WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervical dorsal horn

  1. Structure-function relationships in rat medullary and cervical dorsal horns. I. Trigeminal primary afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, M F; Renehan, W E; Mooney, R D; Rhoades, R W

    1986-06-01

    Intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeling were used to examine structure-function relationships in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) and rostral cervical dorsal horn. In Nembutal-anesthetized rats, 78 trigeminal (V) primary afferent fibers were physiologically characterized and injected with HRP. Axons were sufficiently well stained to reconstruct all of their collaterals in the MDH. Many also extended into the cervical dorsal horn. Except for four axons, which responded best to noxious stimuli, all responded at short (mean = 0.50 ms) latencies to V ganglion shocks and to innocuous stimulation. Forty-five of our recovered fibers were associated with facial vibrissae and responded in either a rapidly adapting, slowly adapting type I, slowly adapting type IIa, or slowly adapting type IIb fashion. The adequate stimuli consisted of either slow deflection, high-velocity deflection, or a noxious pinch of the vibrissa follicle. The collaterals of all of the above-described mystacial vibrissa primary afferents proceeded directly to their region of arborization in a plane perpendicular to the lateral border of the medulla to collectively form a largely continuous, circumscribed terminal column. This longitudinally oriented column of terminal and en passant boutons angled from lamina V rostrally to lamina III caudally. In the magnocellular laminae of the MDH, all mystacial vibrissa primary afferents gave rise to similarly shaped arbors, regardless of their functional classification. While morphological variability was observed both within and between individual axons, variance between functional classes was no greater than that within a class. Moreover, number of collaterals, number of boutons, or bouton size did not distinguish functional classes. Nonmystacial vibrissa afferent arbors, with more caudal peripheral fields, had their primary arbor focus in C1 and C2 dorsal horn. These arbors had relatively little rostrocaudal overlap with mystacial

  2. Stimulation of the greater occipital nerve increases metabolic activity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and cervical dorsal horn of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, P J; Knight, Y E; Hoskin, K L

    1997-10-01

    Patients with primary headache syndromes often describe a distribution of pain that involves both frontal and occipital parts of the head. Such a distribution of pain does not respect the cutaneous sensory innervation of the head which would divide it into anterior (trigeminally innervated) and posterior (spinal nerve root innervated) regions. Studies of pain-producing intracranial structures, such as the superior sagittal sinus, have demonstrated that second order neurons as caudal as C2 are activated after either electrical or mechanical stimulation. For this study cats were anaesthetised with halothane (during surgery) and alpha-chloralose (60 mg/kg, i.p., then 20 mg/kg intravenous maintenance), paralysed (gallamine 6 mg/kg) and ventilated. The greater occipital nerve was isolated bilaterally and stimulated unilaterally using hook electrodes with stimuli of 100 V at 0.3 Hz. Metabolic activity in the caudal brain stem and upper cervical cord was measured using 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography and quantitative densitometry. Stimulation of the greater occipital nerve increased metabolic activity by 220% ipsilateral to stimulation and by a lesser amount contralaterally. Increases in metabolic activity were seen in the dorsal horn at the level of C1 and C2 as might be predicted from the cervical origin of the nerve. Neuronal activation appeared contiguous with the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and was in the same distribution as is seen when trigeminally-innervated structures are stimulated. These data suggest that the well recognised clinical phenomenon of pain at the front and back of the head and in the upper neck are likely to be a consequence of overlap of processing of nociceptive information at the level of the second order neurons. PMID:9414053

  3. Fos, nociception and the dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggeshall, Richard E

    2005-12-01

    The protooncogene c-fos is rapidly activated after noxious stimuli to express the protein Fos in spinal dorsal horn neurons that are in the 'correct' locations for nociceptive information transfer. As such, therefore, mapping Fos expression in these neurons is at present the best global marker for efficiently locating populations of neurons in the awake animal that respond to nociceptive input. This allows, among other things, precise behavioral measurements to be correlated with Fos expression. Two arenas where mapping dorsal horn Fos expression has made a major impact are in the anatomy of nociceptive systems and as a useful assay for the analgesic properties of various therapeutic regimens. Also Fos expression is the only way to map populations of neurons that are responding to non-localized input such as withdrawal after addiction and vascular occlusion. Another insight is that it shows a clear activation of neurons in superficial 'pain-processing' laminae by innocuous stimuli after nerve lesions, a finding that presumably bears on the allodynia that often accompanies these lesions. It is to be understood, however, that the Fos localizations are not sufficient unto themselves, but the major function of these studies is to efficiently locate populations of cells in nociceptive pathways so that powerful anatomic and physiologic techniques can be brought to bear efficiently. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the studies whose numbers are geometrically expanding that deal with Fos in the dorsal horn and the conclusions therefrom.

  4. In vivo release of serotonin in cat dorsal vagal complex and cervical ventral horn induced by electrical stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, E; Linderoth, B; Goiny, M; Yamamoto, Y; Gazelius, B; Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Ungerstedt, U

    1990-12-10

    Extracellular levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) were monitored by microdialysis in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the ventral horn of the spinal cord at the level of the phrenic motor nucleus in decerebrated cats. A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, alaproclate (10(-4) M) was included in the dialysis probe perfusion fluid to increase basal and stimulated levels of 5-HT. Electrical stimulation (30 Hz, 10 V, 0.5 ms) in the nucleus raphe obscurus, containing neurons projecting to the DVC and to the ventral horn, induced a 2-3-fold increase of the 5-HT release in both these regions. After termination of the stimulation, the release gradually decreased during the following 60 min. Substance P, which coexists with 5-HT in descending neurons, did not significantly affect the 5-HT release when it was added (100 microM) to the probe perfusion fluid. The present findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that prolonged release of 5-HT is responsible for the previously demonstrated long-lasting facilitation of phrenic activity following raphe obscurus stimulation. PMID:1705856

  5. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-05-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  6. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  7. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compr...

  8. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E;

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairment in the spinal dorsal horn of a neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enji; Yi, Min-Hee; Shin, Nara; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Sena; Kim, Eunjee; Kwon, Kisang; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Chul Bae, Yong; Kim, Yonghyun; Kwon, O-Yu; Lee, Won Hyung; Kim, Dong Woon

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using the CatWalk system, and histologically with microglial activation in the dorsal spinal horn. L5 SNL induced BIP upregulation in the neuron of superficial laminae of dorsal spinal horn. It also increased the level of ATF6 and intracellular localization into the nuclei in the neurons. Moreover, spliced XBP1 was also markedly elevated in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. The PERK-elF2 pathway was activated in astrocytes of the spinal dorsal horn in the SNL model. In addition, electron microscopy revealed the presence of swollen cisternae in the dorsal spinal cord after SNL. Additionally, inhibition of the ATF6 pathway by intrathecal treatment with ATF6 siRNA reduced pain behaviors and BIP expression in the dorsal horn. The results suggest that ER stress might be involved in the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, a disturbance in UPR signaling may render the spinal neurons vulnerable to peripheral nerve injury or neuropathic pain stimuli. PMID:26109318

  10. AMPA receptor trafficking in inflammation-induced dorsal horn central sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Xiang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent postsynaptic receptor trafficking is critical for long-term synaptic plasticity in the brain,but it is unclear whether this mechanism actually mediates the spinal cord dorsal horn central sensitization (a specific form of synaptic plasticity) that is associated with persistent pain.Recent studies have shown that peripheral inflammation drives changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy1-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit trafficking in the dorsal horn and that such changes contribute to the hypersensitivity that underlies persistent pain.Here,we review current evidence to illustrate how spinal cord AMPARs participate in the dorsal horn central sensitization associated with persistent pain.Understanding these mechanisms may allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating persistent pain.

  11. Glial glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase regulate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Enshe; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2012-05-01

    Decreased GABAergic synaptic strength ('disinhibition') in the spinal dorsal horn is a crucial mechanism contributing to the development and maintenance of pathological pain. However, mechanisms leading to disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn remain elusive. We investigated the role of glial glutamate transporters (GLT-1 and GLAST) and glutamine synthetase in maintaining GABAergic synaptic activity in the spinal dorsal horn. Electrically evoked GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs), spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs were recorded in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons of spinal slices from young adult rats. We used (2S,3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA), to block both GLT-1 and GLAST and dihydrokainic acid to block only GLT-1. We found that blockade of both GLAST and GLT-1 and blockade of only GLT-1 in the spinal dorsal horn decreased the amplitude of GABAergic eIPSCs, as well as both the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs or miniature IPSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase had similar effects on both GABAergic eIPSCs and sIPSCs. We provided evidence demonstrating that the reduction in GABAergic strength induced by the inhibition of glial glutamate transporters is due to insufficient GABA synthesis through the glutamate-glutamine cycle between astrocytes and neurons. Thus, our results indicate that deficient glial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase significantly attenuate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn, which may be a crucial synaptic mechanism underlying glial-neuronal interactions caused by dysfunctional astrocytes in pathological pain conditions. PMID:22339645

  12. Dorsal horn-enriched genes identified by DNA microarray, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblan Kenneth S

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in the dorsal spinal cord play important roles in nociception and pain. These neurons receive input from peripheral sensory neurons and then transmit the signals to the brain, as well as receive and integrate descending control signals from the brain. Many molecules important for pain transmission have been demonstrated to be localized to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Further understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways in the dorsal horn neurons will require a better knowledge of the molecular neuroanatomy in the dorsal spinal cord. Results A large scale screening was conducted for genes with enriched expression in the dorsal spinal cord using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to genes known to be specifically expressed in the dorsal spinal cord, other neuropeptides, receptors, ion channels, and signaling molecules were also found enriched in the dorsal spinal cord. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed the cellular expression of a subset of these genes. The regulation of a subset of the genes was also studied in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL neuropathic pain model. In general, we found that the genes that are enriched in the dorsal spinal cord were not among those found to be up-regulated in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. This study also provides a level of validation of the use of DNA microarrays in conjunction with our novel analysis algorithm (SAFER for the identification of differences in gene expression. Conclusion This study identified molecules that are enriched in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and provided a molecular neuroanatomy in the spinal cord, which will aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms important in nociception and pain.

  13. Short-term plasticity in turtle dorsal horn neurons mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup of the re......Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup...... of the response to repeated depolarizing current pulses as well as to repeated stimulation of the ipsilateral dorsal root. We found both forms of windup to be mediated by a depolarizing potential produced by increasing activation of postsynaptic L-type Ca2+ channels. These results suggest a central role...

  14. Xenon inhibits excitatory but not inhibitory transmission in rat spinal cord dorsal horn neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular targets for the promising gaseous anaesthetic xenon are still under investigation. Most studies identify N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors as the primary molecular target for xenon, but the role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA receptors is less clear. In this study we evaluated the effect of xenon on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord using in vitro patch-clamp recordings from rat spinal cord slices. We further evaluated the effects of xenon on innocuous and noxious stimuli using in vivo patch-clamp method. Results In vitro, xenon decreased the amplitude and area under the curve of currents induced by exogenous NMDA and AMPA and inhibited dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents. Xenon decreased the amplitude, but not the frequency, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. There was no discernible effect on miniature or evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents or on the current induced by inhibitory neurotransmitters. In vivo, xenon inhibited responses to tactile and painful stimuli even in the presence of NMDA receptor antagonist. Conclusions Xenon inhibits glutamatergic excitatory transmission in the superficial dorsal horn via a postsynaptic mechanism. There is no substantial effect on inhibitory synaptic transmission at the concentration we used. The blunting of excitation in the dorsal horn lamina II neurons could underlie the analgesic effect of xenon.

  15. Geometric morphometric on dorsal aspect of skull does not differences between horned and polled domestic goats

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Few previous studies have explored caprine skulls using geometric morphometric (GM) methods, which enable the quantitative analysis and visualisation of shape changes in skeletal elements and provide an important compliment to traditional lineal analyses. The aim of this research is to determine whether GM techniques can provide insights into how the shape of the goat skull differs between horned and polled animals, focusing on the differences between the dorsal aspects of the neurocranium. F...

