated muscle stiffness. Truncated micro- and mini-dystrophins are the leading candidates for DMD gene therapy. Unfortunately, it has never been clear whether these t...

  9. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE......, CINAHL, and AMED. Eligible studies had to include participants with no radiographic or symptomatic knee osteoarthritis at baseline; have a follow-up time of a minimum of 2 years, and include a measure of knee extensor muscle strength. Hierarchies for extracting data on knee osteoarthritis and knee...... extensor muscle strength were defined prior to data extraction. Meta-analysis was applied on the basis of the odds ratios (ORs) of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis or radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with knee extensor muscle weakness. ORs for knee osteoarthritis and 95% confidence...

  10. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans;

    2015-01-01

    moderate reduction was again apparent at 4 years post-APM (SMD: -0.56, (-1.20-0.08) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that middle-aged and older individuals undergoing APM have reduced knee extensor muscle strength in the operated leg compared to control data. As meniscus pathology...... extensor strength in people undergoing an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SportDISCUS, EMBASE, PEDro and AMED) were searched up to June 22(nd) , 2014. Studies that measured knee extensor muscle strength in people aged 30 years and older undergoing APM for a...

  11. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  12. Ultrasound diagnosis of a ganglion cyst within an extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, S A; Georgiev, G P

    2015-10-01

    A unique case of a ganglion cyst within the extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle diagnosed by ultrasound in an 18-year-old girl is presented. Different anatomical variations and the clinical importance of this accessory muscle are also discussed. PMID:26404797

  13. The relationship between sagittal curvature and extensor muscle volume in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Judith R; Fulford, Jonathan; Seymour, Richard; Welsman, Joanne R; Knapp, Karen M

    2013-06-01

    A previous modelling study predicted that the forces applied by the extensor muscles to stabilise the lumbar spine would be greater in spines that have a larger sagittal curvature (lordosis). Because the force-generating capacity of a muscle is related to its size, it was hypothesised that the size of the extensor muscles in a subject would be related to the size of their lumbar lordosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained, together with age, height, body mass and back pain status, from 42 female subjects. The volume of the extensor muscles (multifidus and erector spinae) caudal to the mid-lumbar level was estimated from cross-sectional area measurements in axial T1-weighted MRIs spanning the lumbar spine. Lower lumbar curvature was determined from sagittal T1-weighted images. A stepwise linear regression model was used to determine the best predictors of muscle volume. The mean lower lumbar extensor muscle volume was 281 cm(3) (SD = 49 cm(3)). The mean lower lumbar curvature was 30 ° (SD = 7 °). Five subjects reported current back pain and were excluded from the regression analysis. Nearly half the variation in muscle volume was accounted for by the variables age (standardised coefficient, B = -3.2, P = 0.03) and lower lumbar curvature (B = 0.47, P = 0.002). The results support the hypothesis that extensor muscle volume in the lower lumbar spine is related to the magnitude of the sagittal curvature; this has implications for assessing muscle size as an indicator of muscle strength. PMID:23600615

  14. Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin L; Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. Anteriorly-directed force perturbations were applied to the upper back with a padded pendulum and attempted to challenge the postural control system without eliciting a stepping response. In three separate sessions, subjects were perturbed both before and after a fatiguing protocol that induced lumbar extensor fatigue to one of three different fatigue levels. Postural strategy was quantified using center of pressure position along with joint angles and joint torques for the ankle, knee, hip, and "low back" joints. Results showed both proactive and reactive changes in postural strategy. Proactive changes involved a slight anterior lean prior to the perturbation, and reactive changes were consistent with a shift toward more of a hip strategy with fatigue. In addition, results suggested that subjects classified as moving mostly at the hip prior to fatigue were more affected by fatigue compared to subjects classified as moving roughly equal amounts at the ankle and hip prior to fatigue. Increasing fatigue level exaggerated some, but not all, of the changes in postural strategy with fatigue. These findings illustrate that neuromuscular fatigue can influence postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. PMID:16023345

  15. Changes in the flexion-relaxation response induced by hip extensor and erector spinae muscle fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin Vincent; Lafond Danik; Descarreaux Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) is defined by reduced lumbar erector spinae (ES) muscle myoelectric activity during full trunk flexion. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of hip and back extensor muscle fatigue on FRP parameters and lumbopelvic kinematics. Methods Twenty-seven healthy adults performed flexion-extension tasks under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load, no fatigue/load, fatigue/no load, and fatigue/load. Total...

  16. Volume estimation of extensor muscles of the lower leg based on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Hans; Christensen, Line; Savnik, Anette; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [The Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Jens [Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to measure the muscle volume of a given muscle or muscle group. The purpose of this study was to determine both the intra- and inter-observer variation of the manually outlined volume of the extensor muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus), to estimate the minimum number of slices needed for these calculations and to compare estimates of volume based on an assumed conic shape of the muscles with that of an assumed cylindrical shape, the calculation in both cases based on the Cavalieri principle. Eleven young and healthy subjects (4 women and 7 men, age range 24-40 years) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg was obtained on a 1.5-T MR system using a knee coil (receive only). A total of 50 consecutive slices were obtained beginning 10 cm below the caput fibula sin. and proceeding distally with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm without gap. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate the relative reliability (interval from 0 to 1.0). A high reliability for both intra- and inter-reliability was observed (ICC 0.98 and 1.0). The difference was only 0.004% between calculations based on measurement of all 50 slices with respect to 8 slices equally distributed along the muscle group. No difference was found between the two different volumetric assumptions in the Cavalieri principle. The manually outlining of extensor muscles volumes was reliable and only 8 slices of the calf were needed. No difference was seen between the two used mathematical calculations. (orig.)

  17. A Variant Accessory Belly of Extensor Indicis Muscle: An Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscular variations of the extensor compartment of the forearm are generally encountered during surgical and dissection procedures. Additional bellies, extra tendons, and abnormal attachment are such reported variations. Knowledge of these kinds of variation are important for hand surgeons to plan the surgical procedure and modify their approach to that case, or the surgeon can take the advantage of these variations during muscle graft and tendon transplantation procedures. Here we report a case of an additional belly of the extensor indicis muscle. The additional belly arose from the interosseous membrane. Its tendon passed through the fourth compartment deep into the extensor retinaculum and divided into two tendinous slips on the dorsum of the hand. One of these slips attached to the ulnar side of the tendon of the extensor digitorum for the middle finger; the other slip was merged with fascia over the dorsum of the hand. The additional belly was supplied by the posterior interosseous nerve. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(1.000: 64-65

  18. Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietrys, David M; Gerg, Michael J; Dropkin, Jonathan; Gold, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity and cervical posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb, finger flexor, and wrist extensor muscle activity than when texting with a touch screen device of similar dimensions. Texting on either device produced greater wrist extensor muscle activity when texting with 1 hand/thumb compared with both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and chose to use both thumbs less. There was also a trend for greater finger flexor, wrist extensor, and trapezius muscle activity as touch screen size increased, and for greater cervical flexion, although mean differences for cervical flexion were small. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID:25959323

  19. VARIATIONS IN THE MUSCLES OF THE EXTENSOR COMPARTMENT OF THE FOREARM AND HAND AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tiwari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extensor musculature of the forearm and hand shows diverse variations. These can lead to various clinical conditions. Case Report: During routine cadaveric dissection, variations were observed in the muscles of extensor compartment of the forearm. Their anatomical relations were documented and the embryological basis and clinical importance was stressed upon. During routine cadaveric dissection in a formalin fixed 58 year old male cadaver, variations in the posterior compartment of the left forearm were noted, measured and appropriately photographed. Observations: In the posterior compartment of the left forearm an accessory muscle was found originating from the posterior surface of ulna, just distal to the origin of extensor indicis. It traversed along with the tendons of extensor digitorum and extensor indicis in a common compartment underneath the extensor retinaculum and inserted onto the dorsal surface of the base of the proximal phalanx lateral to the tendon of extensor digitorum for the middle finger. Also, the extensor digitorum muscle divided only into three tendons instead of four- one each for the index, middle and ring finger. The three tendons inserted normally via the dorsal digital expansion but, the tendon for the ring finger gave an additional slip on the ulnar aspect, which inserted separately onto the base of the proximal phalanx of the ring finger. Conclusion: Muscles in the extensor compartment of forearm may show diverse variations which have clinical relevance. Accessory muscles may be confused with soft tissue conditions like a ganglion. Supernumary tendons can be utilised for tendon transfers and muscle grafts. These variations must be brought to the knowledge of the surgeons performing hand surgeries.

  20. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes in the c...... and glutamate extracted in increased amounts from the blood during exercise, are used for the synthesis of glutamine and for tricarboxylic-acid cycle anaplerosis.......The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes in the...... concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  1. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

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    Rodrigo César Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  2. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  3. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace. PMID:23800438

  4. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace. PMID:23800438

  5. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  6. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  7. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD, and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean.In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90 and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%. Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%. We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016.In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability.This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  8. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  9. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo César. Rosa; Kennedy Martinez de Oliveira; Jorge Alfredo Léo; Bruno Adriano Borges Elias; Paulo Ricardo dos Santos; Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This an...

  10. Effects of β₂-agonists on force during and following anoxia in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, A; Gissel, H; Ortenblad, N;

    2012-01-01

    )-agonists affect force and ion homeostasis in anoxic muscles. In the present study isolated rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles exposed to anoxia showed a considerable loss of force, which was markedly reduced by the β(2)-agonists salbutamol (10(-6) M) and terbutaline (10(-6) M). Intermittent......AMP stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pumps, and that it is not related to recovery of energy status (PCr, ATP, lactate)....

  11. Amylin evokes protein p20 phosphorylation and insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE; Shaochin(李晓钦); Garth; Cooper

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate effect of amylin on the insulin sensitivity of rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) using in vitro intact muscle incubation in combination with metabolic radioactive labeling. The molecular basis of the amylin action was further examined using proteomic analysis. In particular, proteins of interest were characterized using an integrated microcharacterization procedure that involved in-gel trypsin digestion, organic solvent extraction, high performance liquid chromatography separation, microsequencing and microsequence analysis. We found that amylin significantly decreased the insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen (p < 0.01) and produced a protein spot of approximately 20 ku in size. This amylin responsive protein (hereby designated as amylin responsive protein 1, APR1) was identified to be protein p20. Moreover, ARP1 spots on gels were found to consistently produce a corresponding radioactive spot on X-ray films in 32Pi but not in 35S-methionine labeling experiments. In conclusion, our results showed that in vitro amylin concomitantly evoked the production of ARP1 and caused insulin resistance in EDL muscle. It is suggested that protein p20 may be involved in amylin signal transduction and the appearance of ARP1 may be a step in a molecular pathway leading to the development of insulin resistance. ARP1 might therefore be a useful molecular marker for amylin action, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes.

  12. The influence of passive stretch on the growth and protein turnover of the denervated extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspink, D F

    1978-08-15

    At 7 days after cutting the sciatic nerve, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was smaller and contained less protein than its innervated control. Correlating with these changes was the finding of elevated rates of protein degradation (measured in vitro) in the denervated tissue. However, at this time, rates of protein synthesis (measured in vitro) and nucleic acid concentrations were also higher in the denervated tissue, changes more usually associated with an active muscle rather than a disused one. These anabolic trends have, at least in part, been explained by the possible greater exposure of the denervated extensor digitorum longus to passive stretch. When immobilized under a maintained influence of stretch the denervated muscle grew to a greater extent. Although this stretch-induced growth appeared to occur predominantly through a stimulation of protein synthesis, it was opposed by smaller increases in degradative rates. Nucleic acids increased at a similar rate to the increase in muscle mass when a continuous influence of stretch was imposed on the denervated tissue. In contrast, immobilization of the denervated extensor digitorum longus in a shortened unstretched state reversed most of the stretch-induced changes; that is, the muscle became even smaller, with protein synthesis decreasing to a greater extent than breakdown after the removal of passive stretch. The present investigation suggests that stretch will promote protein synthesis and hence growth of the extensor digitorum longus even in the absence of an intact nerve supply. However, some factor(s), in addition to passive stretch, must contribute to the anabolic trends in this denervated muscle. PMID:708412

  13. Cadaver study of the topography of the musculotendinous junction of the finger extensor muscles: applicability to tendon rupture following closed wrist trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, D; Tatu, L; Loisel, F; Vuillier, F; Parratte, B

    2015-09-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon in the wrist is a delayed complication that can occur after wrist injury. Several etiology-related hypotheses have been made to explain these ruptures. The one most commonly accepted is necrosis at the musculotendinous junction of the EPL, which is compressed between the extensor retinaculum and dorsal aspect of the radius. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed an anatomical study to show the close relationship between the extensor retinaculum and the musculotendinous junction of the EPL muscle. We calculated the distance between the musculotendinous junction of the various finger extensor muscles and the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. We were able to show that this junction is located under the extensor retinaculum for the extensor indicis (EI) and EPL muscles, but the latter is in the third extensor compartment, which is a tight, confined space. Any pressure increase in this space following trauma, for example, can bring about compartment syndrome at this musculotendinous junction, which some authors have found to be poorly vascularized. PMID:25577541

  14. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior. PMID:23580599

  15. Effect of plyometric training on neural and mechanical properties of the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, M; Mau-Moeller, A; Bruhn, S

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated neuromuscular adaptations of the knee extensors after 8 weeks of plyometric training. 23 subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. We measured isometric maximum voluntary torque (iMVT), rate of torque development (RTD) and impulse (IMP) over different time intervals. The neural drive to muscles was estimated with the interpolated twitch technique and normalized root mean square of the EMG signal. Contractile properties, H reflexes as well as jump height in squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) were evaluated. Neuromuscular testing was performed at 2 knee angles, i. e., 80° and 45° (0° = full extension). The iMVT at 80° knee flexion was 23.1 N · m (95% CI: 0.1-46.1 N · m, P = 0.049) higher at post-test for the intervention group compared with controls. The same was true for RTD and IMP in the time interval 0-50 ms [308.7 N · m · s(-1) (95% CI: 28.8-588.6 N · m · s(-1), P = 0.033) and 0.32 N · m · s (95% CI: 0.05-0.60 N · m · s, P = 0.026), respectively]. These changes were accompanied by enhanced neural drive to the quadriceps muscle. Jump height in SJ and CMJ was higher at post-test for the intervention group compared with controls. Parameters at 45° knee flexion, contractile properties and evoked potentials did not differ between groups. Although hypertrophic changes were not measured, data suggest that the training regime probably induced mainly neural adaptations that were specifically related to the knee angle. The strength gains at 80° knee flexion likely contributed to the enhanced jump height in SJ and CMJ. PMID:23900900

  16. Inhibitory action of relaxin on human cervical smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Wiqvist, N; Sahni, S; Lindblom, B

    1984-09-01

    The influence of purified porcine relaxin on contractility of human cervical smooth muscle was investigated in vitro. Strips of cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy from pregnant and nonpregnant women and were mounted in a superfused organ chamber for isometric measurement of contractile activity. Relaxin (0.005-25 micrograms/ml) inhibited the spontaneous contractions in cervical strips from 18% of nonpregnant, 68% of early pregnant, and in 100% of term pregnant women. These results indicate that relaxin has an inhibitory action on cervical smooth muscle and that this effect is more constantly detected as pregnancy proceeds. PMID:6746858

  17. Smooth muscle cells in bovine cervical ripening and dilatation; contractility, degrading enzymes and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical ripening is a complex process of modification of cervical tissue that enables dilation of the cervix at parturition. Cervical smooth muscle tissue might play a role by contracting or by secretion of cytokines or MMPs. To assess a contractile role for the cervical smooth muscle cells in cervical dilatation, we measured cervical diameter with ultrasound cervimetry together with EMG-activity of the myometrium, cervical outer muscular layer (COML) and cervical stromal layer (CSL). This w...

  18. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Sirvent

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle, as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  19. Evaluation of Muscle Function of the Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle Ex vivo and Tibialis Anterior Muscle In situ in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Chady H.; Wasala, Nalinda B.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Body movements are mainly provided by mechanical function of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is composed of numerous bundles of myofibers that are sheathed by intramuscular connective tissues. Each myofiber contains many myofibrils that run longitudinally along the length of the myofiber. Myofibrils are the contractile apparatus of muscle and they are composed of repeated contractile units known as sarcomeres. A sarcomere unit contains actin and myosin filaments that are spaced by the Z disc...

  20. S1P3 receptor influences key physiological properties of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Elena; Bondì, Michela; Cencetti, Francesca; Donati, Chiara; Nocella, Marta; Colombini, Barbara; Betto, Romeo; Bruni, Paola; Bagni, Maria Angela; Danieli-Betto, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    To examine the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 3 (S1P3) in modulating muscle properties, we utilized transgenic mice depleted of the receptor. Morphological analyses of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle did not show evident differences between wild-type and S1P3-null mice. The body weight of 3-mo-old S1P3-null mice and the mean cross-sectional area of transgenic EDL muscle fibers were similar to those of wild-type. S1P3 deficiency enhanced the expression level of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors mRNA in S1P3-null EDL muscle. The contractile properties of S1P3-null EDL diverge from those of wild-type, largely more fatigable and less able to recover. The absence of S1P3 appears responsible for a lower availability of calcium during fatigue. S1P supplementation, expected to stimulate residual S1P receptors and signaling, reduced fatigue development of S1P3-null muscle. Moreover, in the absence of S1P3, denervated EDL atrophies less than wild-type. The analysis of atrophy-related proteins in S1P3-null EDL evidences high levels of the endogenous regulator of mitochondria biogenesis peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); preserving mitochondria could protect the muscle from disuse atrophy. In conclusion, the absence of S1P3 makes the muscle more sensitive to fatigue and slows down atrophy development after denervation, indicating that S1P3 is involved in the modulation of key physiological properties of the fast-twitch EDL muscle. PMID:26718782

  1. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    ón anatómica del nervio radial con el pedículo del ECRL hace que no sea posible su transferencia como colgajo libre sin sacrificar la rama motora del nervio radial en la mayor parte de los casos.The arterial anatomy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis (ECRL, ECRB flaps is herein described in order to provide the vascular basis to be used as free muscle transfer for facial reanimation. We used 29 fresh above-elbow human arms injected by means of two diferent techniques.Latex-injection was performed in 18 arms and the modified lead oxide-gelatine injection technique was performed in 11 arms. The ECRL and ECRB with their pedicles were dissected, photodocumented and radiographied.The number, length and calibers of the muscle pedicles were recorded. The intramuscular vascular pattern and the relations of the main pedicles of the muscles with the radial nerve were also noted. Two vascular patterns were found following the Mathes and Nahai Classification of the Vascular Anatomy of the Muscles (number of pedicles and its dominance: Type I (37,9% of ECRL and 20,7% of ECRB dissections and Type II (62,1% of ECRL and 79,3% of ECRB dissections. The dominant pedicle for the ECRL (with an average caliber of 1,73 mm and an average length of pedicle of 32,32 mm is a branch of the radial recurrent artery in 100% of the dissections and the dominant pedicle for the ECRB (with an average caliber of 1,11 mm and an average length of pedicle of 27,77 mm a branch of the radial artery in 68,9% of the dissections and a branch of radial recurrent artery in 31,1% of the cases. As a conclusion, ECRL and ECRB muscle flaps present two types of vascular patterns: type I and type II.Type II pattern is the most common in our study. The anatomical features of both muscles (vascular basis,presence of an important fascial layer, contour and length of the muscle, make them reliable as free muscles flaps for facial reanimation, however, the relation between the dominant pedicle for the ECRL

  2. Postural destabilization induced by trunk extensor muscles fatigue is suppressed by use of a plantar pressure-based electro-tactile biofeedback.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Fleury, Anthony; Payan, Yohan; Demongeot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Separate studies have reported that postural control during quiet standing could be (1) impaired with muscle fatigue localized at the lower back, and (2) improved through the use of plantar pressure-based electro-tactile biofeedback, under normal neuromuscular state. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether this biofeedback could reduce postural destabilization induced by trunk extensor muscles. Ten healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible in four experimental c...

  3. Efeitos do Tai Chi Chuan na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos e no equilíbrio em idosas Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on knee extensor muscle strength and balance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Alguns estudos têm indicado que o Tai Chi Chuan (TCC é capaz de melhorar o condicionamento físico, a força muscular e o equilíbrio entre os praticantes idosos, prevenindo quedas, fraturas e dependência física. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do TCC no equilíbrio (EQ e na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos (F em mulheres idosas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 77 mulheres saudáveis, não praticantes de atividade física orientada. No Grupo Experimental (G1 foram incluídas 38 voluntárias (68 ± 5 anos e no Grupo Controle (G2, 39 voluntárias (69 ± 7 anos. O G1 praticou o TCC estilo Yang de 24 movimentos durante 12 semanas, três vezes por semana, com duração de 50 minutos. O G2 não realizou atividades físicas orientadas. A força foi mensurada pelo teste de 1-RM na cadeira extensora e o equilíbrio foi avaliado utilizando o teste de apoio unipodal com os olhos fechados. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se teste de normalidade, split-plot análise de variância (ANOVA e correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O Grupo Experimental apresentou incrementos de 17,83% na F e 26,10% no EQ. O Grupo Controle não apresentou alteração significativa em nenhuma variável. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre estas duas variáveis no G1 (r= 0,09; p= 0,554 e no G2 (r= 0,07; p= 0,660. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que o TCC melhora F e EQ em mulheres idosas. Entretanto, a força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos não está necessariamente ligada ao equilíbrio nesta modalidade.BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that Tai Chi Chuan (TCC is capable of improving physical fitness, muscle strength and balance in elderly people. This improvement could prevent falls, fractures and physical dependence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TCC on balance and knee extensor muscle strength among elderly women. METHODS: Seventy-seven healthy women who were not engaged in any guided

  4. The histochemical profile of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle differentiates after birth and dedifferentiates in senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Age dependent motor unit dedifferentiation is a key component of impaired muscle function in advanced age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat muscle histochemical profile during the lifespan of an individual has an age-specific pattern since comprehensive longitudinal studies of muscle differentiation after birth and dedifferentiation in advanced age are scarce. Our results show that extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL is comprised only of two fiber types after birth, type slow-oxidative (SO and type SDH-intermediate (SDHINT, the latter being indicative for the presence of polyneuronal innervation. In contrast to the constantly growing crosssectional area of the muscle fibers, a dramatic decrease in SDH-INT proportion occurs between day 14 and 21 after birth resulting in a complete loss of fiber type SDH-INT at the age of 90 days (p<0.05. At the age of 270 days, the fiber type composition of rat EDL dedifferentiates as shown by the reappearance of the SDH-INT type with a further increase at the age of 540 days (p<0.05. These changes in histochemical fiber type spectra are brought about by fiber type conversion within the fast twich fibers. The findings of the present study provide further evidence that fiber type conversion is a basic mechanism leading to motor unit differentiation and dedifferentiation during ontogenesis. Fiber type conversion shows a distinct time specific pattern and is also characteristic for motor unit regeneration after peripheral nerve repair. Factors that influence fiber type conversion and thereby motor unit organization may provide a future therapeutic option to enhance the regenerative capacity of motor units.

  5. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  6. Linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel mechanomyographic recordings reveal heterogeneous activation of wrist extensors in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (Panalysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness. PMID:25277830

  7. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan Yogesh; Ferrari Robert; Kumar Shrawan; Vieira Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty...

  8. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo; S.F. Morris; Carrera Burgaya, A.; Martelo Villar, F.

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar el aporte arterial y el patrón vascular intramuscular de los músculos Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL) y Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB) para analizar su utilización como colgajos libres en transferencia muscular funcional para reanimación facial. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 29 brazos humanos en fresco. Las técnicas de inyección utilizadas fueron la modificada de oxido de plomo y gelatina en 11 cadáveres y la de inyección pulsátil de...

  9. COMPARISON OF EMG ACTIVITIES OF KNEE EXTENSOR MUSCLES BETWEEN SOCCER PLAYERS AND SPRINTERS DURING COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Birol YALÇIN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare electromyogram (EMG activities of knee extensor muscles (vastus lateralis and vastus medialis between soccer players and sprinters during countermovement jump (CMJ performance. Subjects: Fifty three subjects (Thirty two sprinters, ( age: 21,91 ± 1,55 yr; body weight: 67,29 ± 8,11 kg; height: 176,81 ± 5,87 cm and twenty one soccer players, ( age: 23,.33 ± 1,77yr; body weight: 69,50 ± 7,06kg; height: 174,33 ± 5,65cm volunteered to participate in this study. Methods: After the standard 5 minutes warm-up period, EMG signals of vastus lateralis (VL and vastus medialis (VM were recorded while subjects were performed maximal performance of CMJ. EMG signals were quantified using the root mean square (RMS value. CMJ test protocol was used to determine the jump performance (jumping height and peak power. Independent t-test was used to determine differences between sprinters and soccer players regarding to jumping height, peak power (PP and RMS values of VL and VM. Results: The results of the study indicated that the RMS values of sprinters taken from VL (t=3,318; p

  10. Characteristics of leg extensor muscle in a world champion masters jumper. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, K; Funato, K; Takatoh, S; Mutoh, Y; Miyashita, M

    1989-12-01

    To examine the characteristics of a world champion masters jumper (aged 71 yr), a study was undertaken which included a muscle biopsy and measurement of mechanical force production. Comparisons were made to biopsy data obtained from the literature and to force data on 7 active males (63-81 yrs). Cross-sectional areas of vastus lateralis muscle of the jumper's dominant thigh were 3.43 (type I), 3.32 (type IIA) and 2.34 (type IIB) microns 2 X 10(3). This is smaller than what is reported from sedentary young and old. The torque-time curve of maximal isometric knee extension indicates that the jumper had the highest value per body weight from the onset to the peak (3.48 Nm/kg; 58.2% higher than age-matched controls). These results suggest that the daily training of the jumper has a specific effect on the rate of force production despite his relatively small muscle fiber areas. PMID:2628640

  11. Comparison of isometric contractile properties in hindlimb extensor muscles of the frogs Rana pipiens and Bufo marinus: functional correlations with differences in hopping performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Brad A; Hartwell, Hadley J; Peters, Susan E

    2002-03-01

    The leopard frog (Rana pipiens) is an excellent jumper that can reach high take-off velocities and accelerations. It is diurnal, using long, explosive jumps to capture prey and escape predators. The marine toad (Bufo marinus) is a cryptic, nocturnal toad, typically using short, slow hops, or sometimes walking, to patrol its feeding area. Typical of frogs with these different locomotor styles, Rana has relatively long hindlimbs and large (by mass) hindlimb extensor muscles compared to Bufo. We studied the isometric contractile properties of their extensor muscles and found differences that correlate with their different hopping performances. At the hip (semimembranosus, SM), knee (peroneus, Per) and ankle (plantaris longus, PL), we found that Rana's muscles tended to produce greater maximum isometric force relative to body mass, although the difference was significant only for PL. This suggests that differences in force capability at the ankle may be more important than at other joints to produce divergent hopping performances. Maximum isometric force scaled with body mass so that the smaller Rana has relatively larger muscles and force differences between species may reflect size differences only. In addition, Rana's muscles exhibited greater passive resistance to elongation, implying more elastic tissue is present, which may amplify force at take-off due to elastic recoil. Rana's muscles also achieved a higher percentage of maximum force at lower stimulus inputs (frequencies and durations) than in Bufo, perhaps amplifying the differences in force available for limb extension during natural stimulation. Twitch contraction and relaxation times tended to be faster in Rana, although variation was great, so that differences were significant only for Per. Fatigability also tended to be greater in Rana muscles, although, again, values reached significance in only one muscle (PL). Thus, in addition to biomechanical effects, differences in hopping performance may also be

  12. The Effects of Temporal and Spatial Predictions on Stretch Reflexes of Ankle Flexor and Extensor Muscles While Standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how stretch reflex (SR) responses in the ankle extensor (soleus: SOL) and flexor (tibialis anterior: TA) muscles would be modulated with temporal and/or spatial predictions of external perturbations and whether their effects are specific to the standing posture. SR responses in the SOL/TA were elicited by imposing quick ankle toes-up/toes-down rotations while standing upright and in the supine position. We designed four experimental conditions based on pre-information about perturbations: no information (No Cue), the timing of the perturbation onset (TIM), the direction of the perturbation (DIR), and both the timing and direction of the perturbation (TIM/DIR). Each condition was separated and its order was counterbalanced. In the SR of TA evoked by toes-down rotation, integrated electromyography activities of the late component were significantly reduced in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with those in the No Cue and DIR conditions. The occurrence rate of late SR components that reflects how often the reflex response was observed was also lower in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with that in the No Cue and DIR conditions. On the other hand, no significant changes were seen among the four conditions in the early SR component in the TA and both SR components in the SOL. The same results in the occurrence rate were found in the supine position. The present results suggest (1) only temporal predictions have a remarkable effect on the SR excitability of the TA, and (2) this effect is independent of posture. PMID:27385043

  13. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: Its clinical significance and morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla SR; Vollala VR; Bovindala B; Madabhshi C

    2008-01-01

    Anomalous muscles are often a matter of concern to clinicians as they mislead the diagnosis. Knowledge of such variant muscles is important clinically to avoid misdiagnosis. In this report we present an anomalous muscle on the dorsum of hand, extensor digitorum brevis manus an uncommon variation present as a swelling on the dorsum. It is originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor ho...

  14. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    The body masses of cats (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) span a ~300-fold range from the smallest to largest species. Despite this range, felid musculoskeletal anatomy remains remarkably conservative, including the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at unusually large sizes. The forelimbs in felids are important for body support and other aspects of locomotion, as well as climbing and prey capture, with the assistance of the vertebral (and hindlimb) muscles. Here, we examine the scaling of the anterior postcranial musculature across felids to assess scaling patterns between different species spanning the range of felid body sizes. The muscle architecture (lengths and masses of the muscle-tendon unit components) for the forelimb, cervical and thoracic muscles was quantified to analyse how the muscles scale with body mass. Our results demonstrate that physiological cross-sectional areas of the forelimb muscles scale positively with increasing body mass (i.e. becoming relatively larger). Many significantly allometric variables pertain to shoulder support, whereas the rest of the limb muscles become relatively weaker in larger felid species. However, when phylogenetic relationships were corrected for, most of these significant relationships disappeared, leaving no significantly allometric muscle metrics. The majority of cervical and thoracic muscle metrics are not significantly allometric, despite there being many allometric skeletal elements in these regions. When forelimb muscle data were considered in isolation or in combination with those of the vertebral muscles in principal components analyses and MANOVAs, there was no significant discrimination among species by either size or locomotory mode. Our results support the inference that larger felid species have relatively weaker anterior postcranial musculature compared with smaller species, due to an absence of significant positive allometry of forelimb or vertebral muscle architecture. This difference in strength

  15. iNOS ablation does not improve specific force of the extensor digitorum longus muscle in dystrophin-deficient mdx4cv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    Full Text Available Nitrosative stress compromises force generation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and delocalized neuronal NOS (nNOS have been implicated. We recently demonstrated that genetic elimination of nNOS significantly enhanced specific muscle forces of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle of dystrophin-null mdx4cv mice (Li D et al J. Path. 223:88-98, 2011. To determine the contribution of iNOS, we generated iNOS deficient mdx4cv mice. Genetic elimination of iNOS did not alter muscle histopathology. Further, the EDL muscle of iNOS/dystrophin DKO mice yielded specific twitch and tetanic forces similar to those of mdx4cv mice. Additional studies suggest iNOS ablation did not augment nNOS expression neither did it result in appreciable change of nitrosative stress markers in muscle. Our results suggest that iNOS may play a minor role in mediating nitrosative stress-associated force reduction in DMD.

  16. A Comparison of Total and Intrinsic Muscle Stiffness Among Flexors and Extensors of the Ankle, Knee and Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined 3 methods that assessed muscle stiffness. Muscle stiffness has been quantified by tissue reactive force (transverse stiffness), vibration, and force (or torque) over displacement. Muscle stiffness also has two components: reflex (due to muscle sensor activity) and intrinsic (tonic firing of motor units, elastic nature of actin and myosin cross bridges, and connective tissue). This study compared three methods of measuring muscle stiffness of agonist-antagonist muscle pairs of the ankle, knee and elbow.

  17. Análise eletromiográfica e força do grupo muscular extensor do punho durante isquemia induzida Electromyographic analysis and strength of the wrist extensor muscle group during induced ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCA Bandeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da isquemia induzida sobre os parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico e a força do grupo muscular extensor do punho (GMEP em mulheres saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Participaram 13 voluntárias, destras, sedentárias, com idade de 23,38±2,32 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC de 20,68±1,87kg/m². Para determinar a força do GMEP, foram realizadas 3 contrações isométricas voluntárias máximas (CIVM, utilizando-se uma célula de carga por 15 segundos, com intervalos de 2 minutos entre cada contração, sendo todo procedimento repetido por 3 dias não consecutivos. A isquemia foi realizada por 5 minutos, utilizando um esfigmomanômetro posicionado no braço dominante e inflado até a ausência do fluxo sanguíneo, confirmada pelo ultrassom Doppler. Para coleta do sinal eletromiográfico do GMEP, utilizou-se o equipamento EMG1000 (Lynx® com eletrodo de superfície diferencial (Lynx®. Foram coletadas 3 CIVM por 15 segundos, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre elas, nas situações de pré-isquemia; isquemia; pós-isquemia imediata (pós-1 e pós-isquemia tardia (pós-2 - após 10 minutos do início da isquemia. Para análise dos parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico, root mean square (RMS, e frequência mediana do espectro de potência do sinal foi utilizado o software MATLAB 6.5.1. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Friedman e ANOVA two-way. RESULTADOS: A isquemia promoveu redução significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of induced ischemia on the parameters of electromyographic signals and the strength of the wrist extensor muscle group (WEMG in healthy women. METHODS: Thirteen right-handed sedentary subjects aged 23.38±2.32 years old, with body mass index (BMI of 20.68±1.87kg/m², took part. To determine WEMG strength, three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were performed using a load cell for 15 seconds, with 2 minutes intervals between contractions. The entire

  18. Muscle selection for treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Kamphuis, D. J.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cervical dystonia, also called spasmodic torticollis, is the most common form of (primary) dystonia. Intramuscular injections with botulinum toxin are the first line of treatment for cervical dystonia. To optimise the treatment response to botulinum toxin correct muscles should be selecte

  19. Effects of Chronic Administration of Clenbuterol on Contractile Properties and Calcium Homeostasis in Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Douillard, Aymeric; Galbes, Olivier; Ramonatxo, Christelle; Py, Guillaume; Candau, Robin; Lacampagne, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a beta 2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calc...

  20. 优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹屈伸肌群生物力学特征%Biomechanical characteristics of waist flexor and extensor muscles in outstanding juvenile male basketball athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 叶展红; 庞杰

    2015-01-01

    背景:目前,等速测试系统在评定各专项运动员肌肉功能的应用越来越受到重视,但运用等速肌力测试技术研究优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹肌力特征的报道较少。目的:研究优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹屈伸肌群生物力学特征,为篮球项目的腰腹力量训练、科学选材和预防腰腹损伤提供依据。方法:采用Cybex-Norm等速肌力测试系统,对广州男子篮球队运动员18人测定腰腹屈伸肌群在慢速60(°)/s和快速180(°)/s的肌力和做功情况。结果与结论:受试者腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩和相对峰力矩在同一测试速度下,伸肌群大于屈肌群(P<0.01);腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩、相对峰力矩、总功均随着测试速度的增加呈减小趋势(P<0.05),伸肌群的峰力矩和相对峰力矩减少更显著(P <0.01);腰腹屈伸肌群的相对功率随着测试速度的增加而呈上升趋势(P <0.01);外线球员腰腹屈伸肌群各测试指标成绩优于内线球员;在等速向心收缩时,随测试速度加快,腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩屈伸比呈递减趋势,躯干稳定性减弱。结果提示,优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹伸肌群肌力大于屈肌群;外线球员腰腹屈伸肌群的肌力优于内线球员;等速快速运动时,腰腹屈伸肌群力量减小,腰腹关节屈伸肌力平衡性减弱,应加强青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹核心肌群快速力量训练。%BACKGROUND:At present, isokinetic testing system has attracted more and more attentions in the evaluation of athlete muscle function, but its application in the detection of waist and abdomen muscle strength characteristics in juvenile male basketbal athletes is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To study the biomechanical characteristics of waist flexor and extensor muscles inoutstanding juvenile male basketbal athletes in order to provide the basis for waist and abdominal strength training

  1. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Karamanidis

    Full Text Available Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS and quadriceps femoris (QF muscle-tendon unit (MTU capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly.Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry.Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention.This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly

  2. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (ptennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  3. [The relevance of muscle strength--extensors of the knee on pain relief in elderly people with knee osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivar, Senka Rendulić; Peri, Dusan; Jukić, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate muscle strength after short-term exercise program by elderly people with knee osteoarthritis that usually non exercising and to estimate if this change have influence on decrease of the pain. This study was longitudinal experiment that involved thirty participants aged 61-80 years with clinical signs and radiographic evidence of knee OA stage Kellgren II and III. They completed individual strengthening program knee muscle stabilisator and hydrotherapy in the pool during two weeks. Muscle strength and pain was estimated pre and post experimental time. The results are analysed by SPSS programme, version 15.0 for Windows. Values demonstrated decreasing degrees of the pain and increasing of muscle strength. The pain decreased 33% in advance, final pain oposite initial estimated 2.4 degrees smaller by VAS. Muscle strength for stronger leg was (initial/final) 93.10/106.33 kg/cm2 (t-test 3.584*, p coefficient (R2 of 0.014-0.081) and regression coefficient (B of 0.004-0.015) for stronger and weaker leg. Exercises produced significant increase in muscle strength and decrease in pain in OA of the knee. Hypothesis that increase of muscle quadriceps strength have influence on decrease of the pain in the knee is not confirmed. PMID:21751572

  4. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  5. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Le; LI, XIAOYAN; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX) technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG) at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), thenar and hypothe...

  6. Capillary supply of oxidative and non-oxidative fibres in denervated and reinnervated rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eržen, I.; Janáček, Jiří; Kreft, M.; Čebašek, V.

    Saint-Etienne : International society for stereology, 2007, s. 41-45. [International congress for stereology /12./. Saint-Etienne (FR), 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillaries * muscle * inervation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Extensor tendon repair an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Bin Fayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extensor injuries is more than that of flexor tendon injuries. This is to a great extent because of the extensors being superficially placed and covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue over the distal part of the upper extremity. Thus they are more vulnerable to blunt and sharp trauma, the proximal and distal forearm present with laceration and cut with sharp weapon. Extensor tendon injuries are often taken lightly by many, repairs being taken-up at the ER. Repair is done in or if the retrieval of tendon ends is difficult or the wound is complicated with associated injuries such as fractures or in cases of tendon retraction. Delayed primary repair can be undertaken from 7-10 days. Assessment of the injured finger has to be very meticulous. Extension of finger is brought about by the interossei and lumbricals which are the short muscles of the hand. They extend the proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints and flex metacarpophalangeal joint, these intrinsic muscles are innervated by the ulnar and median nerves. The long extensors are innervated by the radial nerve, they primarily extend the metacarpophalangeal joints and also interphalangeal joints. In cases of injury the intrinsic system may compensate for an extensor deficit. Closed injuries of zone I may be managed by splinting of the distal interphalangeal joints and open injuries in the zone I and II can be treated with tenodermodesis. Proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints are immobilized in zone 3 and 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint is immobilized in full extension and the wrist in 10o extension.

  8. Aberrant Innervation of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle By the Transverse Cervical Nerve: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevas, George; Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Two aberrant rami originating from the right transverse cervical nerve and innervated the midportion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SM) were detected during routine cadaver dissection. Although SM is commonly innervated by the accessory nerve, as well as by cervical nerves, it is likely to be innervated additionally by other nerves such as hypoglossal nerve, ansa cervicalis, facial or external laryngeal nerve. Some considerations as regards the possible composition of the aberrant rami of...

  9. Bifurcated Bicipital Aponeurosis Giving Origin to Flexor and Extensor Muscles of the Forearm – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Maloor, Prasad A; Dsouza, Melanie R

    2016-01-01

    Bicipital aponeurosis is usually attached to the antebrachial fascia on the medial side of forearm and to posterior border of ulna assisting in the supination of the forearm along with biceps brachii muscle. Variations in the bicipital aponeurosis may lead to neurovascular compression as reported earlier. In the present case, the bicipital aponeurosis had two slips i.e. medial and lateral. Medial slip gave origin to some fibers of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis and the lateral slip gave origin to some fibers of brachioradialis. Such unusual slips of bicipital aponeurosis may distribute the stress concentration and may work in different directions affecting the supination of forearm by biceps brachii muscle and bicipital aponeurosis. PMID:27042440

  10. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.;

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (P<0.05) than in VL and VM, respectively. During OCC, DeltaT(m) in RF was 0.39+/-0.05 degrees C, which was not different from VM but 54% higher (P<0.05) than in VL. After MOD, muscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast...

  11. Efeitos do Tai Chi Chuan na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos e no equilíbrio em idosas Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on knee extensor muscle strength and balance in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    MM Pereira; RJ Oliveira; MAF Silva; LHR Souza; LG Vianna

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Alguns estudos têm indicado que o Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) é capaz de melhorar o condicionamento físico, a força muscular e o equilíbrio entre os praticantes idosos, prevenindo quedas, fraturas e dependência física. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do TCC no equilíbrio (EQ) e na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos (F) em mulheres idosas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 77 mulheres saudáveis, não praticantes de atividade física orientada. No Grupo Experimental (G1)...

  12. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. ...

  13. Empleo del colgajo muscular extensor digitorum brevis con flujo retrógrado para defectos distales en el pie Use of reverse flow extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap for distal foot defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Lope Falcón

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos en isla con vascularización distal y, entre ellos, el colgajo muscular Extensor Digitorum Brevis, son en la actualidad una opción excelente para conseguir la cobertura satisfactoria de los defectos de tejidos blandos a nivel del dorso del pie y de los dedos. En este artículo revisamos casos publicados por otros autores de defectos distales del pie, resueltos mediante este colgajo muscular, así como estudios anatómicos sobre la vascularización del mismo y presentamos 2 casos intervenidos en nuestro Servicio en los que obtuvimos una cobertura satisfactoria y una pronta recuperación, sin complicaciones vasculares, morbilidad de la zona donante o limitación funcional; solo una hipoestesia persistente a nivel del dorso del pie.Island flaps with distal vascularization, including Extensor Digitorum Brevis flap, are an excellent choice for achieving satisfactory coverage of soft tissues defects at the back of the feet and fingers. In this article we review the use of this flap by other authors in distal foot defect and the anatomical studies about its vascularization. We report 2 cases operated on our Department of Plastic Surgery with distal foot defects solved with this flap. We obtained a satisfactory coverage and a speedy recovery. No vascular complications, morbidity of the donor site or functional limitation were noticed. The only complaint was persistent hypoaesthesia on the back foot.

  14. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX) technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG) at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), thenar and hypothenar muscles of SCI (n = 12) and healthy control (n = 12) subjects. The results showed that the SCI subjects had significantly smaller CMAP and MD-MUNIX in all the three examined muscles, compared to those derived from the healthy control subjects. The multidimensional motor unit size index (MD-MUSIX) demonstrated significantly larger values for the FDI and hypothenar muscles in SCI subjects than those from healthy control subjects, whereas the MD-MUSIX enlargement was marginally significant for the thenar muscles. The findings from the MD-MUNIX analyses provide an evidence of motor unit loss in hand muscles of cervical SCI patients, contributing to hand function deterioration. PMID:26005410

  15. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI, thenar and hypothenar muscles of SCI (n=12 and healthy control (n=12 subjects. The results showed that the SCI subjects had significantly smaller CMAP and MD-MUNIX in all the three examined muscles, compared to those derived from the healthy control subjects. The multidimensional motor unit size index (MD-MUSIX demonstrated significantly larger values for the FDI and hypothenar muscles in SCI subjects than those from healthy control subjects, whereas the MD-MUSIX enlargement was marginally significant for the thenar muscles. The findings from the MD-MUNIX analyses provide an evidence of motor unit loss in hand muscles of cervical SCI patients, contributing to hand function deterioration.

  16. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L L M Boumans

    Full Text Available Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola, and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  17. [Muscle-tendon echography in acute cervical sprain traumas. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, F; Ettorre, G C; Cafaro, E; Macarini, L; Bancale, R; Sion, E

    1992-03-01

    Acute cervical sprain traumas can be divided into simple and severe, depending on the presence of organic lesions which can be documented by conventional radiologic techniques. Persistent painful symptomatology of the nape and the precise localization of pain, led us to suspect the presence of organic lesions due to tearing of the neck muscles in 94 patients who had suffered a simple cervical sprain. To demonstrate these post-traumatic lesions, the patients were subjected to US examinations of both the nape and the muscles at the base of the neck. In 13 cases (13.8%) muscular tearing lesions were demonstrated, which were characterized by hypoechoic lacunae (6 cases), by hyperechoic stripes (5 cases), and by muscular hernia (1 case); in 1 case, partial disconnection of a muscular insertion was demonstrated. Thus, we believe muscle-tendon US to be a valuable technique for both diagnostic and nosologic purposes, for the method allows simple cervical sprain to be discriminated from sprains which are complicated by organic muscular lesions. We suggest that the cervical sprain traumas where a muscular lesion due to tearing can be demonstrated be defined as "complex" traumas. PMID:1579667

  18. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: Its clinical significance and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolla SR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous muscles are often a matter of concern to clinicians as they mislead the diagnosis. Knowledge of such variant muscles is important clinically to avoid misdiagnosis. In this report we present an anomalous muscle on the dorsum of hand, extensor digitorum brevis manus an uncommon variation present as a swelling on the dorsum. It is originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor hood of the index finger, this variant muscle often cause dorsal wrist pain and often confused as ganglion, soft tissue tumor, synovial cyst or tenovaginitis. The presence of such variant muscles on dorsum of hand, their clinical significance and literature has been reviewed.

  19. Metric and Gauge Extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, A. M.; Fernadez, V. V.; Rodrigues Jr., W. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the second in a series of eight we continue our development of the basic tools of the multivector and extensor calculus which are used in our formulation of the differential geometry of smooth manifolds of arbitrary topology . We introduce metric and gauge extensors, pseudo-orthogonal metric extensors, gauge bases, tetrad bases and prove the remarkable golden formula, which permit us to view any Clifford algebra Cl(V,G) as a deformation of the euclidean Clifford algebra Cl(V,G_...

  20. Comparison between 18F-FDG PET/CT and EMG Mapping for Identifying Dystonic Superficial Muscles in Primary Cervical Dystonia: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to compare 18F-FDG PET/CT and electromyography (EMG) mapping in patients with primary cervical dystonia (PCD) to find dystonic superficial cervical muscles. Ten consecutive patients with PCD (M:F=5:5, age 44±13 years) whose dystonic posture was not relieved with conventional muscle relaxant therapy were included. Target cervical muscles for the comparison between 18F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping were four representative superficial bilateral cervical muscles: splenius capitis muscle, sternocleidomstoid muscle, upper trapeziums muscle, and levitator scapulae muscle. The diagnostic efficacy was compared between 18F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping using physical exam and measurement of rotation angle as the gold standard. Among 80 muscles evaluated, there were 21 (26%) dystonic superficial cervical muscles assessed with physical exam and motion analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for localizing dystonic muscles were 76, 92, and 88% for 18F-FDG PET/CT, and 95, 66, and 74% for EMG mapping, respectively. The sensitivity of EMG mapping was significantly higher than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, 18F-FDG PET/CT is more specific and accurate than EMG mapping for finding superficial dystonic cervical muscles. The high sensitivity of EMG mapping suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping are complementary for finding dystonic superficial cervical muscles.

  1. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Mustalampi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability.

  2. Management of Extensor Tendon Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D.; Saleh, M; Khan, W.

    2012-01-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are very common injuries, which inappropriately treated can cause severe lasting impairment for the patient. Assessment and management of flexor tendon injuries has been widely reviewed, unlike extensor injuries. It is clear from the literature that extensor tendon repair should be undertaken immediately but the exact approach depends on the extensor zone. Zone I injuries otherwise known as mallet injuries are often closed and treated with immobilisaton and conservati...

  3. Results of wrist extension reconstruction in C5-8 brachial plexus palsy by transferring the pronator quadratus motor branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio; Tacca, Cristiano Paulo

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The objective of this study was to report the results of pronator quadratus (PQ) motor branch transfers to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) motor branch to reconstruct wrist extension in C5-8 root lesions of the brachial plexus. METHODS Twenty-eight patients, averaging 24 years of age, with C5-8 root injuries underwent operations an average of 7 months after their accident. In 19 patients, wrist extension was impossible at baseline, whereas in 9 patients wrist extension was managed by activating thumb and wrist extensors. When these 9 patients grasped an object, their wrist dropped and grasp strength was lost. Wrist extension was reconstructed by transferring the PQ motor to the ECRB motor branch. After surgery, patients were followed for at least 12 months, with final follow-up an average of 22 months after surgery. RESULTS Successful reinnervation of the ECRB was demonstrated in 27 of the 28 patients. In 25 of the patients, wrist extension scored M4, and in 2 it scored M3. CONCLUSIONS In C5-8 root injuries, wrist extension can be predictably reconstructed by transferring the PQ motor branch to reinnervate the ECRB. PMID:26430841

  4. Efeitos da crioterapia e facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva sobre a força muscular nas musculaturas flexora e extensora de joelho Effects of cryotherapy and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscle strength at the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Moreira Mortari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As musculaturas flexora e extensora do joelho são freqüentemente lesionadas devido a um desequilíbrio entre esses grupos. Recursos térmicos, como a crioterapia, e técnicas de alongamento, como a técnica mantém-relaxa da facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP, influenciam a flexibilidade e força muscular, proporcionando maior homogeneidade entre essas musculaturas e diminuindo a incidência de lesões. Este estudo objetivou verificar os efeitos da crioterapia e da FNP sobre a força das musculaturas flexora e extensora de joelho. A amostra foi composta por 18 mulheres com idade entre 18 e 24 anos, não-praticantes de atividade física regular, divididas em dois grupos: um submetido a crioterapia e o outro à técnica mantém-relaxa da FNP. Antes e após uma sessão de aplicação das técnicas foi feita avaliação isocinética. A aplicação da técnica mantém-relaxa provocou aumento da força em ambas as musculaturas em ambos os membros, atingindo nível de significância nos flexores do membro inferior direito (p=0,04. A crioterapia diminuiu a força dos extensores e exerceu efeito contrário sobre os flexores, tendo gerado aumento significativo nos flexores do membro inferior direito (p=0,035. Quando comparadas as técnicas, a técnica mantém-relaxa gerou maiores valores de pico de torque, principalmente nos extensores do membro inferior esquerdo (p=0,042. Conclui-se que a técnica mantém-relaxa da FNP gerou maiores valores no pico de torque em relação à crioterapia.Knee extensor and flexor muscles are often injured due to an imbalance between these groups, which may lead to a deficit in muscle performance. Thermal resources, such as cryotherapy, and stretching techniques, such as the "hold-relax" of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF, influence flexibility and muscle strength and may reduce the chances of muscle tendon injuries. The aim of the study was to verify the effects of cryotherapy and of the PNF

  5. Variant course of extensor pollicis longus tendon in the second wrist extensor compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun

    2016-05-01

    Among the muscles involved in thumb movement, the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon of the hand is considered the most consistent structure with the least variation among individuals. There have been a few reports regarding different types of supernumerary tendons; however, an abnormal course of the EPL tendon is extremely rare. We describe a case of a variant course of a single EPL tendon appearing in the second extensor compartment of the wrist. This case was observed incidentally during wrist surgery, and demonstrates a unique variation of tendon course, which has not been reported previously. The knowledge of this anatomic variation is helpful in surgical planning and for making accurate diagnoses. PMID:26253859

  6. A comparison of muscle activity in using touchscreen smartphone among young people with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanfei; Szeto, Grace P Y; Dai, Jie; Madeleine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in muscle activity between young people with and without neck-shoulder pain (n = 20 in each group), when they performed texting on a smartphone. Texting was compared between using both hands ('bilateral texting') and with only one hand ('unilateral texting'). Texting tasks were also compared with computer typing. Surface electromyography from three proximal postural muscles and four distal hand/thumb muscles on the right side was recorded. Compared with healthy controls, young people with neck-shoulder pain showed altered motor control consisting of higher muscle activity in the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius when performing texting and typing tasks. Generally, unilateral texting was associated with higher muscle loading compared with bilateral texting especially in the forearm muscles. Compared with computer typing, smartphone texting was associated with higher activity in neck extensor and thumb muscles but lower activity in upper and lower trapezius as well as wrist extensors. PMID:26218600

  7. Geometric Algebras and Extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, V. V.; Moya, A. M.; Rodrigues Jr., W. A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first paper in a series (of four) designed to show how to use geometric algebras of multivectors and extensors to a novel presentation of some topics of differential geometry which are important for a deeper understanding of geometrical theories of the gravitational field. In this first paper we introduce the key algebraic tools for the development of our program, namely the euclidean geometrical algebra of multivectors Cl(V,G_{E}) and the theory of its deformations leading to met...

  8. The effects of cervical traction, cranial rhythmic impulse, and Mckenzie exercise on headache and cervical muscle stiffness in episodic tension-type headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cervical traction treatment, cranial rhythmic impulse treatment, a manual therapy, and McKenzie exercise, a dynamic strengthening exercise, on patients who have the neck muscle stiffness of the infrequent episodic tension-type (IETTH) headache and frequent episodic tension-type headache(FETTH), as well as to provide the basic materials for clinical interventions. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects (males: 15, females: 12) who were diagnosed with IETTH and FETTH after treatment by a neurologist were divided into three groups: (a cervical traction group (CTG, n=9), a cranial rhythmic contractiongroup (CRIG, n=9), and a McKenzie exercise group (MEG, n=9). An intervention was conducted for each group and the differences in their degrees of neck pain and changes in muscle tone were observed. [Results] In the within-group comparison of each group, headache significantly decreased in CTG. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the upper trapezius, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. [Conclusion] In the comparison of the splenius capitis muscle between the groups, there was a statistically significant difference on the right side. Hence, compared to the other methods, cervical traction is concluded to be more effective at reducing headaches in IETTH and FETTH patients. PMID:27134368

  9. The Extensor Indicis Brevis - A Rare Variation and its Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arathala, Rohini; Sankaran, P K; Ragunath, Gunapriya; Harsha, Soma Sri; Sugumar, Tharani Sree

    2016-02-01

    Variations in muscle attachments are valuable in interpreting rare clinical conditions. This case report discusses about the abnormal extensor indicis muscle attachment in left hand of male cadaver and its clinical relevance. The extensor indicis muscle was arising from lunate carpal bone and posterior radiocarpal ligament which further continued as short belly and had its distal attachment on the proximal phalanx of the index finger. This muscular variation has been described in earlier studies with 1.0% incidence. Abnormal origin of extensor indicis may be associated with pain and swelling at the back of the hand. This pain may be confused with other clinical conditions like synovial cyst and ganglion. Knowledge of such rare variations are useful to clinicians, surgeons, occupational and physical therapists for planning better surgical decisions. PMID:27042441

  10. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  11. Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sollerman Christer; Hilliges Marita; Nilsdotter Anna; Brorsson Sofia; Aurell Ylva

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements. Methods M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged ...

  12. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linton T; Lollis, S Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods. The patient was a 90-year-old male presenting to the neurosurgery clinic with functional decline and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results. A multilevel laminectomy was performed. Following surgery the patient had progressive weakness and worsening myelopathy. No active cord compression was seen on multiple MRIs obtained in a neutral position, and flexion-extension X-rays did not show instability. A kinematic MRI demonstrated dynamic compression of the spinal cord only during neck extension, by the paraspinal muscles. To relieve the compression, the patient underwent an instrumented fusion, with cross-links used to buttress the paraspinal muscles away from the cord. This resulted in neurologic improvement. Conclusions. We describe a novel case of spinal cord compression by paraspinal muscles following cervical laminectomy. In individuals with persistent myelopathy or delayed neurologic decline following posterior decompression, flexion-extension MRI may prove useful in diagnosing this potential complication. PMID:25984378

  13. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton T. Evans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods. The patient was a 90-year-old male presenting to the neurosurgery clinic with functional decline and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results. A multilevel laminectomy was performed. Following surgery the patient had progressive weakness and worsening myelopathy. No active cord compression was seen on multiple MRIs obtained in a neutral position, and flexion-extension X-rays did not show instability. A kinematic MRI demonstrated dynamic compression of the spinal cord only during neck extension, by the paraspinal muscles. To relieve the compression, the patient underwent an instrumented fusion, with cross-links used to buttress the paraspinal muscles away from the cord. This resulted in neurologic improvement. Conclusions. We describe a novel case of spinal cord compression by paraspinal muscles following cervical laminectomy. In individuals with persistent myelopathy or delayed neurologic decline following posterior decompression, flexion-extension MRI may prove useful in diagnosing this potential complication.

  14. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves;

    2009-01-01

    synaptically isolated and identified by antidromic stimulations of the central stump of flexor or extensor muscle nerves: tibialis anterior (ankle flexor) and gastrocnemius medialis or lateralis (ankle extensors). Two protocols were applied to establish the four firing profiles previously described (type I...

  15. DOUBLE-BELLIED EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS MANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia S. Quadros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the anatomical variations are noted during the cadaveric dissections. A rare variation of the Extensor digitorum brevis manus was observed on the dorsal aspect of the right hand of a 69-year-old male cadaver. This atavistic muscle had two bellies which originated from the dorsal aspect of the lower end of radius and the capsule of the wrist joint respectively. The two bellies fused to form a single tendon which inserted into the ulnar side of the dorsal digital expansion of the middle finger. Posterior interosseous nerve innervated the two bellies. This muscle may be involved in the wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a ganglion or a nodule upon radiological examination. This muscle may be used for reconstructive purposes.

  16. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Linton T.; S. Scott Lollis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods....

  17. Effect of the Spacing of Backpack Shoulder Straps on Cervical Muscle Activity, Acromion and Scapular Position, and Upper Trapezius Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the spacing of backpack shoulder straps on cervical muscle activity, acromion and scapular position, and upper trapezius (UT) pain. [Subjects] Fourteen males aged 20–32 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the MPS (midcervical paraspinal) activity, acromial angle, scapular distance, and UT pain after gait carrying a backpack with different shoulder strap spacings. [Results] The MPS, scapular inferior distance, and UT pressure pain thresh...

  18. Localization of dystonic muscles using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in idiopathic cervical dystonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Seung, D. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, E. S.; Sohn, Y. I.; Choi, Y.; Choi, E. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BT) is regarded as a first-line treatment for idiopathic cervical dystonia (ICD), sometimes referred to as spasmodic torticollis. Moreover, because effective treatment involves the injection of BT into most dystonic muscles, the accurate localization of dystonic muscles is clinically important. In this preliminary study, we investigated whether {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is useful for localizing dystonic cervical muscles in ICD by comparing disease severity after and before BT injection into muscles determined to be hypermetabolic by PET/CT. Six consecutive patients (all males; age 37 16 y) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT once (n = 4) or twice (n = 2) in a supine (n = 5) or sitting position (n = 3) during the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake period. Dystonic muscles suitable for BT injection therapy were defined as those showing diffusely increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. To evaluate response to BT injection, the Tsui scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) were applied. On PET/CT, hypermetabolic cervical muscles were identified in all 6 patients (3 in a supine position and 3 in a sitting position during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake periods). In 2 patients who underwent PET/CT in a supine and in a sitting position during 18F-FDG uptake, abnormal hypermetabolic muscles were observed only by PET/CT in a sitting position with patients heads and necks in the assumed abnormal involuntary posture. Symptoms were significantly improved, according to the Tsui (10.0 2.9 to 1.8 1.3, 82% reduction) and TWSTRS scales (severity: 21.3 2.1 to 5.8 5.3, 73% reduction; disability: 19.8 1.9 to 3.8 3.8, 81 % reduction) in all 4 patients who underwent BT injection therapy guided by PET/CT and who were clinically follow-up. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is potentially useful for identifying dystonic cervical muscles in patients with ICD.

  19. [Somatotopic Representation of the Anterior Horn within Cervical Enlargement: Reappraisal of Known Doctrine Based on Clinicopathological Findings Seen in Hirayama Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Keizo

    2016-05-01

    Clinical features (weakness and amyotrophy of intrinsic hand muscles and obliquely distributed amyotrophy of forearm muscles, figure 1), needle electromyographic findings (distribution of neurogenic activities, figure 2), and pathological findings (ischemic necroses of the anterior horns between C6 and T1, figure 3) of Hirayama disease suggest that understanding of somatotopic representation of the anterior horn innervating arm muscles in the cervical enlargement of spinal cord differs from the known doctrine. Anterior horn cells of the intrinsic hand muscles are located between C7 and T1, those of forearm muscles and triceps brachii muscle as elbow extensor are, contrary to the known doctrine, located in C5 and C6, and those of elbow flexors such as biceps brachii and brachioradialis are located in C4 and above (figure 5). Development of dexterity in human hand may reflect development of cervical enlargement in accord with larger areas representing the hand and fingers on cerebral motor cortex. PMID:27156506

  20. Muscle activity and mood state during simulated plant factory work in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Satoshi; Kataoka, Masataka; Okuda, Kuniharu; Shima, Masato; Miyagaki, Keiko; Ohara, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the physical and mental effects of plant factory work in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury and the use of a newly developed agricultural working environment. [Subjects] Six males with C5–C8 spinal cord injuries and 10 healthy volunteers participated. [Methods] Plant factory work involved three simulated repetitive tasks: sowing, transplantation, and harvesting. Surface electromyography was performed in the dominant upper arm, upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles. Subjects’ moods were monitored using the Profile of Mood States. [Results] Five males with C6–C8 injuries performed the same tasks as healthy persons; a male with a C5 injury performed fewer repetitions of tasks because it took longer. Regarding muscle activity during transplantation and harvesting, subjects with spinal cord injury had higher values for the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles compared with healthy persons. The Profile of Mood States vigor scores were significantly higher after tasks in subjects with spinal cord injury. [Conclusion] Individuals with cervical spinal cord injury completed the plant factory work, though it required increased time and muscle activity. For individuals with C5–C8 injuries, it is necessary to develop an appropriate environment and assistive devices to facilitate their work. PMID:27134377

  1. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram

  2. Wpływ prądów TENS średniej częstotliwości na czynność bioelektyczną mięśni prostowników nadgarstka = The influence of mid-frequency TENS currents on bioelectrical activity of the wrist extensor muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Srokowski, Grzegorz; Piekorz, Zuzanna; Siedlaczek, Marcin; Kowalik, Tomasz; Paduch, Daria; Srokowska, Anna; Zukow, Walery

    2015-01-01

    Srokowski Grzegorz, Piekorz Zuzanna, Siedlaczek Marcin, Kowalik Tomasz, Paduch Daria, Srokowska Anna, Zukow Walery. Wpływ prądów TENS średniej częstotliwości na czynność bioelektyczną mięśni prostowników nadgarstka = The influence of mid-frequency TENS currents on bioelectrical activity of the wrist extensor muscles. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(9):768-791. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44371 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/artic...

  3. Bilateral variations of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis: Surgical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Gurude PV, Bahetee BH

    2013-01-01

    Abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles are known to exhibit numerous variations. Aims: We would like to put across an accidental unusual finding of APL and EPB muscles. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaveric dissection of a 52 year old female cadaver, we found an unusual APL and EPB muscles variations bilaterally. Results: Duplication of APL tendon was noted, one showing normal attachment and the additional one on trapezium. EPB muscle had an ...

  4. Subject-specific musculoskeletal parameters of wrist flexors and extensors estimated by an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model

    OpenAIRE

    Colacino, Francesco M.; Rustighi, Emiliano; Mace, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    An EMG-driven musculoskeletal model is implemented to estimate subject-specific musculoskeletal parameters such as the optimal physiological muscle length, the tendon slack length and the maximum isometric muscle force of flexor and extensor muscle groups crossing the wrist, as well as biomechanical indexes to quantify the muscle operating range, the stiffness of the musculotendon actuators, and the contribution of the muscle fibres to the joint moment. Twelve healthy subjects (11 males a...

  5. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  6. Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion i) reduces maximal muscle activation and ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: i) before and after prolonged mental exertion leading to mental fatigue; ii) before and after an easy cognitive task (control). Both cognitive tasks lasted 90...

  7. Motorcycle racer with unilateral forearm flexor and extensor chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkes, Michiel B; Teijink, Joep A; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a case of a 26-year-old man, a motorcycle racer, who presented with progressive pain, weakness and swelling of his right forearm and loss of power in his index finger, experienced during motor racing. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of both flexor and extensor compartments of his forearm was diagnosed by dynamic intracompartmental muscle pressure measurements. After fasciotomies, all symptoms were resolved and the patient was able to improve on his preinjury racing skills, without any limitations. A literature review and a surgical 'how-to' for correct release of the extensor and deep flexor compartments of the forearm are provided. PMID:27080851

  8. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Secondary to Dropped Head Syndrome: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dropped head syndrome (DHS is a disabling condition caused by severe weakness of the neck extensor muscles causing progressive reducible kyphosis of the cervical spine and the inability to hold the head up. Weakness can occur in isolation or in association with a generalized neuromuscular disorder. Isolated cases are owed to the late onset of noninflammatory myopathy designated as INEM, where persistent chin to chest deformity may gradually cause or aggravate preexisting degenerative changes of the cervical spine and ultimately result in myelopathy. In review of the literature, we could find only 5 cases, with no unique guidelines to address the management of these two concomitant pathologies. Herein, a 69-year-old man who had developed cervical myelopathy 2 years after being affected by isolated dropped head syndrome is presented. Chin to chest deformity and cervical myelopathy were managed through three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF combined with decompressive cervical laminectomy and stabilization with C2 to C7 pedicle screw-rod construct. At 4-month follow-up, despite recovery in patient’s neurological status, flexion deformity reappeared with recurrence of dropped head due to C7 pedicle screws pull-out. However, this was successfully managed with extension of the construct to the upper thoracic levels.

  9. Infrahyoid muscle flap for pharyngeal fistulae after cervical spine surgery: a novel approach—Report of six cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer O. Seidl; Niedeggen, Andreas; Todt, Ingo; Westhofen, Martin; Ernst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    A report of our experiences involving the treatment six male patients with a new method of closing perforations in the pharynx and upper esophagus, following surgery of the cervical spine region. Perforation of the pharynx and upper esophagus are rare complications following cervical spine surgery. The grave consequences of these complications necessitate in most cases immediate surgical therapy. In most cases, the first step involves the removal of the cervical plate and screws. The defect w...

  10. Effect of generalized joint hypermobility on knee function and muscle activation in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Olesen, Annesofie T.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated muscle activation strategy and performance of knee extensor and flexor muscles in children and adults with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and compared them with controls. Methods: Muscle activation, torque steadiness, electromechanical delay, and muscle strength...

  11. Utilização do esfigmomanômetro na avaliação da força dos músculos extensores e flexores da articulação do joelho em militares Utilización del esfigmomanómetro en la evaluación de la fuerza de los músculos extensores y flexores de la articulación de la rodilla en militares Use of the sphygmomanometer in the evaluation of the knee joint flexor and extensor muscle strength in militaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudionor Delgado

    2004-10-01

    ón se obtuvieron en la prueba de ejecución (Make test, en la mesa flexo-extensora Inbaf y registradas por EM Tycos. El análisis de los datos fue descriptiva, aplicándose la prueba "t" de Student para comparar los valores promedios, adoptándose un nivel de significancia de p 0,05. En los ángulos de 90 grados para la extensión y 30 grados para la flexión de la rodilla, no se observaron diferencias significativas intragrupos (p BASES AND OBJECTIVE: This is a comparative and descriptive study that aims at analyzing the strength for the different angles of the knee flexion and extension in militaries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee joint for different angles by means of the Modified Sphygmomanometer (MS in healthy militaries. METHODS: The sample was composed of 31 militaries as follows: 19 male and 12 female with average age of 26.5 ± 5.8 years; respective average height of 162.00 ± 0.06 (cm and 175.00 ± 0.06 (cm and average body mass of 56.83 ± 5.85 (kg and 73.25 ± 10.46 (kg. The evaluation methodology was the one proposed by Helewa, Goldsmith and Smithe (1981 using Modified Sphygmomanometer (MS. The maximal isometric contractions at 30º of flexion and 30º/90º of extension were obtained in the Make test, in the Inbaf flexion-extension table and recorded by the MS Tycos. The data was analyzed using the "t" Student-test to compare the averages, and the significance level adopted was p > 0.05. RESULTS: In both the female and the male groups, significant difference was only observed between angles of 30 and 90 degrees of the right knee extension (p > 0.05. At angles of 90 degrees for the knee extension and of 30 degrees for knee flexion, no intra-groups significant differences were observed (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Militaries present strength differences between knee joint anterior and posterior muscular groups at the different angles studied. The methodology used showed to be satisfactory for the strength

  12. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  13. British Neurotoxin Network recommendations for managing cervical dystonia in patients with a poor response to botulinum toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Marie-Helene; Humberstone, Miles; Grunewald, Richard; Wimalaratna, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections are an effective treatment for cervical dystonia. Approximately 20% of patients eventually stop BoNT treatment, mostly because of treatment failure. These recommendations review the different therapeutic interventions for optimising the treatment in secondary poor responder patients. Immunoresistance has become less common over the years, but the diagnosis has to be addressed with a frontalis test or an Extensor Digitorum Brevis test. In case of immunoresistance to BoNT-A, we discuss the place the different therapeutic options (BoNT-A holidays, BoNT-B injections, alternative BoNT-A injections, deep brain stimulation). When poor responders are not immunoresistant, they benefit from reviewing (1) injections technique with electromyography or ultrasound guidance, (2) muscles selection and (3) dose of BoNT. In addition, in both scenarios, a holistic approach including drug treatment, retraining and psychological support is valuable in the management of these complex and severe cervical dystonia. PMID:26976927

  14. Inibição muscular dos extensores do joelho em sujeitos acometidos por condromalácia patelar e osteoartrite do joelho - um estudo de revisão sistemática Knee extensor muscle inhibition in subjects with chondromalacia patellae and knee osteoarthritis - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauber Dalcero Pompeo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A inibição muscular (IM tem sido reportada como um dos fatores associados à fraqueza muscular presente na osteoartrite (OA e condromalácia patelar (CP, sendo inclusive associada com a etiologia e a progressão. Entretanto, parece existir uma lacuna na literatura em relação a estudos de revisão que avaliaram o grau de IM de sujeitos acometidos por CP e OA. O objetivo do estudo foi reunir os resultados de estudos que investigaram o grau de IM na OA e CP e identificar possíveis diferenças na IM que estejam associadas aos estágios do processo degenerativo. Foram incluídos nesta revisão sistemática estudos transversais e/ou experimentais publicados nas bases de dados PubMed, Scopus, SciELO e Cochrane entre 1990 e 2010 que avaliaram a IM por meio da técnica de interpolação de abalo publicados. Os dados referentes à população, protocolo de IM, qualidade dos estudos e resultados de IM foram sumariados e apresentados em Tabelas. Para análise da qualidade, utilizou-se a escala de PEDro. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, 13 artigos foram incluídos na revisão sistemática (OA=9 e CP=4. A partir da análise dos dados, observou-se uma IM maior na CP em comparação à OA. Contudo, a variabilidade metodológica e a falta de informações sobre os protocolos de IM indicam a necessidade de novos estudos experimentais a fim de que se possa determinar com maior precisão a relação entre a IM e as doenças degenerativas articulares.Muscle inhibition (MI has been reported as one of the factors associated with muscle weakness present in osteoarthritis (OA and chondromalacia patellae (CP, including being associated with the etiology and progression. However, there seems to be a gap in the literature regarding the review studies that assessed the degree of IM subjects affected by CP and OA. The main objective of study was bringing together the results of studies that investigated the degree of OA in the MI and CP and to identify

  15. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561

  16. Atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais e amplitude de movimento da coluna cervical em indivíduos com e sem DTM Electrical activity of cervical muscles and range of movement of cervical column in individuals with and without DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade elétrica e a dor à palpação dos músculos cervicais, a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna cervical e a relação entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical em indivíduos com e sem desordem temporomandibular (DTM. Participaram do estudo 53 voluntários, sendo 24 com DTM e 29 sem, de ambos os gêneros, com 18 a 32 anos de idade. A DTM foi diagnosticada pelo critério de diagnóstico em pesquisa para DTM (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. A eletromiografia dos músculos esternocleidomastoídeo (ECOM e trapézio superior foi realizada bilateralmente, na situação de repouso, com frequência de 2 KHz e filtro passa-faixa de 10-1000 Hz. As medidas de ADM de flexão, extensão, lateroflexão e rotação foram realizadas com um flexímetro e a comparação entre os grupos contou com o teste de Mann Whitney. O teste de Spearman foi aplicado para a correlação entre as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. Não foi verificada nenhuma diferença na ADM cervical entre os grupos. A atividade elétrica demonstrou-se significativamente maior nos músculos ECOM direito (p=0,0130, trapézio superior direito (p=0,0334 e esquerdo (p=0,0335 no grupo DTM em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve correlação significante entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical. A dor nos músculos cervicais apresentou-se significativamente maior apenas no músculo ECOM direito (p=0,0055. Conclui-se que os grupos estudados registraram diferença na atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais, sendo esta maior em indivíduos com DTM.The aim of the research was to evaluate the electrical activity and pain on palpation of the cervical muscles, the cervical range of motion (ROM and the relationship between electrical activity and ROM in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD. Fifty three volunteers took part in the study, being 24 with TMD and 29 without, both genders

  17. Levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscle of 7-month-old rats with chronic thyroid status alterations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vadászová, Adriana; Hudecová, S.; Križanová, O.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2006), s. 707-710. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/4106; NATO(XE) 979876; SAV(SK) APVT-51-027404; MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myosin heavy chain isoforms * thyroid hormones * muscle differentiation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  18. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: An explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G . M. Kloosterman, PT, MSc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI use arm support (gravity compensation; however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5° during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°. Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%, anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%, posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%, and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%. Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy should be further investigated with a larger population.

  19. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population. PMID:21110258

  20. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, Andreas; Harridge, Stephen D R; Mizuno, Masao; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Quistorff, Björn; Kjaer, Michael; Biering-Sörensen, Fin

    2003-01-01

    (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-NMRS) during and following a continuous 40-s 10-HZ contraction. In the Hr group the cost of contraction decreased by 38% (P < 0.05) and the half-time of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery was shortened by 52% (P < 0.05). Thus, long-term electrically...... induced stimulation of the wrist extensor muscles in spinal cord injury (SCI) increases fatigue resistance independent of training pattern. However, only the Hr protocol increased muscle strength and was shown to improve muscle aerobic metabolism after training. Muscle Nerve 27: 72-80, 2003...... extensor muscles were stimulated for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks, using either a high-resistance (Hr) or a low-resistance (Lr) protocol. Total work output was similar in both protocols. The nontrained arm was used as a control. Maximum voluntary torque increased in the Hr (P < 0.05) but not the...

  1. Sport injuries of the extensor mechanism of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries of the extensor mechanism of the knee occur frequently during sport activity. For a successful treatment they must be diagnosed early. Besides osseous structures the patellar tendon, the patella, the quadriceps muscle and tendon, retinacula and bursae can be affected. After initial clinical examination there are different noninvasive imaging modalities available for assessment of bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons and soft tissue. Conventional radiographs are still the basic imaging tool for the clinician. Additional information about the osseous status is provided by computed tomography, whereas sonography plays an important role concerning diagnosis of soft tissue injuries. For the detection of cartilagenous, ligamentous or tendon lesions MRI is the superior non-invasive imaging modality. (orig.)

  2. Extensor Mechanism Disruption in Knee Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Reardon, Patrick; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of the knee extensor mechanism is a challenging injury with no clear consensus on optimal treatment. Although rare in the setting of knee dislocations, these injuries should not be overlooked. Acute, complete rupture of either the quadriceps or patellar tendon necessitates primary repair with or without augmentation. Surgical management may also be required in the setting of a partial tear if a significant extensor lag is present or nonoperative treatment has failed. Tendon augmentation is used during primary repair if the native tissue is inadequate or after a failed primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate extensor mechanism disruption incidence, injury patterns, associated injuries, and surgical options, including a novel tendon augmentation technique. This procedure consists of primary patellar or quadriceps tendon repair with semitendinosus autograft augmentation utilizing a distal or proximal patellar socket. Advantages of repair with tendon augmentation include accelerated rehabilitation, decreased risk of patellar fracture from transverse or longitudinal bone tunnels, and less hardware complications. We recommend consideration of this technique for selected cases of acute extensor mechanism disruption in the setting of tibiofemoral dislocation. PMID:26636488

  3. Botulinum toxin treatment for lower limb extensor spasticity in chronic hemiparetic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, S; Lücke, D; Malezic, M; Bertelt, C; Friedrich, H. (Hergen); Gregoric, M; Mauritz, K H

    1994-01-01

    Twelve chronic hemiparetic outpatients with pronounced lower limb extensor spasticity were injected with 400 units of botulinum toxin A, EMG guided into the soleus, tibialis posterior, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Botulinum toxin A caused a definite reduction of plantar flexor spasticity, in 10 patients two weeks after the injection, as assessed by the Ashworth scale. Four of the patients were able to achieve active dorsiflexion of their affected ankle. Gait analysis including...

  4. Effect of the neuromuscular activation of knee extensors on vertical jump by using electrostimulation method

    OpenAIRE

    Bílý, Jiří; Cacek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is one of the methods of strength development during which there is no voluntary muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the neuromuscular activation of knee extensors on vertical jump by using electrostimulation method. Ten healthy trained male students in sports-sciences, aged 21-25 years, perform Sargent jump test. They perform two kinds of jump - squat jump and drop jump (42 cm heigh bench) immediately after electr...