  16. Glutamine uptake contributes to central sensitization in the medullary dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chen Yu; Li, Zhaohui; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Hu, James W.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Mustard oil application to tooth pulp produces central sensitization in rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons, which has been implicated in persistent pain mechanisms. We found that superfusion onto MDH of methylaminoisobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of the neuronal system A transporter for presynaptic uptake of glutamine (a glutamate precursor released from astroglia), significantly depressed development of mustard oil-induced central sensitization in rat MDH nociceptive...

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairment in the spinal dorsal horn of a neuropathic pain model

    OpenAIRE

    Enji Zhang; Min-Hee Yi; Nara Shin; Hyunjung Baek; Sena Kim; Eunjee Kim; Kisang Kwon; Sunyeul Lee; Hyun-Woo Kim; Yong Chul Bae; Yonghyun Kim; O.-Yu Kwon; Won Hyung Lee; Dong Woon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using the CatWalk system, and histologically with microglial activation in the dorsal spinal horn. L5 SNL induced BIP upregulation in the neuro...

  18. Expression of nerve growth factor in spinal dorsal horn following crushed spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF) in spinal dorsal horn following crushed spinal cord injury. METHODS: The adult Srague-Dawley rat model of crushed spinal cord injury was established by the method in our laboratory, and intact spinal cord was used as control. The rats were sacrificed respectively after 24 hours, 7 days, and 21 days of operation, and the L3 spinal segments were removed out and fixed in 4% polyformaldehyde. The segments were sectioned into sections of 20 μm in thickness. The sections were stained with anti-NGF antibody by ABC method of immunohistochemistry technique. The immunoreactive intensity of NGF and the number of positive neurons as well as glial cells in dorsal horn were observed and counted under light microscope. RESULTS: The number of positive cells and immunoreactive intensity of NGF increased gradually in the dorsal horn at 24 hours, 7 days and 21 days following crushed spinal cord injury compared with control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: These results indicated that NGF plays an important role in the postoperative reaction during the early period of the crushed spinal cord injury.

  19. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  20. Inhibitory coupling between inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Local inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn play an important role in the control of excitability at the segmental level and thus determine how nociceptive information is relayed to higher structures. Regulation of inhibitory interneuron activity may therefore have critical consequences on pain perception. Indeed, disinhibition of dorsal horn neuronal networks disrupts the balance between excitation and inhibition and is believed to be a key mechanism underlying different forms of pain hypersensitivity and chronic pain states. In this context, studying the source and the synaptic properties of the inhibitory inputs that the inhibitory interneurons receive is important in order to predict the impact of drug action at the network level. To address this, we studied inhibitory synaptic transmission in lamina II inhibitory interneurons identified under visual guidance in spinal slices taken from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the GAD promoter. The majority of these cells fired tonically to a long depolarizing current pulse. Monosynaptically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs in these cells were mediated by both GABAA and glycine receptors. Consistent with this, both GABAA and glycine receptor-mediated miniature IPSCs were recorded in all of the cells. These inhibitory inputs originated at least in part from local lamina II interneurons as verified by simultaneous recordings from pairs of EGFP+ cells. These synapses appeared to have low release probability and displayed potentiation and asynchronous release upon repeated activation. In summary, we report on a previously unexamined component of the dorsal horn circuitry that likely constitutes an essential element of the fine tuning of nociception.

  1. Phorbol Ester Modulation of Ca2+ Channels Mediates Nociceptive Transmission in Dorsal Horn Neurones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Stephens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phorbol esters are analogues of diacylglycerol which activate C1 domain proteins, such as protein kinase C (PKC. Phorbol ester/PKC pathways have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for chronic pain states, potentially by phosphorylating proteins involved in nociception, such as voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs. In this brief report, we investigate the potential involvement of CaV2 VDCC subtypes in functional effects of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Effects of PMA and of selective pharmacological blockers of CaV2 VDCC subtypes on nociceptive transmission at laminae II dorsal horn neurones were examined in mouse spinal cord slices. Experiments were extended to CaV2.3(−/− mice to complement pharmacological studies. PMA increased the mean frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in dorsal horn neurones, without an effect on event amplitude or half-width. sPSC frequency was reduced by selective VDCC blockers, w-agatoxin-IVA (AgTX; CaV2.1, w-conotoxin-GVIA (CTX; CaV2.2 or SNX-482 (CaV2.3. PMA effects were attenuated in the presence of each VDCC blocker and, also, in CaV2.3(−/− mice. These initial data demonstrate that PMA increases nociceptive transmission at dorsal horn neurones via actions on different CaV2 subtypes suggesting potential anti-nociceptive targets in this system.

  2. Dissociation of μ- and δ-opioid inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in superficial dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Christopher W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is anatomical and behavioural evidence that μ- and δ-opioid receptors modulate distinct nociceptive modalities within the superficial dorsal horn. The aim of the present study was to examine whether μ- and δ-opioid receptor activation differentially modulates TRP sensitive inputs to neurons within the superficial dorsal horn. To do this, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from lamina I - II neurons in rat spinal cord slices in vitro to examine the effect of opioids on TRP agonist-enhanced glutamatergic spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. Results Under basal conditions the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO (3 μM reduced the rate of miniature EPSCs in 68% of neurons, while the δ- and κ-opioid agonists deltorphin-II (300 nM and U69593 (300 nM did so in 13 - 17% of neurons tested. The TRP agonists menthol (400 μM and icilin (100 μM both produced a Ca2+-dependent increase in miniature EPSC rate which was unaffected by the voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC blocker Cd2+. The proportion of neurons in which deltorphin-II reduced the miniature EPSC rate was enhanced in the presence of icilin (83%, but not menthol (0%. By contrast, the proportion of DAMGO and U69593 responders was unaltered in the presence of menthol (57%, 0%, or icilin (57%, 17%. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that δ-opioid receptor activation selectively inhibits inputs activated by icilin, whereas μ-opioid receptor activation has a more widespread effect on synaptic inputs to neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. These findings suggest that δ-opioids may provide a novel analgesic approach for specific, TRPA1-like mediated pain modalities.

  3. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Sensory Stimulation-Evoked Neuronal Activity of Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons Analyzed by In Vivo Calcium Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established i...

  4. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    neuropathic pain we applied Chung's rodent pain model on BALB/c mice, and traced zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) proteins and zinc ions with immunohistochemistry and autometallography (AMG), respectively. Under anesthesia the left fifth lumbar spinal nerve was ligated in male mice in order to produced neuropathic...... pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...

  5. Changes in response properties of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in a murine model of cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald A. Simone; Sergey G. Khasabov; Darryl T. Hamamoto

    2008-01-01

    Pain associated with cancer that metastasizes to bone is often severe and debilitating. A better understanding of the neural mechanisms that mediate cancer pain is needed for the development of more effective treatments. In this study, we used an established model of cancer pain to characterize changes in response properties of dorsal horn neurons. Fibrosarcoma cells were implanted into and around the calcaneus bone in mice and extracellular electrophysiological recordings were made from wide dynamic range (WDR) and high threshold (HT) dorsal horn neurons. Responses of WDR and HT neurons evoked by mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli applied to the plantar surface of the hind paw were compared between tumor bearing mice and control mice. Mice exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli applied to their tumor-bearing hind paw. WDR neurons in tumor-beating mice exhibited an increase in spontaneous activity, and enhanced responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli as compared to controls. Our findings show that sensitization of WDR neurons, but not HT neurons, contributes to tumor-evoked hyperalgesia.

  6. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  7. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  8. Milnacipran inhibits glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor activity in Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohno Tatsuro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressants, which are widely used for treatment of chronic pain, are thought to have antinociceptive effects by blockade of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. However, these drugs also interact with various receptors such as excitatory glutamatergic receptors. Thermal hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal injection of NMDA in rats. Paw withdrawal latency was measured after intrathecal injection of antidepressants. The effects of antidepressants on the NMDA and AMPA-induced responses were examined in lamina II neurons of rat spinal cord slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The effects of milnacipran followed by application of NMDA on pERK activation were also investigated in the spinal cord. Results Intrathecal injection of milnacipran (0.1 μmol, but not citalopram (0.1 μmol and desipramine (0.1 μmol, followed by intrathecal injection of NMDA (1 μg suppressed thermal hyperalgesia. Milnacipran (100 μM reduced the amplitude of NMDA (56 ± 3 %, 64 ± 5 % of control-, but not AMPA (98 ± 5 %, 97 ± 5 % of control-mediated currents induced by exogenous application and dorsal root stimulation, respectively. Citalopram (100 μM and desipramine (30 μM had no effect on the amplitude of exogenous NMDA-induced currents. The number of pERK-positive neurons in the group treated with milnacipran (100 μM, but not citalopram (100 μM or desipramine (30 μM, followed by NMDA (100 μM was significantly lower compared with the NMDA-alone group. Conclusions The antinociceptive effect of milnacipran may be dependent on the drug’s direct modulation of NMDA receptors in the superficial dorsal horn. Furthermore, in addition to inhibiting the reuptake of monoamines, glutamate NMDA receptors are also important for analgesia induced by milnacipran.

  9. Pharmacological characterization of serotonin receptor subtypes modulating primary afferent input to deep dorsal horn neurons in the neonatal rat

    OpenAIRE

    Garraway, Sandra M.; Hochman, Shawn

    2001-01-01

    Spinal cord slices and whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to investigate the effects of serotonergic receptor ligands on dorsal root-evoked synaptic responses in deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons of the neonatal rat at postnatal days (P) 3 – 6 and P10 – 14.Bath applied 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) potently depressed synaptic responses in most neurons. Similarly, the 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) depressed synaptic responses. This action was probably mediated by ...

  10. Dorsal horn neurons release extracellular ATP in a VNUT-dependent manner that underlies neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Ozono, Yui; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Salter, Michael W; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Activation of purinergic receptors in the spinal cord by extracellular ATP is essential for neuropathic hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). However, the cell type responsible for releasing ATP within the spinal cord after PNI is unknown. Here we show that PNI increases expression of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in the spinal cord. Extracellular ATP content ([ATP]e) within the spinal cord was increased after PNI, and this increase was suppressed by exocytotic inhibitors. Mice lacking VNUT did not show PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and had attenuated hypersensitivity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with specific deletion of VNUT in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons, but not in mice lacking VNUT in primary sensory neurons, microglia or astrocytes. Conversely, ectopic VNUT expression in SDH neurons of VNUT-deficient mice restored PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and pain. Thus, VNUT is necessary for exocytotic ATP release from SDH neurons which contributes to neuropathic pain. PMID:27515581

  11. Cervical selective dorsal rhizotomy for treating spasticity in upper limb neurosurgical way to neurosurgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Duan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selective dorsal rhizotomy is an effective method to reduce spasticity of the lower limbs. However, functional outcomes in the upper limb following selective dorsal rhizotomy at the cervical level have not been reported. Here we report the clinical course after selective dorsal rhizotomy at the cervical level in a patient with hemiplegic spasticity caused by brain injury. The selective dorsal rootlets at the cervical level were sectioned under electrophysiological monitoring. The patient was followed for 1 year to evaluate the outcome of surgery. The spasticity in the upper limb was reduced and the passive range of motion and function of movement improved. However, the effectiveness and the safety of operation should be studied further in clinical trials.

  12. Quantitative study of NPY-expressing GABAergic neurons and axons in rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Erika; Sardella, Thomas C P; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2011-04-15

    Between 25-40% of neurons in laminae I-III are GABAergic, and some of these express neuropeptide Y (NPY). We previously reported that NPY-immunoreactive axons form numerous synapses on lamina III projection neurons that possess the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). The aims of this study were to determine the proportion of neurons and GABAergic boutons in this region that contain NPY, and to look for evidence that they selectively innervate different neuronal populations. We found that 4-6% of neurons in laminae I-III were NPY-immunoreactive and based on the proportions of neurons that are GABAergic, we estimate that NPY is expressed by 18% of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-II and 9% of those in lamina III. GABAergic boutons were identified by the presence of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and NPY was found in 13-15% of VGAT-immunoreactive boutons in laminae I-II, and 5% of those in lamina III. For both the lamina III NK1r-immunoreactive projection neurons and protein kinase Cγ (PKCγ)-immunoreactive interneurons in lamina II, we found that around one-third of the VGAT boutons that contacted them were NPY-immunoreactive. However, based on differences in the sizes of these boutons and the strength of their NPY-immunoreactivity, we conclude that these originate from different populations of interneurons. Only 6% of VGAT boutons presynaptic to large lamina I projection neurons that lacked NK1rs contained NPY. These results show that NPY-containing neurons make up a considerable proportion of the inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III, and that their axons preferentially target certain classes of dorsal horn neuron.

  13. Neuronal intrinsic properties shape naturally evoked sensory inputs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Cecilia; Russo, Raúl E

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic electrophysiological properties arising from specific combinations of voltage-gated channels are fundamental for the performance of small neural networks in invertebrates, but their role in large-scale vertebrate circuits remains controversial. Although spinal neurons have complex intrinsic properties, some tasks produce high-conductance states that override intrinsic conductances, minimizing their contribution to network function. Because the detection and coding of somato-sensory information at early stages probably involves a relatively small number of neurons, we speculated that intrinsic electrophysiological properties are likely involved in the processing of sensory inputs by dorsal horn neurons (DHN). To test this idea, we took advantage of an integrated spinal cord-hindlimbs preparation from turtles allowing the combination of patch-clamp recordings of DHN embedded in an intact network, with accurate control of the extracellular milieu. We found that plateau potentials and low threshold spikes (LTS) -mediated by L- and T-type Ca(2+)channels, respectively- generated complex dynamics by interacting with naturally evoked synaptic potentials. Inhibitory receptive fields could be changed in sign by activation of the LTS. On the other hand, the plateau potential transformed sensory signals in the time domain by generating persistent activity triggered on and off by brief sensory inputs and windup of the response to repetitive sensory stimulation. Our findings suggest that intrinsic properties dynamically shape sensory inputs and thus represent a major building block for sensory processing by DHN. Intrinsic conductances in DHN appear to provide a mechanism for plastic phenomena such as dynamic receptive fields and sensitization to pain. PMID:24399934

  14. Reversal of neurochemical alterations in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia by Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors in a rat model of spinal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Yan, Yanhua; Lin, Minjie; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Jianzhong; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-07-01

    The rodent Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor subtype C has been demonstrated to inhibit pathological pain. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the reversal of pain hypersensitivity by the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) in a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of BAM8-22 (0.1-10nmol) attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner on day 10 after SNL. The antiallodynia effect of BAM8-22 was abolished by MrgC receptor antibody, but not by naloxone. I.t. BAM8-22 (10nmol) inhibited SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn. The BAM8-22 treatment reversed the SNL-induced astrocyte activation, increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord. BAM8-22 also reversed the upregulation of fractalkine and IL-1β in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, the BAM8-22 exposure suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase of nNOS and IL-1β in the DRG explant cultures and the BAM8-22-induced suppression disappeared in the presence of MrgC receptor antibody. The present study provides evidence that activation of MrgC receptors inhibits nerve injury-induced increase of pronociceptive molecules in DRG neurons, suppressing astrocyte activation, the upregulation of excitatory mediators and phosphorylation of transcription factors in the spinal dorsal horn. As MrgC receptors are unequally expressed in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, this study suggests that targeting MrgC receptors could be a new therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects. PMID:27018398

  15. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D; Abraira, Victoria E; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I-III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty in identifying glutamatergic synapses with light microscopy. Although there are numerous potential targets for antibodies, these are difficult to visualize with immunocytochemistry, because of protein cross-linking following tissue fixation. Although this can be overcome by antigen retrieval methods, these lead to difficulty in detecting other antigens. The aim of this study was to test whether the postsynaptic protein Homer can be used to reveal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal horn. Immunostaining for Homer gave punctate labeling when viewed by confocal microscopy, and this was restricted to synapses at the ultrastructural level. We found that Homer puncta were colocalized with the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit, but not with the inhibitory synapse-associated protein gephyrin. We also examined several populations of glutamatergic axons and found that most boutons were in contact with at least one Homer punctum. These results suggest that Homer antibodies can be used to reveal the great majority of glutamatergic synapses without antigen retrieval. This will be of considerable value in tracing synaptic circuits, and also in investigating plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in pain states. PMID:27185486

  16. Actions of the GABAB agonist, (-)-baclofen, on neurones in deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Allerton, C. A.; Boden, P. R.; Hill, R G

    1989-01-01

    1. The electrophysiological actions of the GABAB agonist, (-)-baclofen, on deep dorsal horn neurones were studied using an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of 9-16 day old rat. 2. On all neurones tested, (-)-baclofen (100 nM-30 microM) had a hyperpolarizing action which was associated with a reduction in apparent membrane input resistance. The increase in membrane conductance was dose-dependent and had a Hill coefficient of 1.0. 3. The (-)-baclofen-activated hyperpolarization persisted...

  17. SURGICAL ANATOMY OF DORSAL ROOT ENTRY ZONE OF CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES : CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    A Arun Kumar; Sudha Seshayyan; V.Tamilalagan; Sindou, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to determine the detailed morphometric data of Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ) of cervical spinal nerves. This knowledge is necessary for diagnosis, treatment and surgical management of pain due to many conditions like brachial plexus avulsion injury, post-herpetic neuralgia, phantom pain and cancer pain involved in cervical myelo-radiculopathy. There are fewer studies reported in this field of DREZ. Materials and Methods: Twenty five...

  18. Deafferentation causes a loss of presynaptic bombesin receptors and supersensitivity of substance P receptors in the dorsal horn of the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Shults, C W; Park, C H; Tizabi, Y; Moody, T W; Chronwall, B M; Culver, M; Chase, T N

    1985-09-23

    Bombesin (BN)- and substance P (SP)-containing neurons are found in the dorsal root ganglia, and project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The present study was undertaken to determine if chronic deafferentation of the cat spinal cord would affect BN or SP receptors in the spinal cord. Ten and 30 days after a unilateral lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy, BN and SP receptor binding was evaluated autoradiographically using iodinated ligands to bind to these receptors in vitro. The normal distribution of BN receptors detected by this method was restricted to the head of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused a 38% and 22% decline in BN receptor binding in laminae I-IV at 10 or 30 days postoperatively, respectively. These data suggest that 'presynaptic' BN receptors are found on the central nervous system terminals of primary sensory afferents. Normal SP receptor distribution was most dense in lamina X, not in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused an initial decline in SP receptor binding in laminae I-II, followed by a 14% increase at 30 days in comparison to the unoperated side of the spinal cord. This delayed supersensitivity of SP receptors was confirmed in a separate experiment using a homogenate binding assay. These data are discussed with respect to the potential roles of receptor supersensitivity or subsensitivity in the development of deafferentation-induced changes in reactivity of dorsal horn neurons to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. PMID:2413960

  19. [Effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion neuron on excitability of wide dynamic range neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Xu, Jie; Wu, Jing-Ru; Qin, Xia; Hua, Rong

    2013-10-25

    The aim of the paper is to study the effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron in chronic compression of DRG (CCD) model on excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn. In vivo intracellular recording was done in DRG neurons and in vivo extracellular recording was done in spinal WDR neurons. After CCD, incidence of spontaneous discharge and firing frequency enhanced to 59.46% and (4.30 ± 0.69) Hz respectively from 22.81% and (0.60 ± 0.08) Hz in normal control group (P neuron in CCD rats decreased the spontaneous activities of WDR neurons from (191.97 ± 45.20)/min to (92.50 ± 30.32)/min (P neuron evoked spontaneous firing in a reversible way (n = 5) in silent WDR neurons of normal rats. There was 36.36% (12/33) WDR neuron showing after-discharge in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli on cutaneous receptive field in CCD rats, while after-discharge was not seen in control rats. Local administration of TTX on DRG with a concentration of 50 nmol/L attenuated innocuous electric stimuli-evoked after-discharge of WDR neurons in CCD rats in a reversible manner, and the frequency was decreased from (263 ± 56.5) Hz to (117 ± 30) Hz (P neurons is influenced by spontaneous firings of DRG neurons after CCD.

  20. Effect of propofol on glutamate-induced activation and elated inflammatory cytokines of astrocytes from spinal cord dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengming Qin; Qing Li; Juying Liu; Tao Zhu; Yong Xiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes participate in central nervous system-mediated physiological or pathological processes, such as pain. Activated dorsal horn astrocytes from the spinal cord produce nerve active substances and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-I beta (IL-1 β ), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a ), which play important roles in pain transduction and regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different doses of propofol on activation of cultured spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes induced by glutamate, as well as changes in IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-a, and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) expression in rats, and to explore the dose relationship of propofnl. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The cellular and molecular biology experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Yunyang Medical College between March 2006 and December 2007. MATERIALS: Forty healthy, Wistar rats, aged 2-3 days, were selected. Propofol was provided by Zeneca, UK; glutamate by Sigma, USA; EPICS XL flow cytometry by Beckman culture, USA; rabbit-anti-mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody kit and inflammatory cytokine detection kit were provided by Zhongshan Biotechnology Company Ltd., Beijing; multimedia color pathologic image analysis system was a product of Nikon, Japan. METHODS: Astrocytes were harvested from T11-L6spinal cord dorsal horn of Wistar rats and incubated for 3 weeks. The cells were divided into seven groups, according to various treatment conditions: control group was cells cultured in Hank's buffered saline solution; intralipid group was cells cultured in intralipid (0.2 mL/L); glutamate group was cells cultured with 100 μ mol/L glutamate; propofol group was cells cultured with 250 μ mol/L propofol; three glutamate plus propofol groups were cultured in 100 μ mol/L of glutamate, followed by 5, 25, and 250 μ mol/L of prnpofol 10 minutes later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GFAP-labeled astrocytes were analyzed using a multimedia

  1. SURGICAL ANATOMY OF DORSAL ROOT ENTRY ZONE OF CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES : CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Arun Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study is to determine the detailed morphometric data of Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ of cervical spinal nerves. This knowledge is necessary for diagnosis, treatment and surgical management of pain due to many conditions like brachial plexus avulsion injury, post-herpetic neuralgia, phantom pain and cancer pain involved in cervical myelo-radiculopathy. There are fewer studies reported in this field of DREZ. Materials and Methods: Twenty five adult formalin fixed cadavers are taken for this study. Conventional Spinal cord dissection is followed as per Cunningham’s Dissection Mannual. Findings: The parameters included are Number of dorsal rootlets, Longitudinal Length of DREZ, Distance between two successive DREZ, Length of dorsal rootlets, Distance between right and left DREZ, Distance between DREZ and Ligamentum denticulatum, Cranial angles of Superior & inferior rootlets. Results: Results were noted for all the parameters and are compared with the previous studies. The significant observations are obtained. Conclusion: Surgical anatomy of Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ of cervical spinal nerves will be useful for the neurosurgeons doing Drezotomy procedure, in which the nociceptive fibres alone are specifically severed with preservation of other sensations

  2. A novel transverse push-pull microprobe: in vitro characterization and in vivo demonstration of the enzymatic production of adenosine in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S L; Sluka, K A; Arnold, M A

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine produces analgesia in the spinal cord and can be formed extracellularly through enzymatic conversion of adenine nucleotides. A transverse push-pull microprobe was developed and characterized to sample extracellular adenosine concentrations of the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Samples collected via this sampling technique reveal that AMP is converted to adenosine in the dorsal horn. This conversion is decreased by the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, alpha,beta-methylene ADP. Related behavioral studies demonstrate that AMP administered directly to the spinal cord can reverse the secondary mechanical hyperalgesia characteristic of the intradermal capsaicin model of inflammatory pain. The specific adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) inhibits the antihyperalgesia produced by AMP. This research introduces a novel microprobe that can be used as an adjunct sampling technique to microdialysis and push-pull cannulas. Furthermore, we conclude that AMP is converted to adenosine in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord by ecto-5'-nucleotidase and subsequently may be one source of adenosine, acting through adenosine A(1) receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which produce antihyperalgesia. PMID:11145997

  3. Exercise alleviates hypoalgesia and increases the level of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Severo do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on nociceptive sensitivity and immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic and trained diabetic. Treadmill training was performed for 8 weeks. The blood glucose concentrations and body weight were evaluated 48 h after diabetes induction and every 30 days thereafter. The nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using the tail-flick apparatus. The animals were then transcardially perfused, and the spinal cords were post-fixed, cryoprotected and sectioned in a cryostat. Immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide analysis was performed on the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. RESULTS: The nociceptive sensitivity analysis revealed that, compared with the control and trained diabetic animals, the latency to tail deflection on the apparatus was longer for the diabetic animals. Optical densitometry demonstrated decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in diabetic animals, which was reversed by treadmill training. CONCLUSION: We concluded that treadmill training can alleviate nociceptive hypoalgesia and reverse decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic animals without pharmacological treatment.