  5. Influência da porção extensora do músculo glúteo máximo sobre a inclinação da pelve antes e depois da realização de um protocolo de fadiga Influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt before and after the performance of a fatigue protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe C. Alvim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Há carência na literatura de dados que determinem qual a influência da porção extensora do músculo glúteo máximo na inclinação da pelve no plano sagital e, portanto, na estabilidade lombar. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a influência da porção extensora do músculo glúteo máximo sobre a inclinação da pelve. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutadas 10 voluntárias jovens, saudáveis, com índices de massa corpórea (IMC's menores que 24,9 kg/m² e com dismetria real de membros inferiores (MMII inferior a 1 cm. Foram avaliados o IMC, o perímetro pélvico e o comprimento dos MMII e, posteriormente, os graus de inclinação das hemipelves e a assimetria entre elas pela análise de uma fotografia em perfil ortostático usando o SAPO (Software para Avaliação Postural. Em seguida, a porção extensora do músculo glúteo máximo do lado dominante foi induzido à fadiga, após a qual foram determinadas novamente a inclinação das hemipelves e a assimetria entre elas. Testes de Pearson r e teste t de student foram realizados no nível de significância α=0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve correlação entre as variáveis de confusão e a assimetria dos ângulos das hemipelves. O ângulo da hemipelve apresentou modificação significativa do lado dominante (t=3,760; p=0,004. CONCLUSÕES: A fadiga da porção extensora do músculo glúteo máximo pode gerar um aumento do ângulo de inclinação da pelve homolateral.INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of data in the literature for determining the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilting and, thus, on lumbar stability. OBJECTIVES: To assess the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt. METHODS: Ten healthy young subjects were recruited, with a body mass index (BMI below 24.9 kg/m² and leg length discrepancy below 1 cm. The BMI, pelvic perimeter and lower-limb lengths were assessed and, subsequently, the degrees of hemi

  6. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: anatomical, radiological and clinical relevance. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Niedenführ, Marc; Vázquez, Teresa; Golanó, Pau; Parkin, Ian; Sañudo, José Ramon

    2002-06-01

    The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) is a supernumerary muscle in the dorsum of the hand frequently misdiagnosed as a dorsal wrist ganglion, exostosis, tendon sheath cyst or synovitis. Its presence in a living subject, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is presented together with a review of the hitherto reported cases and the results of an anatomical study on 128 adult human cadavers (59 males and 69 females). The EDBM was found in three (2.3%) of the 128 cadavers. It occurred in two (3.4%) of the 59 male cadavers (one bilateral and one unilateral on the right side) and in one (1.5%) of the 69 female cadavers (unilateral on the left side). Consequently, the EDBM was found in four (1.6%) of the 256 upper limbs. It originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor hood of the index finger in one case and into that of the middle finger in three cases. In both hands of the living subject, the origin was similar but the insertion was into the index and middle fingers. In all cases, it was innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve and its blood supply was provided by the posterior interosseous artery. PMID:12112357

  7. Cervical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your provider. Make sure to get the HPV vaccine when it is offered to you. This vaccine prevents many cervical cancers. ... Early diagnosis and prompt treatment cures most cases of cervical ... severe cervical dysplasia may change into cervical cancer.

  8. Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. PMID:26825916

  9. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  10. Rerouting extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni Woodside, Julie; Bindra, Randip R

    2015-04-01

    Following radial nerve palsy, loss of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons results in loss of thumb extension and radial abduction. Multiple tendon transfers are described to address the loss of thumb extension following radial palsy utilizing the palmaris longus or flexor digitorum sublimis transferred to the EPL tendon. Owing to its ulnar vector of pull, the EPL tendon is a secondary adductor of the thumb, and in order to mitigate the tendency for thumb adduction, the EPL tendon is divided at the wrist and brought subcutaneously to the radial side of the wrist for repair to the donor tendon to improve the line of pull for the donor tendon. We describe the use of a technique to reroute the EPL tendon through the first compartment in a retrograde fashion prior to repair with the donor tendon on the radial side of the wrist. The use of the first dorsal compartment provides a pulley to maintain the position of the transfer and to prevent potential bowstringing of the tendon as wrist flexion and thumb extension are attempted. because the repair is performed proximal to the extensor retinaculum, the donor tendon length is not compromised. Because the tendon is redirected through the first dorsal compartment and inserts into the distal phalanx, a single transfer attempts to restores both thumb extension and radial abduction. PMID:25746145

  11. Increased intensity and reduced frequency of EMG signals from feline self-reinnervated ankle extensors during walking do not normalize excessive lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantall, Annette; Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Gregor, Robert J; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2016-06-01

    Kinematics of cat level walking recover after elimination of length-dependent sensory feedback from the major ankle extensor muscles induced by self-reinnervation. Little is known, however, about changes in locomotor myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated muscles. We examined the myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated muscles and intact synergists to determine the extent to which patterns of muscle activity change as almost normal walking is restored following muscle self-reinnervation. Nerves to soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) of six adult cats were surgically transected and repaired. Intramuscular myoelectric signals of SO, LG, medial gastrocnemius (MG), and plantaris (PL), muscle fascicle length of SO and MG, and hindlimb mechanics were recorded during level and slope (±27°) walking before and after (10-12 wk postsurgery) self-reinnervation of LG and SO. Mean myoelectric signal intensity and frequency were determined using wavelet analysis. Following SO and LG self-reinnervation, mean myoelectric signal intensity increased and frequency decreased in most conditions for SO and LG as well as for intact synergist MG (P < 0.05). Greater elongation of SO muscle-tendon unit during downslope and unchanged magnitudes of ankle extensor moment during the stance phase in all walking conditions suggested a functional deficiency of ankle extensors after self-reinnervation. Possible effects of morphological reorganization of motor units of ankle extensors and altered sensory and central inputs on the changes in myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated SO and LG are discussed. PMID:26912591

  12. Extensor tendon and fascia sectioning of extensors at the musculotendinous unit in lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Joeri; Mahieu, Peter; Hollevoet, Nadine

    2013-06-01

    Different surgical techniques exist to treat lateral epicondylitis. In most techniques, release of the common extensor origin is performed adjacent to the humeral epicondyle. The purpose of the present study was to assess the outcome of transverse sectioning of the intermuscular septum and the aponeuroses of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis, 3 to 5 cm distally to the radial epicondyle. Forty-nine elbows were operated on in 44 patients. Subjective results were obtained after a mean followup of 33 months. Mean age of patients was 44 years. Mean disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand score was 6, mean visual analogue scale score for pain was 1 and for satisfaction 9. The result was excellent in 26, good in 15 and poor in 8 elbows following Spencer and Herndon. Mean absence from work was 40 days. We conclude that tendon release in the musculotendinous unit can be used to treat lateral epicondylitis. PMID:23926727

  13. Potencial evocado somatossensitivo e motor na espodilose cervical Somatosensory and motor evoked potentials in patients with cervical spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Oliveira de Andrade

    2005-09-01

    four limbs was 71.4%, of the upper limbs alone was 66.7% and of the lower limbs alone 52.4%, thus showing the importance of using this method in all four limbs when cervical spondylotic myelopathy is suspected. The results shown by the study of the tibial nerve in SEP and of the abductor digiti minimi muscle in MEP were more frequently abnormals than the results shown by the study of the median nerve and extensor digitorum brevis muscle in the three groups, suggesting that exists a onset compromising of them.

  14. Extensor mechanism-sparing paratricipital posterior approach to the distal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, Thomas A; Nork, Sean E; Mills, William J; Henley, M Bradford

    2003-05-01

    Adequate exposure of the articular surface of the distal humerus and elbow joint is required for operative stabilization of bicolumnar distal humerus fractures. The transolecranon approach, which provides complete posterior visualization and access to the distal humerus, is commonly used. Nevertheless, an olecranon osteotomy and other extensor mechanism-disrupting approaches have risks and possible complications. Alternative exposures have been described primarily for total elbow arthroplasty, but these involve extensive and potentially devascularizing dissections. In extra-articular (OTA type A) and simple articular distal humeral fractures with simple or multifragmentary metaphyseal involvement (OTA type C1 and C2), extensile approaches may not be necessary. For these fracture patterns, an alternative exposure is the extensor mechanism-sparing paratricipital posterior approach to the distal humerus through a midline posterior incision. This approach avoids an osteotomy and mobilizes the triceps and anconeus muscle off the posterior humerus and the intermuscular septae and provides adequate exposure for open reduction and internal fixation. PMID:12759643

  15. Eccentric activation and muscle damage: biomechanical and physiological considerations during downhill running.

    OpenAIRE

    Eston, R G; Mickleborough, J; Baltzopoulos, V

    1995-01-01

    An eccentric muscle activation is the controlled lengthening of the muscle under tension. Functionally, most leg muscles work eccentrically for some part of a normal gait cycle, to support the weight of the body against gravity and to absorb shock. During downhill running the role of eccentric work of the 'anti-gravity' muscles--knee extensors, muscles of the anterior and posterior tibial compartments and hip extensors--is accentuated. The purpose of this paper is to review the relationship b...

  16. Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollerman Christer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements. Methods M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged 35–73 years. Ultrasound measurements were made in a relaxed position of the hand as well as in full contraction. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, pennation angle and contraction patterns were measured with ultrasound, and muscle volume and fascicle length were also estimated. Finger extension force was measured using a newly developed finger force measurement device. Results The following muscle parameters were determined: CSA, circumference, thickness, pennation angles and changes in shape of the muscle CSA. The mean EDC volume in men was 28.3 cm3 and in women 16.6 cm3. The mean CSA was 2.54 cm2 for men and 1.84 cm2 for women. The mean pennation angle for men was 6.5° and for women 5.5°. The mean muscle thickness for men was 1.2 cm and for women 0.76 cm. The mean fascicle length for men was 7.3 cm and for women 5.0 cm. Significant differences were found between men and women regarding EDC volume (p Conclusion Ultrasound is a useful tool for studying muscle architectures in EDC. Muscle parameters of importance for force development were identified. Knowledge concerning the correlation between muscle dynamics and force is of importance for the development of new hand training programmes and rehabilitation after surgery.

  17. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers. PMID:24970007

  18. Evaluation of neck muscle size: long-term reliability and comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is important for prospective studies, the reliability of quantitative measures of cervical muscle size on magnetic resonance imaging is not well established. The aim of the current work was to assess the long-term reliability of measurements of cervical muscle size. In addition, we examined the utility of selecting specific sub-regions of muscles at each vertebral level, averaging between sides of the body, and pooling muscles into larger groups. Axial scans from the base of skull to the third thoracic vertebra were performed in 20 healthy male subjects at baseline and 1.5 years later. We evaluated the semi-spinalis capitis, splenius capitis, spinalis cervicis, longus capitis, longus colli, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalenes and middle with posterior scalenes. Bland–Altman analysis showed all measurements to be repeatable between testing-days. Reliability was typically best when entire muscle volume was measured (co-efficients of variation (CVs): 3.3–8.1% depending on muscle). However, when the size of the muscle was assessed at specific vertebral levels, similar measurement precision was achieved (CVs: 2.7–7.6%). A median of 4–6 images were measured at the specific vertebral levels versus 18–37 images for entire muscle volume. This would represent considerable time saving. Based on the findings we also recommend measuring both sides of the body and calculating an average value. Pooling specific muscles into the deep neck flexors (CV: 3.5%) and neck extensors (CV: 2.7%) can serve to reduce variability further. The results of the current study help to establish outcome measures for interventional studies and for sample size estimation. (paper)

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING PROTOCOLS IN IMPROVEMENT OF EXTENSOR LAG IN OSTEOARTHRITIC KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shukla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis of knee is a widespread, slowly developing disease with a high prevalence with age, with greater body weight and in post menopausal women. The main causes of functional dysfunction in osteoarthritic knee are pain and quadriceps muscle weakness. Physical rehabilitation usually includes quadriceps exercises i.e. isometric and isotonic exercises for the maintenance of joint range of motion and muscle strength. Biofeedback is a process that can be combined with it to increase the awareness about the extent of muscle work done by quadriceps muscle. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of different quadriceps strengthening protocols with or without biofeedback in improvement of extensor lag in osteoarthritic knee joint. Materials & Methods: Sixty osteoarthritic knee patients with twenty patients each in three groups were randomly selected from Guru Harkrishan Hospital, Sarai Kale khan and Physical rehabilitation clinics in Delhi. Patients were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C. Research Design was Experimental study. Dependent Variables were Quardiceps Lag and Knee ROM .Independent Variables were Biofeedback and Modified Quadriceps Exercise which were introduced to the subjects. ANOVA test was applied to find out the statistical level of significance. Results: There was a great improvement of extensor lag in group C who had received Modified Quadriceps Sets with Biofeedback when compared with group B and group A. The percentage of reduction in pain was more and ROM was more increased in group C when compared with group B and A. Discussion & Conclusion: Modified quadriceps sets with biofeedback are better than the quadriceps sets and quadriceps sets with biofeedback in improvement of extensor lag in osteoarthric knee patients.

  20. Histological Changes in Skeletal Muscle During Death by Drowning: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela-López, Eloy; Ruz-Caracuel, Ignacio; Beltrán, Cristina; Jimena, Ignacio; Leiva-Cepas, Fernando; Jiménez-Reina, Luis; Peña, José

    2016-06-01

    A diagnosis of drowning is a challenge in legal medicine as there is generally a lack of pathognomonic findings indicative of drowning. This article investigates whether the skeletal muscle undergoes structural changes during death by drowning. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into 3 equal groups according to the cause of death: drowning, exsanguination, and cervical dislocation. Immediately after death, samples of the masseter, sternohyoid, diaphragm, anterior tibial, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus muscles were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy.In the drowning group, all muscles except the masseter displayed scattered evidence of fiber degeneration, and modified Gomori trichrome staining revealed structural changes in the form of abnormal clumps of red material and ragged red fibers. Under the electron microscope, there was myofibrillar disruption and large masses of abnormal mitochondria. In the exsanguination group, modified Gomori trichrome staining disclosed structural changes and mitochondrial abnormalities were apparent under light microscopy; however, there was no evidence of degeneration. No alterations were observed in the cervical dislocation group.As far as we know, this is the first time that these histological findings are described in death by drowning and are consistent with rhabdomyolysis and intense anoxia of skeletal muscle. PMID:27043461

  1. 下颌偏斜患者颜面与颈背部肌肌电研究%EMG study on facial and head-cervical muscles in mandibular deviation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董研; 郭天文; 毛勇; 陈金武

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of mandibular deviation on facial and head-cervical muscles function.Methods Surface electromyographic activity of both left and right sides of masseter,anterior digastricus,sternocleidomastoid,upper-trapezius muscles were recorded in 15 young healthy adults with normal occlusion and 12 mandibular deviation patients,by means of a K6-1 System,during:① maximum continuous open-close movement.② gum chewing movement.③ cervical,shoulders and back movement.Results ①Head-cervical muscles burst and masticatory muscles burst presented during mandible functional movement and cervical,shoulders movement respectively.②The symmetry of the paired muscles was lower in patient group than that of normal occlusion persons during open-close and chewing tasks.Symmetry of trapezius muscle was higher in normal occlusion group during cervical,shoulders and back movement.③No significant difference between the left and the right muscles potentials during those three kind of functional movement in control group;But pronounced difference was found between anterior digastricus during gum chewing movement and together with sternocleidomastoid during cervical-head movement in patient group.Conclusion It could be concluded that mandibular deviation affects the symmetry of both facial and head-cervical muscles symmetry and might result in the deviation of head-neck and shoulder posture.%目的探讨下颌偏斜对咀嚼肌、颈、肩背部肌肌电的影响。方法采用K6-Ⅰ系统对15例正常咬合者及12例下颌偏斜患者在最大开闭口运动、咀嚼运动、颈肩背部肌运动时咬肌、二腹肌、胸锁乳突肌与斜方肌的表面肌电进行采集分析,比较两组受试者双侧对应肌肌电平均幅值的对称性。结果①下颌功能性运动时颈背部肌有肌电活动;颈背部运动时咀嚼肌也有相应的肌电增强。②开闭口运动与咀嚼运动时患者组双侧咬肌、二腹肌、胸

  2. Predictive Value of Upper Limb Muscles and Grasp Patterns on Functional Outcome in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Krebs, Jörg; Rietman, Johan S; Curt, Armin

    2016-05-01

    Objective To determine which single or combined upper limb muscles as defined by the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI); upper extremity motor score (UEMS) and the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP), best predict upper limb function and independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and to assess the predictive value of qualitative grasp movements (QlG) on upper limb function in individuals with acute tetraplegia.Method As part of a Europe-wide, prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study ISNCSCI, GRASSP, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) scores were recorded at 1 and 6 months after SCI. For prediction of upper limb function and ADLs, a logistic regression model and unbiased recursive partitioning conditional inference tree (URP-CTREE) were used.Results Logistic regression and URP-CTREE revealed that a combination of ISNCSCI and GRASSP muscles (to a maximum of 4) demonstrated the best prediction (specificity and sensitivity ranged from 81.8% to 96.0%) of upper limb function and identified homogenous outcome cohorts at 6 months. The URP-CTREE model with the QlG predictors for upper limb function showed similar results.Conclusion Prediction of upper limb function can be achieved through a combination of defined, specific upper limb muscles assessed in the ISNCSCI and GRASSP. A combination of a limited number of proximal and distal muscles along with an assessment of grasping movements can be applied for clinical decision making for rehabilitation interventions and clinical trials. PMID:26156192

  3. Traumatic Extensor Tendon Injuries to the Hand: Clinical Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Surgical Procedure Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzani, Giulia; Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Artiaco, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The extensor apparatus is a complex muscle-tendon system that requires integrity or optimal reconstruction to preserve hand function. Anatomical knowledge and the understanding of physiopathology of extensor tendons are essential for an accurate diagnosis of extensor tendon injuries (ETIs) of the hand and wrist, because these lesions are complex and commonly observed in clinical practice. A careful clinical history and assessment still remain the first step for the diagnosis, followed by US and MR to confirm the suspect of ETI or to investigate some doubtful conditions and rule out associate lesions. During last decades the evolution of surgical techniques and rehabilitative treatment protocol led to gradual improvement in clinical results of ETI treatment and surgical repair. Injury classification into anatomical zones and the evaluation of the characteristics of the lesions are considered key points to select the appropriate treatment for ETI. Both conservative and surgical management can be indicated in ETI, depending on the anatomical zone and on the characteristics of the injuries. As a general rule, an attempt of conservative treatment should be performed when the lesion is expected to have favorable result with nonoperative procedure. Many surgical techniques have been proposed over the time and with favorable results if the tendon injury is not underestimated and adequately treated. Despite recent research findings, a lack of evidence-based knowledge is still observed in surgical treatment and postoperative management of ETI. Further clinical and biomechanical investigations would be advisable to clarify this complex issue. PMID:27616821

  4. Mechanical trapping of the nucleus on micropillared surfaces inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells but not cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kazuaki; Hamaji, Yumi; Sato, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takeo

    2015-07-16

    The interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix on a topographically patterned surface can result in changes in cell shape and many cellular functions. In the present study, we demonstrated the mechanical deformation and trapping of the intracellular nucleus using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfabricated substrates with an array of micropillars. We investigated the differential effects of nuclear deformation on the proliferation of healthy vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and cervical cancer HeLa cells. Both types of cell spread normally in the space between micropillars and completely invaded the extracellular microstructures, including parts of their cytoplasm and their nuclei. We found that the proliferation of SMCs but not HeLa cells was dramatically inhibited by cultivation on the micropillar substrates, even though remarkable deformation of nuclei was observed in both types of cells. Mechanical testing with an atomic force microscope and a detailed image analysis with confocal microscopy revealed that SMC nuclei had a thicker nuclear lamina and greater expression of lamin A/C than those of HeLa cells, which consequently increased the elastic modulus of the SMC nuclei and their nuclear mechanical resistance against extracellular microstructures. These results indicate that the inhibition of cell proliferation resulted from deformation of the mature lamin structures, which might be exposed to higher internal stress during nuclear deformation. This nuclear stress-induced inhibition of cell proliferation occurred rarely in cancer cells with deformable nuclei. PMID:26054426

  5. Finger extensor variability in TMS parameters among chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Shannon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study determined the reliability of topographic motor cortical maps and MEP characteristics in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC evoked by single-pulse TMS among patients with chronic stroke. Methods Each of ten patients was studied on three occasions. Measures included location of the EDC hotspot and center of gravity (COG, threshold of activation and average amplitude of the hotspot, number of active sites, map volume, and recruitment curve (RC slope. Results Consistent intrahemispheric measurements were obtained for the three TMS mapping sessions for all measured variables. No statistically significant difference was observed between hemispheres for the number of active sites, COG distance or the RC slope. The magnitude and range of COG movement between sessions were similar to those reported previously with this muscle in able-bodied individuals. The average COG movement over three sessions in both hemispheres was 0.90 cm. The average COG movement in the affected hemisphere was 1.13 (± 0.08 cm, and 0.68 (± 0.04 cm for the less affected hemisphere. However, significant interhemispheric variability was seen for the average MEP amplitude, normalized map volume, and resting motor threshold. Conclusion The physiologic variability in some TMS measurements of EDC suggest that interpretation of TMS mapping data derived from hemiparetic patients in the chronic stage following stroke should be undertaken cautiously. Irrespective of the muscle, potential causes of variability should be resolved to accurately assess the impact of pharmacological or physical interventions on cortical organization as measured by TMS among patients with stroke.

  6. Speed-related spinal excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Caroline; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    Automatic adjustments of muscle activity throughout the body are required for the maintenance of balance during human walking. One mechanism that is likely to contribute to this control is the heteronymous spinal excitation between human ankle dorsiflexors and knee extensors (CPQ-reflex). Here, we...... changes in the background EMG activity and modifications in peripheral input, and likely reflected central modulation of transmission in the involved reflex pathways as well. It is suggested that the purpose of the reflex is to ensure knee stability at moderate-to-high walking speeds....

  7. [Electrically induced cutaneo-muscular reflex from the m. extensor digitorum brevis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrock, N; Hess, C W; Ludin, H P; Mumenthaler, M

    1987-06-01

    We recorded the cutaneo-muscular reflexes in 90 normal subjects from the extensor digitorum brevis muscle following electrical stimulation at the second toe. In 88 subjects an early and a late EMG response were obtained. The mean latency of the second reflex response was 91.9 +/- 12.1 ms and the mean duration was 27.3 +/- 11.6 ms. However, there was considerable variability of the interindividual amplitudes. Comparison of the age related changes in the latencies of the first and second reflexes yielded results consistent with the transcortical or spino-bulbo-spinal hypothesis. PMID:3111831

  8. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Neves Granito; Mariana Chaves Aveiro; Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó; Jorge Oishi; Patricia Driusso

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors...

  9. The Effects of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Balance – A Study with Elite Amateur Rugby League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gosselin, Michael J. Fagan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neck muscle fatigue has been shown to alter an individual’s balance in a similar way to that reported in subjects suffering from neck pain or subjects that have suffered a neck injury. The main purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of neck fatigue on neck muscle electromyography (EMG activity, balance, perceived fatigue and perceived stability. Forty four elite amateur rugby league players resisted with their neck muscles approximately 35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC force for 15 minutes in eight different directions. Sway velocity and surface electromyography were measured. Questionnaires were used to record perceived effort and stability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that after 15 minutes isometric contraction, significant changes were seen in sway velocity, perceived sway and EMG median frequency. There were no differences in perceived efforts. The changes in sway velocity and median frequency were more pronounced after extension and right and left posterior oblique contractions but there was no significant difference in sway velocity after contraction in the right lateral flexion, right anterior oblique and left anterior oblique direction of contraction. All the subjects showed oriented whole-body leaning in the plane of the contraction. The experiment produced significantly altered and perceived altered balance in this group of physically fit individuals. The results may contribute to our understanding of normal functional capacities of athletes and will provide a basis for further investigation in healthy non-athletes and participants that have suffered neck injuries. This may ultimately help develop accurate and valid rehabilitation outcome measures.

  10. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the aberrant slips, together with the ventral ramus of the first thoracic nerve. The aberrant muscle slips issued 2 accessory bundles. One bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle; the other bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle.

  11. 颈髓损伤后呼吸肌功能障碍修复的研究进展%Advance in Restoration of Respiratory Muscle Dysfunction after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雅; 洪毅; 姜树东; 白金柱

    2014-01-01

    颈髓损伤后呼吸功能障碍是伤后早期死亡的首要原因,可通过电刺激、磁刺激、神经移位术、细胞移植等手段对患者的呼吸功能进行修复。本文将颈髓损伤后呼吸肌功能障碍的解剖基础、临床表现、修复技术方法等做一综述。%Respiratory dysfunction is the primary cause of death early after cervical spinal cord injury, and it can be restored by electri-cal stimulation, magnetic stimulation, nerve transfer surgery, and cell transplantation. This paper reviewed the anatomy, clinical manifesta-tions, and associated restoration techniques of respiratory muscle dysfunction after cervical spinal cord injury.

  12. Transfer of either index finger extensor tendon to the extensor pollicis longus tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, Bryce M; Bogoch, Earl R

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon ruptures have been treated succesfully with the transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) tendon. Situations exist in which, due to intraoperative observations, another tendon transfer may be considered preferable to the standard EIP transfer method. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether transfer of the extensor digitorum communis II (EDC II) tendon from the index finger to the EPL tendon, leaving the EIP tendon to the index finger intact, would serve as an equally efficient transfer and not adversely affect the function of the hand. METHODS: Two patients who had the EDC II tendon transferred to the ruptured EPL tendon, and two patients who had the EIP tendon transferred, were retrospectively reviewed. In each transfer type, one patient had suffered an EPL tendon rupture after a Colles’ fracture, and the other had rheumatoid arthritis. The rupture occurred on the non-dominant side in one patient in each transfer type. Each patient was examined and subjected to range of motion and power testing at least one year following surgery. RESULTS: All four patients showed a minimal extension lag with the lift off test, but there was no noticeable difference in range of motion, pinch grip and hand grip strength between the transfer types. Both EDC II transfer patients demonstrated an 8° to 15° loss of thumb interphalangeal joint flexion compared with the unoperated side; EIP transfer patients demonstrated less than a 5° loss. Three patients demonstrated a minor extension lag in the index finger and middle finger. Extension power of the thumb and index finger in all patients varied with wrist flexion and extension and ranged from 50% to 150% of the unoperated side. CONCLUSIONS: These case reports suggest that either index finger tendon may be successfully transferred in EPL tendon ruptures. PMID:24115870

  13. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  14. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical

  15. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  16. Deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality and mobility in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacIntyre, Donna L;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Midthigh intramuscular fat (IF), a feature of reduced muscle quality, is an important predictor of self-reported mobility loss in the elderly. This study compared measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy...... subjects. Associations between measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility were explored. METHODS: Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. Cross-sectional area and IF of the thigh muscles were measured with computerized tomography. Mobility was assessed with the...... in the study. Patients with COPD showed reduced average knee extensor strength (29%, P = .016) cross-sectional area of the thigh muscles (17%, P = .007) and mobility measures (~23%, P = .001). Knee extensor and flexor IF was 2-folds greater in people with COPD (P = .005). Measures of knee extensor...

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  19. Sonography findings in tears of the extensor pollicis longus tendon and correlation with CT, MRI and surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando [Hospital of Traumatology - Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves, Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: ferusan@telefonica.net; Garofano Plazas, Pilar; Fernandez, Juan Miguel Tristan [Hospital of Traumatology - Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves, Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    We present our experience in the diagnosis of extensor pollicis longus tendon tears using different imaging methods. In the past 2 years, 12 patients (7 males, 5 females) with extension deficit of distal phalanx of thumb were diagnosed with extensor pollicis longus tendon (EPL) rupture by means of different imaging methods. The ultrasound pattern consisted of a gap between tendon stumps occupied by a continuous (eight cases) or discontinuous (four cases) attenuated hypoechoic string. In nine cases, the tendon ends were identified as a thickened stump-like structure. In the other three cases, tendon stumps were attenuated and mixed with atrophic muscle or wrist subcutaneous fat. All ultrasound findings were confirmed by CT, MR and/or surgical findings.

  20. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, especially suitable for use on the elderly population and on infants. While performing Tuina, the therapist concentrates his mind, regulates his breathing, and actuates the Qi and power of his entire body towards his hands. For a better result is recommended to try to combine acupuncture with tuina treatment. Tuina can help relieve the pain associated with spondylosis. After this kind of treatment, the symptomes produced by irritated nerves and sore muscles can find some relief. Tuina helps patients with cervical spondylosis regain muscle control, nerve function and flexibility, all through the restoration of the life force flow.

  1. Fiber size and myosin phenotypes of selected rhesus lower limb muscles after a 14-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Bodine, S. C.; Pierotti, D. J.; Talmadge, R. J.; Barkhoudarian, G.; Kim, J.; Fanton, J. W.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsies were taken from the rhesus (Macaca mulatta) soleus (Sol, a slow ankle extensor), medial gastrocnemius (MG, a fast ankle extensor), tibialis anterior (TA, a fast ankle flexor), and vastus lateralis (VL, a fast knee extensor) muscles in vivarium controls (n=5) before and after either a 14-day spaceflight (Bion 11, n=2) or a 14-day ground-based flight simulation (n=3). Myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition (gel electrophoresis), fiber type distribution (immunohistochemistry), and fiber size were determined. Although there were no significant changes, each muscle showed trends towards adaptation.

  2. Applications of bio-feedback to muscle models

    OpenAIRE

    Colacino, F.M.; Rustighi, E.; Mace, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    An EMG-driven musculoskeletal model is implemented to estimate subject-specific musculoskeletal parameters such as the optimal physiological muscle length, the tendon slack length and the maximum isometric muscle force of flexor and extensor muscle groups crossing the wrist, as well as biomechanical indexes to quantify the muscle operating range, the stiffness of the musculotendon actuators, and the contribution of the muscle fibers to the joint moment. Twelve healthy subjects (11 males and 1...

  3. 上中下三干后股对指总伸肌及肱三头肌长头交叉支配的电生理研究%Electrophysiological analysis of the dominance innervation of extensor digitorum communis muscle and long head of triceps brachii muscle at the level of posterior division of brachial plexus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树锋; 栗鹏程; 李玉成; 李文军; 金亚娣; 杨昀; 薛云皓; 郑炜

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过术中电生理检测,在臂丛神经中找到指总伸肌支配神经的相对集中区,为神经移位重建伸指功能新术式的设计提供理论依据.方法 2008年2月-2009年10月,17例臂丛神经撕脱伤行健侧C7神经根移位术.应用Keypoint型肌电图仪,术中分别对上、中、下三干后股进行电刺激,在指总伸肌及肱三头肌长头记录复合肌肉动作电位(compound muscle action potential,CMAP).结果 指总伸肌记录到的CMAP最大波幅有76.5%(13/17)为电刺激下干后股,17.6%(3/17)为电刺激中干后股,5.9%(1/17)为电刺激上干后股.电刺激上、中、下三干后股在指总伸肌记录到的CMAP波幅平均值分别为:0.75±1.16 mV,1.64±1.54 mV,5.32±4.58 mV.在肱三头肌长头记录到的最大CMAP波幅有53%(9/17)为电刺激中干后股,47%(8/17)为电刺激下干后股.电刺激中干及下干后股在肱三头肌长头记录到的CMAP平均波幅分别为4.57±3.84 mV,5.98±8.43 mV.结论 支配指总伸肌的神经纤维来自下干后股比C7后股的多,而下干后股亦是肱三头肌长头的主要支配神经.

  4. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  5. Extensor Pollicis Brevis tendon damage presenting as de Quervain’s disease following kettlebell training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Kettlebell exercises are more efficient for an athlete to increase his or her muscle strength. However it carries the risk of injury especially in the beginners. A 39 year old gentleman came to our clinic with radial sided wrist pain following kettlebell exercises. Clinically patient had swelling and tenderness over the tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment, besides Finklesten test was positive. Patient had a decreased excursion of the thumb when compared to the opposite side. Ultrasound/MRI scan revealed asymmetric thickening of the 1st compartment extensors extending from the base of the thumb to the wrist joint. Besides injury to the Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) tendon by repetitive impact from kettlebell, leading to its split was identified. Detailed history showed that the injury might be due to off-centre handle holding during triceps strengthening exercises. Our report stresses the fact that kettlebell users should be taught about problems of off-center handle holding to avoid wrist injuries. Also, in Kettlebell users with De Quervains disease clinical and radiological evaluation should be done before steroid injection as this might lead to complete tendon rupture. PMID:23731737

  6. Extensor Pollicis Brevis tendon damage presenting as de Quervain's disease following kettlebell training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Karuppaiah; Carter-Esdale, Charles William; Vijayanathan, Sanjay; Kochhar, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Kettlebell exercises are more efficient for an athlete to increase his or her muscle strength. However it carries the risk of injury especially in the beginners. A 39 year old gentleman came to our clinic with radial sided wrist pain following kettlebell exercises. Clinically patient had swelling and tenderness over the tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment, besides Finklesten test was positive. Patient had a decreased excursion of the thumb when compared to the opposite side. Ultrasound/MRI scan revealed asymmetric thickening of the 1st compartment extensors extending from the base of the thumb to the wrist joint. Besides injury to the Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) tendon by repetitive impact from kettlebell, leading to its split was identified. Detailed history showed that the injury might be due to off-centre handle holding during triceps strengthening exercises. Our report stresses the fact that kettlebell users should be taught about problems of off-center handle holding to avoid wrist injuries. Also, in Kettlebell users with De Quervains disease clinical and radiological evaluation should be done before steroid injection as this might lead to complete tendon rupture. PMID:23731737

  7. Hazards of steroid injection: Suppurative extensor tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Colin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local steroid injections are often administered in the office setting for treatment of trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain′s tenosynovitis, and basal joint arthritis. If attention is paid to sterile technique, infectious complications are rare. We present a case of suppurative extensor tenosynovitis arising after local steroid injection for vague symptoms of dorsal hand and wrist pain. The progression of signs and symptoms following injection suggests a natural history involving bacterial superinfection leading to tendon rupture. We discuss the pitfalls of local steroid injection and the appropriate management of infectious extensor tenosynovitis arising in such situations.

  8. Cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sravisht; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common clinical scenario. Patients with radiculopathy typically present with neck pain, arm pain, or both. We review the epidemiology of cervical radiculopathy and discuss the diagnosis of this condition. This includes an overview of the pertinent findings on the patient history and physical examination. We also discuss relevant clinical syndromes that must be considered in the differential diagnosis including peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes and shoulder pathology. The natural history of cervical radiculopathy is reviewed and options for management are discussed. These options include conservative management, non-operative modalities such as physical therapy, steroid injections, and operative intervention. While the exact indications for surgical intervention have not yet been elucidated, we provide an overview of the available literature regarding indications and discuss the timing of intervention. The surgical outcomes of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), and posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) are discussed. PMID:27250042

  9. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19–21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slo...

  10. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  11. Scapholunate stabilization with dynamic extensor carpi radialis longus tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven L; Freeland, Alan E

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic extensor carpi radialis longus tendon transfer to the distal pole of the scaphoid acts synchronously and synergistically with wrist motion to restore the slider crank mechanism of the scaphoid after scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) injury. The procedure is designed to simulate a hypothetical dorsal radioscaphoid ligament that more closely approximates the normal viscoelastic forces acting on the scaphoid throughout all phases of wrist motion than does the static checkrein effect and motion limitations of capsulodesis or tenodesis. Extensor carpi radialis longus transfer may be independently sufficient to support normal or near-normal scapholunate and midcarpal kinematics and prevent further injury propagation in patients with partial SLIL tears and dynamic scapholunate instability. Extensor carpi radialis longus transfer alone may improve carpal congruity in patients with static scapholunate instability, but SLIL and dorsal lunate ligament repair or reconstruction is essential for favorable durable outcomes. Extensor carpi radialis longus transfer offers a simple and reasonable alternative to capsulodesis or tenodesis to support these ligament repairs or reconstructions, does not require intercarpal fixation, and allows rehabilitation to proceed expeditiously at approximately 1 month after surgery. PMID:21134618

  12. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s "all-out" sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; "fast" instruction) and maximal (~5 s; "hard" instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100, and -200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (-6 ± 11%; P EMG rise for VL muscle was similar (P > 0.05), whereas it increased (P hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  13. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami S; Horiuchi K; Yamamoto C; Ohtsuka A; Murakami T.

    2003-01-01

    A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the...

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see your doctor. www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge 1-800-CDC-INFO Are there tests that can prevent cervical cancer or find it early? There are two tests that can either help prevent cervical cancer or find it early: • The Pap test (or Pap smear)looks for precancers, cell changes, on the cervix ...

  15. Muscle power failure in mobility-limited adults: preserved single muscle fibre function despite reduced whole muscle size, quality and neuromuscular activiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the physiological and gender determinants of the age-related loss of muscle power in 31 healthy middle-aged adults (aged 40-55 years), 28 healthy older adults (70-85 years) and 34 mobility-limited older adults (70-85 years). We hypothesized that leg extensor muscle power woul...

  16. Effect of mental fatigue on induced tremor in human knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine; Durbaba, Rade; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the effects of mental fatigue on mechanically induced tremor at both a low (3-6Hz) and high (8-12Hz) frequency were investigated. The two distinct tremor frequencies were evoked using two springs of different stiffness, during 20s sustained contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) before and after 100min of a mental fatigue task, in 12 healthy (29±3.7years) participants. Mental fatigue resulted in a 6.9% decrease in MVC and in a 9.4% decrease in the amplitude of the agonist muscle EMG during sustained 30% MVC contractions in the induced high frequency only. Following the mental fatigue task, the coefficient of variation and standard deviation of the force signal decreased at 8-12Hz induced tremor by 31.7% and 35.2% respectively, but not at 3-6Hz induced tremor. Similarly, the maximum value and area underneath the peak in the power spectrum of the force signal decreased by 55.5% and 53.1% respectively in the 8-12Hz range only. In conclusion, mental fatigue decreased mechanically induced 8-12Hz tremor and had no effect on induced 3-6Hz tremor. We suggest that the reduction could be attributed to the decreased activation of the agonist muscles. PMID:24613661

  17. Preliminary observations on the presence of sustained tendon strain and eccentric contractions of the wrist extensors during a common manual task: implications for lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Alessio; Harwin, William; Prakoonwit, Simant; Brownlow, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is hypothesized to occur as a result of repetitive, strenuous and abnormal postural activities of the elbow and wrist. There is still a lack of understanding of how wrist and forearm positions contribute to this condition during common manual tasks. In this study the wrist kinematics and the wrist extensors' musculotendon patterns were investigated during a manual task believed to elicit LE symptoms in susceptible subjects. A 42-year-old right-handed male, with no history of LE, performed a repetitive movement involving pushing and turning a spring-loaded mechanism. Motion capture data were acquired for the upper limb and an inverse kinematic and dynamic analysis was subsequently carried out. Results illustrated the presence of eccentric contractions sustained by the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), together with an almost constant level of tendon strain of both extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis lateral (EDCL) branch. It is believed that these factors may partly contribute to the onset of LE as they are both responsible for the creation of microtears at the tendons' origins. The methodology of this study can be used to explore muscle actions during movements that might cause or exacerbate LE. PMID:21414830

  18. Influences of trunk muscles on lumbar lordosis and sacral angle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho-Jun; Chung, Seokhee; Kim, Sungsoo; Shin, Hyundae; Lee, Jongsoo; Kim, Sehyun; Song, Mi-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    Background: The strength of abdominal muscle and back extensors or their balances are commonly mentioned as major indicators of potential low back pain (LBP). Former studies on anthropometrics in terms of trunk muscle strength seemed to lack precision in methodology. Furthermore, the extension-flexion ratio, which is a good parameter of trunk muscle balance, was not as much studied as simple maximum torques in this area of study. Objectives: To investigate relationship between trunk muscle st...

  19. Effects of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha on the simulation by noradrenaline and oxytocin of human cervical muscle activity at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1985-11-15

    Cervical specimens were obtained by needle biopsy in connection with caesarean section at term pregnancy. The preparations were superfused in an organ chamber and contractions were registered isometrically. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 alpha inhibited spontaneous contractions. The stimulatory action of noradrenaline was not influenced by PGF2 alpha but was reduced by PGE2 whereas both PGs abolished the excitatory effect of oxytocin. PMID:3864643

  20. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past neck injury (often several years before) Past spine surgery Ruptured or slipped disk Severe arthritis Small fractures ... Kshettry VR. Cervical spondylosis. In: Benzel EC, ed. Spine Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  1. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  2. Cervical Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accumulation of pus in the uterus is called pyometra. Symptoms Before menopause, cervical stenosis may cause menstrual ... present but not cause symptoms. A hematometra or pyometra can cause pain or cause the uterus to ...