  4. A afferent fibers are involved in the pathology of central changes in the spinal dorsal horn associated with myofascial trigger spots in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A afferent fibers have been reported to participate in the development of the central sensitization induced by inflammation and injuries. Current evidence suggests that myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induce central sensitization in the related spinal dorsal horn, and clinical studies indicate that A fibers are associated with pain behavior. Because most of these clinical studies applied behavioral indexes, objective evidence is needed. Additionally, MTrP-related neurons in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal ventral horn have been reported to be smaller than normal, and these neurons were considered to be related to A fibers. To confirm the role of A fibers in MTrP-related central changes in the spinal dorsal horn, we studied central sensitization as well as the size of neurons associated with myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equivalent to MTrPs in humans) in the biceps femoris muscle of rats and provided some objective morphological evidence. Cholera toxin B subunit-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was applied to label the MTrS-related neurons, and tetrodotoxin was used to block A fibers specifically. The results showed that in the spinal dorsal horn associated with MTrS, the expression of glutamate receptor (mGluR1α/mGluR5/NMDAR1) increased, while the mean size of MTrS-related neurons was smaller than normal. After blocking A fibers, these changes reversed to some extent. Therefore, we concluded that A fibers participated in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization induced by MTrPs and were related to the mean size of neurons associated with MTrPs in the spinal dorsal horn.

  5. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sook Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN and the spinal dorsal horn (DH. To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+ neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7% and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%, suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  6. Altered acetylcholinesterase levels in the spinal cord anterior horn and dorsal root ganglion following sciatic nerve ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Pei Wang; Songhe Yang; Jingfeng Xue

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve ischemia has been shown to result in ischemic fiber degeneration and axoplasmic transport disturbance. However, the effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in relevant cells following sciatic nerve ischemia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe AChE concentration changes following peripheral nerve ischemia. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present comparative observation, neuroanatomical experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory Animal of Chengde Medical College between 2006 and 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 20 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 10): 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia. METHODS: Ischemia injury was induced in the unilateral sciatic nerve (experimental side) through ligation of the common iliac artery. The contralateral side received no intervention, and served as the control side. Rats in the 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia groups were allowed to survive for 8 and 14 days, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The L5 lumbar spinal cord and the L5 dorsal root ganglion were removed from both sides and sectioned utilizing a Leica vibrating slicer. AChE cellular expression was detected using Karnovsky-Root, and the number of AChE-positive cells and average gray value were analyzed using a MiVnt image analysis system. RESULTS: In the 8-day ischemia group, AChE-positive cell numbers were significantly less in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord anterior horn of the experimental side, but the average gray value was significantly greater, compared with the control side (P < 0.05). These changes were more significant in the 14-day ischemia group than in the 8-day ischemia group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve ischemia leads to decreased AChE expression in the associated cells in a time-dependent manner.

  7. Possible involvement of convergent nociceptive input to medullary dorsal horn neurons in intraoral hyperalgesia following peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Ryuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroki; Omura, Shinji; Maruhama, Kotaro; Mizutani, Masahide; Iida, Seiji; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the number of c-Fos protein-like immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) evoked by noxious stimulation was increased after peripheral nerve injury, and such increase has been proposed to reflect the development of neuropathic pain state. The aim of this study was to examine the MDH for convergent collateral primary afferent input to second order neurons deafferented by peripheral nerve injury, and to explore a possibility of its contribution to the c-Fos hyperinducibility. Double immunofluorescence labeling for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was performed to detect convergent synaptic input. c-Fos expression and the phosphorylation of ERK were induced by the intraoral application of capsaicin and by electrical stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), respectively. The number of c-Fos-IR neurons in the MDH induced by the intraoral application of capsaicin was increased after IAN injury, whereas the number of p-ERK immunoreactive neurons remained unchanged. The number of double-labeled neurons, that presumably received convergent primary afferent input from the lingual nerve and the IAN, was significantly increased after IAN injury. These results indicated that convergent primary nociceptive input through neighboring intact nerves may contribute to the c-Fos hyperinducibility in the MDH and the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. PMID:25407627

  8. Expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to central preterminal branches and terminals in the dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Joel A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Results Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF, exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals. Conclusions The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential.

  9. Differential expression patterns of K(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter 2 in neurons within the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Fariba; Holló, Krisztina; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Kis, Gréta; Hegyi, Zoltán; Dócs, Klaudia; Kasugai, Yu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Antal, Miklós

    2015-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-mediated hyperpolarizing inhibition is associated with a chloride influx that depends on the inwardly directed chloride electrochemical gradient. In neurons, the extrusion of chloride from the cytosol primarily depends on the expression of an isoform of potassium-chloride cotransporters (KCC2s). KCC2 is crucial in the regulation of the inhibitory tone of neural circuits, including pain processing neural assemblies. Thus we investigated the cellular distribution of KCC2 in neurons underlying pain processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats by using high-resolution immunocytochemical methods. We demonstrated that perikarya and dendrites widely expressed KCC2, but axon terminals proved to be negative for KCC2. In single ultrathin sections, silver deposits labeling KCC2 molecules showed different densities on the surface of dendritic profiles, some of which were negative for KCC2. In freeze fracture replicas and tissue sections double stained for the β3-subunit of GABAA receptors and KCC2, GABAA receptors were revealed on dendritic segments with high and also with low KCC2 densities. By measuring the distances between spots immunoreactive for gephyrin (a scaffolding protein of GABAA and glycine receptors) and KCC2 on the surface of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-immunoreactive dendrites, we found that gephyrin-immunoreactive spots were located at various distances from KCC2 cotransporters; 5.7 % of them were recovered in the middle of 4-10-µm-long dendritic segments that were free of KCC2 immunostaining. The variable local densities of KCC2 may result in variable postsynaptic potentials evoked by the activation of GABAA and glycine receptors along the dendrites of spinal neurons. PMID:25764511

  10. Noxious mechanical heterotopic stimulation induces inhibition of the spinal dorsal horn neuronal network: analysis of spinal somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Gallardo, J; Eblen-Zajjur, A

    2016-09-01

    Most of the endogenous pain modulation (EPM) involves the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). EPM including diffuse noxious inhibitory controls have been extensively described in oligoneuronal electrophysiological recordings but less attention had been paid to responses of the SDH neuronal population to heterotopic noxious stimulation (HNS). Spinal somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) offer the possibility to evaluate the neuronal network behavior, reflecting the incoming afferent volleys along the entry root, SDH interneuron activities and the primary afferent depolarization. SEP from de lumbar cord dorsum were evaluated during mechanical heterotopic noxious stimuli. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were Laminectomized (T10-L3). The sural nerve of the left hind paw was electrically stimulated (5 mA, 0.5 ms, 0.05 Hz) to induce lumbar SEP. The HNS (mechanic clamp) was applied sequentially to the tail, right hind paw, right forepaw, muzzle and left forepaw during sural stimulation. N wave amplitude decreases (-16.6 %) compared to control conditions when HNS was applied to all areas of stimulation. This effect was more intense for muzzle stimulation (-23.5 %). N wave duration also decreased by -23.6 %. HNS did not change neither the amplitude nor the duration of the P wave but dramatically increases the dispersion of these two parameters. The results of the present study strongly suggest that a HNS applied to different parts of the body is able to reduce the integrated electrical response of the SDH, suggesting that not only wide dynamic range neurons but many others in the SDH are modulated by the EPM. PMID:27207681

  11. Neuronal intrinsic properties shape naturally-evoked sensory inputs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia eReali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic electrophysiological properties arising from specific combinations of voltage-gated channels are fundamental for the performance of small neural networks in invertebrates, but their role in large-scale vertebrate circuits remains controversial. Although spinal neurons have complex intrinsic properties, some tasks produce high-conductance states that override intrinsic conductances, minimizing their contribution to network function. Because the detection and coding of somato-sensory information at early stages probably involves a relatively small number of neurons, we speculated that intrinsic electrophysiological properties are likely involved in the processing of sensory inputs by dorsal horn neurons (DHN. To test this idea, we took advantage of an integrated spinal cord–hindlimbs preparation from turtles allowing the combination of patch-clamp recordings of DHN embedded in an intact network, with accurate control of the extracellular milieu. We found that plateau potentials and low threshold spikes (LTS -mediated by L- and T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively- generated complex dynamics by interacting with naturally evoked synaptic potentials. Inhibitory receptive fields could be changed in sign by activation of the LTS. On the other hand, the plateau potential transformed sensory signals in the time domain by generating persistent activity triggered on and off by brief sensory inputs and windup of the response to repetitive sensory stimulation. Our findings suggest that intrinsic properties dynamically shape sensory inputs and thus represent a major building block for sensory processing by DHN. Intrinsic conductances in DHN appear to provide a mechanism for plastic phenomena such as dynamic receptive fields and sensitization to pain.

  12. Long-term outcomes of intradural cervical dorsal root rhizotomy for refractory occipital neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram V; Chivukula, Srinivas; Moossy, John J; Rothfus, William; Agarwal, Vikas; Horowitz, Michael B; Gardner, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Occipital neuralgia (ON) causes chronic pain in the cutaneous distribution of the greater and lesser occipital nerves. The long-term efficacy of cervical dorsal root rhizotomy (CDR) in the management of ON has not been well described. The authors reviewed their 14-year experience with CDR to assess pain relief and functional outcomes in patients with medically refractory ON. METHODS A retrospective chart review of 75 ON patients who underwent cervical dorsal root rhizotomy, from 1998 to 2012, was performed. Fifty-five patients were included because they met the International Headache Society's (IHS) diagnostic criteria for ON, responded to CT-guided nerve blocks at the C-2 dorsal nerve root, and had at least one follow-up visit. Telephone interviews were additionally used to obtain data on patient satisfaction. RESULTS Forty-two patients (76%) were female, and the average age at surgery was 46 years (range 16-80). Average follow up was 67 months (range 5-150). Etiologies of ON included the following: idiopathic (44%), posttraumatic (27%), postsurgical (22%), post-cerebrovascular accident (4%), postherpetic (2%), and postviral (2%). At last follow-up, 35 patients (64%) reported full pain relief, 11 (20%) partial relief, and 7 (16%) no pain relief. The extent of pain relief after CDR was not significantly associated with ON etiology (p = 0.43). Of 37 patients whose satisfaction-related data were obtained, 25 (68%) reported willingness to undergo repeat surgery for similar pain relief, while 11 (30%) reported no such willingness; a single patient (2%) did not answer this question. Twenty-one individuals (57%) reported that their activity level/functional state improved after surgery, 5 (13%) reported a decline, and 11 (30%) reported no difference. The most common acute postoperative complications were infections in 9% (n = 5) and CSF leaks in 5% (n = 3); chronic complications included neck pain/stiffness in 16% (n = 9) and upper-extremity symptoms in 5% (n = 3

  13. Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the medullary dorsal horn are involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain in the trigeminal system is frequently observed in clinic, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In addition, the function of immune cells and related chemicals in the mechanism of pain has been recognized, whereas few studies have addressed the potential role of chemokines in the trigeminal system in chronic pain. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2-chemokine C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 signaling in the trigeminal nucleus is involved in the maintenance of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Methods The inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve transection (IAMNT was used to induce trigeminal neuropathic pain. The expression of ATF3, CCL2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and CCR2 were detected by immunofluorescence histochemical staining and western blot. The cellular localization of CCL2 and CCR2 were examined by immunofluorescence double staining. The effect of a selective CCR2 antagonist, RS504393 on pain hypersensitivity was checked by behavioral testing. Results IAMNT induced persistent (>21 days heat hyperalgesia of the orofacial region and ATF3 expression in the mandibular division of the trigeminal ganglion. Meanwhile, CCL2 expression was increased in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH from 3 days to 21 days after IAMNT. The induced CCL2 was colocalized with astroglial marker GFAP, but not with neuronal marker NeuN or microglial marker OX-42. Astrocytes activation was also found in the MDH and it started at 3 days, peaked at 10 days and maintained at 21 days after IAMNT. In addition, CCR2 was upregulated by IAMNT in the ipsilateral medulla and lasted for more than 21 days. CCR2 was mainly colocalized with NeuN and few cells were colocalized with GFAP. Finally, intracisternal injection of CCR2 antagonist, RS504393 (1, 10 μg significantly attenuated IAMNT-induced heat hyperalgesia. Conclusion The data suggest that CCL2-CCR

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of a rat model of formalin-induced inflammatory pain following intrathecal injection of butorphanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yichun Wang; Yuan Zhang; Qulian Guo; Xiaohong Liu; Mingde Wang; Hui Luo

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and animal experiments have proved that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect. However, whether the analgesic effect is associated with activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor remains unclear. This study presumed that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect on formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats, and its analgesic effect is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptors. Concurrently, ketamine was injected into the intrathecal space, which is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to determine the analgesic mechanism of butorphanol. The total reflection time in phase 1 and phase 2 of rat hind paws carding action was reduced when the butorphanol dose was increased to 25 μg,or a low dose of butorphanol was combined with ketamine. Intrathecal injection of a high dose of butorphanol alone or a Iow dose of butorphanol combined with ketamine can remarkably reduce NMDA receptor expression in the L5 spinal dorsal horn of formalin-induced pain rats. The results suggest that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has analgesic effects on formalin-induced inflammatory pain, and remarkably reduces NMDA receptor expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn.Ketamine strengthens this analgesic effect. The analgesic mechanism of intrathecal injection of butorphanol is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptor activation.

  15. The effects of protein phosphatase inhibitors on the duration of central sensitization of rat dorsal horn neurons following injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein kinases and phosphatases catalyze opposing reactions of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which may modulate the function of crucial signaling proteins in central nervous system. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. To explore the role of protein phosphatase in central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons following peripheral noxious stimulation, using electrophysiological recording techniques, we investigated the role of two inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid (OA, on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin. Central sensitization was initiated by injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of the left paw. A microdialysis fiber was implanted in the spinal cord dorsal horn for perfusion of ACSF and inhibitors of PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid. We found that in ACSF pretreated animals, the responses to innocuous and noxious stimuli following capsaicin injection increased over a period of 15 min after injection and had mostly recovered by 60 min later. However, pre- or post-treatment with the phosphatase inhibitors, fostriecin or OA, significantly enhanced the effects of capsaicin injection by prolonging the responses to more than 3 hours. These results confirm that blockade of protein phosphatase activity may potentiate central sensitization of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord following capsaicin injection and indicate that protein phosphatase type 2A may be involved in determining the duration of capsaicin-induced central sensitization.

  16. Chemokine CCL2 up-regulated in the medullary dorsal horn astrocytes contributes to nocifensive behaviors induced by experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Fu, Runqing; Tan, Yu; Fang, Bing; Yang, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the astrocytic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) plays an important role in nocifensive behaviors after experimental tooth movement (ETM), the expression and cellular localization of CCL2 and astrocyte activation in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) were determined by immunohistochemistry in rats. The dose-dependent effects of intrathecal C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antagonists on these changes in nocifensive behaviors were evaluated. Exogenous CCL2 was added to medullary dorsal horn slices to evaluate its contributory role in the induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation ex vivo. We found a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding well to the nocifensive behaviors after ETM. In addition, application of recombinant CCL2 led to ERK activation, which could be attenuated effectively by pretreatment with CCL2-neutralizing antibody ex vivo. The magnitude of the nocifensive behavior could be reduced by medullary CCR2 antagonists in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the astrocytic CCL2 is actively involved in the development and maintenance of tooth-movement pain and thus may be a potential target for analgesics in orthodontic nocifensive responses control.

  17. [Somatotopic Representation of the Anterior Horn within Cervical Enlargement: Reappraisal of Known Doctrine Based on Clinicopathological Findings Seen in Hirayama Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Keizo

    2016-05-01

    Clinical features (weakness and amyotrophy of intrinsic hand muscles and obliquely distributed amyotrophy of forearm muscles, figure 1), needle electromyographic findings (distribution of neurogenic activities, figure 2), and pathological findings (ischemic necroses of the anterior horns between C6 and T1, figure 3) of Hirayama disease suggest that understanding of somatotopic representation of the anterior horn innervating arm muscles in the cervical enlargement of spinal cord differs from the known doctrine. Anterior horn cells of the intrinsic hand muscles are located between C7 and T1, those of forearm muscles and triceps brachii muscle as elbow extensor are, contrary to the known doctrine, located in C5 and C6, and those of elbow flexors such as biceps brachii and brachioradialis are located in C4 and above (figure 5). Development of dexterity in human hand may reflect development of cervical enlargement in accord with larger areas representing the hand and fingers on cerebral motor cortex.

  18. Material basis for inhibition of Dragon's Blood on evoked discharges of wide dynamic range neurons in spinal dorsal horn of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Min; CHEN Su; LIU XiangMing

    2008-01-01

    In vivo experiments were designed to verify the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood and the material basis for this effect. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were used to observe the effects of Dragon's Blood and various combinations of the three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and Ioureirin B) extracted from Dragon's Blood on the discharge activities of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of intact male Wistar rats evoked by electric stimulation at sciatic nerve. When the Hill's coefficients describing the dose-response relations of drugs were dif-ferent, based on the concept of dose equivalence, the equations of addillvity surfaces which can be applied to assess the interaction between three drugs were derived. Adopting the equations and Tal-larida's isobole equations used to assess the interaction between two drugs with dissimilar dose-response relations, the effects produced by various combinations of the three components in modulating the evoked discharge activities of WDR neurons were evaluated. Results showed that Dragon's Blood and its three components could inhibit the evoked discharge frequencies of WDR neurons in a concentration-dependent way. The Hill's coefficients describing dose-response relations of three components were different. Only the combined effect of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B and Ioureirin B was similar to that of Dragons Blood. Furthermore, the combined effect was synergistic. This investigation demonstrated that through the synergistic interaction of the three components Dragon's Blood could interfere with the transmission and processing of pain signals in spinal dorsal horn. All these further proved that the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and Ioureirin B was the material basis for the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood.

  19. Material basis for inhibition of Dragon’s Blood on evoked discharges of wide dynamic range neurons in spinal dorsal horn of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In vivo experiments were designed to verify the analgesic effect of Dragon’s Blood and the material basis for this effect. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were used to observe the effects of Dragon’s Blood and various combinations of the three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from Dragon’s Blood on the discharge activities of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of intact male Wistar rats evoked by electric stimulation at sciatic nerve. When the Hill’s coefficients describing the dose-response relations of drugs were dif-ferent, based on the concept of dose equivalence, the equations of additivity surfaces which can be applied to assess the interaction between three drugs were derived. Adopting the equations and Tal-larida’s isobole equations used to assess the interaction between two drugs with dissimilar dose-response relations, the effects produced by various combinations of the three components in modulating the evoked discharge activities of WDR neurons were evaluated. Results showed that Dragon’s Blood and its three components could inhibit the evoked discharge frequencies of WDR neurons in a concentration-dependent way. The Hill’s coefficients describing dose-response relations of three components were different. Only the combined effect of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B and loureirin B was similar to that of Dragons Blood. Furthermore, the combined effect was synergistic. This investigation demonstrated that through the synergistic interaction of the three components Dragon’s Blood could interfere with the transmission and processing of pain signals in spinal dorsal horn. All these further proved that the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B was the material basis for the analgesic effect of Dragon’s Blood.

  20. Activation of medullary dorsal horn γ isoform of protein kinase C interneurons is essential to the development of both static and dynamic facial mechanical allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Dang, Nathalie; Descheemaeker, Amélie; Dallel, Radhouane; Artola, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The γ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ), which is concentrated in a specific class of interneurons within inner lamina II (IIi ) of the spinal dorsal horn and medullary dorsal horn (MDH), is known to be involved in the development of mechanical allodynia, a widespread and intractable symptom of inflammatory or neuropathic pain. However, although genetic and pharmacological impairment of PKCγ were shown to prevent mechanical allodynia in animal models of pain, after nerve injury or reduced inhibition, the functional consequences of PKCγ activation alone on mechanical sensitivity are still unknown. Using behavioural and anatomical approaches in the rat MDH, we tested whether PKCγ activation in naive animals is sufficient for the establishment of mechanical allodynia. Intracisternal injection of the phorbol ester, 12,13-dibutyrate concomitantly induced static as well as dynamic facial mechanical allodynia. Monitoring neuronal activity within the MDH with phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 immunoreactivity revealed that activation of both lamina I-outer lamina II and IIi -outer lamina III neurons, including lamina IIi PKCγ-expressing interneurons, was associated with the manifestation of mechanical allodynia. Phorbol ester, 12,13-dibutyrate-induced mechanical allodynia and associated neuronal activations were all prevented by inhibiting selectively segmental PKCγ with KIG31-1. Our findings suggest that PKCγ activation, without any other experimental manipulation, is sufficient for the development of static and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Lamina IIi PKCγ interneurons have been shown to be directly activated by low-threshold mechanical inputs carried by myelinated afferents. Thus, the level of PKCγ activation within PKCγ interneurons might gate the transmission of innocuous mechanical inputs to lamina I, nociceptive output neurons, thus turning touch into pain.