  3. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Faizal; Rao, Vittal; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Mukundan, Cibu; Shafqat, Syed O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night). Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:20459701

  4. Isokinetic assessment of the flexor-extensor balance of the knee in athletes with total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreri, A S; Ambrósio, M A; Pedrinelli, A; Albuquerque, R F; Andrusaitis, F; Greve, J M; Carazzato, J G; Amatuzzi, M M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the flexor-extensor group of muscles of the knee in young athletes diagnosed with a total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Eighteen knees of 18 athletes (14 men and 4 women) with an average age of 21.6 years (range 16-32 years) were assessed with a Cybex 6000 model isokinetic apparatus. The average internal between occurrence of the injury and assessment was 10.2 months (range 2-48 months). There was an associated meniscal injury in eight of the knees. Athletes with any other kind of associated injury, limitation, or blockage of the movement of the joint, significant pain during the exam, or interval between injury and exam of less than two months were excluded from the study. The parameters studied were the peak torque-velocity and flexor-extensor relationships at the constant angular velocities of 60 degrees/sec and 240 degrees/sec. Previous warming-up was done by means of an ergometric bicycle and adaptation with 3 submaximal repetitions. The contra-lateral side, which presented no injury, was used as control. Peak torque (PT) at the constant velocity of 60 degrees/sec was greater than that at 240 degrees/sec for knees with and without injuries. However, there was no significant difference between the injured and uninjured sides at 60 degrees/sec or at 240 degrees/sec. The average value for the flexor-extensor relationship at 60 degrees/sec on the injured was 60% ((6), compared to 57% ((10) on the contra-lateral side. At 240 degrees/sec, the average value was 75% ((10) on the injured side, and 65% ((12) on the contra-lateral side. In conclusion, despite the complete rupture of the ACL of one knee, the average values for the flexor-extensor relationship were similar on the injured and uninjured sides at the velocity of 60 degrees/sec. As the velocity increased, an increase in the values for the flexor-extensor relationship of the knee also occurred, indicating a tendency of the performance of the flexor

  5. Prophylactic decompression of extensor pollicis longus to prevent rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Navaratnam, A V; Ball, S; Eckersley, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture of right extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon, who had also developed left wrist pain and weakness in his left EPL that MRI studies confirmed to be caused by tendinosis. Subsequently, decompression of left EPL and reconstruction of right EPL with palmaris longus tendon graft was undertaken. In this case, decompression of the left EPL tendon led to resolution of the patient's symptoms as well as preventing tendon rupture. We advocate the...

  6. EXERCISE WITH THE BARBELL-EXTENSOR CONCENTRIC DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiu Bogdan Alexandru; Iacob Mihai Radu

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study has shown that exercise performed with concentric barbell-extensor system that forearm flexion-extension defeat both elastic and gravitational resistance (oriented in the same direction) can lead to considerable progress of muscular force. Exercise has a complex character because requesting simultaneously both biceps and triceps. Developing passive force can be used to relieve elbow joint pain and for diversification of bodybuilding programs.

  7. EXERCISE WITH THE BARBELL-EXTENSOR CONCENTRIC DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiu Bogdan Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study has shown that exercise performed with concentric barbell-extensor system that forearm flexion-extension defeat both elastic and gravitational resistance (oriented in the same direction can lead to considerable progress of muscular force. Exercise has a complex character because requesting simultaneously both biceps and triceps. Developing passive force can be used to relieve elbow joint pain and for diversification of bodybuilding programs.

  8. Hazards of steroid injection: Suppurative extensor tendon rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Colin; Phoon Ee; Lee Jonathan; Ng Siew; Teoh Lam

    2010-01-01

    Local steroid injections are often administered in the office setting for treatment of trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain′s tenosynovitis, and basal joint arthritis. If attention is paid to sterile technique, infectious complications are rare. We present a case of suppurative extensor tenosynovitis arising after local steroid injection for vague symptoms of dorsal hand and wrist pain. The progression of signs and symptoms following injection suggests a natural history ...

  9. Relationship of body composition, knee extensor strength, and standing balance to lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276

  10. Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture after Mini TightRope Suspensionplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Mani; Vitale, Mark A; Desai, Kapil; Crowe, John F

    2016-05-01

    Background Arthritis of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint has been surgically treated in multiple ways with varying levels of success as measured by subjective and objective measures. Trapeziectomy with numerous variations in suspensionplasty comprises one of the more commonly used surgical procedures. Recently, the Mini TightRope apparatus has been utilized as a new method for achieving suspensionplasty, and as such lacks significant review of use and safety in the literature. Case Description An extensor pollicis longus (EPL) rupture following a trapeziectomy and Mini TightRope suspensionplasty for CMC arthritis of the thumb is presented. The patient successfully underwent an extensor indicis proprius (EIP) to EPL transfer to treat this complication. Literature Review There is well-established documentation of injury to the extensor tendons from orthopedic hardware such as volar locking plates. Regarding use of the Mini TightRope apparatus, guidelines for placement of the suture button include caution to place the button away from the EPL tendon to minimize the chance of tendon irritation. Additionally, FiberWire sutures, a component of the apparatus, have been shown to demonstrate soft tissue reactions with adjacent inflammatory response. Published reports on adverse events utilizing this device have been limited to case reports including an index metacarpal fracture. Clinical Relevance The aim of this case report was to cite an occurrence of EPL rupture following its use and discuss the possibilities of its direct contribution. PMID:27104081

  11. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  12. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  13. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee join...

  14. Ulnar-sided pain due to extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cift Hakan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the case of a patient with extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation who was first treated for distal radioulnar joint sprain. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian man was seen at our policlinic one month after he had fallen on his outstretched hand. A diagnosis of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation was made clinically but we also had the magnetic resonance imaging scan of the patient’s wrist which displayed an increased signal on T2-weighted images consistent with inflammation around the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was found to be dislocating during supination and relocating during pronation. The sheath was reconstructed using extensor retinaculum due to attenuation of subsheath. Conclusion There was no recurrent dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon of the patient at his last follow up 12 months after the operation.

  15. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective study. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Summary of Background Data: Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. Methods: This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Results: Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. Discussion: The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. Conclusions: A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination

  16. Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation Attenuates Muscle Atrophy in CKD—A Potential Treatment Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Li; Klein, Janet D.; Hassounah, Faten; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Cong; Xu, Ping; Wang, Xiaonan H.

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapeutic strategies to treat CKD-induced muscle atrophy are urgently needed. Low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) may be effective in preventing muscle atrophy, because LFES is an acupuncture technique that mimics resistance exercise by inducing muscle contraction. To test this hypothesis, we treated 5/6-nephrectomized mice (CKD mice) and control mice with LFES for 15 days. LFES prevented soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle weight loss and loss of hind-limb muscle ...

  17. Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Muscle Fibers in Mice with Steroid Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Okita, Minoru; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Nakano, Jiro; Watabe, Miwako; Nagai, Tomoko; Kato, Katsutomo; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of treadmill exercise on muscle fibers in mice with experimental steroid myopathy. Frozen sections of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the muscle fiber diameters measured. In the EDL, muscle fiber diameters in the steroid groups decreased significantly compared with those in the control groups; moreover, muscle fiber diameters in the exercise groups increased significantly compared with those in the non...

  18. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women. PMID:25199856

  19. Torze kolenních extenzorových svalů během izometrických cvičení a ruská elektrická stimulace po zranění kolenních vazů Knee extensor muscles' torque during isometric exercises and russian electrical stimulation following a knee ligament injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dobrovolné izometrické cvičení (VOL i neuromuskulární elektrická stimulace (NMES jsou metody rozvoje statické svalové síly. Používají se v programech pro rozvoj síly u zdravých svalů a také pro zotavování svalové funkce za určitých ortopedických podmínek. Obě metody se používají pro zpomalování svalové atrofie a ztráty síly v důsledku imobilizace kolena po zranění (Eriksson & Häggmark, 1979; Ingemann-Hansen & Halkjær-Kristensen, 1985; Johnson, 1988; Wigerstad-Lossing, Tromby, Jonsson, Morelli, Peterson, & Rentröm, 1988. NMES může vyvolat záškuby nebo tetanické svalové kontrakce, a to v závislosti na frekvenci proudových impulsů. Během tetanické stimulace jsou hlavními rysy nácvikových režimů: 1 cyklus zapnutí/vypnutí (pracovní cyklus, tvořený dobou kontrakce a dobou uvolnění; 2 počet kontrakcí; 3 intenzita kontrakcí (dána proudovou amplitudou nebo tolerancí subjektu. Voluntary isometric exercise (VOL and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES are both methods of static muscle strength and girth training. They are applied in strength training programs to healthy muscle as well as for muscle function recovery under certain orthopaedic conditions. Both methods are used to retard muscle atrophy and strength loss resulting from post injury knee immobilization (Eriksson & Häggmark, 1979; Ingemann-Hansen & Halkjær-Kristensen, 1985; Johnson, 1988; Wigerstad-Lossing, Tromby, Jonsson, Morelli, Peterson, & Rentröm, 1988. NMES can elicit twitch or tetanic muscle contractions, determined by current pulse frequency. During tetanic stimulation, the main features of training regimes are: 1 on/off cycle (or duty cycle, made up of the time of contraction plus rest time; 2 the number of contractions; 3 the intensity of contractions (determined by the current amplitude and/or the subject’s tolerance.

  20. Rehabilitation of Patellar Tendinopathy Using Hip Extensor Strengthening and Landing-Strategy Modification: Case Report With 6-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Ana Luisa G; Nakagawa, Theresa H; Santos, José E M; Serrão, Fábio V

    2015-11-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Although eccentric exercises have been a cornerstone of the rehabilitation of athletes with patellar tendinopathy, the effectiveness of this intervention is sometimes less than ideal. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have been shown to have different jump-landing patterns and lower hip extensor strength compared to asymptomatic athletes. To our knowledge, the effectiveness of an intervention addressing these impairments has not yet been investigated. Case Description The patient was a 21-year-old male volleyball athlete with a 9-month history of patellar tendon pain. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale. Disability was measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patella questionnaire. These assessments were conducted before and after an 8-week intervention, as well as at 6 months after the intervention. Hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during drop vertical jump and isometric strength were also measured before and after the 8-week intervention. The intervention consisted of hip extensor muscle strengthening and jump landing strategy modification training. The patient did not interrupt volleyball practice/competition during rehabilitation. Outcomes After the 8-week intervention and at 6 months postintervention, the athlete was completely asymptomatic during sports participation. This favorable clinical outcome was accompanied by a 50% increase in hip extensor moment, a 21% decrease in knee extensor moment, and a 26% decrease in patellar tendon force during jump landing measured at 8 weeks. Discussion This case report provides an example of how an 8-week intervention of hip muscle strengthening and jump-landing modification decreased pain and disability and improved jump-landing biomechanics in an athlete with patellar tendinopathy. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):899-909. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.6242. PMID:26390271

  1. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery. PMID:27175952

  2. Functioning transferred free muscle innervated by part of the vascularized ulnar nerve connecting the contralateral cervical seventh root to themedian nerve: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama Ken; Ikeguchi Ryosuke; Kakinoki Ryosuke; Nakamura Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The limited nerve sources available for the reconstruction and restoration of upper extremity function is the biggest obstacle in the treatment of brachial plexus injury (BPI). We used part of a transplanted vascularized ulnar nerve as a motor source of a free muscle graft. Case presentation A 21-year-old man with a left total brachial plexus injury had received surgical intercostal nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve and a spinal accessory nerve transfer to the s...

  3. Motoneurons of the adult marmoset can grow axons and reform motor endplates through a peripheral nerve bridge joining the locally injured cervical spinal cord to the denervated biceps brachii muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, E; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Lyoussi, B; Tadié, M; Horvat, J C

    2000-12-15

    Reconnection of the injured spinal cord (SC) of the marmoset with the denervated biceps brachii muscle (BB) was obtained by using a peripheral nerve (PN) bridge. In 13 adult males, a 45 mm segment of the peroneal nerve was removed: one end was implanted unilaterally into the cervical SC of the same animal (autograft), determining a local injury, although the other end was either directly inserted into the BB (Group A) or, alternatively, sutured to its transected motor nerve, the musculocutaneous nerve (Group B). From 2-4 months post-surgery, eight out of the 10 surviving animals responded by a contraction of the BB to electrical stimulations of the PN bridge. All ten were then processed for a morphological study. As documented by retrograde axonal tracing studies using horse radish peroxidase or Fast Blue (FB), a mean number of 314 (Group A) or 45 (Group B) spinal neurons, mainly located close to the site of injury and grafting, re-expressed a capacity to grow and extend axons into the PN bridge. Most of these regenerated axons were able to grow up to the BB and form or reform functional motor endplates. Many of the spinal neurons that were retrogradely labeled with FB simultaneously displayed immunoreactivity for choline acetyl-transferase and consequently were assumed to be motoneurons. Reinnervation and regeneration of the BB were documented by methods revealing axon terminals, endplates and myofibrillary ATPase activity. Our results indicate that motoneurons of the focally injured SC of a small-sized primate can, following the example of the adult rat, re-establish a lost motor function by extending new axons all the way through a PN bridge connected to a denervated skeletal muscle. PMID:11107167

  4. Extensor tendon rupture and three-dimensional computed tomography imaging of the rheumatoid wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Asami; Ishikawa, Hajime; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The diagnosis of tendon rupture is usually straightforward, but it is sometimes difficult in the hand with complex deformity. The purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability of three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) imaging of extensor tendons in the rheumatoid wrist and in the normal wrist and to clarify the validity of its clinical application to the diagnosis of tendon rupture in the rheumatoid wrist. Preoperative 3DCT images of 48 wrists of 45 patients with RA and 3DCT images of 38 wrists of 38 healthy volunteers were reviewed retrospectively by six orthopaedic surgeons who were unaware of all other study data. Extensor tendon rupture was verified by operation on 20 rheumatoid wrists. Regarding interobserver and intra-observer reliabilities of 3DCT imaging of the extensor tendons, agreement with respect to tendon rupture in this study group was high, and Cohen's kappa ({kappa}) coefficient was variable, depending on the individual tendon. Positive predictive value (PPV) of tendon rupture in the extensor digiti minimi (EDM), extensor digitorum communis (EDC) V and IV and extensor pollicis longs (EPL) tendons was more than 60%, but those for the other extensor tendons were less than 50%. Negative predictive value (NPV) was more than 96% in all extensor tendons, in both rheumatoid and normal wrists. Extensor tendons in normal and rheumatoid wrists were well depicted by 3DCT imaging. In the rheumatoid wrists, extensors of the ring and little fingers and the thumb were depicted more accurately than those to the other fingers. 3DCT imaging was clinically applicable to wrists for which it was difficult to diagnose by physical examination a definite cause for the loss of extension of the fingers. (orig.)

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of Force Distribution in Human Finger Extensor Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of the function and structure of human fingers have long been recognised. The in vivo forces in the human finger tendon network during different activities are critical information for clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, prosthetic finger design, and biomimetic hand development. In this study, we propose a novel method for in vivo force estimation for the finger tendon network by combining a three-dimensional motion analysis technique and a novel biomechanical tendon network model. The extensor mechanism of a human index finger is represented by an interconnected tendinous network moving around the phalanx’s dorsum. A novel analytical approach based on the “Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy” is used to calculate the forces and deformations throughout the tendon network of the extensor mechanism when subjected to an external load and with the finger posture defined by measurement data. The predicted deformations and forces in the tendon network are in broad agreement with the results obtained by previous experimental in vitro studies. The proposed methodology provides a promising tool for investigating the biomechanical function of complex interconnected tendon networks in vivo.

  6. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Cibu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night. Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted.

  7. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). Conclusion There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait. PMID:26632404

  8. Macroanatomical Studies on the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmenoğlu, İsmail

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the location and relations of the cranial cervical ganglion were investigated. A total of six sheep of different ages and both sexes were used. The cranial cervical ganlion lies medial to the occipitohyoid muscle, ventral to the jugular foramen, lateral to the longissimus capitis muscle and craniomedial to a common mass constituted by the glossopharyngeal, vagal, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and the condyloid artery. The colour and shape of the ganglion are light brown and ...

  9. Extensor pollicis brevis tendon can hyperextend thumb interphalangeal joint in absence of extensor pollicis longus: Case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Robert J; Strauch, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture which did not require tendon transfer owing to the ability of the intact extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) to fully hyperextend the thumb interphalangeal joint. The thumb metacarpophalangeal joint was also able to be fully actively extended by the EPB. Previous anatomical studies have demonstrated that the insertional anatomy of the EPB tendon is highly variable and sometimes inserts onto the extensor hood and distal phalanx, which is likely the mechanism by which our patient was able to fully extend the thumb interphalangeal joint. Despite the potential for the EPB to extend the IP joint of the thumb, virtually all previously reported cases of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture had deficits of thumb IP extension requiring tendon transfer. This case highlights the potential ability of the EPB tendon to completely substitute for the function of the EPL tendon in providing thumb IP joint extension. PMID:27458556

  10. Extensor pollicis brevis tendon can hyperextend thumb interphalangeal joint in absence of extensor pollicis longus: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Robert J; Strauch, Carolyn B

    2016-07-18

    We are reporting a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture which did not require tendon transfer owing to the ability of the intact extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) to fully hyperextend the thumb interphalangeal joint. The thumb metacarpophalangeal joint was also able to be fully actively extended by the EPB. Previous anatomical studies have demonstrated that the insertional anatomy of the EPB tendon is highly variable and sometimes inserts onto the extensor hood and distal phalanx, which is likely the mechanism by which our patient was able to fully extend the thumb interphalangeal joint. Despite the potential for the EPB to extend the IP joint of the thumb, virtually all previously reported cases of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture had deficits of thumb IP extension requiring tendon transfer. This case highlights the potential ability of the EPB tendon to completely substitute for the function of the EPL tendon in providing thumb IP joint extension. PMID:27458556

  11. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical spine; Computed tomography scan of cervical spine; CT scan of cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

  13. A New Method to Control Tendon Tension in the Transfer of Extensor Indicis Proprius to Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Cho, Young Joo; Chung, Duke Whan

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the outcomes of extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer based on varying degrees of thumb extension after EIP transfer and elongation of the EIP. A total of 24 cases with extensor pollicis longus (EPL) ruptures who underwent EIP to EPL transfer were analyzed prospectively. The EIP transfer was performed with neutral wrist positioning. In group I (12 cases), EIP and EPL were sutured on the thumb in neutral state at interphalangeal joint, and the mean EIP elongation of this group measured 0.2 cm (range, -0.5 to 0.5 cm). In group II (12 cases), EIP and EPL were sutured on the thumb in full extension state at interphalangeal joint, and the mean EIP elongation measured 0.7 cm (range, 0.5-1.5 cm). The mean follow-up period was 13.5 months. The 2 groups were compared based on thumb motion, grip strength, pinch power, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score. Extension of the thumb at the interphalangeal joint was -5.2° in group I and 7.2° in group II, demonstrating statistically significant differences. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in other parameters. In EIP transfer, thumb in extension after transfer and EIP elongation is recommended for restoring thumb extension at the interphalangeal joint. PMID:26418770

  14. Laminoplasty for Cervical Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Manabu; Nagahama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews cervical laminoplasty. The origin of cervical laminoplasty dates back to cervical laminectomy performed in Japan ~50 years ago. To overcome poor surgical outcomes of cervical laminectomy, many Japanese orthopedic spine surgeons devoted their lives to developing better posterior decompression procedures for the cervical spine. Thanks to the development of a high-speed surgical burr, posterior decompression procedures for the cervical spine showed vast improvement from the ...

  15. Impact of High Intensity Exercise on Muscle Morphology in EAE Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, U.; Verboven, Kenneth; Kosten, L.; STEVENS, An; Hens, Niel; Op 't Eijnde, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The impact of high-intensity exercise on disease progression and muscle contractile properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. Control (CON) and EAE rats were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Before onset (experiment 1, n=40) and after hindquarter paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic f...

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF TENS VERSUS INTERMITTENT CERVICAL TRACTION IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a dysfunction of nerve root of the cervical spine where C6& C7 nerve roots are the most commonly affected. It encompasses important symptoms other than pain, such as paresthesia, numbness and muscle weakness in dermatomal or myotomal distribution of an affected nerve root. A multitude of physical therapy interventions have been proposed to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy, including mechanical cervical traction, manipulation, therapeutic exercises and TENS. Studies to find out the effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction among patients with Cervical Radiculopathy are sparse. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out and compare effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction a newer technique towards betterment in treatment of cervical radiculopathy patients. Methodology: 30 patients from Baroda association for the blind (Lions club of Baroda, Subhanpura & Sushrut Physiotherapy Clinic, Akota were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given TENS with Isometric neck exercises and active neck movements. Group B comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given Intermittent Cervical Traction with Isometric neck exercise and active neck movements. VAS Scale & Neck Disability Index (NDI were used as outcome measures pre & post treatment. Results: The pre test evaluation showed that, there is no significant difference (P> 0.05 between the two groups for all the variables measured. The post-test evaluation of both groups showed a very high significance (P< 0.05 within the group for all the outcome measurements. A post-test comparison of measured variables, between the groups showed that the Group A demonstrated a statistically significant (P< 0.05 reduction in pain and Neck Disability Index. Conclusion: From the above study concluded that TENS was more effective

  17. The Effects of Long-Term Experimental Diabetes Mellitus Type I on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jerković, Romana; Bosnar, Alan; Jurišić-Eržen, Dubravka; Ažman, Josip; Starčević-Klasan, Gordana; Peharec, Stanislav; Čoklo, Miran

    2009-01-01

    Muscle fibers are dynamic structures capable of altering their phenotype under various pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of long-lasting diabetes mellitus on the process of muscle regeneration in the skeletal muscle. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The regeneration process in the skeletal muscle was induced in slow (m. soleus, SOL) and fast (m. extensor digitorum longus, EDL) mus...

  18. Reliability of isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee flexors and extensors in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak

  19. [Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Keegan (1965) reported a patient who presented with "dissociated motor loss," an acute paralysis of the upper extremity with minimal sensory signs and no long tract signs, and documented an anterior root lesion following autopsy. Sobue et al. (1975) reported similar cases using the term "cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA)," but postulated pathology of the anterior horn. Although Keegan's "dissociated motor loss" surely referred to isolated motor paresis with no or minimal sensory signs, contrary to existing criticism, a more general term, CSA, should be preferred. CSA is divided into proximal and distal types. Distal CSA often presents with a drop finger, and thus may be misdiagnosed as posterior interosseous nerve palsy. Documentation of the involvement of ulnar muscles by clinical signs and EMG would lead to the diagnosis of distal CSA. Proximal CSA may be confused with neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), although the sparing of the serratus anterior and the stereotypic involvement of deltoid, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, and brachioradialis suggest CSA. Cervical MRI is not diagnostic in around half of CSA cases, and denervation in paraspinal EMG is a more sensitive test that can exclude NA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is another important differential diagnosis for CSA. PMID:27156504

  20. Dissociation between lactate and proton exchange in muscle during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva; Saltin, Bengt

    1997-01-01

    1. Transport of lactate, H+ and fluid across muscle sarcolemma was studied in contracting muscles under varying blood acid-base conditions. 2. Subjects performed two-legged submaximal knee-extensor exercise for 29-35 min consisting of warming up for 5 min followed by 10 min of leg exercise (L1...

  1. Muscle fatigue and exhaustion during dynamic leg exercise in normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter;

    1996-01-01

    Using an exercise device that integrates maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC) of knee extensor muscles with dynamic knee extension, we compared progressive muscle fatigue, i.e., rate of decline in force-generating capacity, in normoxia (758 Torr) and hypobaric hypoxia (464 Torr). Eight...... closely to impaired shortening velocity than to failure of force-generating capacity....

  2. Effect of a step-training program on muscle strength in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Coelho Zazá

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Step-training is associated with strength improvement of the lower limbs. Muscle strength is a critical component for the maintenance of functional capacity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks of step-training on work and power of the lower limbs in older women. Thirteen healthy and active women volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects underwent step-training classes three times per week for 60 min. Strength variables of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle work and power were assessed at an angular velocity of 60 and 180°/s. A significant difference (p<0.05 in knee flexor muscle work was observed between pre- and post-test at 60 and 180°/s. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in knee extensor muscle work between pre- and post-test at 60°/s. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-test values of knee flexor muscle power at 60°/s (p<0.05 and knee extensor muscle power at 60 and 180°/s (p<0.05. In conclusion, step-training can be recommended as an alternative physical activity to increase strength performance (work and power of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in older subjects.

  3. The uremic environment and muscle dysfunction in man and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Eidemak, I.; Molsted, S.; Bartels, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    -twitch). In isolated rat muscles, a uremic environment had no significant effect on slow-twitch soleus during field stimulation, however, in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, a significant 23% (RU) and 22% (HU) faster rate of decline in force was measured, compared to controls (p<0.001 and p<0...

  4. Driver kinematic and muscle responses in braking events with standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints: validation data for human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Jonas; Olafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males. The range of activity during steady state braking for males and females was 13-44% in the cervical and lumbar extensors, while antagonistic muscles showed a co-contraction of 2.3-19%. Seat belt pre-tension affects both the kinematic and muscle responses of drivers. In autonomous braking with standard restraints, muscle activation occurred in response to the inertial load. With pre-tensioned seat belts, EMG onset occurred earlier; between 71 ms and 176 ms after belt pre-tension. The EMG onset times decreased with repeated trials and were shorter for females than for males. With the results from this study, further improvement and validation of human models that incorporate active musculature will be made possible. PMID:24435725

  5. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  6. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    OpenAIRE

    Vianney Rozand; Benjamin Pageaux

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), ii) moderate mental exertion (con...

  7. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    OpenAIRE

    Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congr...

  8. Knee extensor torque of men with early degrees of osteoarthritis is associated with pain, stiffness and function Homens com graus iniciais de osteoartrite apresentam correlação entre torque extensor do joelho e dor, rigidez e função

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. M. S. Serrão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic-degenerative disease. The knee is the most commonly affected joint and the symptoms are generally attributed to quadriceps muscle weakness. However, few studies have evaluated this relationship in a population with early stages of knee OA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a correlation among the knee extensor torque and the three subscales of the WOMAC questionnaire in men with early stages of knee OA exists. METHOD: Twenty-one men with knee OA grades I or II (according to Kellgren and Lawrence criteria participated in this study. The concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque were assessed using a Biodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer, at a speed of 90º/s. Self-reported symptoms and disability were assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the dependent variables (three subscales of WOMAC questionnaire and the independent variables (average knee extensor peak torque. RESULTS: We found a strong negative correlation between the concentric extensor torque and pain (r=-0.7, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A osteoartrite (OA é uma doença crônico-degenerativa. O joelho é a articulação mais afetada, e os sintomas geralmente são atribuídos à fraqueza do músculo quadríceps. Entretanto, poucos estudos têm avaliado essa relação em indivíduos com graus iniciais de OA. OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e as seções dor, rigidez e função física do questionário WOMAC de homens com OA de joelho nos graus iniciais. MÉTODO: Participaram deste estudo 21 homens com OA de joelho graus I ou II (segundo critérios de Kelgren e Lawrence. Foi avaliado o torque extensor concêntrico e o excêntrico do joelho por meio do dinamômetro isocinético (Biodex System 3 Pro®, na velocidade de 90º/s. O autorrelato de sintomas e incapacidades foi avaliado por meio do questionário WOMAC. O

  9. Atualização da anatomia do mecanismo extensor do joelho com uso de técnica de visualização tridimensional Updating of the anatomy of the extensor mechanism of the knee using a three-dimensional viewing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O mecanismo extensor do joelho é uma estrutura complexa formada pelo músculo e tendão quadricipital, a patela, o tendão patelar e os ligamentos que os circundam e auxiliam na estabilização do joelho. Através do uso de técnica de visualização tridimensional de imagens do aparelho extensor do joelho pretendemos mostrar de forma didática as estruturas que compõem este complexo ósteo-músculo-ligamentar. Dissecção anatômica do joelho com ênfase nas estruturas do seu mecanismo extensor foi realizada seguida de fotografias com câmera e lentes adequadas para simulação da visão humana através de técnica de construção de imagem tridimensional. Em seguida, com a ajuda de software apropriado, as duas imagens da mesma estrutura de diferentes ângulos simulando a visão humana são sobrepostas com adição de camada polarizante, concluindo a construção da imagem anaglífica. As principais estruturas do mecanismo extensor do joelho podem ser observadas com efeito tridimensional. Dentre os principais benefícios relacionados a esta técnica, destacamos, além do ensino e estudo da anatomia musculoesquelética, o potencial uso em treinamento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e a realização de imagens em exames diagnósticos.The knee extensor mechanism is a complex structure formed by the quadriceps muscle and tendon, the patella, the patellar tendon and the ligaments that surround and help stabilize the knee. Through using a three-dimensional viewing technique on images of the knee extensor apparatus, we aimed to didactically show the structures that compose this bone-muscle-ligament complex. Anatomical dissection of the knee with emphasis on the structures of its extensor mechanism was performed, followed by taking photographs using a camera and lenses suitable for simulating human vision, through a technique for constructing three-dimensional images. Then, with the aid of appropriate software, pairs of images of the same structure from

  10. Tenossinovite e sinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor do punho: o que o ultrassonografista precisa saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Arend

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A tenossinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor é uma enfermidade frequente, cercada por mitos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar cientificamente alguns dos aspectos mais pertinentes ao ultrassonografista sobre sua terminologia, fisiopatogenia, diagnóstico e acompanhamento.

  11. PROTECTION DEVICE ON THE REPAIR OF RUPTURES OF KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Arguello Frutos, Carlos Francisco; Arbix Camargo, Osmar Pedro; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Leite Cury, Ricardo de Paula; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Aihara, Tatsuo; Avakian, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate results obtained using the protection device technique for osteosintesis or suture of extensor mechanism lesions. Material and Methods: The authors reviewed 18 charts of patients submitted to protection device technique due to traumatic lesion of extensor mechanism that had occurred between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the apical portion of patella. Age ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 44 years. Male patients prevailed, with 67% of the cases. The most affected spot...

  12. Controversies in Surgical Management of Recalcitrant Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Bonnie P; Wysocki, Robert W; Cohen, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis, often referred to as "tennis elbow," is common and responds to nonsurgical treatment in 80% to 90% of patients within 1 year. For those who proceed with surgery, much remains unclear regarding the ideal treatment. This paper discusses controversies in surgical management of extensor carpi radialis brevis enthesopathy including clinical outcomes of open versus arthroscopic techniques, the relevance of concomitant pathology addressed arthroscopically, and avenues for assessing comparative cost data. PMID:27491631

  13. Variation and Clinical Significance of Extensor Pollicis Brevis: A Study in South Indian Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Potu, Bhagath K; Prima D’Souza; Latha V Prabhu; Dil Islam Mansur; Ashwin Krishnamurthy; Muktyaz Hussein; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Ganesh K. Chettiar

    2009-01-01

    Background: de Quervain’s disease is a condition in which there is pain in the radial styloidprocess caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicislongus (APL) or/and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendons in the firstextensor compartment of the wrist. In this study we studied variations in thetendons of the EPB in the first extensor compartment and its site of insertion.Methods: One hundred fifty six upper limbs from adult cadavers of south Indian originwere dissected to observe ...

  14. Isokinetic assessment of the flexor-extensor balance of the knee in athletes with total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament Avaliação isocinética do equilíbrio flexo-extensor do joelho nos atletas com ruptura total do ligamento cruzado anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Sérgio A. P. Terreri; Marco A. Ambrósio; André Pedrinelli; Roberto F.M. Albuquerque; Felix Andrusaitis; Júlia Maria D. Greve; João G. Carazzato; Marco Martins Amatuzzi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the flexor-extensor group of muscles of the knee in young athletes diagnosed with a total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Eighteen knees of 18 athletes (14 men and 4 women) with an average age of 21.6 years (range 16-32 years) were assessed with a Cybex 6000 model isokinetic apparatus. The average interval between occurrence of the injury and assessment was 10.2 months (range 2 - 48 months). There was an associated meniscal injury in ei...

  15. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  16. Relationships between the mechanomyographic amplitude patterns of response and concentric isokinetic fatiguing tasks of the leg extensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible correlations between the b terms (slopes) form the log-transformed mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)–force relationships and the fatigue index calculated from 50 maximal concentric contractions. Forty healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 2 yr) performed isometric ramp contractions from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction followed by a 50-repetition concentric fatigue protocol of the leg extensors, fatigue index (%) was calculated from the 50-repetitions. MMG was recorded during the ramp contractions from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). The b terms (slopes) were calculated from the log-transformed MMGRMS–force relationships. Correlations were performed comparing the b terms from the MMGRMS–force relationships for the VL and RF with the fatigue index. Significant positive correlations were found among the b terms from the MMGRMS–force relationships for the VL (p = 0.007, r = 0.417) and RF (p = 0.014, r = 0.386) with the fatigue index. The b terms from the log-transformed MMGRMS–force relationships for the VL and RF may have reflected muscle fiber type composition and, thus, correlated with the fatigue index. This adds further support that the MMGRMS–force relationships may reflect muscle fiber type composition. (paper)

  17. Low-level intermittent quadriceps activity during transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates knee extensor force-generating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Santos, Luciana; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2016-08-01

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to increase the force-generating capacity of the skeletal muscles. However, when tDCS is concurrently combined with a motor task, interference may occur that hinders tDCS effects. Here, we tested the interaction and time course of tDCS effects on force production when paired with a low-level force-matching task. Twenty-two subjects were randomized into two groups: tDCS-Matching and tDCS-Resting. Each group received tDCS and a sham stimulation, separated by one week. Maximal knee extensor and flexor torques were measured before and up to twenty-five minutes following the stimulation. The tDCS-Matching group produced greater knee extension torques relative to sham when compared with the tDCS-Resting group. There was no significant effect for knee flexion. This suggests that interference does not occur for force production tasks when tDCS is combined with a motor task. Rather, the task appears to aid and isolate the effects to the muscle groups involved in the task. PMID:27138643

  18. Ultrasound and Electromyography Guidance for Injection of the Longus Colli With Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen K; Odderson, Ib R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical dystonia, also called spasmodic torticollis, is a painful condition in which neck muscles contract involuntarily, and may cause abnormal head position or movements. The primary (or first line of) treatment of cervical dystonia is chemodenervation with injection of botulinum toxin into the affected muscles. We report a case of a young man with idiopathic cervical dystonia who developed anterocollis (forward flexion of the neck) not responsive to prior scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscle injections. To safely access the deeper cervical musculature, ultrasound (US) was used in conjunction with electromyography, to inject the longus colli muscles bilaterally. The patient responded well and had no complications. The longus colli has been reported to be injected using electromyography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and, less frequently, US. We propose that US guidance is an excellent technique for botulinum toxin injection, especially for deep cervical muscles such as the longus colli. PMID:26886108

  19. Technical tip: Side-to-side tendon suture as escape plan during extensor indicis tendon plasty in distal extensor pollicis longus rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleh, Andrea Christina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In case of a short distal recipient stump after extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon rupture, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP tendon using a conventional Pulvertaft tendon-weaving technique may be difficult or impossible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical tip to manage this rare, but clinically important scenario of a very short distal EPL recipient tendon.Methods: A side-to-side tendon suture (SSTS was used for EIP transfer to restore thumb extension in 3 patients who had sustained a distal rupture of their extensor pollicis longus near the interphalangeal joint. The SSTS was performed with an overlap of 2 cm in 2 patients and in one patient.Results: A stable SSTS was achieved which allowed early active mobilization and resulted in good functional recovery of thumb extension after a mean follow-up of 8 months.Conclusion: Extensor indicis transfer using SSTS is a reliable and technically simple escape plan in a distal rupture of the EPL near the phalangeal joint. It provides very stable tendon-to-tendon attachment with high loading capacity and good gliding qualities.

  20. The effects of rehabilitation on the muscles of the trunk following prolonged bed rest

    OpenAIRE

    Hides, Julie A.; Lambrecht, Gunda; Richardson, Carolyn A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Pruett, Casey; Damann, Volker; Felsenberg, Dieter; Belavý, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Microgravity and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest have been shown to result in atrophy of spinal extensor muscles such as the multifidus, and either no atrophy or hypertrophy of flexor muscles such as the abdominal group and psoas muscle. These effects are long-lasting after bed rest and the potential effects of rehabilitation are unknown. This two-group intervention study aimed to investigate the effects of two rehabilitation programs on the recovery of lumbo-pelvic musculature following...

  1. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelli Maria Souza Santos; Manoel Luiz de Cerqueira Neto; Vitor Oliveira Carvalho; Valter Joviniano Santana Filho; Walderi Monteiro da Silva Junior; Amaro Afrânio Araújo Filho; Telma Cristina Fontes Cerqueira; Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods: This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M...

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  4. Muscle contribution to elbow joint valgus stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang; Kohli, Navjot; Perlmutter, Sam; Lim, Dohyung; Nuber, Gordon W; Makhsous, Mohsen

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive valgus stress of the elbow can result in excessive strain or rupture of the native medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL). The flexor-pronator mass (FPM) may be particularly important for elbow valgus stability in overhead-throwing athletes. The aim of this study was to identify the relative contribution of each muscle of the FPM--that is, the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and pronator teres (PT)--and of the extensor-supinator mass, including the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), extensor digitorum communis (EDC), extensor carpi radialis longus and brevus, and brachioradialis, to elbow valgus stability at 45 degrees and 90 degrees of elbow flexion angles. Eight fresh-frozen elbow specimens (mean age at death, 73.75 +/- 14.07 years) were tested. With the skin and subcutaneous tissue removed but all muscles left intact, each individual muscle of the FPM and extensor-supinator mass was loaded at 3 levels of force. During loading, strain on the MUCL and the kinematics of the elbow were measured simultaneously. Kinematic measurements were later repeated when the MUCL was fully cut. At 45 degrees and 90 degrees of elbow flexion, individual loading of the FCU, FDS, and FCR caused significant relief to the MUCL whereas the PT produced no significant change. Furthermore, of these flexor muscles, the FCU provided the greatest MUCL relief at both 45 degrees and 90 degrees . In contrast, loading of the ECU at 45 degrees of elbow flexion produced a significant increase in MUCL strain. All FPM muscles caused significant elbow varus movement at both 45 degrees and 90 degrees when loaded individually. At 90 degrees , the FCU created more motion than both the FCR and PT but not the FDS, and the FDS created more motion than the PT. The EDC and ECU created significant valgus movement at 45 degrees and 90 degrees , which became insignificant when the MUCL was transected. Our study suggested that the FCU, FDS, and

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  6. Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Panjabi, Manohar M.; Simpson, Andrew K.; Ivancic, Paul C.; Pearson, Adam M.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yue, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra, tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak rotations and anterior sliding (displacement of upper articulating facet s...