  1. Responses of motor units during the hind limb flexion withdrawal reflex evoked by noxious skin heating: phasic and prolonged suppression by midbrain stimulation and comparison with simultaneously recorded dorsal horn units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, E; Campell, I G

    1992-02-01

    In rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, we quantitatively analyzed descending modulation from the midbrain of a nociceptive flexion withdrawal reflex and responses of associated spinal neurons. We monitored the isometric force of hind limb withdrawal elicited by noxious heat stimuli (42-54 degrees C, 10 sec) on the hind paw. In one series of experiments, single-fiber EMG electrodes recorded responses of single muscle fibers (i.e., motor units) in biceps femoris during the hind limb withdrawal, without and during electrical stimulation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) or lateral midbrain reticular formation (LRF). In a second series, responses of single lumbar dorsal horn neurons were also recorded simultaneously. Withdrawal force and associated motor unit responses were suppressed for prolonged periods (4 to greater than 60 min) following the initial episode of PAG or LRF stimulation in 40% of the rats, while they were suppressed phasically (i.e., only during brain stimulation) in the remainder. Motor unit responses increased in a graded fashion with increasing skin stimulus temperature from threshold (45 degrees C) to 54 degrees C. During PAG stimulation, the slope of the rate coding function was reduced with no change in threshold temperature. During LRF stimulation the rate coding function was shifted toward higher temperatures with increased threshold (47 degrees C). In 14 experiments 43 paired recordings were made from a dorsal horn and a motor unit during hind limb withdrawals. Mean latency to onset and peak of the heat-evoked response was shorter for dorsal horn compared to motor units. In 6/14 rats withdrawal force and motor unit responses were significantly suppressed for more than 8 min following mechanical placement of the stimulating electrodes and/or the initial episode of midbrain stimulation, while the simultaneously recorded dorsal horn unit responses remained constant. Following supplemental administration of pentobarbital (10

  2. Capillary electrophoresis combined with microdialysis in the human spinal cord: a new tool for monitoring rapid peroperative changes in amino acid neurotransmitters within the dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Sandrine; Sauvinet, Valérie; Xavier, Jean-Michel; Chavagnac, Delphine; Mouly-Badina, Laurence; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mertens, Patrick; Renaud, Bernard

    2004-06-01

    A method originally developed for the separation of the three neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) and L-aspartate (L-Asp) in microdialysis samples from rat brain (Sauvinet et al., Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 3187-3196) was applied to human spinal dialysates obtained during peroperative microdialysis from patients undergoing surgery against chronic pain. Molecules were tagged on their primary amine function with the fluorogene agent, naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA), and, after separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE, 75 mmol/L borate buffer, pH 9.2, containing 70 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate and 10 mmol/L hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, + 25 kV voltage), were detected by laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) using a 442 nm helium-cadmium laser. The complete method, including microdialysis sampling and analysis by CE-LIFD, has been validated for the analysis of human spinal microdialysates. The analytical detection limits were 1, 3.7 and 17 nmol/L for GABA, Glu and L-Asp respectively. This method allows an accurate measurement of the three amino acid neurotransmitters during an in vivo monitoring performed as rapidly as every minute in the human spinal dorsal horn. In addition, the effect of a brief peroperative electrical stimulation of the dorsal rootlets was investigated. The results obtained illustrate the advantages of combining microdialysis with CE-LIFD for studying neurotransmitters with such a high sampling rate.

  3. Evaluation of Five Tests for Sensitivity to Functional Deficits following Cervical or Thoracic Dorsal Column Transection in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish D Fagoe

    Full Text Available The dorsal column lesion model of spinal cord injury targets sensory fibres which originate from the dorsal root ganglia and ascend in the dorsal funiculus. It has the advantages that fibres can be specifically traced from the sciatic nerve, verifiably complete lesions can be performed of the labelled fibres, and it can be used to study sprouting in the central nervous system from the conditioning lesion effect. However, functional deficits from this type of lesion are mild, making assessment of experimental treatment-induced functional recovery difficult. Here, five functional tests were compared for their sensitivity to functional deficits, and hence their suitability to reliably measure recovery of function after dorsal column injury. We assessed the tape removal test, the rope crossing test, CatWalk gait analysis, and the horizontal ladder, and introduce a new test, the inclined rolling ladder. Animals with dorsal column injuries at C4 or T7 level were compared to sham-operated animals for a duration of eight weeks. As well as comparing groups at individual timepoints we also compared the longitudinal data over the whole time course with linear mixed models (LMMs, and for tests where steps are scored as success/error, using generalized LMMs for binomial data. Although, generally, function recovered to sham levels within 2-6 weeks, in most tests we were able to detect significant deficits with whole time-course comparisons. On the horizontal ladder deficits were detected until 5-6 weeks. With the new inclined rolling ladder functional deficits were somewhat more consistent over the testing period and appeared to last for 6-7 weeks. Of the CatWalk parameters base of support was sensitive to cervical and thoracic lesions while hind-paw print-width was affected by cervical lesion only. The inclined rolling ladder test in combination with the horizontal ladder and the CatWalk may prove useful to monitor functional recovery after experimental

  4. Curcumin exerts antinociceptive effects by inhibiting the activation of astrocytes in spinal dorsal horn and the intracellular extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in rat model of chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Feng-tao; LIANG Jiang-jun; LIU Ling; CAO Ming-hui; LI Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of glial cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain.Curcumin can alleviate the symptom of inflammatory pain by inhibiting the production and release of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor.However,whether curcumin affects neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and the possible mechanism involved are still unknown.This study investigated the effects of tolerable doses of curcumin on the activation of astrocytes and ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn in rat model of neuropathic pain.Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:a control (sham operated) group,and chronic constriction injury groups (to induce neuropathic pain) that were either untreated or treated with curcumin.Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia thresholds were measured.The distribution and morphological changes of astrocytes were observed by immunofluorescence.Western blotting was used to detect changes in the expression of glial flbrillary acid protein (GFAP) and phosphorylated ERK.Results Injured rats showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia.The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes,and the fluorescence intensity of GFAP were significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of injured compared with control rats.The soma of astrocytes also appeared hypertrophied in injured animals.Expression of GFAP and phosphorylated ERK was also significantly increased in the spinal dorsal hom of injured compared with control rats.Curcumin reduced the injury-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia,the increase in the fluorescence intensity of GFAP and the hypertrophy of astrocytic soma,activation of GFAP and phosphorylation of ERK in the spinal dorsal horn.Conclusions Curcumin can markedly alleviate nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.The analgesic effect of curcumin may be attributed to its inhibition of

  5. Effect of pre-electroacupuncture on p38 and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-da; LIANG Tao; WANG Kun; TIAN De-an

    2010-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is an effective way to relieve pain, but the mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) decreases the visceral pain state still remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-electroacupuncture on pain behaviors, p38 phosphorylation, and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain. This study also investigated the probable signaling regulatory mechanism of the analgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture. Methods All rats were randomized into the control (Con) group, the Con+EA group, the visceral pain (VP) group, and VP+EA group (n=8 for all groups). The visceral pain model was established using 40 ul of 5% formalin solution injected into the colon of rats. EA was applied to the bilateral Jiaji acupoints for 20 minutes before application of visceral pain. Parameters for EA were set at a continuous wave (20 Hz) and intensity where the rats shook their whiskers but did not scrabble (≤1 mA). The visceral pain score was recorded and the expressions of p38 and c-Fos protein were detected using Western blotting. Real-time quantitative PCR was also used to determine the expression of c-Fos mRNA. Results Rats in the VP group immediately presented with obvious visceral pain behaviors after being injected with formalin. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn were higher in the VP group than in the Con group (P <0.05). By contrast, visceral pain behaviors were delayed in rats from the VP+EA group. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression were lower in the VP+EA group than that in the VP group (P<0.01). Conclusions Pre-electroacupuncture of the Jiaji acupoint has prophylactic analgesic effects on rats suffering from visceral pain. The p38 signal transduction pathway may be partly involved in the regulatory mechanism of this analgesic effect.

  6. Depression of presynaptic excitation by the activation of vanilloid receptor 1 in the rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we show that capsaicin (CAP depresses primary afferent fiber terminal excitability by acting on vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 channels of primary afferent fibers in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP- and temperature-dependent manner using two optical imaging methods. First, transverse slices of spinal cord were stained with a voltage-sensitive dye and the net excitation in the spinal dorsal horn was recorded. Prolonged treatment (>20 min with the TRPV1 channel agonist, CAP, resulted in a long-lasting inhibition of the net excitation evoked by single-pulse stimulation of C fiber-activating strength. A shorter application of CAP inhibited the excitation in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition was reversed within several minutes. This inhibition was Ca++-dependent, was antagonized by the TRPV1 channel antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ, and the P2X and P2Y antagonist, suramin, and was facilitated by the P2Y agonist, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP. The inhibition of excitation was unaffected by bicuculline and strychnine, antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors, respectively. Raising the perfusate temperature to 39°C from 27°C inhibited the excitation (-3%/°C. This depressant effect was antagonized by CPZ and suramin, but not by the P2X antagonist, 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP. Second, in order to record the presynaptic excitation exclusively, we stained the primary afferent fibers anterogradely from the dorsal root. CAP application and a temperature increase from 27°C to 33°C depressed the presynaptic excitation, and CPZ antagonized these effects. Thus, this study showed that presynaptic excitability is modulated by CAP, temperature, and ATP under physiological conditions, and explains the reported central actions of CAP. These results may have clinical importance, especially for the control of pain.

  7. Phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit in dorsal horn neurons by remifentanil: a mechanism for opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, S S; Zhao, N; Yu, C

    2015-03-13

    Remifentanil (an ultra-short acting μ-opioid receptor agonist) use has been associated with acute opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that remifentanil elicits rapid and prolonged upregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents. However, the effect of remifentanil on the levels of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR in dorsal horn neurons (DHNs) has not been reported. We investigated the effect of remifentanil, along with ketamine (NMDAR antagonist) and naloxone (μ-opioid receptor antagonist), on GluN1 mRNA levels and the amount of phosphorylated GluN1 in primary cultures of embryonic rat DHNs. DHNs were isolated from 18-19-day rat embryos and treated with remifentanil or vehicle for 1 h. GluN1 mRNA and protein levels, determined by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively, were significantly and persistently increased by remifentanil exposure compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These results may partially account for the mechanism of remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. This increase was prevented by ketamine (NMDAR antagonist) and naloxone (μ-opioid receptors antagonist), thus providing a potential therapeutic mechanism for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

  8. [Left hand clumsiness due to disturbance of kinesthesia after damage to the dorsal column of the high cervical cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, R; Kanho, M; Fujimoto, K; Tanaka, Y

    1997-04-01

    We described a 48-year-old, right-handed woman who manifested left hand clumsiness after damage to the dorsal column of the high cervical cord due to probable multiple sclerosis. On February 29, 1996, she developed a weakness in the right limbs. Subsequently, she suffered numbness and clumsiness in the left limbs, even though muscle strength of the left limbs was preserved. Seventeen days later, she was referred to our hospital. A T2-weighted MRI after admission demonstrated high signal intensities in the left dorsal column and the right antero-lateral part of the cervical cord at the C1 to C3 vertebral level. Under the diagnosis of probable multiple sclerosis, steroid pulse therapy was applied twice and she gradually regained muscle strength in the right limbs and sensation in the left limbs. One month later, elemental sensations such as pain, touch, temperature, vibration, and position, as well as discriminative sensations such as localization sensation, two-point discrimination, barognosis, pinch-press discrimination, and graphesthesia in the left limbs returned to normal. However, her left hand remained clumsy, especially when she tried to manipulate objects. She also showed a great difficulty in sustaining a constant level of pinching force by the left thumb and index finger, and in localizing her right thumb placed in space with the left hand with her eyes closed. She stated herself that she could not sense at all how her left hand and fingers were moving. Somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from the right scalp showed that the NI was poorly organized and the patency of subsequent peaks was delayed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed that the pyramidal tract from the right motor cortex to the left cervical cord was functionally intact. These observations lead us to conclude as follows: (1) the patient's left hand clumsiness is probably due to the disturbance of kinesthesia, which is crucial to activate temporo-spatial patterns of complex hand and

  9. Co-existence of calcium-binding proteins and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine in neurons of the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 武胜昔; 李云庆

    2004-01-01

    Background We investigated the co-expression of calbindin-D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV, a combination of the three is referred to as CaBPs) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine in neurons of the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical double-staining for CaBPs and GABA or glycine was performed on the sections from rat MDH.Results CB-, CR-, PV-, GABA- and glycine-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons were differentially observed in all layers of the MDH, but particularly in lamina Ⅱ. Neurons that exhibited immunoreactivity for both CaBPs and GABA or glycine were also observed mainly in lamina Ⅱ. A few of them were found in laminae I and III. The percentages of neurons which co-expressed CB/GABA or CB/glycine out of the total numbers of CB- and GABA-LI neurons or CB- and glycine-LI neurons were 5.3% and 12.1% or 4.1% and 10.0%, respectively. The ratios of CR/GABA or CR/glycine co-existing neurons out of the total numbers of CR- and GABA-LI neurons or CR- and glycine-LI neurons were 5.8% and 7.6% or 4.4% and 7.1%, respectively. The rates of PV/GABA or PV/glycine co-localized neurons out of the total numbers of PV- and GABA-LI neurons or PV- and glycine-LI neurons were 11.1% and 5.1% or 9.9% and 5.1%, respectively. Conclusion The results indicate that some neurons in the MDH contain both CaBPs and GABA or glycine.

  10. Brainstem and thalamic projections from a craniovascular sensory nervous centre in the rostral cervical spinal dorsal horn of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y; Broman, J; Zhang, M;

    2009-01-01

    . Following injections into laminae I-II, BDA-labelled terminations were found bilaterally in several nuclei in the pons and the midbrain, including the pontine reticular nucleus, the parabrachial nuclei, the cuneiform nucleus and the periaqueductal grey. In the diencephalon, terminations were confined...

  11. Stability of long term facilitation and expression of zif268 and Arc in the spinal cord dorsal horn is modulated by conditioning stimulation within the physiological frequency range of primary afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, F; Wibrand, K; Fiskå, A; Bramham, C R; Tjølsen, A

    2008-07-17

    Long term facilitation (LTF) of C-fiber-evoked firing of wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in response to conditioning stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers is a widely studied cellular model of spinal nociceptive sensitization. Although 100 Hz CS of primary afferent fibers is commonly used to induce spinal cord LTF, this frequency exceeds the physiological firing range. Here, we examined the effects of electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve within the physiological frequency range on the magnitude and stability of the C-fiber-evoked responses of wide dynamic range neurons and the expression of immediate early genes (c-fos, zif268, and Arc) in anesthetized rats. Stimulation frequencies of 3, 30 and 100 Hz all induced facilitation of similar magnitude as recorded at 1 h post-CS. Strikingly, however, 3 Hz-induced potentiation of the C-fiber responses was decremental, whereas both 30 and 100 Hz stimulation resulted in stable, non-decremental facilitation over 3 h of recording. The number of dorsal horn neurons expressing c-fos, but not zif268 or Arc, was significantly elevated after 3 Hz CS and increased proportionally with stimulation rate. In contrast, a stable LTF of C-fiber responses was obtained at 30 and 100 Hz CS, and at these frequencies there was a sharp increase in zif268 expression and appearance of Arc-positive neurons. The results show that response facilitation can be induced by stimulation frequencies in the physiological range (3 and 30 Hz). Three hertz stimulation induced the early phase of LTF, but the responses were decremental. Arc and zif268, two genes previously coupled to LTP of synaptic transmission in the adult brain, are upregulated at the same frequencies that give stable LTF (30 and 100 Hz). This frequency-dependence is important for understanding how the afferent firing pattern affects neuronal plasticity and nociception in the spinal dorsal horn.

  12. Effects of ketamine on neuronal activity of the spinal dorsal horn in rats with unilateral hindpaw inflammation%氯胺酮对单足致炎大鼠脊髓背角神经元活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 李菁锦; 吕国蔚

    2000-01-01

    A total of 32 units were extracellularly recorded from the spinal dorsal horn of rats. Unitary discharges evoked by stimulation of A and C fiber in ipsilateral lateral and medial plantar nerve were increased after carrageenan injection to the plantar area. The evoked responses to both A and C fiber were significantly decreased or even disappeared after administration of ketamine. The windup phenomenon was observed in neurons located deeply in the dorsal horn following carrageenan injection and was significantly suppressed or abolished after ketamine administration. The results above show NMDA receptor appears to be involved in the increase of excitability and the development of windup phenomenon in the spinal cord dorsal horn associated with carrageenan induced inflammation.%在大鼠脊髓背角用细胞外记录技术共记录到32个单位.角叉菜胶一侧足底注射致炎后, 电刺激该侧足底内外侧神经激动其中A、C纤维时, 脊髓背角神经元的诱发放电数均显著增加; 静脉注射NMDA受体拮抗剂氯胺酮后, A、C纤维刺激诱发的放电反应均显著下降甚至消失. 致炎后脊髓背角深层单位出现Windup现象, 静脉注射氯胺酮后该现象减轻或消失.结果提示: 角叉菜胶致炎导致脊髓背角神经元兴奋性升高和Windup; NMDA受体参与炎症痛和Windup形成.

  13. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain. METHODS: Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling. RESULTS: MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  14. Applied anatomy of cervical dorsal rami nerve and its clinical significance%颈神经后支的解剖及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金武; 陈德松; 王劼; 方有生; 顾玉东

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To provide anatomic basis for the diagnosis and treatment of the compression syndrome in cervical dorsal rami nerve.Methods:The origin,course,ramification,distribution of cervical dorsal rami nerve and its anatomic relationship with the adjacent tissues of the cervical vertebrae were observed on 20 adult embalmed cadavers(40 sides).Results:The C1 dorsal ramus passed between atlas and occipital bone.The medial branch of C2 dorsal ramus (the greater occipital nerve) passed through the osteo-fibruos aperture near the superior nuchal line and spreaded across the top of the skull.After arising outside their respective intervertebral foramina,C3~8 dorsal rami passed through osteo-fibruos aperture,entered the osteo-fibrous canal,passed through the tendious decussating fibers of the posterior muscles of neck and then supplied the cervical zygapophysial joints,the nuchal muscles and the occipital skin.The coordinate points of C5 osteo-fibrous apertures situated in 5.8±4.0 mm and 6.2±4.5 mm above the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process and the coordinate points of C6 osteo-fibrous apertures situated in 12.2±2.5 mm and 13.6±3.9 mm behind the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process.The coordinate points of C5 and C6 osteo-fibrous canals' central points situated in 4.5±3.4 mm and 4.7±3.4 mm above the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process respectively and situated in 18.4±3.3 mm and 18.2±4.3 mm behind the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process respectively.Conclusion:The osteo-fibrous apertures,osteo-fibrous canal and the tendious decussating fibers of the nuchal muscles passed through by cervical dorsal rami are the anatomic basis of the cervical dorsal rami compression syndrome.%目的:为临床诊治椎孔外颈神经后支卡压提供解剖学基础。方法:对20具(40侧)成人尸体的颈神经

  15. Design of Lamifuse : a randomised, multi-centre controlled trial comparing laminectomy without or with dorsal fusion for cervical myeloradiculopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: laminectomy is a valuable surgical treatment for some patients with a cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical spinal stenosis. More recently attention has been given to motion of the spinal cord over spondylotic spurs as a cause of myelopathic changes. Immobilisation by fusion could

  16. Role of calpain in spinal dorsal horn in development of paw inflammatory pain in rats%脊髓背角卡配因在大鼠足底炎性痛形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静捷; 陈广俊; 陈雯; 杜金; 罗爱伦; 黄宇光

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨脊髓背角卡配因在大鼠足底炎性痛形成中的作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠48只,6周龄,体重160~200 g,采用随机数字表法,将其随机分为3组:正常对照组(C组,n=8)、PBS组(n=16)和酵母多糖诱发足底炎性痛组(Z组,n=24).Z组于大鼠左侧后足足底皮下注射酵母多糖1.25 mg,制备酵母多糖诱发足底炎性痛模型,PBS组给予等容量PBS 100μl.分别于给药前(T0)、给药后30 min(T1)、1 h(T2)、2 h(T3)、4 h(T4)、8 h(T5)、24 h(T6)和48 h(T7)时测定左侧后足机械刺激缩足阈值(MWT)、热缩足反应潜伏期(PWTL)和左侧后足足底最大厚度.PBS组于T4时处死8只大鼠,Z组分别于T4、T6和T7时各处死8只大鼠,取左侧脊髓L4~6节段,采用Western blot法测定脊髓背角spectrin αⅡ降解产物、IκBα、环氧化酶-2(COX-2)的表达和NF-κB活性.结果 与C组比较,Z组MWT降低,PWTL缩短,足底最大厚度增厚,脊髓背角spectrin αⅡ降解产物和COX-2的表达上调,IκBα表达下调,NF-κB活性升高(P<0.05或0.01),PBS组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 脊髓背角卡配因活化参与了大鼠足底炎性痛的形成,其机制与激活NF-κB,上调COX-2表达有关.%Objective To investigate the role of calpain in the spinal dorsal horn in development of paw inflammatory pain in rats.Methods Forty-eight male SD rats,aged 6 weeks,weighing 160-200 g,were randomly divided into three groups:normal control group(group C,n =8),PBS group( n =16),zymosan-induced paw inflammatory pain group (group Z,n =24).Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of zymosan 1.25 mg into the plantar surface of left hindpaw.Group PBS received the equal volume of PBS 100 μl.The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT),paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and maximum thickness of the plantar surface of left hindpaw were measured before (T0 ) and at 30 min,1,2,4,8,24 and 48 h(T1-7 ) after zymosan or PBS injection.Eight rats were sacrificed at T4 in

  17. Design of Lamifuse: a randomised, multi-centre controlled trial comparing laminectomy without or with dorsal fusion for cervical myeloradiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotenhuis J André

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background laminectomy is a valuable surgical treatment for some patients with a cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical spinal stenosis. More recently attention has been given to motion of the spinal cord over spondylotic spurs as a cause of myelopathic changes. Immobilisation by fusion could have a positive effect on the recovery of myelopathic signs or changes. This has never been investigated in a prospective, randomised trial. Lamifuse is an acronyme for laminectomy and fusion. Methods/Design Lamifuse is a multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing laminectomy with and without fusion in patients with a symptomatic cervical canal stenosis. The study population will be enrolled from patients that are 60 years or older with myelopathic signs and/or symptoms due to a cervical canal stenosis. A kyphotis shape of the cervical spine is an exclusion criterium. Each treatment arm needs 30 patients. Discussion This study will contribute to the discussion whether additional fusion after a cervical laminectomy results in a better clinical outcome. ISRCT number ISRCTN72800446

  18. Connections between 5-HT-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; LI Yun-qing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the connections between serotonin (5-HT)-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR)/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods: Immunofluorescence histochemical triple-staining for 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, GABA or glycine. Results: 5-HT-immunoreaetive fibers and terminals were chiefly located in the superficial laminae (laminae Ⅰ and Ⅱ) of the MDH. Neurons exhibiting 5-HT2AR-, GABA- or glycine-immunoreactivities were mainly observed in the superficial laminae. Some 5-HT2AR-immunopositive neurons also exhibited GABA- or glycine-immunoreaetivities. 5-HT-containing terminals made close contacts with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons. Conclusion: 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR /glycine co-exist in some of the neurons in the superficial laminae of the MDH. 5-HT-immunoreactive terminals form close connections with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons.