  7. A Comparison of the Effect of Kettlebell Swings and Isolated Lumbar Extension Training on Acute Torque Production of the Lumbar Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinborough, Luke; Fisher, James P; Steele, James

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use a fatigue response test to measure the muscular fatigue (defined as a reduction in torque production) sustained by the lumbar extensors after a single set of kettlebell swings (KBS) in comparison with isolated lumbar extensions (ILEX) and a control condition (CON). The purpose of which is to measure the physiological response of KBS against an already established modality. Subsequent data provide insight of the efficacy of kettlebells swings in strengthening the lumbar muscles and lower back pain treatment. Eight physically active males participated in a repeated measures design where participants completed all conditions. There were statistically significant reductions in maximal torque, reported as strength index (SI), after both KBS and ILEX exercise. A statistically significant difference was found for reductions in maximal torque between CON and both KBS (p = 0.005) and ILEX (p = 0.001) and between KBS and ILEX (p = 0.039). Mean reduction and effect sizes were -1824 ± 1127.12 (SI) and -1.62 for KBS and -4775.6 ± 1593.41 (SI) and -3.00 for ILEX. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between KBS and ILEX for rate of perceived exertion (p = 0.012). Data suggest that both KBS and ILEX were able to fatigue the lumbar extensors. Isolated lumbar extension was able to generate a greater level of fatigue. However, contrary to previous research, the KBS was able to elicit a physiological response, despite the lack of pelvic restraint supporting the potential to strengthen the lumbar extensors. PMID:26439790

  8. Cervical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the possibilities of cervical computed tomography with the apparatus available at present. The normal anatomy of the cervical region as it appears in computed tomography is described with special regard to its compartimental structure and functional aspects; this is supplemented by anatomically normal measures obtained from cervical computed tomograms of 60 healthy individuals of different age and both sexes. The morphology of cervical anomalies obtained via CT and of the various acquired cervical disease processes is discussed and illustrated by means of the authors' own observations; the diagnostic value of the findings obtained by CT is discussed, a diagnosis is set up. (orig./MG)

  9. Ultrasound findings in injuries of dorsal extensor hood: Correlation with MR and follow-up findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to examine the dorsal hood in nine patients with a clinical suspicion of dorsal hood injuries. Material and methods: Clinical and imaging files from interesting case logbooks of nine patients were reviewed. Ultrasound was performed by one of the three radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal ultrasound. The examinations were also performed in flexion and in flexion with resistance. MR correlation was obtained in six patients. One patient underwent surgery. To obtain anatomical correlation of the normal dorsal hood 2 embalmed hand specimens were dissected. Results: The sagittal bands were easily depicted in the transverse plane on ultrasound images and presented as hypoechoic bands on both sides of the extensor communis tendons. Injuries of the sagittal bands were seen on ultrasound as hypoechoic thickening of the sagittal bands at the side of the extensor tendons. The normal shape of the sagittal bands was also no longer recognizable. Subluxations or dislocations of the extensor tendons were also seen. When the injuries were located in the fibrous slips between the extensor indicis and the extensor communis of the second finger, subluxations with an increased distance between these 2 tendons were seen, especially in flexion, or in flexion with resistance. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a valuable tool for the assessment of the injuries of the dorsal hood and is an easily available method for the diagnosis of the fine soft tissue components of the dorsal hood region.

  10. Rheumatoid wrist deformity and risk of extensor tendon rupture evaluated by 3DCT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Horizono, Hidehiro; Ishii, Katsushi; Seki, Eiko [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata city, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It causes immediate dysfunction of the hand and surgical reconstruction is usually required. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of extensor tendon rupture by quantifying wrist deformity on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. Three-dimensional CT images of 108 wrists in 102 patients with RA and 38 wrists in 38 healthy volunteers were analyzed retrospectively. All of the rheumatoid wrists had caused persistent pain for more than 6 months despite ongoing medical treatment. Extensor tendon rupture was noted in 49 wrists in 47 patients, and no rupture was noted in 59 wrists in 56 patients. The dorsal subluxation ratio (DSR) of the ulnar head and the carpal supination angle (CSA) were measured utilizing a new technique. The average DSR and CSA in the rupture group (n = 49), the non-rupture group (n = 59), and the normal wrist group (n = 38) were 37%, 19%, and 26%, and 15 , 11 , and 6 respectively. The cut-off values for extensor tendon rupture in the wrists of patients with RA were 32% (sensitivity; 70%, specificity; 75%) in the DSR, and 14 (71%, 68%) in the CSA. By utilizing 3DCT imaging of the rheumatoid wrist, these parameters can help improve our ability to predict extensor tendon rupture. (orig.)

  11. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  12. Clinical study on the treatment of cervical disc herniation through the method of traction combined with muscle meridian manipulation%牵引配合经筋推拿治疗颈椎间盘突出症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚星军; 马文央; 王倩芬

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect of traction combined with muscle meridian manipulation on cervical disc herniation(CDH). Methods: 196 CDH patients met the criteria were randomly divided into 2 groups,98 cases in each group. Patients in treatment group were administrated with traction combined with muscle meridian manipulation, while the others in control group were administrated with traction combined with the specific electromagnetic wave. The curative effects of the patients were compared between the 2 groups after 2 course of treatment. Results: The curative effect of treatment group was better than that of control group and there was statistical difference between the two groups( Z = 5. 1.50, P = 0. 000). Conclusion :The method of traction combined with muscle meridian manipulation has definite curative effect on cervical disc herniation,it is worth popularizing in clinic.%目的:观察牵引配合经筋推拿治疗颈椎间盘突出症的临床疗效.方法:将符合标准的196例颈椎间盘突出症患者随机分为2组,每组98例.治疗组采用牵引配合经筋推拿治疗,对照组采用牵引结合特定电磁波治疗.治疗2个疗程后对比2组患者的疗效.结果:治疗组疗效优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(Z=5.150,P=0.000).结论:牵引配合经筋推拿治疗颈椎间盘突出症疗效确切,值得临床推广应用.

  13. NO ASSOCIATION OF α -ACTININ-3 (ACTN3) AND VITAMIN D RECEPTOR (VDR) GENOTYPES WITH SKELETAL MUSCLE PHENOTYPES IN YOUNG WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    James P. Gavin; Williams, Alun G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated association between polymorphisms of α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes, and the skeletal muscle phenotypes; sprint performance, jump capacity, and knee extensor and flexor strength. Sixty-two non-resistance trained Caucasian females (mean ± SD; 21 ± 4 years) completed 15 m sprint, standing vertical jump, knee extensor and flexor isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests. 15 m sprint and vertical jump were assessed using infrared timing ga...

  14. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... effects against muscle fatigue and ultrastructural damages, preventing or reducing the loss in mechanical muscle function after running. Subjects were tested before and after IERT protocol for maximal isometric, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extensor strength (60° and 180° s(-1)). In a second...... session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...

  16. Typology of the arteries in the human scalenus region, with special reference to the accessory ascending cervical artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su WD

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The accessory ascending cervical artery (Murakami et al., 1996, which arises from the subclavian artery and ascends between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles, was studied in 87 Japanese adult cadavers (174 sides, with special attention being given to its origin, distribution, and relationship to other arteries at the cervical or scalenus region. In 154 sides (88.5%, the accessory ascending cervical artery was found to originate from the subclavian artery behind the scalenus anterior muscle, and to branch out to the scalenus anterior and medius muscles as well as those entering the 5th and 6th intervertebral foramens along the 6th and 7th cervical nerves. This artery arose independently in 105 sides. The accessory ascending cervical artery issued off or formed a common trunk with the transverse cervical artery and/or costocervical trunk in 49 sides. In cases lacking the accessory ascending cervical artery, it was usually compensated for by the costocervial trunk and/or transverse cervical artery (18 sides. Common trunk formation with the vertebral, internal thoracic, or suprascapular arteries was not observed. The authors suggest that the accessory ascending cervical artery, the transverse cervical artery, and the costocervical trunk should be grouped into one arterial system, a system that may be a remnant of the precostal longitudinal anastomoses of intersegmental arteries of the dorsal aorta behind the scalenus anterior muscle.

  17. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  18. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to spaceflight: Cosmos rhesus project. Cosmos 2044 and 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1994-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medial gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These effects were assessed by examining the biochemical and morphological properties of muscle fibers obtained from biopsies in young Rhesus monkeys (3-4 Kg). Biopsies taken from ground base experiments were analyzed to determine: (1) the effects of chair restraint at 1 G on muscle properties and (2) the growth rate of flexor and extensor muscles in the Rhesus. In addition, two sets of biopsies were taken from monkeys which were in the flight pool and the four monkeys that flew on the Cosmos 2044 and 2229 biosatellite missions. Based on data collected in rats it is generally assumed that extensors atrophy to a greater extent than flexors in response to spaceflight or hindlimb suspension. Consequently, the finding that fibers in the TA (a fast flexor) of the flight monkeys atrophied, whereas fibers in the Sol (a predominantly slow extensor) and MG (a fast extensor) grew after a 14-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) and 12-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2229) was unexpected. In Cosmos 2044, the TA in both flight monkeys had a 21 percent decrease in fiber size, whereas the Sol and MG both had a 79 percent increase in fiber size. In Cosmos 2229, the TA in both flight monkeys showed significant atrophy, whereas the Sol and MG showed slight growth in one monkey (906) and slight atrophy in the other monkey (151).

  19. Computed tomography of muscles in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137 patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied by CT scan. Four levels were chosen: mid-calf, mid-thigh, pelvic girdle, and spinal muscles. The scans were compared with normal control scans taken from the same sites. The patients were divided into those with myogenic diseases and those with neurogenic diseases. Of the 102 patients with myogenic changes, 17 had X-linked dystrophy, 13 had facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 22 had limb girdle dystrophy, 19 had myotonic dystrophy, 14 had inflammatory muscle diseases, and 17 had miscellaneous muscular diseases. Of the 35 patients with neurogenic changes, 8 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 16 had chronic spinal amyotrophies, 9 had peripheral neuropathies, and 2 had Friedreich's disease. The analysis of muscles changes (volume, outline, density) was established on the following muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus, soleus, gastrocnemius mediale, gastrocnemius laterale, quadriceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, adductor, gracilis, gluteus, spine extensors, and psoas

  20. Motoneuron BDNF/TrkB Signaling Enhances Functional Recovery after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Gransee, Heather M.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    A C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) interrupts descending inspiratory-related drive to phrenic motoneurons located between C3 and C5 in rats, paralyzing the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm muscle. There is gradual recovery of rhythmic diaphragm muscle activity ipsilateral to cervical spinal cord injury over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared, contralateral descending premotor input to phrenic motoneurons. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling throug...

  1. Muscle glycogen content and glucose uptake during exercise in humans: influence of prior exercise and dietary manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; van Hall, Gerrit; Keller, Charlotte;

    2002-01-01

    on two occasions: one after 60 min of two-legged cycling (16 h prior to the experimental trial) followed by a high carbohydrate diet (HCHO) and the other after the same exercise followed by a low carbohydrate diet (LCHO) (Series 2). Muscle glycogen was decreased by 40 % when comparing the pre...... during exercise, 13 healthy men were studied during two series of experiments. Seven men completed 4 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise 16 h after reducing of muscle glycogen by completing 60 min of single-legged cycling (Series 1). A further six men completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise...

  2. Cross-spectral analysis of physiological tremor and muscle activity; 1, Theory and application to unsynchronized EMG

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, J; Pfleger, W; Deuschl, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the extensor electromyogram (EMG) and tremor time series in physiological hand tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention is directed to the phase spectrum and the effects of observational noise. We calculate the theoretical phase spectrum for a second order linear stochastic process and compare the results to measured tremor data recorded from subjects who did not show a synchronized EMG activity in the corresponding extensor muscle. The results show that physiological tremor is well described by the proposed model and that the measured EMG represents a Newtonian force by which the muscle acts on the hand.

  3. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview ... be cured. How often should I get screened (tested)? How often you should get screened for cervical ...

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  6. Effects of isokinetic training of the knee extensors on isometric strength and peak power output during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, A F; Jakeman, P M; Willan, P L

    1992-01-01

    Isokinetic training of right and left quadriceps femoris was undertaken three times per week for 16 weeks. One group of subjects (n = 13) trained at an angular velocity of 4.19 rad.s-1 and a second group (n = 10) at 1.05 rad.s-1. A control group (n = 10) performed no training. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps, and peak pedal velocity nu p,peak) and peak power output (Wpeak) during all-out cycling (against loads equivalent to 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14% MVC) were assessed before and after training. The two training groups did not differ significantly from each other in their training response to any of the performance variables (P > 0.05). No significant difference in MVC was observed for any group after the 16-week period (P = 0.167). The post-training increases in average Wpeak (7%) and nu p,peak (6%) during the cycle tests were each significantly different from the control group response (P = 0.018 and P = 0.008, respectively). It is concluded that 16 weeks of isokinetic strength training of the knee extensors is able to significantly improve nu p, peak and Wpeak during spring cycling, an activity which demands considerable involvement of the trained muscle group but with its own distinct pattern of coordination. PMID:1425638

  7. Acupoints for cervical spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihe; Arsovska, Blagica; Vasileva, Dance; Petkovska, Sofija; Kozovska, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck, as well as the contents of the spinal canal. This is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the spine. The disease can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Symptoms that are distinctive for cervical spondylosis are: tingling, numbness and weakness in the limbs, lack of coordination, stiff neck, shoulder pain, occipital pain, vertigo, poor...

  8. Contraction induced secretion of VEGF from skeletal muscle cells is mediated by adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Olsen, Karina; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    and during knee extensor exercise. The dialysate was analyzed for content of VEGF protein and adenosine. The mechanism of VEGF secretion from muscle cells in culture was examined in resting and electro stimulated cells, and in response to the adenosine analogue NECA, and the adenosine A(2A) receptor...

  9. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... response to exposure without any pathophysiological significance, or represents a part of a causal pathway leading to pain....

  10. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eig...

  11. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the princ...

  12. Spatial localization of electromyographic amplitude distributions associated to the activation of dorsal forearm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlessioGallina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether the spatial distribution of surface electromyographic (EMG amplitude can be used to describe the activation of muscle portions with different biomechanical actions. Ten healthy subjects performed isometric contractions aimed to selectively activate a number of forearm muscles or muscle subportions. Monopolar electromyographic signals were collected with an electrode grid of 128 electrodes placed on the proximal, dorsal portion of the forearm. The monopolar EMG amplitude (root mean square value distribution was calculated for each contraction, and high-amplitude channels were identified through an automatic procedure; the position of the EMG source was estimated with the barycenter of these channels. Each of the contractions tested was associated to a specific EMG amplitude distribution, whose location in space was consistent with the expected anatomical position of the main agonist muscle (or subportion. The position of each source was significantly different from the others in at least one direction (ANOVA; transversally to the forearm: P < 0.01, F = 125.92; longitudinally: P < 0.01, F = 35.83. With such an approach, we could distinguish the spatial position of EMG distributions related to the activation of contiguous muscles (e.g.: extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum communis, different heads of the same muscle (i.e.: extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus and different functional compartments (i.e.: extensor digitorum communis, middle and ring fingers. These findings are discussed in terms of how forces along a given direction can be produced by recruiting population of motor units clustered not only in specific muscles, but also in muscle sub-portions. In addition, this study supports the use of high-density EMG systems to characterize the activation of muscle subportions with different biomechanical actions.

  13. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons, as well as

  14. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parellada, Antoni J. [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Frankford Hospitals - Torresdale Campus, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sweet, Stephanie [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Hand Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leinberry, Charles F. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery - Hand Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons

  15. The averaged EMGs recorded from the arm muscles during bimanual rowing movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eTomiak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose was to analyze quantitatively the the average surface EMGs of the muscles that function around the elbow and shoulder joints of both arms in similar bimanual ‘rowing’ movements, which were produced under identical elastic loads applied to the levers (‘oars’. The muscles of PM group (‘pulling’ muscles: elbow flexors, shoulder extensors generated noticeable velocity-dependent dynamic EMG components during the pulling and returning phases of movement and supported a steady-state activity during the hold phase. The muscles of RM group (‘returning’ muscles: elbow extensors, shoulder flexors co-contracted with PM group during the movement phases and decreased activity during the hold phase. The dynamic components of the EMGs strongly depended on the velocity factor in both muscle groups, whereas the side and load factors and combinations of various factors acted only in PM group muscles. Various subjects demonstrated diverse patterns of activity redistribution among muscles. We assume that central commands to the same muscles in two arms may be essentially different during execution of similar movement programs. Extent of the diversity in the EMG patterns of such muscles may reflect the subject’s skilling in motor performance; on the other hand, the diversity can reflect redistribution of activity between synergic muscles, thus providing a mechanism directed against development of the muscle fatigue.

  16. Muscular and skeletal changes in cervical dysphonic in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menoncin, Laiza Carine Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vocal and neck are associated with the presence of tension and cervical muscle contraction. These disorders compromise the vocal tract and musculoskeletal cervical region and, thus, can cause muscle shortening, pain and fatigue in the neck and shoulder girdle. Objective:To evaluate and identify cervical abnormalities in women with vocal disorders, and neck pains comparing them to women without vocal complaints independent of the neck. Method: This prospective study of 32 subjects studied in the dysphonic group and 18 subjects in the control group, aged between 25 and 55 year old female. The subjects underwent assessments, ENT, orthopedic, physical therapy and voice recording. Results: At Rx cervical region more patients in the control group had this normal, however, with regard to the reduction of spaces interdiscal dysphonic patients prevailed. Furthermore, postural assessment, the kyphosis of the 1st thoracic vertebra occurred in 77.0% of non-dysphonic group (p = 0.0091, while cervical rotation was present in 83% of control (p = 0.0051. Conclusion: Significant cervical abnormalities in both groups, but cannot be inferred that the changes are directly related to dysphonia.

  17. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.;

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow...

  18. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  19. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  20. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  1. Isokinetic assessment of the flexor-extensor balance of the knee in athletes with total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament Avaliação isocinética do equilíbrio flexo-extensor do joelho nos atletas com ruptura total do ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio A. P. Terreri

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the flexor-extensor group of muscles of the knee in young athletes diagnosed with a total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Eighteen knees of 18 athletes (14 men and 4 women with an average age of 21.6 years (range 16-32 years were assessed with a Cybex 6000 model isokinetic apparatus. The average interval between occurrence of the injury and assessment was 10.2 months (range 2 - 48 months. There was an associated meniscal injury in eight of the knees. Athletes with any other kind of associated injury, limitation, or blockage of the movement of the joint, significant pain during the exam, or interval between injury and exam of less than two months were excluded from the study. The parameters studied were the peak torque-velocity and flexor-extensor relationships at the constant angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec. Previous warming-up was done by means of an ergometric bicycle and adaptation with 3 submaximal repetitions. The contra-lateral side, which presented no injury, was used as control. Peak torque (PT at the constant velocity of 60°/sec was greater than that at 240°/sec for knees with and without injuries. However, there was no significant difference between the injured and uninjured sides at 60°/sec or at 240°/sec. The average value for the flexor-extensor relationship at 60°/sec on the injured was 60% (( 6, compared to 57% (( 10 on the contra-lateral side. At 240°/sec, the average value was 75% ((10 on the injured side, and 65% ((12 on the contra-lateral side. In conclusion, despite the complete rupture of the ACL of one knee, the average values for the flexor-extensor relationship were similar on the injured and uninjured sides at the velocity of 60°/sec. As the velocity increased, an increase in the values for the flexor-extensor relationship of the knee also occurred, indicating a tendency of the performance of the flexor muscle group to approach that of the

  2. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon;

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type...... CSA increased exclusively with Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and type II fiber hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P < 0.01). In conclusion, isolated concentric knee extensor resistance training appears to constitute a stronger driver of SC content than......-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose...

  3. Effects of aging on muscle mechanical function and muscle fiber morphology during short-term immobilization and subsequent retraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars; Aagaard, Per; Justesen, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of aging and disuse as separate factors causing deterioration in muscle mechanical function. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 wk of immobilization followed by 4 wk of retraining on knee extensor muscle...... mechanical function (e.g., maximal strength and rapid force capacity) and muscle fiber morphology in 9 old (OM: 67.3 ± 1.3 yr) and 11 young healthy men (YM: 24.4 ± 0.5 yr) with comparable levels of physical activity. Following immobilization, OM demonstrated markedly larger decreases in rapid force capacity...... deleterious effects of short-term muscle disuse on muscle fiber size and rapid force capacity than YM. Furthermore, OM seems to require longer time to recover and regain rapid muscle force capacity, which may lead to a larger risk of falling in aged individuals after periods of short-term disuse....

  4. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author)

  5. Estudo anatômico das inserções distais do tendão extensor longo do polegar Anatomical studies of the distal insertion of the extensor pollicis longus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Benedito Ferreira Caetano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Registramos pelo presente estudo que o músculo (ELP e seu tendão apresentaram poucas variações anatômicas. Não registramos a presença de tendões acessórios e nem a ausência desse músculo ou de seu tendão. Verificamos em todas as preparações a passagem do tendão pelo terceiro compartimento osteofibroso, cruzando sobre os extensor radial curto (ERCC e longo (ERLC do carpo e dirigindo-se ao polegar. A alteração no trajeto tendinoso, desviando-se no sentido radial foi verificada em uma das preparações (1,6%. A duplicação parcial do tendão proximal a articulação metacarpofalângica (AMFP foi verificada em 3 observações (4,8%, sendo 1 bilateral, e distal à articulação em 5 (8,3%, 2 bilateralmente. A inserção óssea na base da falange distal (BFD foi encontrada em todas as observações. Durante sua passagem pela articulação metacarpofalângica, registramos sua inserção na cápsula articular em 14 observações (23,3%, porém não registramos a inserção óssea nesse local. O padrão mais comum em relação ao músculo ELP foi a presença constante de 1 tendão, passando pelo terceiro compartimento osteofibroso dorsal do punho com inserção óssea na base da falange distal do polegar.We recorded with this study that the EPL muscle and its tendon show a few anatomical variations. Any accessories tendons either the absence of this muscle or its tendon was found. In all preparation the passage of the tendon through the third osteofibroses compartment, crossing on the ERBC and ERLC going to the thumb was seen. The change of the tendinuous trajectory, deviating itself to the radial direction in one of the preparations was checked (1,6%. The partial duplication of the proximal tendon to the metacarpophalangeal joint (AMP was seen in three observations (4,8%, one bilateral and distal to the articulation in five (8,3%, 2 bilaterally. The bone insertion at the base of distal (BFD phalanx in all observations were found

  6. Fetal muscle-derived cells can repair dystrophic muscles in mdx mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported that CD34+ cells purified from mouse fetal muscles can differentiate into skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo when injected into muscle tissue of dystrophic mdx mice. In this study, we investigate the ability of such donor cells to restore dystrophin expression, and to improve the functional muscle capacity of the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) of mdx mice. For this purpose green fluorescent-positive fetal GFP+/CD34+ cells or desmin+/-LacZ/CD34+ cells were transplanted into irradiated or non-irradiated mdx EDL muscle. Donor fetal muscle-derived cells predominantly fused with existing fibers. Indeed more than 50% of the myofibers of the host EDL contained donor nuclei delivering dystrophin along 80-90% of the length of their sarcolemma. The presence of significant amounts of dystrophin (about 60-70% of that found in a control wild-type mouse muscle) was confirmed by Western blot analyses. Dystrophin expression also outcompeted that of utrophin, as revealed by a spatial shift in the distribution of utrophin. At 1 month post-transplant, the recipient muscle appeared to have greater resistance to fatigue than control mdx EDL muscle during repeated maximal contractions

  7. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  8. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... year. As part of CDC’s Cervical Cancer (Cx3) Study, we surveyed a sample of both health care ...

  9. Factors affecting isokinetic muscle strength before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Halil Yalçin; Erkan, Serkan; Uzun, Macit

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting muscle strength of ACL-deficient knees before and after ACL reconstruction. The study included 122 male patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Preoperative loss and change in muscle strength in both extensor and flexor muscle groups after ACL reconstruction were calculated separately at 60 degrees/sec and 180 degrees/sec angular velocities. We evaluated the effect of surgical delay on the preoperative deficit and on its change after surgery. Muscle strength change after ACL reconstruction was also evaluated in relation to patient compliance to treatment. The longer the delay of ACL reconstruction the more the muscle strength deficit of flexor and extensor muscles increased. In the ACL deficient knees with high strength deficit, improvement in muscle strength was higher after ACL reconstruction for both muscle groups. When delay of ACL reconstruction was short and the patient was compliant to treatment, flexor muscle strength recovery was early. Shortening the delay to reconstruction had a positive influence on muscle strength after ACL reconstruction when preoperative muscle strength deficit was high. PMID:21846002

  10. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined

  11. Bilateral assessment of knee muscle relationships in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Regina Santos dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric performance of flexor and extensor muscles of the knee may be a risk factor for knee injuries, especially the anterior cruciate ligament. Additionally, asymmetries in power and work may have correlations with fatigue and performance during functional tasks. Among untrained individuals, such asymmetries may be of potential interest for training prescription. Here, we investigated the bilateral performance of knee flexors and extensors muscle groups of untrained individuals. We quantified the torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, as well as work, power and asymmetry indexes in 20 untrained male (25 ± 4 years old; height 1.74 ± 0.05 m; body mass 76 ± 9 kg. No significant asymmetry was observed for torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, work and power output for knee flexor and extensor muscle groups (p < .05. Our results suggest that untrained male present symmetry in the knee flexion and extension bilateral performance. Changes in this behavior due to physical training must be monitored.

  12. Notalgia paresthetica associated with cervical spinal stenosis and cervicothoracic disk disease at C4 through C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Nili N; Skinner, Harry B; Nabili, Siamak T; Jeffes, Edward; Shahrokni, Seyed; Saemi, Arash M

    2010-02-01

    Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a common refractory, sensory, neuropathic syndrome with the hallmark symptom of localized pruritus of the unilateral infrascapular back. It generally is a chronic noncurable condition with periodic remissions and exacerbations. While the dermatologic syndrome may be multifactorial in etiology, a possible association with underlying cervical spine disease should be evaluated for proper treatment. Collaborative multispecialty evaluation by dermatology, radiology, orthopedic surgery, and neurology may be indicated for primary management of this condition. First-line therapy for NP with associated cervical disease may include nondermatologic noninvasive treatments such as spinal manipulation, physical therapy, massage, cervical traction, cervical muscle strengthening, and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. Notalgia paresthetica may in fact be a cutaneous sign of an underlying degenerative cervical spine disease. We report a case of a patient with cervical spinal stenosis that corresponded directly with the clinical findings of NP. PMID:20349681

  13. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  14. Typology of the arteries in the human scalenus region, with special reference to the accessory ascending cervical artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Su WD; Ohtsuka A; Taguchi T; Murakami T.

    2000-01-01

    The accessory ascending cervical artery (Murakami et al., 1996), which arises from the subclavian artery and ascends between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles, was studied in 87 Japanese adult cadavers (174 sides), with special attention being given to its origin, distribution, and relationship to other arteries at the cervical or scalenus region. In 154 sides (88.5%), the accessory ascending cervical artery was found to originate from the subclavian artery behind the scalenus anterior...

  15. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius] muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding

  17. Cervical dystonia : Improved treatment response to botulinum toxin after referral to a tertiary centre and the use of polymyography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Standaar, T. S. M.; Postma, Marten; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cervical dystonia is the most common form of (primary) dystonia. The first line of treatment for cervical dystonia is intramuscular injections with botulinum toxin. To optimise the response to botulinum toxin proper muscles selection is required. Pre-treatment polymyographic EMG in additi

  18. The Management of a Patient with a Cervical Disc Herniation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pidcoe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the management of a patient with a cervical disc herniation and illustrate the efficacy of cervical traction as a main form of treatment for cervical disc herniation in conjunction with a home exercise program.Background: A 71-year-old white female diagnosed with cervical disc herniation at the levels of C5-6 and C6-7 presented to physical therapy with neck pain radiating into the left upper extremity down to the 5th digit of the left hand.Treatment: The patient reported to outpatient physical therapy for cervical disc herniation and radiculopathy. After initial evaluation she received intermittent cervical traction and was given a home exercise program consisting of cervical lateral flexion stretch, unilateral wall stretch for pectoralis muscles and to continue with her over the door cervical traction.Conclusion: Cervical traction and a good home exercise program have been shown to reduce cervical disc herniation and its subsequent symptoms.

  19. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling. PMID:27077478

  20. Decreased specific force and power production of muscle fibers from myostatin-deficient mice are associated with a suppression of protein degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendias, Christopher L; Kayupov, Erdan; Bradley, Joshua R.; Brooks, Susan V.; Claflin, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of cytokines and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Compared with MSTN+/+ mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscles of MSTN−/− mice exhibit hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and greater maximum isometric force production (Fo), but decreased specific maximum isometric force (sFo; Fo normalized by muscle cross-sectional area). The reason for the reduction in sFo was not known. Studies in myotubes indicate that ...

  1. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  2. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  3. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  4. Preparación de agregados orientados de arcilla mediante extensor

    OpenAIRE

    Plana, F.; Traveria i Cros, Adolf; Martínez Manent, Salvador

    1982-01-01

    Se detalla un método nuevo para la preparación de agregados orientados de arcilla para sus análisis por Difracción de Rayos X. Se trata de emplear un extensor para obtener un grosor constante de material, que por su delgadez seca rápidamente, economizándose tiempo y espacio en el laboratorio, obteniéndose además mejores resultados que con el método convencional.

  5. Noncompact Absolute Extensors in Dimension n, n-SOFT Mappings, and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigogidze, A. Ch

    1987-02-01

    R-compact absolute extensors in dimension n (AE(n)) and n-soft mappings are defined and studied. Spectral characterizations are obtained not only for AE(n)-spaces but also for n-soft mappings themselves; this is new even in the compact case. The technique developed is applied to the study of certain questions of functional analysis and the theory of nonmetrizable manifolds modeled on topological vector spaces. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  6. Radiographic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of a chronic long digital extensor tendon avulsion in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long digital extensor tendon avulsion is reported in a 5 month old Great Dane, Clinically the dog presented with a unilateral weight-bearing pelvic limb lameness, Joint effusion was present and there was pain and crepitance associated with flexion of the stifle, Orthopedic evaluation and radiographs were suggestive of a long digital extensor tendon injury which was confirmed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, The injury was surgically repaired with screw and spikedwasher fixation

  7. Early active mobilisation versus immobilisation after extrinsic extensor tendon repair: A prospective randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether to splint the extensor tendon repairs or to mobilise them early is debatable. Recently, mobilisation has shown favourable results in a few studies. This study was aimed to compare the two favoured protocols (immobilisation vs. early active motion in Indian population. Patients and Methods: Between June 2005 and June 2007, patients with extensor tendon injuries in zones V-VIII were randomly distributed in two groups: Group A, early active motion; and group B, immobilisation. Their results at 8 and 12 weeks and 6 months were compared. Results: Patients in early active motion group were found to have better total active motion and early return to work. This difference was statistically significant up to 12 weeks, but not at 6 months. Conclusion: Early active motion following extensor tendon repair hastens patients′ recovery and helps patients to gain complete range of motion at earlier postoperative period. With improved grip strength, the early return to work is facilitated, though these advantages are not sustained statistically significantly over long term.

  8. Multiple ruptures of the extensor tendons after volar fixation for distal radius fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giancarlo; Vitali, Andrea; del Prete, Ferdinando

    2015-12-01

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after a bicycle accident with a displaced left (non-dominant) distal radius fracture. After closed reduction a long cast was applied. Due to loss of reduction, twenty-four days later open reduction internal fixation with locking compression plate (LCP) was performed. The patient returned to her normal activities but nineteen months after surgery showed functional impairment of the left thumb for Extensor Pollicis Longus (EPL) injury for which she necessitated transposition surgery. Twenty-six months after ORIF, functional deficit of the extension of the third and fourth left finger was noted secondary to injury of extensor tendons. Ultrasound and CT scan showed protrusion of the angular stability screws in LCP plate that caused a progressive wear resulting in rupture of the extensor tendons. Another tendon transposition surgery was performed with dorsal approach while the plate was removed utilising the original volar incision. Reconstruction of distal radius fractures with volar plating, requires accurate plate application with precise measurement of the length of the screws in order to prevent dorsal protrusion and thus avoiding tendon injuries. PMID:26738455

  9. Knee Extensor Mechanism Repairs: Standard Suture Repair and Novel Augmentation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Zachary; Ricci, William M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures are relatively common injuries. Rupture of the knee extensor mechanism may occur because of a forceful eccentric contraction of the quadriceps against a resisted flexed knee, though atraumatic cases have also been described. Patients at higher than normal risk for knee extensor mechanism rupture include those with systemic co-morbidities, fluoroquinolone use, and chronic tendinopathy. Early operative treatment and mobilization of acute extensor mechanism ruptures has proven effective, and numerous techniques have been described. A 46-year-old male on anastrozole therapy simultaneously ruptured his left patellar and right quadriceps tendons during a deadlift attempt. Diagnosis was by history and physical examination. Repair of both injuries was performed 5 days after injury. Described within and shown in the accompanying video is a standard technique for primary repair using Krackow stitches through the ruptured tendon that are passed through patellar bone tunnels and tied over a bone bridge. The finer points of this technique are emphasized. Also included is a technique to augment the standard repair with a figure-of-8 stitch passed through additional oblique patellar bone tunnels. The mechanical advantage of the adjuvant figure-of-8 stitch provides additional compression, which nicely reapproximates the tendon edges. PMID:27441933

  10. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Tufekovic, Goran; Zebis, Mette K;

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining......) concentric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscle was measured in an isokinetic dynamometer. After 14 weeks of resistance training, the protein group showed hypertrophy of type I (18% +/- 5%; P < .01) and type II (26% +/- 5%; P < .01) muscle fibers, whereas no change above baseline occurred......Acute muscle protein metabolism is modulated not only by resistance exercise but also by amino acids. However, less is known about the long-term hypertrophic effect of protein supplementation in combination with resistance training. The present study was designed to compare the effect of 14 weeks...

  11. Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Joanna; Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer...

  12. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  13. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  14. Sensitivity of estimated muscle force in forward simulation of normal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Higginson, Jill

    2010-05-01

    Generic muscle parameters are often used in muscle-driven simulations of human movement to estimate individual muscle forces and function. The results may not be valid since muscle properties vary from subject to subject. This study investigated the effect of using generic muscle parameters in a muscle-driven forward simulation on muscle force estimation. We generated a normal walking simulation in OpenSim and examined the sensitivity of individual muscle forces to perturbations in muscle parameters, including the number of muscles, maximum isometric force, optimal fiber length, and tendon slack length. We found that when changing the number of muscles included in the model, only magnitude of the estimated muscle forces was affected. Our results also suggest it is especially important to use accurate values of tendon slack length and optimal fiber length for ankle plantar flexors and knee extensors. Changes in force production by one muscle were typically compensated for by changes in force production by muscles in the same functional muscle group, or the antagonistic muscle group. Conclusions regarding muscle function based on simulations with generic musculoskeletal parameters should be interpreted with caution. PMID:20498485

  15. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher–Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, −0.849, and −0.741; P = 0.002, P AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  16. Impact of high intensity exercise on muscle morphology in EAE rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, I; Dalgas, U; Verboven, K;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of high-intensity exercise on disease progression and muscle contractile properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. Control (CON) and EAE rats were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Before onset (experiment 1, n=40) and after hindquarter...... paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. EAE reduced muscle fiber CSA of TA, EDL and SOL. In general, exercise...... was not able to affect CSA, whereas it delayed hindquarter paralysis peak. CON muscle work peaked and declined, while it remained stable in EAE. BDNF-responses were not affected by EAE or exercise. In conclusion, EAE affected CSA-properties of TA, EDL and SOL, which could, partly, explain the absence...

  17. Cervical motion segment replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Vincent E.

    2002-01-01

    When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as well. The design requirements for a cervical disc pro...

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF CRANIO-CERVICAL TRAINING OVER MYOFACIAL PAIN SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi. S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a syndrome presenting with acute or chronic regional pain originating from trigger points (TPs localized in the muscles or the fascia. TPs are local points showing high irritability, sensitivity to finger pressure and causing characteristic referred pain. The aim of this case study is to assess the effectiveness of cranio-cervical training on neck disability, endurance of deep cervical muscles and pressure pain threshold in a patient with cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Case description: A 36 year old female who was diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. She received cranio cervical training, a low load endurance exercises in order to train and/or to regain muscle control of the cervicoscapular and craniocervical regions. The patient received the treatment program for 10 to 15 minutes. The frequency of treatment is five days in a week for a period of 3 weeks. Outcome: The outcome measures were neck disability index, pressure pain threshold and deep cervical endurance test, which were measured prior to treatment and at the end of third week. Conclusion: The craniocervical training programme for a patient with myofascial pain syndrome found to be effective in reducing neck disability, improving the pressure pain threshold and deep cervical flexor muscle endurance.

  19. Effects of Between-Set Interventions on Neuromuscular Function During Isokinetic Maximal Concentric Contractions of the Knee Extensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometti, Carole; Deley, Gaelle; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The presents study investigated the effects of between-set interventions on neuromuscular function of the knee extensors during six sets of 10 isokinetic (120°·s-1) maximal concentric contractions separated by three minutes. Twelve healthy men (age: 23.9 ± 2.4 yrs) were tested for four different between-set recovery conditions applied during two minutes: passive recovery, active recovery (cycling), electromyostimulation and stretching, in a randomized, crossover design. Before, during and at the end of the isokinetic session, torque and thigh muscles electromyographic activity were measured during maximal voluntary contractions and electrically-evoked doublets. Activation level was calculated using the twitch interpolation technique. While quadriceps electromyographic activity and activation level were significantly decreased at the end of the isokinetic session (-5.5 ± 14.2 % and -2.7 ± 4.8 %; p < 0.05), significant decreases in maximal voluntary contractions and doublets were observed after the third set (respectively -0.8 ± 12.1% and -5.9 ± 9.9%; p < 0.05). Whatever the recovery modality applied, torque was back to initial values after each recovery period. The present results showed that fatigue appeared progressively during the isokinetic session with peripheral alterations occurring first followed by central ones. Recovery interventions between sets did not modify fatigue time course as compared with passive recovery. It appears that the interval between sets (3 min) was long enough to provide recovery regardless of the interventions. Key points Allowing three minutes of recovery between sets of 10 maximal concentric contractions would help the subjects to recover from the peripheral fatigue induced by each set and therefore to start each new set with a high intensity. During this type of session, with three minutes between sets, passive recovery is sufficient; there is no need to apply complicated recovery interventions. PMID:24149550

  20. Acute Postexercise Time Course Responses of Hypertrophic vs. Power-Endurance Squat Exercise Protocols on Maximal and Rapid Torque of the Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchola, Eric C; Thiele, Ryan M; Palmer, Ty B; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a medium-intensity high-volume vs. explosive squat protocol on the postexercise time course responses of maximal and rapid strength of the knee extensors. Seventeen resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 2.6 years) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors before and after performing a squat workout using either a low-intensity fast velocity (LIFV) (5 × 16 at 40% 1 repetition maximum) or a traditional high-intensity slow velocity (TISV) (5 × 8 at 80% 1RM) exercise protocol. For each MVC, peak torque (PT), peak rate of torque development (RTDpeak), absolute (RTDabs), and relative RTD (RTDnorm) at early (0-50 milliseconds) and late (100-200 milliseconds) phases of muscle contraction were examined at pre- (Pre) and post-exercise at 0, 7, 15, and 30 (Post0...30) minutes. There were no intensity × time interactions for any variables (p = 0.098-0.832). Peak torque was greater at Pre than Post0 and Post7 (p = 0.001-0.016) but was not greater than Post15 and Post30 (p = 0.010-0.189). RTDpeak and early absolute RTD (RTD50abs) were greater at Pre than all postexercise time phases (p = 0.001-0.050); however, later absolute RTD (RTD100-200abs) was only greater at Pre than Post0 and Post30 (p = 0.013-0.048). Early relative RTD (RTD50norm) was only higher at Pre compared with Post0 (p = 0.023), whereas no differences were observed for later relative RTD (RTD100-200norm) (p = 0.920-0.990). Low-intensity fast velocity and TISV squat protocols both yielded acute decreases in maximal and rapid strength capacities following free-weight squats, with rapid strength showing slower recovery characteristics than maximal strength. PMID:25774625

  1. Forelimb muscle activity during equine locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; King, Melissa; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-09-01

    Few quantitative data exist to describe the activity of the distal muscles of the equine forelimb during locomotion, and there is an incomplete understanding of the functional roles of the majority of the forelimb muscles. Based on morphology alone it would appear that the larger proximal muscles perform the majority of work in the forelimb, whereas the smaller distal muscles fulfil supplementary roles such as stabilizing the joints and positioning the limb for impact with the ground. We measured the timing and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of the intrinsic muscles of the forelimb in relation to the phase of gait (stance versus swing) and the torque demand placed on each joint during walking, trotting and cantering. We found that all forelimb muscles, except the extensor carpi radialis (ECR), were activated just prior to hoof-strike and deactivated during stance. Only the ECR was activated during swing. The amplitudes of muscle activation typically increased as gait speed increased. However, the amplitudes of muscle activation were not proportional to the net joint torques, indicating that passive structures may also contribute significantly to torque generation. Our results suggest that the smaller distal muscles help to stabilize the forelimb in early stance, in preparation for the passive structures (tendons and ligaments) to be stretched. The distal forelimb muscles remain active throughout stance only during canter, when the net torques acting about the distal forelimb joints are highest. The larger proximal muscles activate in a complex coordination to position and stabilize the shoulder and elbow joints during ground contact. PMID:22875767

  2. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  3. Resistance Exercise Reduces Skeletal Muscle Cachexia and Improves Muscle Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease associated with cachexia (reduced muscle and increased fat. Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2 if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. A needle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the RA subject before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. Knee extensor strength increased by 13.6% and fatigue decreased by 2.8% Muscle mass increased by 2.1%. Average muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased by 49.7%, and muscle nuclei increased slightly after strength training from 0.08 to 0.12 nuclei/μm2. In addition, there was a slight decrease (1.6% in the number of apoptotic muscle nuclei after resistance training. This case study suggests that resistance training may be a good tool for increasing the number of nuclei per fiber area, decreasing apoptotic nuclei, and inducing fiber hypertrophy in persons with RA, thereby slowing or reversing rheumatoid cachexia.

  4. Muscle power failure in mobility-limited older adults: preserved single fiber function despite lower whole muscle size, quality and rate of neuromuscular activation

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Kieran F.; Doros, Gheorghe; Clark, David J.; Patten, Carolynn; Carabello, Robert J.; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Krivickas, Lisa S.; Frontera, Walter R.; FIELDING, ROGER A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and gender determinants of the age-related loss of muscle power in 31 healthy middle-aged adults (aged 40–55 years), 28 healthy older adults (70–85 years) and 34 mobility-limited older adults (70–85 years). We hypothesized that leg extensor muscle power would be significantly lower in mobility-limited elders relative to both healthy groups and sought to characterize the physiological mechanisms associated with the reduction of muscle power with aging....

  5. A Case of Reverse Palmaris Longus Muscle- An Additional Muscle in the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ashwini Lagadamane Sathynarayana; Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu

    2016-01-01

    It is uncommon to have additional muscles in the upper limb. Some of them may restrict the movements or compress the nerves and vessels, while others may go unnoticed. During the routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm in about 60-year-old male cadaver. The muscle had a prominent belly and a long tendon. Distally, it was attached to the flexor retinaculum by a short and thick tendon. Proximally, long tendon of the muscle passed between the flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus and was attached to the common aponeurosis shared by the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles. The additional muscle belly was supplied by a branch from the anterior interosseous nerve. The ulnar nerve and artery was passing deep to the fleshy belly of the muscle. The muscle reported here might compress the ulnar nerve and artery and may produce neurovascular symptoms. On the other hand, the tendon and fleshy belly of the muscle could be useful in muscle/tendon grafts. The observations made by us in the present case will supplement our knowledge of variations of the muscles in this region which could be useful for surgeons during the forearm and hand surgeries. PMID:27134851

  6. A Case of Reverse Palmaris Longus Muscle- An Additional Muscle in the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpalli, Sapna; Bhat, Ashwini Lagadamane Sathynarayana; Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu

    2016-03-01

    It is uncommon to have additional muscles in the upper limb. Some of them may restrict the movements or compress the nerves and vessels, while others may go unnoticed. During the routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm in about 60-year-old male cadaver. The muscle had a prominent belly and a long tendon. Distally, it was attached to the flexor retinaculum by a short and thick tendon. Proximally, long tendon of the muscle passed between the flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus and was attached to the common aponeurosis shared by the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles. The additional muscle belly was supplied by a branch from the anterior interosseous nerve. The ulnar nerve and artery was passing deep to the fleshy belly of the muscle. The muscle reported here might compress the ulnar nerve and artery and may produce neurovascular symptoms. On the other hand, the tendon and fleshy belly of the muscle could be useful in muscle/tendon grafts. The observations made by us in the present case will supplement our knowledge of variations of the muscles in this region which could be useful for surgeons during the forearm and hand surgeries. PMID:27134851

  7. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain‐derived neurotrophic factor levels

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Correia; Aline Pansani; Felipe Machado; Marilia Andrade; Antonio Carlos da Silva; Fulvio Alexandre Scorza; Esper Abrão Cavalheiro; Ricardo Mario Arida

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Blood neurotrophins, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are considered to be of great importance in mediating the benefits of physical exercise. In this study, the effect of acute strength exercise and the involvement of small versus large muscle mass on the levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were evaluated in healthy individuals. METHODS: The concentric strengths of knee (large) and elbow (small) flexor and extensor muscles were measured on two separate...

  8. Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Ju Huang; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Po-Liang Lai; Wen-Jer Chen

    2004-01-01

    Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, surgeonsface the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy orlaminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompressionsor corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered bysome clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexityof multilevel anterior cervical surgery.Methods: In this retrospective study, 14 patients with multilevel cervical sp...

  9. The effect of hip joint muscle exercise on muscle strength and balance in the knee joint after meniscal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Ja; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Ha Roo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hip muscle strengthening on muscle strength and balance in the knee joint after a meniscal injury. [Subjects and Methods] This randomized control study enrolled 24 patients who had undergone arthroscopic treatment after a meniscal injury and began a rehabilitative exercise program 8 weeks after surgery. Subjects were divided into 2 groups of 12 subjects each: gluteus medius resistance exercise group and control group. This study investigated muscle strength and balance in the knee joint flexor, extensor, and abductor during an 8-week period. [Results] Measurements of knee extensor muscle strength revealed no significant difference between the control group and the experimental group. Measurements of abductor muscle strength, however, identified a significant difference between the 2 groups. The groups did not differ significantly with regard to balance measurements. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that this subject should be approached in light of the correlation between the hip abductor and injury to the lower extremities.

  10. Estimation of muscle response using three-dimensional musculoskeletal models before impact situation: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae Soo; Loan, Peter; Choi, Kuiwon; Hong, Daehie; Mun, Mu Seong

    2010-12-01

    When car crash experiments are performed using cadavers or dummies, the active muscles' reaction on crash situations cannot be observed. The aim of this study is to estimate muscles' response of the major muscle groups using three-dimensional musculoskeletal model by dynamic simulations of low-speed sled-impact. The three-dimensional musculoskeletal models of eight subjects were developed, including 241 degrees of freedom and 86 muscles. The muscle parameters considering limb lengths and the force-generating properties of the muscles were redefined by optimization to fit for each subject. Kinematic data and external forces measured by motion tracking system and dynamometer were then input as boundary conditions. Through a least-squares optimization algorithm, active muscles' responses were calculated during inverse dynamic analysis tracking the motion of each subject. Electromyography for major muscles at elbow, knee, and ankle joints was measured to validate each model. For low-speed sled-impact crash, experiment and simulation with optimized and unoptimized muscle parameters were performed at 9.4 m/h and 10 m/h and muscle activities were compared among them. The muscle activities with optimized parameters were closer to experimental measurements than the results without optimization. In addition, the extensor muscle activities at knee, ankle, and elbow joint were found considerably at impact time, unlike previous studies using cadaver or dummies. This study demonstrated the need to optimize the muscle parameters to predict impact situation correctly in computational studies using musculoskeletal models. And to improve accuracy of analysis for car crash injury using humanlike dummies, muscle reflex function, major extensor muscles' response at elbow, knee, and ankle joints, should be considered. PMID:21142325

  11. Impacto do alongamento estático no ganho de força muscular dos extensores de joelho em idosas da comunidade após um programa de treinamento Impact of static stretching on the gain in knee-extensor strength of community-dwelling older women after a training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia P. Lustosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A diminuição da força muscular em idosos tem impacto na funcionalidade. Programas de reforço muscular são propostos, porém existem controvérsias quanto ao efeito de alongamentos prévios no ganho de força muscular. OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto do alongamento estático no ganho de força dos músculos extensores de joelho em idosas da comunidade após programa de treinamento. MÉTODOS:Trata-se de um estudo quase-experimental, em que se realizou um programa de exercícios de fortalecimento muscular dos extensores de joelho durante 10 semanas, com avaliação final de 12 idosas da comunidade divididas em dois grupos: AE - exercícios com carga e alongamentos prévios em todas as sessões, média de idade de 73,8 (±5,36 anos e E - mesmos exercícios com carga do grupo acima, sem a realização de alongamentos prévios, média de idade de 72,14 (±5,43 anos. Para avaliar o ganho de força muscular dos extensores de joelho, utilizou-se o dinamômetro isocinético Biodex System 3 Pro, no modo concêntrico, na velocidade de movimento angular de 60 e 180º/segundos (s e, para a análise, a diferença das médias da pré e da pós-intervenção da variável trabalho, normalizada pelo peso corporal. RESULTADOS: Os dados apresentaram-se normais pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk (p>0,266. Quando comparadas as médias da diferença da pré e da pós-intervenção pelo teste t para amostras independentes, não houve diferença significativa em nenhum dos membros e nas velocidades avaliadas (p>0,383. CONCLUSÃO: O alongamento estático prévio não interferiu no ganho de força muscular após um programa de fortalecimento de 10 semanas na população estudada. Artigo registrado no ISRCTN register sob o número ISRCTN62824599.BACKGROUND: The decrease in muscle strength in older adults has an impact on functionality. Muscle strengthening programs have been proposed, however there is some controversy surrounding the effects of stretching

  12. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  13. Home cervical traction: evaluation of alternate equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylonis, G W; Tootle, D; Denhart, C; Pope Grattan, M M; Wapenski, J A

    1982-08-01

    Overhead intermittent cervical traction is often utilized to control the symptoms of cervical radiculopathy associated with osteoarthritis. The long-term home use of presently available counterweight systems has often presented problems including: (1) lack of patient compliance, (2) difficulty with application by elderly or debilitated patients, (3) tensing of both the cervical paraspinalis and upper extremity muscles while maneuvering the counterweights, and (4) discomfort while using the device. A prototype home pneumatic traction device was developed, which has many of the advantages of the expensive hydraulic units in common use in physical therapy departments. The initial favorable responses of 17 patients led to the development of a prototype commercial unit in cooperation with the Jobst Company. Of 36 patients who used the pneumatic traction device at home, 29 (81%) preferred it to the conventional counterweight system. Typical reasons were that it was easier to use, more "workable" and provided a steadier pull with more gradual onset of traction. Disadvantages most commonly mentioned were minor air pressure loss in the hand pump model and the complexity of the unit. The most rational approach to the use of these new pneumatic devices would be to initiate a home traction program using conventional counterweight units and then to switch to the pneumatic unit for long-term patients or those who are unable to apply conventional traction systems unassisted. PMID:7115034

  14. Comparison of skeletal muscle strength between cardiac patients and age-matched healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baum, U. Hildebrandt, K. Edel, R. Bertram, H. Hahmann, F.J. Bremer, S. Böhmen, C. Kammerlander, M. Serafin, Th. Rüther, E. Miche

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare muscular strength of knee extensors and arm flexor muscles of cardiac patients (n = 638 and healthy controls (n = 961 in different age groups. Isometric torques were measured in a sitting position with the elbow, hip, and knee flexed to 900. For statistical analysis, age groups were pooled in decades from the age of 30 to 90 years. Additionally, the influence of physical lifestyle prior to disease on muscular strength was obtained in the patients. For statistical analysis three-way ANOVA (factors age, gender, and physical activity level was used. Both in patients and in controls a significant age-dependent decline in maximal torque could be observed for arm flexors and knee extensors. Maximal leg extensor muscle showed statistically significant differences between healthy controls and cardiac patients as well as between subgroups of patients: Physically inactive patients showed lowest torques (male: 148 ± 18 Nm; female: 82 ± 25 Nm while highest values were measured in control subjects (male: 167 ± 16 Nm; female: 93 ± 17 Nm. In contrast, arm flexor muscles did not show any significant influence of health status or sports history. This qualitative difference between weight-bearing leg muscles and the muscle group of the upper extremity suggest that lower skeletal muscle strength in heart patients is mainly a consequence of selective disuse of leg muscles rather than any pathological skeletal muscle metabolism. Since a certain level of skeletal muscle strength is a prerequisite to cope with everyday activities, strength training is recommended as an important part of cardiac rehabilitation.

  15. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Ident...

  16. 临床偏瘫病人早期上肢功能性电刺激屈肌和伸肌与伸肌功能性电刺激的比较%Clinical patients with hemiplegia early upper limb functional electrical stimulationflexor and extensor compared with extensor functional electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一帆; 姚敬宇; 莫天才; 杨维维

    2015-01-01

    objective to patients with hemiplegia early upper limb functional electrical stimulation fiexor and extensor was compared with the extensor functional electrical stimulation.Methods acute onset in patients with hemiplegia, hemiplegic side body let in phase delay of 20 patients with hemiplegia patients at random points in the control group (n = 10) and observation group (n = 10), the control group to maintain nerve functional electrical stimulation upper limb muscle of wrist and the reach anconeus and function of routine rehabilitation training, observation group nerve functional electrical stimulation upper limbfiexor muscle of wrist and elbow fiexion with fiexor muscle tension change stimulation wrist, elbow muscle group.Before and 3 weeks after treatment with modified ashworth (Mas), concise fugl - Meyer evaluation form, out of assessment.results after treatment, no obvious difference was found between two groups of Mas, concise fugl - Meyer exercise evaluation form, out the assessment, the observation group statistically significant meaningful (P < 0.05).conclusion early fiexor functional electrical stimulation out instead of extensor muscle tension stimulation, for upper hand function in patients with hemiplegia rehabilitation and separatist movements appear faster.%目的:早期偏瘫病人上肢功能性电刺激屈肌和伸肌与伸肌功能性电刺激的比较。方法急性期发病偏瘫患者,偏瘫侧肢体任处于迟缓期的偏瘫病人20例,随机分对照组(n=10)和观察组(n=10),对照组维持神经功能性电刺激上肢伸腕肌及伸肘肌和常规康复功能训练,观察组神经功能电刺激上肢屈腕肌及屈肘肌随着屈肌张力改变刺激伸腕、伸肘肌群。治疗前及治疗3周后采用改良ashworth(Mas)、简明fugl-Meyer运动评定表、Brunnstrom进行评定。结果治疗后,两组Mas无明显差异,简明fugl-Meyer运动评定表、Brunnstrom运动评定观察组有统计学差异,有意义(P<0

  17. THE ROLE OF ELECTROTHERAPY AND PHYSICAL THERAPY IN THE RECOVERY OF CERVICAL ARTHROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiana Gabriela; Ochiana Nicolae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study concerning the role of electrotherapy and of physical therapy in the recovery of cervical arthrosis is to maintain a high quality family, social and professional activity, by eliminating the pain and the muscle contractures. The hypothesis that was the starting point of this paper was that: if we associate electrotherapy techniques and cervical spine alignment techniques to the recovery programme, the pain and the paresthesias will diminish until they fade away for g...

  18. Cervical dilatation by Lamicel before first trimester abortion: a clinical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Hansson, H A

    1988-04-01

    Twenty women were treated with Lamicel tents for 4 h and 20 women for 16 h before vacuum aspiration in the first trimester of pregnancy. The shorter time of treatment was as effective as the longer time with respect to cervical softening and dilatation. In comparison with an untreated control group, Lamicel treatment was followed by an increased collagenolytic activity and increased sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 of the cervical smooth muscle. PMID:3164206

  19. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of patients with cervical dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Brashear

    2008-01-01

    Allison BrashearDept of Neurology, Wake Forest University Baptist, Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Dystonia is an involuntary movement involving twisting and turning of agonist and antagonist muscles. Cervical dystonia is isolated to neck musculature. Botulinum toxin type A is a safe and effective treatment of this disabling and often painful syndrome. Three forms of botulinum toxin type A are available worldwide to treat patients with cervical dystonia. This is a review of th...

  20. Calprotectin is released from human skeletal muscle tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Andersen, Kasper; Fischer, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    skeletal muscle following IL-6 infusion compared to controls. Furthermore, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels were up-regulated 5-fold in human skeletal muscle following cycle ergometer exercise for 3 h at approximately 60% of in young healthy males (n = 8). S100A8 and S100A9 form calprotectin, which is known...... as an acute phase reactant. Plasma calprotectin increased 5-fold following acute cycle ergometer exercise in humans, but not following IL-6 infusion. To identify the source of calprotectin, healthy males (n = 7) performed two-legged dynamic knee extensor exercise for 3 h with a work load of...... approximately 50% of peak power output and arterial-femoral venous differences were obtained. Arterial plasma concentrations for calprotectin increased 2-fold compared to rest and there was a net release of calprotectin from the working muscle. In conclusion, IL-6 infusion and muscle contractions induce...

  1. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  2. Comparing clinical data and muscle imaging of DYSF and ANO5 related muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Dam, Leroy; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Rövekamp, Fleur; Linssen, Wim H J P; de Visser, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    In this retrospective cross-sectional study clinical and muscle imaging data of patients with Miyoshi distal myopathy phenotype (MMD1 and MMD3) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2L (LGMD2L) were described. MMD1 and MMD3 are genetically heterogenous diseases based on DYSF and ANO5 gene defects. MMD3 and LGMD2L are clinically different diseases caused by an ANO5 gene defect. All groups showed predominant fatty degeneration of the gluteus minimus muscle and of the posterior segments of the thigh and calf muscles with sparing of the gracilis muscle. Muscle atrophy, hypertrophy and asymmetric muscle involvement on muscle imaging did not differ between groups. The pattern of fatty degeneration of muscles and of muscle weakness shows only minor differences between MMD1 (n=6) and MMD3 (n=8) patients with more frequently fatty degeneration of the rectus femoris, anterior tibial, and extensor digitorum muscles and more frequently muscle weakness in the anterior tibial, peroneal and calf muscle in MMD1. In the ANO5 related phenotypes the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle was less frequently involved in LGMD2L (n=13) and no differences in the incidence of muscle weakness was found. Therefore, MMD3 and LGMD2L should be considered as part of one spectrum of ANO5 related muscle disease. PMID:25176504

  3. The degenerative cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, E; Belloch, E; León, J P; Higueras, V; Piquer, J

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques provide excellent anatomical images of the cervical spine. The choice to use one technique or another will depend on the clinical scenario and on the treatment options. Plain-film X-rays continue to be fundamental, because they make it possible to evaluate the alignment and bone changes; they are also useful for follow-up after treatment. The better contrast resolution provided by magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to evaluate the soft tissues, including the intervertebral discs, ligaments, bone marrow, and spinal cord. The role of computed tomography in the study of degenerative disease has changed in recent years owing to its great spatial resolution and its capacity to depict osseous components. In this article, we will review the anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of the cervical spine, and then we provide a more detailed discussion of the degenerative diseases that can affect the cervical spine and their clinical management. PMID:26878769

  4. Aerobic exercise training improves whole muscle and single myofiber size and function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Harber, Matthew P.; Konopka, Adam R.; Douglass, Matthew D.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2009-01-01

    To comprehensively assess the influence of aerobic training on muscle size and function, we examined seven older women (71 ± 2 yr) before and after 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. The training program increased (P < 0.05) aerobic capacity by 30 ± 6%. Quadriceps muscle volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was 12 ± 2% greater (P < 0.05) after training and knee extensor power increased 55 ± 7% (P < 0.05). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine ...

  5. Forearm Muscle Oxygenation Decreases During Low Levels of Brief, Isometric Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy Gita; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Rempel, D. M.; Hargens, Murthy G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Regional muscle pain syndromes can be caused by repeated and sustained exertion of a specific muscle. Such exertion may elevate local tissue fluid pressure, reduce blood flow and tissue oxygenation (TO2), and cause fatigue, pain and functional deficits of the Involved muscle. Low levels (less than 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) of prolonged static contraction of the upper extremity are common In many occupational settings and May cause fatigue. The purpose of our Investigation was to determine whether TO2 decreases significantly at low levels of static contraction of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB).

  6. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppesen, J; Albers, P. H.; Rose, A. J.; Birk, J. B.; Schjerling, P; Dzamko, N.; Steinberg, G. R.; Kiens, B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FA translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, wild-type (WT) and AMP-dependent protein kinase kinase dead (AMPK KD) mice were exercised or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in response to muscle contractions were investigated in the perfused rat ...

  7. Enhanced spinal excitation from ankle flexors to knee extensors during walking in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achache, V.; Mazevet, D.; Iglesias, C.;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear to what an extent altered reflex activity contributes to gait deficit following stroke. Spinal group I and group II excitations from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors were investigated during post-stroke walking. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied to the...... common peroneal nerve (CPN) in the early stance, and the short-latency biphasic excitation in Quadriceps motoneurones was evaluated from the Vastus Lateralis (VL) rectified and averaged (N=50) EMG activity in 14 stroke patients walking at 0.6-1.6 km/h, and 14 control subjects walking at 3.2-4.8 and at 1...

  8. Pathologies of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon and its investments in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Those who have dedicated significant time to the study and care of stick-and-ball athletes have an appreciation for the unique anatomy, unusual forces, and proclivity for injury. It is imperative that hand surgeons involved in the care of baseball, hockey, tennis, and golf athletes appreciate the anatomic and mechanical elements of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) pathology. It is necessary to maintain a high level of suspicion for ECU problems, among other ulnar wrist pathologies, as well as acute diagnostic skill and a portfolio of therapeutic alternatives for their treatment. PMID:22883879

  9. Ultrasound of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Subluxation in a Tennis Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Paul J; Romesberg, Amanda; Kamineni, Srinath; Beaman, Francesca D

    2016-06-01

    Wrist pain is common among competitive tennis players. Subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon has gained recognition as a cause of ulnar-side wrist pain in athletes. In tennis, the wrist is forcibly flexed, supinated, and ulnar deviated. These repetitive motions stress the ECU tendon stabilizers allowing tendon subluxation from the ulnar groove, especially in cases of anatomic variations such as a shallow groove. We present the presurgical and postsurgical imaging findings of recurrent ECU tendon subluxation in an elite tennis player. PMID:27233073

  10. Na+-K+ pump location and translocation during muscle contraction  in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction may up-regulate the number of Na+-K+ pumps in the plasma membrane by translocation of subunits. Since there is still controversy about where this translocation takes place from and if it takes place at all, the present study used different techniques to characterize the...... translocation. Electrical stimulation and biotin labeling of rat muscle revealed a 40% and 18% increase in the amounts of the Na+-K+ pump a2 subunit and caveolin-3 (Cav-3), respectively, in the sarcolemma. Exercise induced a 36% and 19% increase in the relative amounts of the a2 subunit and Cav-3, respectively......% of the a1 subunits were associated with Cav-3 in soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and mixed muscles, respectively. For the a2, the corresponding values were 17%, 5% and 16%. In conclusion; muscle contraction induces translocation of the a subunits, which is suggested to be caused partly by...

  11. Rheumatoid cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheumatoid cervical myelopathy was studied in 14 patients, clinically, radiographically and by computerized tomography with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR). CT/MPR demonstrated significant unsuspected areas of compromise in 9 of the 14 patients, and altered the surgical procedure in 7 of these 9 patients. CT/MPR clearly identifies all levels of involvement including rotary subluxation. CT/MPR also allows assessment of the spinal nerve canal/foramen and the alignment of the foramina transversaria. CT/MPR is an essential addition to the evaluation of rheumatoid cervical myelopathy

  12. CERVICAL NECROTIZING FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dimofte

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an unusual encounter in the general surgical practice, but is a life-threatening condition requiring early recognition and adequate surgical treatment. We present the case of a 65 year old male patient referred to our department from a General Hospital. Large excisions of both superficial and deep cervical fascia were required together with necrotic skin on a very large surface. Rapid recovery with early sterilization allowed adequate skin grafting with good results. We advocate for aggressive debridment with excision in viable healthy tissue, with no concern for the future reconstruction followe by early grafting of the skin defect.

  13. Skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise in humans: a PET study with nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Saltin, Bengt; Kemppainen, Jukka; Sipilä, Hannu T; Oikonen, Vesa; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari; Hellsten, Ylva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide and prostanoids on microcirculation and oxygen uptake specifically in the active skeletal muscle by use of positron emission tomography (PET). Healthy males performed 3 five min bouts of light knee-extensor exercise. Skeletal...

  14. Avaliação funcional do músculo trapézio e nervo espinhal pós-esvaziamento cervical através da eletroneuromiografia: estudo de 25 pacientes Functional evaluation of trapezius muscle and spinal nerve after neck dissection through eletro-neuromiography (ENM: study of 25 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foram estudados 25 pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas da cabeça e pescoço (20 de vias aerodigestivas superiores e cinco da glândula tireóide, submetidos a esvaziamentos cervicais uni ou bilaterais (33 procedimentos, sendo 15 supra-omohióideos, 11 funcionais e sete em campos alargados. MÉTODO: Através da eletroneuromiografia (ENM, foram avaliados funcionalmente o músculo trapézio e o nervo espinhal após os diferentes procedimentos, aos 30 e 180 dias. RESULTADOS: Foram aferidos para as três formas de linfadenectomia 94% de desnervação do músculo trapézio, severa em 68% e moderada 32% (p = 0,001, portanto valores significativos. Quanto à avaliação do tipo de lesão do nervo espinhal, após 30 dias observou-se lesão de axônio (axonotmese em 31 dos 33 procedimentos. Com relação à reinervação, esta foi detectada após 180 dias, sendo boa (21%, moderada (72% e ruim (7% para valores de p = 0,001 de significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A eletroneuromiografia foi um método efetivo na avaliação da unidade neuromuscular e o tipo de esvaziamento cervical conservador não foi determinante de alterações destas estruturas.BACKGROUND: Twenty fire patients with malignant head and neck neoplasias (20 from superior aerodigestive tract and 5 from thyroid gland, were submitted to 33 unilateral or bilateral neck node dissection (15 supraomohyoid, 11 modified and 7 wide field, at the Head and Neck Service of Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. METHOD: Eletroneuromiography (ENM of the trapezius muscle after spinal nerve dissection. RESULTS: In spite of surgical dissection, 94% of trapezius muscle desnervation were detected, being 38% severe and 62% moderate, (p = 0,001. The degree of lesion for spinal nerve after 30 days, showed axoniumtmese in 31 of 33 procedures, and after 180 days, 21% of severe, 72% of moderate and 7% of unsatisfactory reinervation were diagnosed (p = 0,001. CONCLUSIONS: ENM is an

  15. Avaliação da altura patelar em atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho Evaluation of the patellar height in athletes with diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Garms; Rogério Teixeira de Carvalho; Leonardo Addeo Ramos; Jorge Sayum Filho; Marcelo Mitsuro Matsuda; Moisés Cohen

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente a altura patelar de atletas com diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (TCAE). MÉTODOS: Na amostra foram avaliados radiograficamente 65 pacientes (110 joelhos) com idade entre 15 e 40 anos e de diferentes modalidades esportivas com e sem diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (jumper's knee). Os atletas foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles com diagnóstico de TCAE (grupo 1: 38 atletas - 56 joelhos) e...

  16. Evaluation of characteristics and surgical outcomes in cervical spondylotic amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA is a rare clinical syndrome resulting from cervical spondylosis. Surgical treatment includes anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF, and laminoplasty with or without foraminotomy. Some studies indicate that ACDF is an effective method for treating CSA because anterior decompression with or without medial foraminotomy can completely eliminate anterior and/or anterolateral lesions. We retrospectively evaluated outcome of surgical outcome by anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF. Materials and Methods: 28 CSA patients, among whom 12 had proximal type CSA and 16 had distal type CSA, treated by ACDF, were evaluated clinicoradiologically. The improvement in atrophic muscle power was assessed by manual muscle testing (MMT and the recovery rate of the patients was determined on the basis of the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA scores. Patient satisfaction was also examined. Results: The percentage of patients, who gained 1 or more grades of muscle power improvement, as determined by MMT, was 91.7% for those with proximal type CSA and 37.5% for those with distal type CSA (P < 0.01. The JOA score-based recovery rates of patients with proximal type and distal type CSA were 60.8% and 41.8%, respectively (P < 0.05. Patient satisfaction was 8.2 for those with proximal type CSA and 6.9 for those with distal type CSA (P < 0.01. A correlation was observed among the levels of improvement in muscle power, JOA score based recovery rate, patient satisfaction and course of disease (P < 0.05. Conclusion: ACDF can effectively improve the clinical function of patients with CSA and result in good patient satisfaction despite the surgical outcomes for distal type CSA being inferior to those for proximal type CSA. Course of disease is the fundamental factor that affects the surgical outcomes for CSA. We recommend that patients with CSA undergo surgical intervention as early as possible.

  17. Dynamic sagittal flexibility coefficients of the human cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C; Ito, Shigeki; Panjabi, Manohar M

    2007-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic sagittal flexibility coefficients, including coupling coefficients, throughout the human cervical spine using rear impacts. A biofidelic whole cervical spine model (n=6) with muscle force replication and surrogate head was rear impacted at 5 g peak horizontal accelerations of the T1 vertebra within a bench-top mini-sled. The dynamic main and coupling sagittal flexibility coefficients were calculated at each spinal level, head/C1 to C7/T1. The average flexibility coefficients were statistically compared (p<0.05) throughout the cervical spine. To validate the coefficients, the average computed displacement peaks, obtained using the average flexibility matrices and the measured load vectors, were statistically compared to the measured displacement peaks. The computed and measured displacement peaks showed good overall agreement, thus validating the computed flexibility coefficients. These peaks could not be statistically differentiated, with the exception of extension rotation at head/C1 and posterior shear translation at C7/T1. Head/C1 was significantly more flexible than all other spinal levels. The cervical spine was generally more flexible in posterior shear, as compared to axial compression. The coupling coefficients indicated that extension moment caused coupled posterior shear translation while posterior shear force caused coupled extension rotation. The present results may be used towards the designs of anthropometric test dummies and mathematical models that better simulate the cervical spine response during dynamic loading. PMID:17140545

  18. Innervation of the trachealis muscle in the guinea-pig: a quantitative ultrastructural study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyes, A. D.; Barber, P

    1980-01-01

    The fine structure and composition of the nerve plexuses associated with the cervical and the thoracic parts of the trachealis muscle were studied in two groups of six guinea-pigs. One group of animals was perfused with fixative before removal of the specimens. In the second, the specimens were incubated in 5-hydroxydopamine before cold immersion fixation. In both the cervical and the thoracic trachea, plexuses of nerves were found within and between the fascicles of muscle cells. The number ...

  19. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  20. Cervical silicone lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Latoni Kaysha; Thiruchelvam, Janavikulam

    2016-07-01

    A patient presented to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery with a rare case of cervical silicone lymphadenopathy. She had a painless ovoid mass in the left side of her neck and had had cosmetic breast augmentation 10 years before. Radiological imaging and core biopsy examination were consistent with silicone lymphadenopathy. PMID:26830068

  1. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  2. Load and speed effects on the cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP represents a well-studied neuromuscular response that occurs in the lumbar and cervical spine. However, the cervical spine FRP has not been investigated extensively, and the speed of movement and loading effects remains to be characterized. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the influence of load and speed on cervical FRP electromyographic (EMG and kinematic parameters and to assess the measurement of cervical FRP kinematic and EMG parameter repeatability. Methods Eighteen healthy adults (6 women and 12 men, aged 20 to 39 years, participated in this study. They undertook 2 sessions in which they had to perform a standardized cervical flexion/extension movement in 3 phases: complete cervical flexion; the static period in complete cervical flexion; and extension with return to the initial position. Two different rhythm conditions and 3 different loading conditions were applied to assess load and speed effects. Kinematic and EMG data were collected, and dependent variables included angles corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence as well as the root mean square (RMS values of EMG signals. Repeatability was examined in the first session and between the 2 sessions. Results Statistical analyses revealed a significant load effect (P Conclusions The load increase evoked augmented FRP onset and cessation angles as well as heightened muscle activation. Such increments may reflect the need to enhance spinal stability under loading conditions. The kinematic and EMG parameters showed promising repeatability. Further studies are needed to assess kinematic and EMG differences between healthy subjects and patients with neck pain.

  3. Myasthenia Gravis Presentation After a Cervical Laminectomy With Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Darlene; Fowler, Stephanie L; Orozco, Raymundo; Smith, Patrick R; Spurlock, Shelby; Blackmon, Darlene; Thomas, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a chronic neuromuscular disorder that causes skeletal muscle weakness. Typically, myasthenia gravis affects the ocular, bulbar, neck, proximal limbs, and respiratory muscles. Although the presentation is typically observed with complaints of vision and bulbar symptoms such as diplopia, dystonia, and dysphagia, this article presents a case study of an elderly man with a history of increasing upper extremity weakness with complaints of worsening hand dexterity and intermittent episodes of expressive aphasia. After cervical laminectomy with fusion, this gentleman was admitted to the medical intensive care unit, in a complete myasthenic crisis. PMID:27258955

  4. The effects of core muscle activation on dynamic trunk position and knee abduction moments: implications for ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Steve T; McNally, Michael P; Schmitt, Laura C; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2013-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common serious lower-extremity injuries experienced by athletes participating in field and court sports and often occurs during a sudden change in direction or pivot. Both lateral trunk positioning during cutting and peak external knee abduction moments have been associated with ACL injury risk, though it is not known how core muscle activation influences these variables. In this study, the association between core muscle pre-activation and trunk position as well as the association between core muscle pre-activation and peak knee abduction moment during an unanticipated run-to-cut maneuver were investigated in 46 uninjured individuals. Average co-contraction indices and percent differences between muscle pairs were calculated prior to initial contact for internal obliques, external obliques, and L5 extensors using surface electromyography. Outside tilt of the trunk was defined as positive when the trunk was angled away from the cutting direction. No significant associations were found between pre-activations of core muscles and outside tilt of the trunk. Greater average co-contraction index of the L5 extensors was associated with greater peak knee abduction moment (p=0.0107). Increased co-contraction of the L5 extensors before foot contact could influence peak knee abduction moment by stiffening the spine, limiting sagittal plane trunk flexion (a motion pattern previously linked to ACL injury risk) and upper body kinetic energy absorption by the core during weight acceptance. PMID:23891313

  5. Variations in abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the Quervain syndrome: a surgical and anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Teerawat; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-two wrists of Thai cadavers and the wrists of 66 patients with de Quervain syndrome were studied, and the variation in the number of tendons and the fibro-osseous tunnel in the first extensor compartment were recorded. The abductor pollicis longus had more than one tendon in 73 of the cadavers (89%) and in 32 of the patients (49%) (p de Quervain syndrome (p = 0.01). The results indicate that the number of fibro-osseous tunnels and multiple compartments in the first extensor compartment may be associated with a predisposition to de Quervain syndrome. PMID:17484184

  6. An examination of mechanomyographic signal stationarity during concentric isokinetic, eccentric isokinetic and isometric muscle actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the stationarity of surface mechanomyographic (MMG) signals from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis during concentric isokinetic, eccentric isokinetic and isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD age = 20.1 ± 1.1 years) performed submaximal to maximal concentric isokinetic, eccentric isokinetic and isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors, and surface MMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis. All surface MMG signals were tested for stationarity with a procedure that examined changes in the mean value, variance, mean frequency and standard deviation of the power spectrum over time. The results showed that the three muscle action types resulted in similar levels of signal nonstationarity. Thus, despite the fact that the isometric muscle actions were performed at a constant force level and with no change in muscle length, the level of signal nonstationarity was similar to that for the concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions. Future studies need to be done to identify the mechanism(s) causing MMG signal nonstationarity during isometric muscle actions

  7. Aging impairs the recovery in mechanical muscle function following 4 days of disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Suetta, C; Nielsen, Jacob; Jensen, Majbrit M; Frandsen, U; Ørtenblad, N; Kjaer, M; Aagaard, P

    2014-01-01

    decrements observed in moderate dynamic strength and rapid muscle force capacity in old individuals. While 7 days of recovery - including free ambulation, one test session and a single session of strength training - was sufficient to restore mechanical muscle function in young individuals, old individuals...... the effect of 4 days of lower limb disuse followed by 7 days of active recovery on mechanical muscle function of the knee extensors in young (24.3±0.9 years, n=11) and old (67.2±1.0 years, n=11) recreationally active healthy males. Slow and moderate dynamic muscle strength were assessed using...... isokinetic dynamometry (60 and 180° s(-1), respectively) along with isometric muscle strength and rapid muscle force capacity examined as contractile rate of force development (RFD), Impulse, and relative RFD (rRFD) during the initial phase of contraction (100 ms time interval relative to onset of...

  8. Scratch responses in normal cats: hindlimb kinematics and muscle synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhta, P C; Smith, J L

    1990-12-01

    1. Scratch responses evoked by a tactile stimulus applied to the outer ear canal were characterized in nine adult cats. Chronic electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were surgically implanted in selected flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints to determine patterns of muscle activity during scratching. In some trials EMG records were synchronized with kinematic data obtained by digitizing high-speed ciné film, and in one cat, medial gastrocnemius (MG) tendon forces were recorded along with EMG. For analysis the response was divided into three components: the approach, cyclic, and return periods. Usually scratch responses were initiated with the cat in a sitting position, but in some trials the animal initiated the response from a standing or lying posture. 2. During the approach period the hindlimb ipsilateral to the stimulated ear was lifted diagonally toward the head by a combination of hip and ankle flexion with knee extension. Hindlimb motions during the approach period were associated with sustained EMG activity in hip-flexor, knee-extensor (occasionally), and ankle-flexor muscles. Initial hindlimb motions were typically preceded by head movements toward the hindpaw, and at the end of the approach period, the head was tilted downward with the stimulated pinna lower than the contralateral ear. During the return period movements were basically the reverse of the approach period, with the hindpaw returning to the ground and the head moving away from the hindlimb. 3. During the cyclic period the number of cycles per response varied widely from 1 to 60 cycles with an average of 13 cycles, and cycle frequency ranged from 4 to 8 cycles/s, with a mean of 5.6 cycles/s. During each cycle the paw trajectory followed a fairly circular path, and the cycle was defined by three phases: precontact, contact, and postcontact. On average the contact phase occupied approximately 50% of the cycle and was characterized by extensor muscle activity and extension

  9. Influence of acetaminophen and ibuprofen on skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance exercise in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Trappe, Todd A.; Carroll, Chad C.; Dickinson, Jared M.; LeMoine, Jennifer K.; Haus, Jacob M.; Sullivan, Bridget E.; Lee, Jonah D.; Jemiolo, Bozena; Weinheimer, Eileen M.; Hollon, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that consumption of over-the-counter cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors may interfere with the positive effects that resistance exercise training has on reversing sarcopenia in older adults. This study examined the influence of acetaminophen or ibuprofen consumption on muscle mass and strength during 12 wk of knee extensor progressive resistance exercise training in older adults. Thirty-six individuals were randomly assigned to one of three groups and consumed the COX-inhibitin...

  10. Proteomic and Carbonylation Profile Analysis of Rat Skeletal Muscles following Acute Swimming Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    F. Magherini; T. Gamberi; Pietrovito, L; T. Fiaschi; L. Bini; Esposito, F; M. Marini; P.M. Abruzzo; Gulisano, M; Modesti, A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE) on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is ...

  11. Abnormal surround inhibition does not affect asymptomatic limbs in people with cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Laura; Kiernan, Dovin; Kiss, Zelma H T; Suchowersky, Oksana; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-14

    Surround inhibition is a neural mechanism hypothesized to facilitate goal-directed action by disinhibiting agonist muscle activity while simultaneously inhibiting antagonist and other uninvolved muscle activity. The present study was designed to investigate if abnormalities in surround inhibition are found in asymptomatic body parts (the hand) of people with focal cervical dystonia (neck). Participants with (n=7) and without (n=17) cervical dystonia completed a protocol in which they abducted their index finger while EMG was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (agonist) and abductor digiti minimi (uninvolved) muscles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the primary motor cortex at intervals ranging from 0 to 950+ms after the onset of agonist muscle activity. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes from both muscles were compared. In control participants, MEPs from the uninvolved muscle were significantly lower than agonist MEPs at intervals from 0 to 480ms. Similarly, in the hands of participants with cervical dystonia - the asymptomatic body part - MEPs from the uninvolved muscle were significantly lower than agonist MEPs from 0 to 175ms. These findings suggest that surround inhibition in people with focal dystonia may be intact in asymptomatic hands. In other words, abnormalities in surround inhibition may be restricted to the dystonic limb. PMID:26219986

  12. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Bin; Wang, Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; Liu, Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, ...

  13. Taping of the elbow extensor muscle in chronic stroke patients: comparison between before and after three-dimensional motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Won-Jin; Oh, Jae-Seop; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to observe the effect of kinesio taping on the quality of movement of each arm during a reaching task in patients with right-sided hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen right-handed participants who had had a right-sided hemiparetic stroke were requested to perform a reaching task with each arm, with and without kinesio taping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure peak angular velocity, time to reach peak angular velocity, and movement units during elbow motion. [Results] In the right arm, movements during the reaching task with kinesio taping were faster, smoother, and more efficient than those without kinesio taping. The peak angular velocity increased, and the time to reach peak angular velocity decreased. Movement units decreased significantly. However, in the untaped arm, the movement was slower, rougher, and less efficient. [Conclusion] Kinesio taping provided a positive effect on the reaching movement of the taped arm of right-handed persons who had had a right-sided hemiparetic stroke. PMID:26310566

  14. Taping of the elbow extensor muscle in chronic stroke patients: comparison between before and after three-dimensional motion analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Won-Jin; Oh, Jae-Seop; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to observe the effect of kinesio taping on the quality of movement of each arm during a reaching task in patients with right-sided hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen right-handed participants who had had a right-sided hemiparetic stroke were requested to perform a reaching task with each arm, with and without kinesio taping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure peak angular velocity, time to reach peak angular velocity, and ...

  15. Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the supraspinal processes of fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in response to repeated cycling sprints. METHODS: Twelve active individuals performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s, followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s. Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations during brief (5-s and sustained (30-s isometric contractions of the knee extensors were performed before and 3 min post-exercise. RESULTS: Maximal strength of the knee extensors decreased during brief and sustained contractions (~11% and 9%, respectively; P0.05. While cortical voluntary activation declined (P 40% reduced (P<0.001 following exercise. CONCLUSION: The capacity of the motor cortex to optimally drive the knee extensors following a repeated-sprint test was shown in sustained, but not brief, maximal isometric contractions. Additionally, peripheral factors were largely involved in the exercise-induced impairment in neuromuscular function, while corticospinal excitability was well-preserved.

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting cervical cancer or dying from cervical cancer varies by race ...

  18. Degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, So; Fehlings, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Cervical myelopathy is the most common cause of acquired spinal cord compromise. The concept of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), defined as symptomatic myelopathy associated with degenerative arthropathic changes in the spine axis, is being introduced. Given its progressive nature, treatment options have to be chosen in a timely manner. Surgical options include anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF), anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), arthroplasty (in highly select cases), posterior laminectomy with/without fusion, and laminoplasty. Indications for each should be carefully considered in individual patients. Riluzole, a sodium-glutamate antagonist, is a promising option to optimize neurologic outcomes post-surgery and is being examined in the CSM-Protect Randomized Controlled Trial. Preoperative risk assessment is mandatory for prognostication. Sagittal alignment is known to play an important role to optimize surgical outcome. Guidelines for optimal management of DCM are in process. In principle, all but the mildest cases of DCM should be offered surgery for optimal outcome. PMID:27250040

  19. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  20. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Sit-to-Stand Movement in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Relationship with Knee Extensor Torque and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Salvini, Tania de Fatima; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) movement, knee extensor torque and social participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven spastic hemiplegic CP patients (8.0 plus or minus 2.2 years), classified by the Gross Motor Function Classification System as I and II, and 18 typical children (8.4 plus or…

  3. [Pediatric orthopedic cervical spine problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-requiring diseases of the cervical spine in children are rare. The most common cases requiring medical assessment and treatment are acute torticollis and various accidents. A torticollis having lasted for more than a week should be recognized, because it can be treated by skull traction. Cervical spine fractures in children under school age are very rare, the most common being a fracture of the base of the dens of the second cervical vertebra. Cervical spine instability is almost always associated with an underlying disease. PMID:27400588

  4. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  5. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P 0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. THE ROLE OF ELECTROTHERAPY AND PHYSICAL THERAPY IN THE RECOVERY OF CERVICAL ARTHROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiana Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study concerning the role of electrotherapy and of physical therapy in the recovery of cervical arthrosis is to maintain a high quality family, social and professional activity, by eliminating the pain and the muscle contractures. The hypothesis that was the starting point of this paper was that: if we associate electrotherapy techniques and cervical spine alignment techniques to the recovery programme, the pain and the paresthesias will diminish until they fade away for good. The study was conducted on a number of 24 subjects with the diagnosis of cervical arthrosis, over a period of 6 months. The subjects in the experimental group were 12 and they benefited from electrotherapy and physical therapy, while those in the control group had only medication. The methods, procedures and the techniques used in the recovery for the subjects included in the experimental group were: TENS currents, ultrasounds, tractions on an axis, facilitation techniques and the adjustment of the cervical spine. The results materialized in: the disappearance of pain, of paresthesias and of muscle contractions obtain in a relatively short period of time, allows us to notice the benefit of associating electrotherapy and physical therapy to the recovery of cervical arthroses. The conclusions underline the importance of the position adopted during all the activities that require head flexion in order to prevent the rectitude of the cervical spine and implicitly the pain, the paresthesias and the contractures.

  7. Activation of satellite cells and the regeneration of human skeletal muscle are expedited by ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Rasmussen, Lotte K; Kadi, Fawzi; Schjerling, Peter; Helmark, Ida C; Ponsot, Elodie; Aagaard, Per; Durigan, João Luiz Q; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    With this study we investigated the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human skeletal muscle regeneration. Young men ingested NSAID [1200 mg/d ibuprofen (IBU)] or placebo (PLA) daily for 2 wk before and 4 wk after an electrical stimulation-induced injury to the leg extensor...... muscles of one leg. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscles before and after stimulation (2.5 h and 2, 7, and 30 d) and were assessed for satellite cells and regeneration by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, and we also measured telomere length. After injury, and compared...

  8. Wing muscles in blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758: basic knowledge applied to the clinic of wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe the wing muscles in blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, in order to contribute to increase knowledge on its anatomy and help the clinical practice with this species. Five macaws from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba (CETAS-PB were used, and the muscles were identified by direct dissection. Flexor muscles, as well as extensor muscles, were well defined, had a good caliber and development, thus contributing to a detailed anatomical description and to a definition of their origin, insertion, and functionality in the wings of macaws.

  9. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F. [Temple University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  10. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  11. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  12. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  13. Biochemical and electrophysiological evidence of functional vasopressin receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraly, M; Audigier, S; Tribollet, E; Barberis, C; Dolivo, M; Dreifuss, J J

    1986-01-01

    Binding of radioactive vasopressin--but not of oxytocin--was detected by autoradiography and by labeling of membranes obtained from the rat superior cervical ganglion. In both instances binding could be displaced by V1 (smooth muscle-type) but not by V2 (kidney-type) agonists, indicating that the ganglionic vasopressin receptors are similar to those present on hepatocytes and vascular smooth muscle. In accordance with the V1 character of the receptors, vasopressin activated the turnover of me...

  14. Gravitational unloading effects on muscle fiber size, phenotype and myonuclear number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Nomura, T.; Kawano, F.; Ishihara, A.; Nonaka, I.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of gravitational unloading with or without intact neural activity and/or tension development on myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), number of myonuclei, and myonuclear domain (cytoplasmic volume per myonucleus ratio) in single fibers of both slow and fast muscles of rat hindlimbs are reviewed briefly. The atrophic response to unloading is generally graded as follows: slow extensors > fast extensors > fast flexors. Reduction of CSA is usually greater in the most predominant fiber type of that muscle. The percentage of fibers expressing fast MHC isoforms increases in unloaded slow but not fast muscles. Myonuclear number per mm of fiber length and myonuclear domain is decreased in the fibers of the unloaded predominantly slow soleus muscle, but not in the predominantly fast plantaris. Decreases in myonuclear number and domain, however, are observed in plantaris fibers when tenotomy, denervation, or both are combined with hindlimb unloading. All of these results are consistent with the view that a major factor for fiber atrophy is an inhibition or reduction of loading of the hindlimbs. These data also indicate that predominantly slow muscles are more responsive to unloading than predominantly fast muscles. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of erythrocyte oxygenation and intravascular ATP on resting and exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in humans with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina D; Vissing, John; González-Alonso, José

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) extraction is impaired in exercising skeletal muscle of humans with mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but the muscle hemodynamic response to exercise has never been directly investigated. This study sought to examine the extent to which human skeletal muscle perfusion can...... healthy control subjects: 1) at rest during normoxia, hypoxia, hyperoxia and intra-femoral artery ATP infusion, and 2) during passive and dynamic one-legged knee-extensor exercises. At rest, blood flow (LBF), femoral arterial and venous blood oxygenation and plasma ATP were similar in the two groups...

  16. Comparative anatomical analyses of the forearm muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000: manipulatory behavior and tool use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira

    Full Text Available The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use between Cebus genus and apes.

  17. Does serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D influence muscle development during puberty in girls? - A 7-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ru; Alén, Markku; Yu, Zhusheng; Wiklund, Petri; Cheng, Shumei; Törmäkangas, Timo; Chen, Peijie; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its regulatory role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, but its role in muscle mass and strength during growth remains inconclusive. We explored the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with muscle development in girls from 11 to 18-years old. Whole body lean tissue mass (LMWB), appendicular lean mass (aLM), muscle cross-sectional area at the lower leg (mCSA), maximal voluntary contraction of elbow flexors (MVCelbow) and knee extensors (MVCknee) wer...

  18. Insulin growth factors may explain relationship between spasticity and skeletal muscle size in men with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gater, MD, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (1 measure insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in individuals with complete spinal cord injury (SCI and spasticity and (2 determine the relationships between IGF-1 and cross-sectional areas (CSAs of thigh skeletal muscle groups. Eight individuals with motor complete SCI underwent magnetic resonance imaging to measure the CSA of the whole thigh, knee extensor, and knee flexor skeletal muscle groups and dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry to measure fat-free mass. After participants fasted for 12 h, we measured their IGF-1 levels and determined spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS. Spearman rho correlations were used to test for the relationships among the tested variables, and independent t-tests were used to determine the difference in plasma IGF-1. Plasma IGF-1 was 44% greater in those with MAS scores of 2 or higher (p < 0.05. Plasma IGF-1 was positively related to knee extensor skeletal muscle CSA (r = 0. 83, p < 0.01. IGF-1 was strongly related to knee extensor and flexor spasticity (r = 0.88, p < 0.004. The findings suggest that IGF-1 is greater in SCI individuals with increased spasticity, and this may explain the strong positive relationships that were noted between spasticity and skeletal muscle CSA.

  19. When phosphorylated at Thr148, the β2-subunit of AMP-activated kinase does not associate with glycogen in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyang; Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Gooley, Paul R; Stapleton, David I; Murphy, Robyn M

    2016-07-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric complex that functions as an intracellular fuel sensor that affects metabolism, is activated in skeletal muscle in response to exercise and utilization of stored energy. The diffusibility properties of α- and β-AMPK were examined in isolated skeletal muscle fiber segments dissected from rat fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus and oxidative soleus muscles from which the surface membranes were removed by mechanical dissection. After the muscle segments were washed for 1 and 10 min, ∼60% and 75%, respectively, of the total AMPK pools were found in the diffusible fraction. After in vitro stimulation of the muscle, which resulted in an ∼80% decline in maximal force, 20% of the diffusible pool became bound in the fiber. This bound pool was not associated with glycogen, as determined by addition of a wash step containing amylase. Stimulation of extensor digitorum longus muscles resulted in 28% glycogen utilization and a 40% increase in phosphorylation of the downstream AMPK target acetyl carboxylase-CoA. This, however, had no effect on the proportion of total β2-AMPK that was phosphorylated in whole muscle homogenates measured by immunoprecipitation. These findings suggest that, in rat skeletal muscle, β2-AMPK is not associated with glycogen and that activation of AMPK by muscle contraction does not dephosphorylate β2-AMPK. These findings question the physiological relevance of the carbohydrate-binding function of β2-AMPK in skeletal muscle. PMID:27099349

  20. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van, E-mail: e.segarceanu@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A. [Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Pillen, Sigrid [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Biesma, Douwe H. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vogels, Oscar J.M. [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Alfen, Nens van [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  1. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  2. MRI findings of traumatic cervical disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general practice, disc hernia is increasingly being questioned about its relation with traffic injuries. In this study, we examined the image findings of cervical disc herniation for findings indicative of traumatic hernia. In 2008, we examined 35 cases of cervical disc herniation at our hospital by MRI. The patients were divided into two groups; patients with trauma history (19 cases) and those without (16 cases), and their images were compared. Disc herniation in the trauma group showed high intensity at T2, with some of the patients in this group also indicating continuous high intensity of the internal and herniated discs. Traumatic force was found to cause swelling under the laryngeal soft tissue. Cases with further flexion injury showed interspinous ligament hemorrhage. These findings strongly suggest the involvement of injury. But given that some younger patients in the non-trauma group also show high intensity at T2*, attention must be paid not to confuse swelling below the larynx with inflammation of the longus colli muscle. (author)

  3. Design and Thermal Distribution of Intra-hyperthermia Microwave Antennas for Utero-cervical Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracavitary brachytherapy combined hypertermin for utero-cervical cancer seems to be a promising method for salvage treatments in persistent tumors and inoperable or previously irradiated cervical recurrences. In order to heat the vaginal apex and uterus, power full conical antennas which are suitable for afterloading cervical applicator have been designed for use in conjunction with intracavitary radiation therapy. The antennas were constructed with conical conductive material to feed line and the effective length were designed proportional to microwave length, Power deposition profiles of 2450 MHz of conical antennas were studied in both phantom models and muscle tissue and compared to those of commonly used dipole antenna. Improvement of the heating pattern was found in both phantom and muscle tissue. The heating pattern produced by the conical antenna resembles an ellipsoid and then the temperature distribution in depth was extended to 2-3 cm from the effective antenna axis

  4. The clinical characteristics and therapy of syndrome of craniocerebral- cervical vertebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng; LIU Yuan-xin; WANG Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and new treatment for syndrome of craniocerebral-cervical vertebral injury. Methods: The clinical data of 52 patients with head injury accompanied by neck injury were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Craniocerebral injury could result in damage to cervical vertebrae, muscles, vessels and nerves, and even cause vertebral artery injury, which may lead to insufficient blood-supply of vertebral-basal artery. All patients were treated with cervical vertebral traction and the results were good. Conclusions: Acute craniocerebral injury with symptom of insufficient blood-supply of vertebral-basal artery, evident neurosis and atlas-axis half-dislocation in X-ray should be treated by cervical vertebral traction, which will yield better outcome.

  5. Adenosine concentrations in the interstitium of resting and contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Maclean, D.; Rådegran, G.;

    1998-01-01

    effect remain unanswered. METHODS AND RESULTS: The interstitial adenosine concentration was determined in the vastus lateralis muscle of healthy humans via dialysis probes inserted in the muscle. The probes were perfused with buffer, and the dialysate samples were collected at rest and during graded knee...... extensor exercise. At rest, the interstitial concentration of adenosine was 220+/-100 nmol/L and femoral arterial blood flow (FaBF) was 0.19+/-0.02 L/min. When the subjects exercised lightly, at a work rate of 10 W, there was a markedly higher (1140+/-540 nmol/L; P... and demonstrates that adenosine and its precursors increase in the exercising muscle interstitium, at a rate associated with intensity of muscle contraction and the magnitude of muscle blood flow....

  6. Glycolysis in contracting rat skeletal muscle is controlled by factors related to energy state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Macdonald, Will A; Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The control of glycolysis in contracting muscle is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine whether activation of glycolysis is mediated by factors related to the energy state or by a direct effect of Ca2+ on the regulating enzymes. Extensor digitorum longus muscles from...... rat were isolated, treated with cyanide to inhibit aerobic ATP production and stimulated (0.2 s trains every 4 s) until force was reduced to 70% of initial force (control muscle, referred to as Con). Muscles treated with BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide), an inhibitor of cross-bridge cycling...... 58% of those in Con respectively. Glycolytic rate in BTS was only 51% of that in Con but the relative contribution of ATP derived from PCr (phosphocreatine) and glycolysis and the relation between muscle contents of PCr and Lac (lactate) were not different. Prolonged cyanide incubation of quiescent...

  7. Neck and shoulder muscle strength in patients with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tension-type headache (TTH) is highly prevalent in the general population, and it is characterized by increased muscle tenderness with increasing headache frequency and intensity. AIM: The aim of this case-control study was to compare muscle strength in neck and shoulder muscles in...... TTH patients and healthy controls by examining maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) during shoulder abduction, neck flexion and extension as well as the extension/flexion strength ratio of the neck. METHODS: Sixty TTH patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included....... Patients were included if they had TTH ≥8 days per month. The MVC neck extensor and flexor muscles were tested with the participant seated upright. MVC shoulder abduction was tested with the individual lying supine. RESULTS: Compared to controls TTH patients had significantly weaker muscle strength in neck...

  8. Skeletal muscle response to spaceflight, whole body suspension, and recovery in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 7-day spaceflight (SF), 7- and 14-day-long whole body suspension (WBS), and 7-day-long recovery on the muscle weight and the morphology of the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats were investigated. It was found that the effect of 7-day-long SF and WBS were highly comparable for both the soleus and the EDL, although the soleus muscle from SF rats showed greater cross-sectional area reduction than that from WBS rats. With a longer duration of WBS, there was a continued reduction in cross-sectional fast-twitch fiber area. Muscle plasticity, in terms of fiber and capillary responses, showed differences in responses of the two types of muscles, indicating that antigravity posture muscles are highly susceptible to unloading.

  9. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. IV. Intramuscular distribution of movement command signals and cutaneous reflexes in broad, bifunctional thigh muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C A; Chanaud, C M; Loeb, G E

    1991-01-01

    Similarities between the muscle synergies associated with the flexion reflex and locomotion in reduced preparations have suggested that spinal circuits subserving these two motor tasks might share common interneurons. To test this hypothesis in functionally complex muscles, we studied the interaction between low-threshold cutaneous afferents and the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) during treadmill locomotion in awake, intact cats. Electrical stimuli were delivered via implanted nerve cuff electrodes at all phases of locomotion, and EMGs were recorded from fourteen intramuscular subregions in eight bifunctional thigh muscles (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, caudofemoralis, gracilis, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, tensor fasciae latae, and tenuissimus). In addition, the EMG patterns recorded during locomotion were compared with those recorded during two other centrally driven rhythmical behaviors, scratching and paw shaking, to determine whether the functional relationships among these intramuscular subregions were fixed or task dependent. Four of the five broad, bifunctional muscles studied (biceps femoris, gracilis, semimembranosus, and tensor fasciae latae) had functional subunits that could be differentially activated in one or more of the three movements studied; adductor femoris was consistently uniformly activated despite its distributed skeletal attachments. The pattern of recruitment of the intramuscular functional subunits was movement-specific. The locomotor CPG and cutaneous reflex pathways both similarly subdivided some bifunctional muscles, but not others, into intramuscular subregions. The results of the present study confirm that some combinations of muscle subregions and cutaneous nerves constitute simple reciprocal categories of flexors and extensors, as described originally by Sherrington (1910). "Typical" low threshold excitatory or inhibitory reflex responses were produced in muscles or muscle subregions that were recruited as "net

  10. Uterine didelphys with cervical incompetence

    OpenAIRE

    Aher Gautam S, Gavali Urmila G, Kulkarni Meghana

    2013-01-01

    Uterine didelphys represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ. There is presence of double uterine bodies with two separate cervices, and often a double or septate vagina as well. We report a case of single pregnancy in the right sided uterine body of a didelphic uterus with cervical incompetence.

  11. Uterine didelphys with cervical incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aher Gautam S, Gavali Urmila G, Kulkarni Meghana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine didelphys represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ. There is presence of double uterine bodies with two separate cervices, and often a double or septate vagina as well. We report a case of single pregnancy in the right sided uterine body of a didelphic uterus with cervical incompetence.

  12. Macrostructure of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dehghani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe autonomic nervous system consists of a vast range of nerves and ganglions. Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the sympathetic innervations of the head and neck are affected by the neurons that ramify from the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG. The CCG is the end of the sympathetic cervical trunk, which runs with the vagal nerve during its cervical course. In this study sixteen adult (2 - 5 year river buffalo of both sexes (eight male, eight female weighing around 250 - 450 kg were dissected to investigate the weight, situation and arrangement of nerve branches of the cranial cervical ganglion bilaterally. The ganglions showed a fusiform shape and reddish in color. The cranial cervical ganglion covered by the digastricus muscle. It lies in dorsal region of the base of epiglottic cartilage, ventromedial to tympanic bulla and ventrally to atlantic fossa, and medial of the occipital artery. This study showed that the cranial cervical ganglions in river buffalo were well-developed structure. The main branches of cranial cervical ganglion included the internal carotid, external carotid and jugular nerves.

  13. Avaliação da altura patelar em atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho Evaluation of the patellar height in athletes with diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Garms

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente a altura patelar de atletas com diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (TCAE. MÉTODOS: Na amostra foram avaliados radiograficamente 65 pacientes (110 joelhos com idade entre 15 e 40 anos e de diferentes modalidades esportivas com e sem diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (jumper's knee. Os atletas foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles com diagnóstico de TCAE (grupo 1: 38 atletas - 56 joelhos e um grupo que denominamos de controle (grupo 2: 27 atletas - 54 joelhos. RESULTADOS: No grupo 1 tivemos 18 atletas que apresentavam a doença bilateralmente na ocasião dos exames. Para a medida da altura patelar utilizamos os índices radiográficos de Insall e Salvati e Blackburne e Peel. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de patela alta no grupo de atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho foi significante maior do que a observada no grupo controle.OBJECTIVES: To carry out a radiographic evaluation of patellar height in athletes diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism; METHODS: Radiographic assessments were carried out on 65 patients (110 knees aged between 15 and 40 years, who practiced different kinds of sports, some with of chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism (jumper's knee and others without. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with diagnosed "jumper's knee" (group 1:38 athletes - 56 knees and a control group (group 2:27 athletes - 54 knees. In group 1, 18 of the athletes presented the condition in both knees on examination. The height of the patella was measured using the Insall-Salvati and Blackburne-Peel x-ray methods. CONCLUSION: The presence of a high patella in the group of athletes with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism was significantly higher than in the control group.

  14. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

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    Cribb Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7. Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher and isometric (21% higher knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84% after 48 hrs (P Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

  15. Chronic exercise increases insulin binding in muscles but not liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been postulated that the improved glucose tolerance provoked by chronic exercise is primarily attributable to increased insulin binding in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of progressively increased training (6 wk) on insulin binding by five hindlimb skeletal muscles and in liver. In the trained animals serum insulin levels at rest were lower either in a fed or fasted state and after an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout sections of the liver, soleus (S), plantaris (P), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles were pooled from four to six rats. Insulin binding to plasma membranes increased in S, P, and EDL but not in WG or in liver. There were insulin binding differences among muscles. Comparison of rank orders of insulin binding data with published glucose transport data for the same muscles revealed that these parameters do not correspond well. In conclusion, insulin binding to muscle is shown to be heterogeneous and training can increase insulin binding to selected muscles but not liver

  16. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (Ppelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization. PMID:26730390

  17. Muscle hypertrophy in prepubescent tennis players: a segmentation MRI study.

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    Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To asses if tennis at prepubertal age elicits the hypertrophy of dominant arm muscles. METHODS: The volume of the muscles of both arms was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 7 male prepubertal tennis players (TP and 7 non-active control subjects (CG (mean age 11.0 ± 0.8 years, Tanner 1-2. RESULTS: TP had 13% greater total muscle volume in the dominant than in the contralateral arm. The magnitude of inter-arm asymmetry was greater in TP than in CG (13 vs 3%, P<0.001. The dominant arm of TP was 16% greater than the dominant arm of CG (P<0.01, whilst non-dominant arms had similar total muscle volumes in both groups (P = 0.25, after accounting for height as covariate. In TP, dominant deltoid (11%, forearm supinator (55% and forearm flexors (21% and extensors (25% were hypertrophied compared to the contralateral arm (P<0.05. In CG, the dominant supinator muscle was bigger than its contralateral homonimous (63%, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Tennis at prepubertal age is associated with marked hypertrophy of the dominant arm, leading to a marked level of asymmetry (+13%, much greater than observed in non-active controls (+3%. Therefore, tennis particpation at prepubertal age is associated with increased muscle volumes in dominant compared to the non-dominant arm, likely due to selectively hypertrophy of the loaded muscles.

  18. Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release rate after fatiguing stimulation in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Sjøgaard, G; Madsen, Klavs

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and contractile properties before and during recovery from fatigue in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. Fatiguing contractions (60 Hz, 150 ms/s for 4 min) induced a reduction of the SR Ca(2+) release rate.......05). Despite a slowing of the relaxation rate, we did not find any significant alterations in the SR Ca(2+) uptake function. These data demonstrate that the Ca(2+) release mechanism of SR is sensitive to repetitive in vitro muscle contraction. Moreover, the results indicate that +dF/dt to some extent depends...

  19. Effects of sports climbing on muscle performance and balance for patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolk, Christoph; Dalgas, Ulrik; Osada, Nani;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The potential benefits of sports climbing for many diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this case series was to examine whether sports climbing is feasible and whether it can influence isometric muscle performance and balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS...... extensors was found to have improved by 23.4% (p<0.05). The difference in muscle strength between the stronger and weaker leg was not affected after 5 weeks of climbing. Climbing did not have any significant impact on balance. Conclusions: Sports climbing appears feasible for people with mild relapsing...

  20. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  1. Getting Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A ... This kind of exercise can improve muscle tone, meaning a kid's muscles will be leaner and stronger, but not really bigger. Push-ups, sit-ups, and chin-ups also help build ...

  2. Proliferation of myogenic stem cells in human skeletal muscle in response to low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Aagaard, Per; Bech, Rune Dueholm; Nygaard, Tobias; Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Wernbom, Mathias; Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction has been shown to elicit substantial increases in muscle mass and muscle strength; however the effect on myogenic stem cells (MSC) and myonuclei number remains unexplored. Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 yrs) performed 4 sets of knee extensor...... exercise (20% 1RM) to concentric failure during blood-flow restriction (BFR) of the proximal thigh (100 mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9±3.0 yrs) trained without BFR (CON). 23 training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVC) was examined pre and...... post training, while muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (Pre), after 8 days intervention (Mid8) and 3 (Post3) and 10 days (Post10) post training to examine changes in myofibre area (MFA), MSC and myonuclei number. MVC increased by 7.1% (Post5) and 10.6% (Post12) (P...

  3. Cervical metastatic glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most malignant primary brain tumour in adults. In spite of the hostile nature of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), extracranial spread is not a common event. With improving management choices and survival times, reports of extracranial occurrence of GBM have increased. Most commonly these metastases are to the lungs, lymph nodes, neck, skull, scalp, liver, and bones; may be evident on routine follow-up images of the original lesion. Head and neck metastasis of GBM can be debilitating. We present a case of cervical metastasis of GBM and discuss possible mechanisms of extraneural spread of this tumour. (author)

  4. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  5. Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy: Indications, Technique, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodwad, Shah-Jahan M; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Prasarn, Mark L; Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-06-01

    Cervical radiculopathy presents with upper extremity pain, decreased sensation, and decreased strength caused by irritation of specific nerve root(s). After failure of conservative management, surgical options include anterior cervical decompression and fusion, disk arthroplasty, and posterior cervical foraminotomy. In this review, we discuss indications, techniques, and outcomes of posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy. PMID:27187617

  6. Application of Computational Lower Extremity Model to Investigate Different Muscle Activities and Joint Force Patterns in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients during Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Wook Nha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments.

  7. Early specification of limb muscle precursor cells by the homeobox gene Lbx1h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, K; Braun, T

    1999-10-01

    During vertebrate embryogenesis, myogenic precursor cells of limb muscles delaminate from the ventro-lateral edge of the somitic dermomyotome and migrate to the limb buds, where they congregate into dorsal and ventral muscle masses. It has been proposed that the surrounding connective tissue controls muscle pattern formation in limbs. Regulatory molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases like c-Met ( ref. 6) and those encoded by homeobox-containing genes, including c-Met (ref. 6), Tbx1 (ref. 7), Mox2 (ref. 8), Six1 and Six2 (ref. 9), Pitx2, Pax3 (refs 10,11) and Lbx1h (refs 12,13), are expressed in migrating limb precursor cells. The role of these genes in the patterning of limb muscles is unknown, although mutation of Pax3 or Met causes disruption of limb muscle development at an initial step, disturbing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the somitic epithelium. No limb muscle cells form in these mutants, and the early loss of myogenic precursor cells prevented an analysis of later functions of these genes during limb muscle development. Based on quail-chick chimaera studies, it was assumed that a cell-autonomous contribution of myogenic cells to the formation of individual limb muscles is negligible, and that an instructive role of limb mesenchyme is critical in this process. Here we show that Lbx1h determines migratory routes of muscle precursor cells in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby leading to the formation of distinct limb muscle patterns. Inactivation of Lbx1h, which is specifically expressed in migrating muscle precursor cells, led to a lack of extensor muscles in forelimbs and an absence of muscles in hindlimbs. The defect was caused by the failure of all muscle precursor cells of hindlimbs and of precursor cells of extensor muscles of forelimbs to migrate to their corresponding muscle anlagen. Our results demonstrate that Lbx1h is a key regulator of muscle precursor cell migration and is required for the acquisition of dorsal identities of

  8. Protein and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoyao.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated chick extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles and, in some experiments, rat skeletal muscles were used to study a number of aspects of protein and amino acid metabolism. (1) Chick EDC muscles synthesize and release large amounts of alanine and glutamine, which indirectly obtain their amino groups from branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). (2) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) decrease (P < 0.01) alanine synthesis and BCAA transamination in EDC muscles from 24-h fasted chicks by decreasing (P < 0.01) intracellular concentrations of pyruvate due to inhibition of glycolysis. (3) Glutamine is extensively degraded in skeletal muscles from both chicks and rats, thus challenging the traditional view that glutamine oxidation is negligible in skeletal muscle. The cytosolic glutamine aminotransferases L and K in the rat and the mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase in the chick play important roles in the conversion of glutamine to {alpha}-ketoglutarate for further oxidation. (4) Although methionine has been reported to be extensively transaminated in rat skeletal muscle preparations in the absence of other amino acids, transamination of methionine is absent or negligible in chick and rat skeletal muscles in the presence of physiological concentrations of amino acids. (5) Glutamine at 1.0-15 mM increases (P < 0.01) protein synthesis ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine incorporation), and at 10.0-15.0 mM decreases (P < 0.05) protein degradation ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine release from prelabelled protein in vivo) in EDC muscles from fed chicks as compared to muscles incubated in the absence of glutamine. (6) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) has a small but significant inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on the rate of protein synthesis, but has no effect (P > 0.05) on the rate of protein degradation in EDC muscles from fed chicks.

  9. A STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SHORTWAVE DIATHERMY WITH BACK EXTENSOR EXERCISES v/s ULTRASOUND WITH BACK EXTENSOR EXERCISES TO REDUCE PAIN AND DISABILITY, AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE IN CASE OF SINGLE LEVEL LUMBAR MICRODISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaram

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, approximately 50-80% of the populations have low back pain at some times in their lives. Lumbar disc Herniation with low back pain is one of the most frequent reason for physical & functional restriction in patients. There is a steady rise in surgical interventions for the disc herniation. Microdiscectomy is a choice for symptomatic, single level lumbar disc herniation. The question is whether a post-microdiscectomy physiotherapy intervention reduces low back pain & enhances functional activities has not been systematically explored We have done this study to assess effectiveness of SWD with back extensor exercises to reduce disability and improve quality of life after single level lumbar microdiscectomy, to assess effectiveness of US with back extensor exercises to reduce disability and improve the quality of life after single level lumbar microdiscectomy.

  10. Recovery of impaired muscle function in severe sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, F; Nordin, M; Sheikhzadeh, A; Echegoyen, A C; Skovron, M L; Bech, H; Chassot, D; Helsen, M

    2001-06-01

    This is a prospective cohort study of patients with acute treated severe sciatica. The objectives of the study are, firstly, to describe the recovery of muscle performance by manual and isokinetic muscle testing in patients with acute severe sciatica over 1 year, and secondly, to discuss the potential clinical relevance of the isokinetic testing of the ankle for patients with acute sciatica. In clinical daily practice, muscle performance is evaluated by means of isometric manual tests. Different authors using manual muscle tests have reported the long-term outcome of the muscle function in patients with sciatica. Overall, the results are good in terms of the recovery of muscle strength. However, it is not clear whether the isometric strength is sufficiently relevant to evaluate the more complete muscle performance of the affected muscles in patients with sciatica. This study presents data on the muscle recovery measured with manual testing and isokinetic testing of patients with severe sciatica. Consecutive patients admitted to the Cantonal Hospital for conservative management of severe acute sciatica were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were evaluated at admission, discharge, and follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. All the visits included a standardized clinical examination and the completion of questionnaires. Imaging and electromyography were conducted at the first visit. Isokinetic muscle tests at 30 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s were performed at discharge and follow-up visits. Manual and isokinetic tests were performed on foot and ankle flexor and extensor muscles. Eighty-two consecutive patients (66% men), with a mean age of 43 (+/-10.3) years, entered the study. The prevalence of major muscle weakness was low, with 7% of patients unable to perform toe walking and 11% unable to walk on the heel at visit one. Moreover, motor deficit defined as a score of 4 or less (out of 5) was found in 15% of subjects at the first evaluation. Such severe deficits

  11. Cervical extravasation of bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréanic, Johann; Coriat, Romain; Mir, Olivier; Perkins, Géraldine; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Brezault, Catherine; Dhooge, Marion; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2013-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab are widely used in medical oncology, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. No specific recommendations on the management of monoclonal antibodies extravasation exist. Incidence rates vary considerably. Estimates of 0.5-6% have been reported in the literature. Also, patient-associated and procedure-associated risk factors of extravasation are multiple, such as bolus injections or poorly implanted central venous access. We report on an 86-year-old woman with colon cancer with liver metastasis who was treated with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and bevacizumab. Extravasation occurred during chemotherapy infusion because of a catheter migration of the port outside of the superior vena cava, causing cervical pain without skin modifications. Diagnosis was confirmed with the appearance of clinical right cervical tumefaction and cervicothoracic computed tomography scan indicated a perijugular hypodense collection, corresponding to the extravasation. Conservative management was proposed. The patient recovered within 3 weeks from all symptoms. Physicians should be aware that in cases of bevacizumab extravasation, a nonsurgical approach might be effective. PMID:23262983

  12. Maintenance of skeletal muscle energy homeostasis during prolonged wintertime fasting in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species with autumnal fattening and prolonged wintertime fasting. Nonpathological body weight cycling and the ability to tolerate food deficiency make this species a unique subject for studying physiological mechanisms in energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating energy homeostasis. During acute fasting, AMPK promotes fatty acid oxidation and enhances glucose uptake. We evaluated the effects of prolonged fasting on muscle energy metabolism in farm-bred raccoon dogs. Total and phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), insulin receptor and protein kinase B (Akt) protein expressions of hind limb muscles were determined by Western blot after 10 weeks of fasting. Plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucose and free fatty acid levels were measured, and muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition analyzed. Fasting had no effects on AMPK phosphorylation, but total AMPK expression decreased in m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. extensor digitorum longus resulting in a higher phosphorylation ratio. Decreased total expression was also observed for ACC. Fasting did not influence GLUT 4, insulin receptor or Akt expression, but Akt phosphorylation was lower in m. flexor digitorum superficialis and m. extensor digitorum longus. Three MHC isoforms (I, IIa and IIx) were detected without differences in composition between the fasted and control animals. The studied muscles were resistant to prolonged fasting indicating that raccoon dogs have an effective molecular regulatory system for preserving skeletal muscle function during wintertime immobility and fasting. PMID:25652584

  13. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip-knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait. PMID:27146688

  14. Paraplegia by Acute Cervical Disc Protrusion after Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Huan Chen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic paraplegia caused by herniation of the cervical intervertebral disc is anuncommon postoperative complication. A patient with claudication and radiculopathy wasscheduled for lumbar laminectomy due to spinal stenosis. Postoperatively, numbness belowT6 was found in his both legs of the patient. MRI showed a protruded intervertebral discbetween C6 and C7. Despite urgent disectomy, the patient's lower extremities remained paralyzedwithout significant improvement for 3 months. Loss of muscle support during generalanesthesia, excessive neck extension during endotracheal intubation and positioning, as wellas bucking and agitation are believed as triggering factors for the protrusion of the cervicaldisc. We suggest that a complete history taking and physical examination be accomplishedin patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery in order to exclude coexisting cervical spinedisorders. In addition, skillful endotracheal intubation and careful neck positioning aremandatory for patients receiving surgery in the prone position.

  15. GENETIC INSTABILITY IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旻; 伍欣星; 邱小萍; 李晖; 戴天力; 谭云

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical carcinoma has been clearly established but other factors could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic instability in cervical carcinoma tissues and provide evidence for discoveringnew tumor suppressor genes and screening diagnostic molecular marker of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Fifty primary cervical carcinoma samples from high-incidence area were analyzed by PCR for HPV16 infection, LOH and microsatellite instability. Results: HPV16 was detected in 88% of the cases. Sixty-six percent of total cases showed LOH with no more than 3 different loci per case. The highest frequency of the allelic loss was found in D18S474 (18q21, 40.5%). MI was detected in 4 cases (8%) only. Conclusion: Different percentages of LOH on specific chromosomal regions were found and MI was very infrequent in cervical carcinoma. The putative suppressor gene(s) could be located on specific chromosome regions such as 18q, and genetic instability could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis.

  16. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kuruvilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a phenomenon of "kinaesthetic extensor plantar response" in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed.

  17. Surgical technique: hemi-extensor carpi radialis brevis tenodesis for stabilizing the midcarpal joint in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgh, David D; Harley, Oliver J; Hovius, Steven E; Coert, J Henk; Walbeehm, Erik T

    2014-10-01

    Patients with the hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos (EDS-HT) often complain of wrist pain, usually originating from subluxations. As a result of the laxity, wrist function in these patients can be highly limited. This paper presents a surgical technique that stabilizes the lunocapitate joint with the use of an extensor carpi radialis brevis strip. Five patients with confirmed EDS-HT were treated with an extensor carpi radialis brevis tenodesis for their midcarpal instability. Two patients presented with complications following surgery, one major and one minor. This paper presents a potentially satisfactory surgical solution to recurrent midcarpal instability in EDS-HT patients and demonstrates that the use of an autologous tendon might be feasible in spite of a background of abnormal collagen metabolism. PMID:25194773

  18. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  19. Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon following dorsal entry flexible nailing of radial shaft fractures in children

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Ben; Harris, P. Christian; Donnan, Leo T.; Graham, H. Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaphyseal forearm fractures are common in children and adolescents. Intramedullary fixation with flexible nails has a high success rate. Complications related to the insertion of the radial nail include injury to the superficial branch of the radial nerve and rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon. Materials and Methods We report a series of nine patients who sustained an EPL injury related to the insertion of an elastic intramedullary nail into the radius. Results...

  20. Attritional rupture of extensor pollicis longus: a rare complication following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sproule, James A

    2011-01-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation has become established as an acceptable method of treatment for diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones in the paediatric population. It is considered safe, minimally invasive and does not compromise physeal growth. We report a case of delayed rupture of extensor pollicis longus due to attrition over the sharp edges of a protruding nail end after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial diaphyseal fracture.

  1. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho; Pelegrini Fábio Ribeiro Mendes Mota; Fontana Maurício Furginelli; Greve Julia Maria D.

    2002-01-01

    Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture) and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.). Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor ...

  2. A phantom for measuring the isodose distribution in intracavitary radiotherapy of cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonuniform tissue equivalent anthropomorphic phantom of female hip, which was intended for measuring the isodose distributions in intracavitary radio therapy of cervical carcinoma, was developed. It was made of bone and muscle equivalent materials. CT number of normal organs and tissues in pelvis cavity and lower abdomen of the female were measured with CT scanner and compared with those values obtained from home-made phantom under same scan conditions. The electron density effective atomic number, mass density and CT number of equivalent muscle were as essentially same as real muscle. The clinical application of this phantom showed that its construction is reasonable, convenient in use and suitable for measuring isodose distributions for different programs of intracavitary radio therapy of cervical carcinoma

  3. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

    OpenAIRE

    Pua Yong-Hao; Ong Peck-Hoon; Chong Hwei-Chi; Yeo William; Tan Celia; Lo Ngai-Nung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM) are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoper...

  4. The effect of hip abductor exercise on muscle strength and trunk stability after an injury of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kak, Hwang-Bo; Park, Sun-Ja; Park, Byun-Joon

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The gluteus medius, a hip abductor, controls femoral movement and stabilizes the pelvis during lower extremity mobilization. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 subjects into control and experimental groups. [Methods] This randomized controlled study included patients who underwent arthroscopy after meniscus injury and started a rehabilitative exercise program 8 weeks after surgery. Subjects were divided into the experimental gluteus medius resistance exercise group (n=12) and the control group (n=12). The study investigated muscle strength and balance of the flexors, extensors, and abductors of the knee for 8 weeks. [Results] Strengths of knee extensors in patients who underwent rehabilitative exercise for 8 weeks were measured. Strength of the knee extensors of the experimental and control groups increased by 40% and 31%, respectively; strength of the hip flexors of the experimental and control groups increased by 31% and 18%, respectively. Strength of the hip joint muscles showed a 40% increase in the experimental group and a 14% increase in the control group. However, there was a significant difference (18%) in muscle strength of the hip abductors between the groups. Measurements of trunk lateral flexion showed a difference within a group, but no intergroup difference was found. [Conclusion] This study investigated the effect of hip abductor exercise on muscular strength and trunk stability in patients with a meniscus injury. PMID:27134387

  5. The predictive value of extensor grip test for the effectiveness of treatment for tennis elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to compare the effectiveness of 5 different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina Hospital Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfilled the trial entry criteria. Among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT results, were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: brace, physiotherapy, brace plus physiotherapy, injection and injection plus physiotherapy. Patients with a positive EGT result had better response to treatments. Among them, injection plus physiotherapy was the most successful, then brace plus physiotherapy was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing, in which positive EGT was correlated with dramatic response to treatment. In all patients, injection plus physiotherapy and the brace plus physiotherapy is recommended, but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group. (author)

  6. Facilitation from flexor digitorum superficialis to extensor carpi radialis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Miyasaka, Takuji; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sato, Toshiaki; Fujii, Hiromi; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Effects of low-threshold afferents from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motoneurons were examined using a post-stimulus time-histogram (PSTH) and electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) methods in eight healthy human subjects. In the PSTH study in five of the eight subjects, electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the median nerve branch innervating FDS with the intensity below the motor threshold induced excitatory effects (facilitation) in 39 out of 92 ECR motor units. In 11 ECR motor units, the central synaptic delay of the facilitation was -0.1 ± 0.3 ms longer than that of the homonymous facilitation of ECR. Mechanical conditioning stimuli (MS) to FDS with the intensity below the threshold of the tendon(T)-wave-induced facilitation in 51 out of 51 ECR motor units. With the EMG-A method, early and significant peaks were produced by ES and MS in all the eight subjects. The difference between latencies of the peaks by ES and MS was almost equivalent to that of the Hoffmann- and T-waves of FDS by ES and MS. The peak was diminished by tonic vibration stimuli to FDS. These findings suggest that a facilitation from FDS to ECR exists in humans and group Ia afferents mediate the facilitation through a monosynaptic path. PMID:27010723

  7. 应用缝匠肌治疗伸膝功能障碍%The application of sartorius muscle for treatment of extension disorders of knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 李松建; 余斌; 陈霞; 朱立新; 杨建成

    2002-01-01

    Objective Sartorius muscle was applied to treat dislocation or subluxation of patella and extension disorder of knee resulted from poliomyelitis,patellectomy and quadriceps femoris injury.Method The distal one third part or two thirds part of sartorius muscle excluded its insertion was freed,then transposed and threaded to the front surface of patella.Result 30 cases(37 knees)with dislocation or subluxation of patella were treated and 25 cases(28 knees)were followed up(mean followed up time 4 years).pain in the patello femeral joint disappeared without any recurrence of dislocation.75 with weak extensor of knee were treated and 50 were followed up for mean 2 years and 1 month.The extensor strength in the patients with poliomyelitis increased from 0.89 preoperatively to 2.76 postoperatively.The joint movement in the patients with extension stiffness of knee increased from 15° preoperatively to 102° postoperatively.The extensor strength in the patients with patellectomy increased by 2 grades postoperatively,which enable the patients to complete the last 10° to 15° extension movement of knee.Conclusion The authors modified the usual surgery methods,by which the results were far from perfect,in treatment of the lateral displacement of patella and advanced a new treatment for the patients with extension stiffness of knee and the patients with weak extensor strength after patellectomy.

  8. Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...... joint abductor moment. Several EMG parameters increased significantly when walking on high-heels. The results indicate a large increase in bone-on-bone forces in the knee joint directly caused by the increased knee joint extensor moment during high-heeled walking, which may explain the observed higher...

  9. Differentiation of fast and slow muscle fibers by bioimpedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M.-V.; Khider, N.; Ribbe, E.; Damez, J.-L.

    2010-04-01

    The differentiation of fast and slow muscle fibers in vivo still requires constraining equipment (ergometer, biopsy ...) and invasive techniques. These fibers conduct the electrical current differently. Therefore the aim of this study is to see if it is possible to differentiate quickly, by bioimpedance, fast and slow fibers, and firstly muscles which are typical composed by slow or fast fibers. To do this, we used a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® (BioparHom© Company, France). We collected the electrical characteristics (Longitudinal and Transversal, from 1 to 1000 kHz) for a population of 20 rats aged 70 days, on Soleus muscles (composed principally of slow fibers) and Extensor Digitroum Longus (EDL) muscles (composed principally of fast fibers). We compared the means of alpha (L/T), R (L/T) and X (L/T) with Wilcoxon tests. We obtained non significant differences between electrical data obtained on EDL and Soleus muscles, but we could see differences on graphics representation and with the example of one rat. Therefore, we can assume that differentiation, by bioimpedance, of muscles typed slow and fast fibers, could be possible.

  10. [Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing. PMID:24583591

  11. Heterogenic Feedback Between Hindlimb Extensors in the Spontaneously Locomoting Premammillary Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Kyla T.; Nichols, T. Richard

    2008-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in anesthetized animals have revealed that pathways carrying force information from Golgi tendon organs in antigravity muscles mediate widespread inhibition among other antigravity muscles in the feline hindlimb. More recent evidence in paralyzed or nonparalyzed decerebrate cats has shown that some inhibitory pathways are suppressed and separate excitatory pathways from Golgi tendon organ afferents are opened on the transition from steady force production to locom...

  12. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  13. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the vertebral bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily ...

  14. Recurrent intramedullary cervical ependymal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of high cervical intramedullary ependymal cyst in a young boy. This was associated with atlantoaxial dislocation. After partial removal and marsupialization, the cyst recurred and needed radical total resection.

  15. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  16. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  17. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J;

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia. Muscle strength and the coefficient of variation of the strength measurements of 181 female fibromyalgia patients and 126 healthy females were compared. These measurements and ergometer...... exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  18. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J;

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia. Muscle strength and the coefficient of variation of the strength measurements of 181 female fibromyalgia patients and 126 healthy females were compared. These measurements and ergometer...... exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients......, thus indicating lower effort. The physical performance during an ergometer test corresponded to a maximal oxygen consumption of 21 ml/kg-1 x min-1. The maximal increase in heart rate was only 63% (44-90%) of the predicted increase. Degree of effort or physical capacity did not correlate to psychometric...

  19. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael; Cho, Samuel Kang-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential c...

  20. Cervical Disc Disease: Biomechanical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Frode

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease in the cervical spine may cause significant pain and disability. Patients present themselves with neck pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. When the symptoms do not improve with conservative treatment, surgical treatment is considered. The goal of surgical treatment is to decompress nervous structures and to restore the normal anatomical conditions of disc height, alignment, and stability.The present thesis concerns four studies involving the treatment of cervical...

  1. Causes of excitation-induced muscle cell damage in isometric contractions: mechanical stress or calcium overload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Anne; Gissel, Hanne; Madsen, Klavs;

    2007-01-01

    explore this question using N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (BTS), which specifically blocks muscle contraction. Extensor digitorum longus muscles were prepared from 4-wk-old rats and mounted on holders for isometric contractions. Muscles were stimulated intermittently at 40 Hz for 15-60 min or exposed to...... the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Electrical stimulation increased 45Ca influx 3-5 fold. This was followed by a progressive release of LDH, which was correlated to the influx of Ca2+. BTS (50 microM) caused a 90% inhibition of contractile force but had no effect on the excitation-induced 45Ca influx. After......, electrical stimulation caused a marked increase in LDH release that was not suppressed by BTS but associated with a decrease in the content of ATP. Dynamic passive stretching caused no increase in muscle Ca2+ content and only a minor release of LDH, whereas treatment with A23187 markedly increased LDH...

  2. AMP kinase expression and activity in human skeletal muscle: effects of immobilization, retraining, and creatine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eijnde, Bert O.; Derave, Wim; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2005-01-01

    The effects of leg immobilization and retraining in combination with oral creatine intake on muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression and phosphorylation status were investigated. A double-blind trial was performed in young healthy volunteers (n = 22). A cast immobilized the...... right leg for 2 wk, whereafter the knee-extensor muscles of that leg were retrained for 6 wk. Half of the subjects received creatine monohydrate throughout the study (Cr; from 15 g down to 2.5 g daily), and the others ingested placebo (P; maltodextrin). Before and after immobilization and retraining...... immobilization-induced muscle inactivity for 2 wk does not alter AMPK a1-, a2-, and ß2-subunit expression or a-AMPK phosphorylation status. Furthermore, the present observations indicate that AMPK probably is not implicated in the previously reported beneficial effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscle...

  3. Morphometric analysis of rat muscle fibers following space flight and hypogravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, L. A.; Castleman, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypogravity on striate muscles, containing both fast twitch glycolytic and slow twitch oxidative fibers, was studied in rats aboard two Cosmos biosatellites. Results of a computer-assisted image analysis of extensor digitorum muscles from five rats, exposed to 18.5 days of hypogravity and processed for the alkaline ATPase reaction, showed a reduction of the mean fiber diameter (41.32 + or - 0.55 microns), compared to synchronous (46.32 + or - 0.55 microns) and vivarium (49 + or - 0.5 microns) controls. A further experiment studied the ratio of fast to slow twitch fibers in 25 rats exposed to 18.5 days of hypogravity and analyzed at four different periods of recovery following the space flight. Using the previous techniques, the gastrocnemius muscle showed a reduction of the total muscle fiber area in square microns and a reduction in the percentage of slow fibers of flight animals compared to the control animals.

  4. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT) in 6 cases (including 5 sporadic cases) with rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy. Although a predilection for the extensors in the lower leg was noted as stressed so far, there were certain cases without this selectivity. The thigh disclosed a selectivity that the flexors and adductors were severely affected while the m. quadriceps femoris was well preserved. The selectivity in the thigh was still found in the cases without selectivity in the lower leg. The neck flexors were also liable to be involved. In addition, CT revealed no compensatory hypertrophy of the specific muscles which was clearly shown in the thigh of distal muscular dystrophy (Miyoshi). The pattern of skeletal muscle involvement was thought to be a characteristic feature of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. It was visualized very clearly and easily by CT of skeletal muscles although it could be noted to a certain degree by physical examination. (author)

  5. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung;

    2009-01-01

    ATP has been proposed to play multiple roles in local skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation and modulating sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, but the mechanism remain unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of arterial ATP infusion and exercise on limb muscle interstitial...... ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0.......42+/-0.04 and 2.26+/-0.52 mumol/min; mean+/-SEM) and 2) one-leg knee-extensor exercise (18+/-0 and 37+/-2W) in 10 healthy, male subjects. Arterial ATP infusion and exercise increased leg blood flow (LBF) in the experimental leg from ~0.3 L/min at baseline to 4.2+/-0.3 and 4.6+/-0.5 L/min, respectively, whereas...

  6. Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle absolute force. •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle specific force. •C-26 cancer cachexia decreases fatigue resistance in the soleus muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs time to peak twitch tension in limb muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs one half twitch relaxation time in limb muscle. -- Abstract: Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative

  7. Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.M. [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Frye, G.S.; Ahn, B.; Ferreira, L.F. [1864 Stadium Road, Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Judge, A.R., E-mail: arjudge@phhp.ufl.edu [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle absolute force. •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle specific force. •C-26 cancer cachexia decreases fatigue resistance in the soleus muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs time to peak twitch tension in limb muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs one half twitch relaxation time in limb muscle. -- Abstract: Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative

  8. Dermatomyositis related to the relapse of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dermatomyositis (DM is a rare syndrome which belongs to the group of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM. The diagnosis of DM in adults is an indication for diagnostic evaluation towards malignancy. The exacerbation of clinical symptoms or laboratory markers of DM may indicate the relapse of neoplasm, therefore close follow-up visits of patients are obligatory. We present the case of a woman with a two-month history of progressive muscle weakness, dysphagia and oedemo-erythematous skin lesions limited to the face and trunk. The patient was diagnosed with DM associated with the relapse of cervical cancer.

  9. NECROTIZING FASCIITIS OF THE POSTERIOR CERVICAL COMPARTMENT: AN ATYPICAL CASE DUE TO STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Abramo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant infection that affects the deep and superficial fascia while initially sparing the overlying skin and underlying muscle. The involvement of the cervicalcompartment is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Immunocompromised patients are prone to this infection. We present a case of a 80 year-old diabetic woman suffering from streptococcal cervical NF (probably secondary to a arm injury with an uncommon involvement of the posterior cervical compartment, highlighting the atypical responsible microorganism (Streptococcus Agalactiae, the role of imaging for early diagnosis and the timely surgical and medical treatment for a successful outcome.

  10. Protein hydrolysates and recovery of muscle damage following eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A whey protein hydrolysate (NatraBoost XR; WPHNB has been shown to speed repair muscle damage. We sought to determine whether this benefit is specific to this hydrolysate to evaluate a marker for quality control. Methods: Three hydrolysates of the same whey protein isolate (WPI were prepared (WPHNB, WPH1 and WPH2. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured in 39 sedentary male participants before and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Participants were then randomised to consume 250 ml of flavoured water (FW, n=9, or 250 ml of FW containing 25 g of either NatraBoost XR (n=3, WPH1 (n=9, WPH2 (n=9 or WPI (n=9. Strength was reassessed over the next seven days while the supplements were consumed daily. Fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the different hydrolysates, WPI, saline or fetal bovine serum to ascertain effects on cell proliferation. Results: Strength was reduced in all treatment groups after eccentric exercise (P<0.001. Strength recovered steadily over 7 days in the FW, WPI, WPH1 and WPH2 treatment groups (P<0.001, with no difference between treatments (P=0.87. WPHNB promoted faster strength recovery compared with the other treatments (P<0.001. Fibroblast proliferation was greater with WPHNB compared with saline, WPI or the other hydrolysates (P<0.001. Conclusions: Promoting recovery from muscle damage seems unique to WPHNB. In vitro fibroblast proliferation may be a useful marker for quality control. It is not clear whether effects on fibroblast proliferation contribute to the in vivo effect of WPHNB on muscle damage.

  11. Long-term Effect of Wrist Extensor Energy on Humeral Epicondylitis%腕伸肌能量技术对肱骨外上髁炎疗效的远期观察①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of wrist extensor energy on humeral epicondylitis. Methods 48 humeral epicondylitis pa-tients were divided into muscular energy group and block therapy group with 24 cases in each group. The muscular energy group was treat-ed with muscle energy technique, and the other group received block therapy. They were assessed with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and muscle strength. They were followed up 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after discharge. Results The score of VAS was lower in the block therapy group than in the muscular energy group (P0.05);6 months after discharge, the muscular energy group (75.0%) was better than the block therapy group (46.1%) (P0.05);6个月随访,肌肉能量组(75.0%)与封闭治疗组(46.1%)有显著性差异(P<0.01);1年随访,肌肉能量组(54.2%)与封闭治疗组(16.7%)有显著性差异(P<0.01)。结论封闭治疗对肱骨外上髁炎短期阵痛疗效较肌肉能量技术好,但肌肉能量技术对于长期疗效维持好于单纯的封闭治疗。

  12. Digital image analysis of striated skeletal muscle tissue injury during reperfusion after induced ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero Salazar, Doris Haydee; Salazar Monsalve, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as surgical procedures or vascular diseases produce arterial ischemia and reperfusion injuries, which generate changes in peripheral tissues and organs, for instance, in striated skeletal muscle. To determine such changes, we conducted an experimental method in which 42 male Wistar rat were selected, to be undergone to tourniquet application on the right forelimb and left hind limb, to induce ischemia during one and three hours, followed by reperfusion periods starting at one hour and it was prolonged up to 32 days. Extensor carpi radialis longus and soleus respectively, were obtained to be processed for histochemical and morphometric analysis. By means of image processing and detection of regions of interest, variations of areas occupied by muscle fibers and intramuscular extracellular matrix (IM-ECM) throughout reperfusion were observed. In extensor carpi radialis longus, results shown reduction in the area occupied by muscle fibers; this change is significant between one hour and three hours ischemia followed by 16 hours, 48 hours and 32 days reperfusión (p˂0.005). To compare only periods of reperfusión that continued to three hours ischemia, were found significant differences, as well. For area occupied by IM-ECM, were identified increments in extensor carpi radialis longus by three hours ischemia and eight to 16 days reperfusion; in soleus, was observed difference by one hour ischemia with 42 hours reperfusion, and three hours ischemia followed by four days reperfusion (p˂0.005). Skeletal muscle develops adaptive changes in longer reperfusion, to deal with induced injury. Descriptions beyond 32 days reperfusion, can determine recovering normal pattern.

  13. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Torriani, Martin [General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P < 0.0001; R1 and R2 averaged data, P < 0.0001) and ECU tendon subluxation (P = 0.001; P = 0.0001; P < 0.0001). In subjects with ECU tendon subluxation there was also a trend toward a shorter length (P = 0.3; P <0.0001; P = 0.001) and a shallower ECU groove (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.01; R1 and R2 averaged data with Bonferroni correction, P = 0.08). ECU groove depth (P = 0.6; P = 0.8; P = 0.9) and groove length (P = 0.1; P = 0.4; P = 0.7) showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology, and length of the ulnar styloid process showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology (P = 0.2; P = 0.3; P = 0.2) or subluxation (P = 0.4; P = 0.5; P = 0.5). Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was >0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  14. [Skeletal muscle involvement in enthesopathy of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (so-called tennis elbow)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J; Koudela, K

    1988-01-01

    Muscle specimens from the origin of the m. extensor carpi radialis brevis, were obtained from 53 patients suffering from chronic enthesopathy of the lateral epicondyle of humerus (EELH). Frank neurogenic atrophy as well as disuse atrophy were caused by radicular irritation due to the cervicobrachial syndrome. The borderline and/or reinnervation patterns of the muscle lesion may be due to the compression neuropathy of the peripheral branches of the radial nerve or may reflect adaptation of the muscle to the chronic nociceptive stimulation in sense of chronic reflex atrophy of the muscle. The elbow joint, and especially the humeroradial joint in cases of EELH represents a functional unit. Any damage to any part leads to secondary reparative and adaptive changes in other structures including the muscle. PMID:2970182

  15. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in interleukin-6 release from isolated mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glund, Stephan; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau;

    2009-01-01

    IL-6 is released from skeletal muscle during exercise and has consequently been implicated to mediate beneficial effects on whole-body metabolism. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we tested...... the hypothesis that AMPK modulates IL-6 release from isolated muscle. Skeletal muscle from AMPKalpha2 kinase-dead transgenic, AMPKalpha1 knockout (KO) and AMPKgamma3 KO mice and respective wild-type littermates was incubated in vitro, in the absence or presence of 2 mmol/liter AICAR. Skeletal muscle...... from wild-type mice was also incubated with the AMPK activator A-769662. Incubation of mouse glycolytic extensor digitorum longus and oxidative soleus muscle for 2 h was associated with profound IL-6 mRNA production and protein release, which was suppressed by AICAR (P < 0.001). Basal IL-6 release from...

  16. Functional adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to resistance training in three patients with genetically verified classic Ehlers Danlos Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mathias Bech; Kjær, Michael; Svensson, René Brüggebusch;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: tendon and skeletal muscle function adapts to physical training of resistive nature, but it is unknown to what extent persons with genetically altered connective tissue - who have a higher than normal tendon extensibility - will obtain any effect upon their tendon and muscle when...... undergoing muscle strength training. We investigated patients with classical Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS) (collagen type V defect) who display articular hypermobility, skin extensibility and tissue fragility. METHODS: subjects underwent strength training 3 times a week for 4 months and were tested before and...... after intervention in regards to muscle strength, tendon mechanical properties, and muscle function. RESULTS: three subjects completed the scheduled 48 sessions and had no major adverse events. Mean isometric leg extension force and leg extensor power both increased by 8 and 11% respectively (358 to 397...

  17. Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ju Huang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, surgeonsface the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy orlaminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompressionsor corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered bysome clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexityof multilevel anterior cervical surgery.Methods: In this retrospective study, 14 patients with multilevel cervical spondylosiswho were operated on via an anterior route were enrolled to evaluate thecomplexity, safety, and clinical results. The collected parameters were operationtime, blood loss, hospital days, and early and late complications forevaluating the operative complexity, radiographic follow-up for evaluatingfusion, graft problems, implants problems, and the recovery rate using theJapanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA score for evaluating the operativeresults.Results: The mean operation time was 363.4 min, and blood loss was 431.4 ml. Anearly complication was noted in 1 patient with combined deep vein thrombosisand a pulmonary embolism. Late complications were screw breakage in1 patient and screw loosening in 5 patients. The mean duration of follow-upwas 21.9 months. The mean recovery rate of the JOA score was 38.8% postoperativelyand 51.9% at the final follow-up. The fusion rate was 100% inthis series.Conclusions: Anterior cervical decompression and fusion for multilevel stenosis requires alonger operation time than posterior procedures; however, the clinical resultsare satisfactory.

  18. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  19. Cervical dystonia: effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program; study design and protocol of a single blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van den Dool, Joost; Visser, Bart; Koelman, J Hans TM; Engelbert, Raoul hh; Tijssen, Marina AJ

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions of the neck and abnormal head positions that affect daily life activities and social life of patients. Patients are usually treated with botulinum toxin injections into affected neck muscles to relief pain and improve control of head postures. In addition, many patients are referred for physical therapy to improve their ability to perform activities of daily living. A recent review on allied health interventions ...

  20. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Siebert

    Full Text Available The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle. Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components, enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic

  1. High muscle blood flow in man: is maximal O2 extraction compromised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R S; Poole, D C; Knight, D R; Kurdak, S S; Hogan, M C; Grassi, B; Johnson, E C; Kendrick, K F; Erickson, B K; Wagner, P D

    1993-10-01

    During conventional cycle ergometry, as work rate (WR) is increased toward maximum, O2 extraction increases hyperbolically, typically achieving values of 80-90% at peak O2 uptake (VO2). In contrast, studies using isolated knee-extensor exercise report much higher mass-specific blood flows (Q) and lower maximal O2 extractions (approximately 70%), which have been interpreted as transit time limitation to O2 movement out of the muscle capillary. However, maximal achievable WR levels during conventional cycle ergometry are generally reached (over 10-15 min) after rapid increases in WR, whereas the reported knee-extensor studies have used only more lengthy protocols (45 min). The duration of these protocols may have prevented the attainment of high WR levels and thus high O2 extraction ratios. Accordingly, this investigation examined leg Q and O2 extraction responses during single-leg knee-extensor exercise incremented rapidly (steps of 15-25 W per 2- to 3-min interval), which produced fatigue in 13-15 min. Q and muscle VO2 increased linearly with WR to fatigue with Q-WR and VO2-WR slopes similar to those reported in previous knee-extensor studies. However, with the use of this protocol, very high maximal achievable WR [99 +/- 6 (SE) W] and muscle Q (385 +/- 26 ml.min-1 x 100 g-1) levels were attained, some 80% greater than previously reported. An O2 extraction of 84.6 +/- 2.1% was reached, giving a maximal VO2 of 60.2 +/- 5.8 ml.min-1 x 100 g-1. We conclude that, even under the high Q conditions of single-leg knee-extensor exercise, O2 extraction does not reach a plateau on the basis of short transit times and that previous conclusions to the contrary reflect failure to attain sufficiently high WR levels. Maximal VO2, Q, and O2 extraction in this model have yet to be defined. PMID:8282650

  2. T Tubules and Surface Membranes Provide Equally Effective Pathways of Carbonic Anhydrase-Facilitated Lactic Acid Transport in Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerdei, Janine; Scheibe, Renate J.; Parkkila, Seppo; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S.; Gros, Gerolf; Wetzel, Petra; Endeward, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We have studied lactic acid transport in the fast mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) by intracellular and cell surface pH microelectrodes. The role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases (CA) of EDL in lactic acid transport was investigated by measuring lactate flux in muscles from wildtype, CAIV-, CAIX- and CAXIV-single ko, CAIV-CAXIV double ko and CAIV–CAIX–CAXIV-triple ko mice. This was complemented by immunocytochemical studies of the subcellular localization of CAIV, CAIX and C...

  3. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS...

  4. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

  5. Study on pedicle screw fixation of cervical spine assisted CT-based navigation system compared with the individual cervical peddle screws placement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore a safe and effective method for placing the cervical pedicle screws. Methods: There were ten adult cadaver specimens of cervica spine (C1-C7) with intact structures including ligament and perivertebral muscles. The spiral computed tomography scan (Elscint CT Twin flash) at the section of 1 mm and three-dimensional reconstruction of all 10 cervical specimens were taken. By CT scan, the parameters of the cervical pedicles were measure,Then taking randomly 5 cervical specimens, according to the CT measurements, an appropriate screw was inserted into pedicle individually. In the other 5 human cadaver cervical vertebraes, Φ3.5 mm screws were inserted into the C2-C7 pedicles by assisted by CT-based navigation system. Cortical integrity of every sample was examined by anatomic dissection, the spiral computed tomography scan and arrows,and coronal reconstruction. Results: Sixty screws was inserted into pedicle individually, and the achievement ratio was 90%, the perfectness ratio was 75%, 60 screws was placed into pedicle assisted by CT-based navigation system, and the achievement ratio was 96.6%, the perfectness ratio was 90%. By chi-square test for statistical analysis, there were no statistical significance between the accuracy rate of two methods(P>0.05). However there was statistical significance between the perfectness ratio between two methods(P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with the individual cervical peddle screws placement technique, the perfectness ratio of pedicle screw fixation of cervical spine assisted by CT-based navigation system is higher, but there are no significant difference in accuracy. (authors)

  6. Muscle function and hydrodynamics limit power and speed in swimming frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the muscle force-velocity relationship and its derived n-shaped power-velocity curve offer important insights into muscular limits of performance. Given the power is maximal at 1/3 V(max), geometric scaling of muscle force coupled with fluid drag force implies that this optimal muscle-shortening velocity for power cannot be maintained across the natural body-size range. Instead, muscle velocity may decrease with increasing body size, conferring a similar n-shaped power curve with body size. Here we examine swimming speed and muscle function in the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. Swimming speed shows an n-shaped scaling relationship, peaking at 47.35 g. Further, in vitro muscle function of the ankle extensor plantaris longus also shows an optimal body mass for muscle power output (47.27 g), reflecting that of swimming speed. These findings suggest that in drag-based aquatic systems, muscle-environment interactions vary with body size, limiting both the muscle's potential to produce power and the swimming speed. PMID:24177194

  7. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  8. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  9. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  10. Quantitative Morphometric Study of the Skeletal Muscles of Normal and Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib A Aughsteen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Quantitative morphometry under light microscope was applied to analyze changes in the number and the diameters of skeletal muscle fibers and their myonuclei in the extensor digitorum longus and rectus femoris muscles of normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Animals :Twelve adult male albino Fischer rats each weighing 300 g were used in the study. Interventions :Streptozotocin (STZ-diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight via the tail vein. Six normal and 6 STZ-diabetic rats were sacrificed; samples of the extensor digitorum longus and rectus femoris muscles were taken, fixed in modified Bouin’s fluid and processed for paraffin sectioning. The muscle samples were properly oriented during paraffin embedding for cross and longitudinal sectioning. Sections from each block were cut, processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Randomly selected samples from normal and STZ-diabetic rats were analyzed using a 100x objective lens of a light microscope. Main outcome measures :The diameters of the fibers and the length of the myonuclei were determined from the longitudinal sections while the diameters and number of fibers and myonuclei were measured from the cross sections. A length measuring 10x reticule fitted to the microscope eye piece was used for the direct measurement of the fibers and myonuclei profiles. Morphometric measurement from each rat was determined and the data were pooled for the control and diabetic groups of rats. All data presented are means with standard error and were statistically analyzed using the Student’s ttest. Results: Histological examination of the stained sections from diabetic rats revealed the presence of areas of inflammation and necrosis in the myofibers of both muscles. The estimated mean diameter of the muscle fibers in the STZ-diabetic rats was reduced by 36% and 31% respectively in the longitudinal and cross sections of the extensor digitorum longus

  11. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was 2+ cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca2+ cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported 45Ca2+-uptake activity and 45Ca2+-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state

  12. Adaptations of human skeletal muscle fibers to spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. Kathleen; Allen, David L.; Mohajerani, Laleh; Greenisen, Michael C.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1995-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle fibers seem to share most of the same interrelationships among myosin ATPase activity, myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, mitochondrial enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities, and cross-sectional area (CSA) as found in rat, cat, and other species. One difference seems to be that fast fibers with high mitochrondrial content occur less frequently in humans than in the rat or cat. Recently, we have reported that the type of MHC expressed and the size of the muscle fibers in humans that have spent 11 days in space change significantly. Specifically, about 8% more fibers express fast MHCs and all phenotypes atrophy in the vastus lateralis (VL) post compared to preflight. In the present paper we examine the relationships among the population of myonuclei, MHC type, and CSA of single human muscle fibers before and after spaceflight. These are the first data that define the relationship among the types of MHC expressed, myonuclei number, and myonuclei domain of single fibers in human muscle. We then compare these data to similar measures in the cat. In addition, the maximal torque that can be generated by the knee extensors and their fatigability before and after spaceflight are examined. These data provide some indication of the potential physiologica consequences of the muscle adaptations that occur in humans in response to spaceflight.

  13. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  14. Satellite cell depletion prevents fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Ingrid M; Bruusgaard, Jo C; Gundersen, Kristian

    2016-08-15

    The largest mammalian cells are the muscle fibers, and they have multiple nuclei to support their large cytoplasmic volumes. During hypertrophic growth, new myonuclei are recruited from satellite stem cells into the fiber syncytia, but it was recently suggested that such recruitment is not obligatory: overload hypertrophy after synergist ablation of the plantaris muscle appeared normal in transgenic mice in which most of the satellite cells were abolished. When we essentially repeated these experiments analyzing the muscles by immunohistochemistry and in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we found that overload hypertrophy was prevented in the satellite cell-deficient mice, in both the plantaris and the extensor digitorum longus muscles. We attribute the previous findings to a reliance on muscle mass as a proxy for fiber hypertrophy, and to the inclusion of a significant number of regenerating fibers in the analysis. We discuss that there is currently no model in which functional, sustainable hypertrophy has been unequivocally demonstrated in the absence of satellite cells; an exception is re-growth, which can occur using previously recruited myonuclei without addition of new myonuclei. PMID:27531949

  15. Muscle relaxation of the foot reduces corticospinal excitability of hand muscles and enhances intracortical inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eKato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to clarify the effects of foot muscle relaxation on activity in the primary motor cortex of the hand area. Subjects were asked to volitionally relax the right foot from sustained contraction of either the dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior; TA relaxation or plantarflexor (soleus; SOL relaxation in response to an auditory stimulus. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals before and after the onset of TA or SOL relaxation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR and flexor carpi radialis (FCR. MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased after TA and SOL relaxation onset, respectively, as compared with those of the resting control. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI of ECR evaluated with paired-pulse TMS temporarily increased after TA relaxation onset. Our findings indicate that muscle relaxation of the dorsiflexor reduced corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand muscles. This is most likely caused by an increase in intracortical inhibition.

  16. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Facchini; Giuseppina Rapacchia; Giulia Montanari; Paolo Casadio; Gianluigi Pilu; Renato Seracchioli

    2014-01-01

    Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery ...

  17. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least ri...

  18. Course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov V.N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Today we can state that in spite of a considerable number of cervical osteochondrosis studies, there is a lack of research devoted to analysis of its course. There is no correlation between initial expert evaluations of cervical osteo-chondrosis cases and further course of pathological process. Goal of the research is to develop system of course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis taking into account environmental infuence, heredity, living conditions, psychological profle of patient’s personality. Materials and methods. Dynamics of degenerative-dystrophic changes progressing of cervical vertebrae in 236 patients was analyzed. Results. Received data demonstrated that probability of stage I changing to stage II, III and IV depended on patients’ sex, age and type of labour activity, frequent supercooling and stress. Probability of fast progression of cervical osteochondrosis (5-year cycle of stage I changing to stage III and IV was to a great extent associated with heredity, urban living, presence of endocrine system diseases, syndrome of nonspecifc dysplasia of connective tissue and low indices of quality of life. Conclusion. Proposed system allows making prognosis of morphologic changes in spinal cord, and is based on radiation methods of verifcation without taking into consideration dynamics of neurological symptomatology.

  19. MuSK levels differ between adult skeletal muscles and influence postsynaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punga, Anna R; Maj, Marcin; Lin, Shuo; Meinen, Sarina; Rüegg, Markus A

    2011-03-01

    Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) is involved in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), and is necessary for NMJ integrity. As muscle involvement is strikingly selective in pathological conditions in which MuSK is targeted, including congenital myasthenic syndrome with MuSK mutation and MuSK antibody-seropositive myasthenia gravis, we hypothesized that the postsynaptic response to MuSK-agrin signalling differs between adult muscles. Transcript levels of postsynaptic proteins were compared between different muscles in wild-type adult mice. MuSK expression was high in the soleus and sternomastoid muscles and low in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and omohyoid muscles. The acetylcholine receptor (AChR) α subunit followed a similar expression pattern, whereas expression of Dok-7, Lrp4 and rapsyn was comparable between the muscles. We subsequently examined muscles in mice that overexpressed a miniaturized form of neural agrin or MuSK. In these transgenic mice, the soleus and sternomastoid muscles responded with formation of ectopic AChR clusters, whereas such clusters were almost absent in the EDL and omohyoid muscles. Electroporation of Dok-7 revealed its important role as an activator of MuSK in AChR cluster formation in adult muscles. Together, our findings indicate for the first time that adult skeletal muscles harbour different endogenous levels of MuSK and that these levels determine the ability to form ectopic AChR clusters upon overexpression of agrin or MuSK. We believe that these findings are important for our understanding of adult muscle plasticity and the selective muscle involvement in neuromuscular disorders in which MuSK is diminished. PMID:21255125

  20. Metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the metabolic response to obesity and to pair feeding of obese Zucker rats to lean Zucker rats was similar across skeletal muscles. Oxidation of glucose, palmitate and isoleucine was studied in muscle strips in vitro using appropriate 14-carbon substrates as tracers. The plantaris muscle was subjected to histochemical analyses using an alkaline actomyosin ATPase, NADH-tetrazolium reductase and an oil red 0 stain. Soleus muscles from both ad libitum and pair fed obese rats oxidized less glucose to CO2, but released similar amounts of lactate when compared to the soleus muscles of lean rats. Oxidation of glucose was similar in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of ad libitum fed obese rats, but lower when pair fed to the intake of lean rats. No differences were apparent in palmitate oxidation to CO2 or in incorporation into lipid, except in the EDL muscle of pair-fed obese rats which exhibited a higher rate for palmitate metabolism when compared with lean rats. Isoleucine oxidation to CO2 was higher in the EDL and plantaris muscles, but similar in the soleus muscle of ad libitum-fed obese rats when compared with lean rats. The magnitude of the difference in isoleucine oxidation was similar when the obese rats were pair fed. No differences in the percentage of plantaris muscle fibers sensitive to alkaline ATPase staining were observed. The plantaris muscle of obese rats, contained a higher proportion of oxidative fibers. These results indicate the great risk in generalizing about metabolic activity of the whole skeletal muscle mass based on observations made on one, or even two, distinct muscles in this animal model. Also, pair feeding of obese to lean Zucker rats did not result in uniform change sin metabolism between muscles of the obese rats