  19. Changes of the expression of prostatic acid phosphatase in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion in different chronic pain models of the rat%前列腺酸性磷酸酶在慢性痛大鼠脊髓背角和背根神经节的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 陈磊; 张富兴; 李云庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the expression changes of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in different chronic pain models of the rat. Methods; Immunohistochemistry combined with multiple immunofluorescent histochemical technique was employed to detect the expression changes of PAP in different chronic pain models. Results; In the intact normal rats, PAP was principally located in small- to medium-sized non-peptidergic neurons in the DRG, and the number of PAP-immunoreactive (PAP-ir) neurons was about 64 ± 4.3% to the total number of the DRG neurons. In the SDH, only PAP-ir fibers and terminals but not PAP-ir neurons were exclusively observed in lamina Ⅰ and Ⅱ, especially in lamina Ⅱ. In a model of neuropathic pain rat, PAP immunoreactivi-ties were markedly decreased, or even vanished in the SDH and DRG ipsilateral to the nerve injury side. There were no remarkable changes of the PAP expression on the side contralateral to the nerve injury. In an inflammatory pain model induced by CFA injection into the rat hindpaw, however, there were no obvious expression changes of PAP-ir neurons, fibers and terminals in bilateral SDHs and DRGs. Conclusion: PAP is specifically expressed in the SDH and DRG. It might play important roles in the transduction and process of the signals of the neuropathic pain.%目的:观察前列腺酸性磷酸酶(prostatic acid phosphatase,PAP)在多种慢性痛大鼠脊髓背角(spinal dorsal horn,SDH)和背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)内的表达变化.方法:应用免疫组织化学染色法以及免疫荧光多重染色技术在多种慢性痛模型大鼠观察PAP的表达变化.结果:在正常大鼠,PAP阳性反应产物主要位于DRG的中、小型的非肽能神经元,PAP阳性神经元约占DRG神经元总数的64±4.3%;在脊髓背角,PAP 阳性纤维和终末主要位于Ⅱ层.在神经病理性痛模型大鼠,术侧脊髓背角Ⅱ层的PAP

  20. Ketamine inhibits the excitability induced by formalin in spinal dorsal horn neurons of rats%氯胺酮对甲醛致痛诱导大鼠脊髓背角神经元兴奋性的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜明; 曾因明; 张励才; 戴体俊; 段世明

    2006-01-01

    performance of the rats in each group. ② Spinal sections were chosen, and stained with c-fos genetic immunohistochemical and NADPH-d histochemical methods. The changes of the number of Fos-like immuno-positive neurons (FLI) and FLI/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) double-labeled neurons in the 4-layer sections (layer Ⅰ -Ⅱ ,layer Ⅲ-Ⅳ ,layerⅤ-Ⅵ ,layer Ⅶ-X )of spinal dorsal horn of the rats were observed.RESULTS: All the thirty rats entered the stage of result analysis. ① Behavioral changes: The rats of formalin group and formalin+ normal salinegroup had apparent pain response; Several minutes after injection with ketamine, righting reflex disappeared and did not recover at perfusion period.Prolonged sleep was found without obvious pain response performance. ② FLI neuron expression: A lot of FLI positive neurons were found in the spinal dorsal horn of injec tion side of the rats in the formalin group and formalin+ normal saline group, and they distributed principally in the layer Ⅰ - Ⅱ of spinal dorsal horn.The distribution in the ketamine + formalin group and formalin + ketamine group was basically similar to that in the formalin group and formalin + normal saline group, but positive neuron counts were significantly reduced (P < 0.01). ③ The expression of FLI/NOS double-labeled neurons: The number of double-labeled neurons in the spinal dorsal horn layer Ⅰ - Ⅱ of the rats in the ketamine+ formalin group and formalin+ ketamine group were significantly less than that in the formalin group and formalin+normal saline group [(1±1), (1±1), (7±3), (8±3),P < 0.01].CONCLUSION: Some neurons of ipsilateral corresponding spinal segments participate in the transmission and mediation of pain signal. Ketamine can suppress the activities of these neurons and exert antinociceptive effect. The antinococeptive function of ketamine may be caused by the activity depression of the NOS-positive neurons in spinal cord.%背景:氯胺酮是否可通过影响脊髓水平

  1. 大鼠脊髓背角神经元痛放电确定性行为的年龄相关变化%Age-related changes in deterministic behaviors of nociceptive firing of rat dorsal horn neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继宏; 冯威; 菅忠; 陈军

    2004-01-01

    为阐明脊髓背角神经元痛放电的年龄相关的动力学变化,本研究采用非线性预报方法,对两组不同年龄大鼠(成年青龄鼠3~4月龄,老年鼠>22月龄)组织损伤诱发的脊髓背角神经元痛放电峰峰间期序列进行了确定性行为的定量分析.结果显示,皮下注入蜜蜂毒,在两组大鼠均诱发脊髓背角广动力域神经元长时程放电,而老龄大鼠的痛放电峰峰间期序列表现出更高的可确定性.本研究表明,单个神经元的痛放电动力学在整个生命过程中并不是恒定不变的,伤害性神经元活动的年龄相关动力学变化可能是老年人群中多样化痛反应的内在机制之一.%To demonstrate the age-related changes in the dynamics of the nociceptive discharge of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons, the nonlinear prediction method was used to quantify the degree of deterministic behavior within the interspike interval series of tissue injuryinduced firing of spinal nociceptive neurons in anesthetized adult young (3~4 months) and aged (>22 months) rats. Subcutaneous bee venom injection induced long-term discharge of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in both groups. However, the nociceptive discharge of single WDR neurons in the aged group showed higher determinism when compared with the adult young rats. This result suggests that the dynamics of single nocicepfive neurons may not remain constant throughout the life span, and this age-associated change may be an underlying mechanism for various pain manifestations in the elderly population.

  2. Neutrino horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    View of the new neutrino horn installed in its blockhouse from the target end. Protons pass through the 2mm hole in the centre of the small fluorescent screen, hitting the target immediately behind it. The circular tubes carry pressurized cooling water.

  3. magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos are ideal for probing the weak force because it is effectively the only force they feel. How were they made? Protons fired into a metal target produce a tangle of secondary particles. A magnetic horn like this one, invented by Simon Van der Meer, selected pions and focused them into a sharp beam. Pions decay into muons and neutrinos or antineutrinos. The muons were stopped in a wall of 3000 tons of iron and 1000 tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the Gargamelle bubble chamber. A simple change of magnetic field direction on the horn flipped between focusing positively- or negatively-charged pion beams, and so between neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  4. 幻肢痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的变化%Changes in the number of synapses and neurons in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of phantom limb pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菁艳; 彭彬; 杨正伟; 闵苏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in the number of synapses and neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of phantom limb pain. Methods Eleven healthy adult SD rats of both sexes weighing 209-300 g were randomly divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (group S, n = 5) and phantom limb pain group (group P, n = 6). Phantom limb pain was induced by resection of a 0.5 cm segment of unilateral sciatic nerve in group P. In group S unilateral sciatic nerve was exposed but not transected. The animals were observed for autotomy and scored (0 = no autotomy, 13 = the worst autotomy) after operation and were sacrificed on the 28th day after operation. The L3-6 segment of the spinal cord was removed for determination of the number of neurons (by Nissl's staining) and synapses (by synaptophysin immuno-histochemistry).Results In group S no animal developed autotomy. In group P autotomy started from the 2nd day after operation and the score reached 9-11. The number of the neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in all 4 segments and the number of synapses in L3 and 16 segments were comparable between the two sides and the 2 groups. The number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn of L4and L5 segment was significantly larger in the operated side than in the contralateral side in group P. Conclusion The number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn significantly increases in animals with plantom limb pain which induces no increase in the number of neurons in the spinal dorsal horn.%目的 探讨幻肢痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的变化.方法 健康成年SD大鼠11只,雄雌不拘,体重290~300 g,随机分为2组:假手术组(S组,n=5)和单侧坐骨神经横断组(P组,n=6).术后持续观察P组大鼠自噬情况,并进行自噬评分.术后28 d时,取L3~6节段脊髓组织,分别进行尼氏染色(显示神经元)和突触素免疫组织化学染色(显示突触数量),计数手术侧和非手术侧脊髓背角神经元和突触的数量.结果 P

  5. 不同频率电针对正常大鼠脊髓背角的转录组学研究%Transcriptomics Study of the Transcriptional Response of the Spinal Dorsal Horn to Electroacupuncture Stimulation with Different Frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珂; 张嵘; 赵国屏; 张庆华; 崔彩莲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of low-and high-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) on the gene expression profiles in rat spinal dorsal horn (DH) under the physiological state, thus providing the information to find out the differences of different EA frequencies induced effects. Methods Using cDNA microarray, the changes of the gene expressions in the DH were detected and compared between 2 Hz EA and 100 Hz EA at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao(SP6). The differentially expressed genes were identified. The EASE scores were used to comprehensively analyze the gene functions (by Gene Ontology) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Results (1) After EA stimulation 1 150 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were differentially expressed by 2 Hz EA, while 1 270 genes/ESTs were differentially expressed by 100 Hz EA. (2) Both 2 Hz and 100 Hz EA could induce the modulation of the same 516 genes/ESTs in the same direction, which was correlated with neural signal transmission. (3) The differentially expressed genes regulated specifically by 2 Hz were correlated with neural plasticity. (4) The differentially expressed genes regulated specifically by 100 Hz were correlated with stress and immunoregulation. Conclusions Either low-or high-frequency EA could extensively regulate the spinal cord information processing. The low-frequency EA participated more in the regulation of neural plasticity, while high-frequency EA had more significant effects on stress and immunoregulation.%目的 探索生理状态下低频和高频电针对大鼠脊髓背角区域基因表达谱的影响,为理解不同频率的电针效应差异提供研究资料.方法 采用基因表达谱芯片技术,检测比较2 Hz和100 Hz电针刺激大鼠双侧足三里穴(ST36)和三阴交穴(SP6)后脊髓背角区域基因表达的变化,识别差异表达基因,利用生物信息学手段对差异表达基因所涉及的基因功能和通路进行富集识别与分析.结果 (1

  6. The effect of SCS on NR2B receptor and the activation of astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with neuropathic pain%脊髓刺激术对神经病理性痛模型大鼠脊髓背角内NR2B受体和星形胶质细胞激活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春奎; 方相春; 李志红; 唐君; 董玉琳; 李金莲

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨脊髓刺激术(spinal cord stimulation,SCS)对L5脊神经结扎(spinal nerve ligation,SNL)诱导的神经病理性痛(neuropathic pain,NP)大鼠脊髓背角内NMDA受体亚单位NR2B的表达和星形胶质细胞激活的影响.方法:成年雄性SD大鼠48只,随机分为4组:正常组(不做任何处理);SCS组(植入SCS装置并给予SCS刺激);SNL+ sham SCS组(给予SNL手术并植入SCS装置,但不进行刺激);SNL+ SCS组(SNL手术并给予SCS刺激).SCS刺激是在SNL术后第6~10d进行(8h/d),第10 d刺激结束后处死动物.运用行为学方法检测慢性痛状态下大鼠后肢对机械性刺激的反应阈值;采用免疫组织化学染色和Western blot方法分别检测脊髓背角内NR2B和星形胶质细胞的标志物GFAP的表达变化.结果:(1)SNL术后大鼠手术侧后足机械性痛敏显著增加,第6~10d给予SCS刺激后,可观察到大鼠的痛行为学表现有明显缓解;(2)免疫组化结果显示:与SNL+sham SCS组相比,SNL+ SCS组大鼠脊髓背角内NR2B和GFAP免疫阳性细胞的数量显著减少;(3)Western blot结果显示:给予SCS刺激后,SNL大鼠腰膨大段脊髓背角内NR2B的表达量显著下调,同时GFAP的表达量也明显有所降低.结论:给予SCS刺激可以有效地缓解SNL模型大鼠的神经病理性痛的行为学表现;该作用可能与SCS刺激抑制脊髓背角内NR2B的表达和星形胶质细胞的激活密切相关.%Objective:To investigate the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and the activation of astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with L5 spinal nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain (NP).Methods:48 adult male rats were divided into 4 groups randomly:normal group (normal rats without any operation) ; SCS group (normal rats planted with SCS devices,and received SCS stimulation),SNL + sham SCS group (rats were operated with SNL and were planted with SCS devices,but did not receive SCS stimulation

  7. The influence of GABAB receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats by using baclofen in combination with morphine%巴氯芬与吗啡联合应用对脊髓背角GABAB受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单文燕; 陈艳平; 曹德权

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨巴氯芬与吗啡联合应用对脊髓背角GABAB受体表达的影响.方法 成年雄性SD大鼠48只鞘内置管成功后,随机均分为四组,分别鞘内注射生理盐水10μl(NS组),吗啡10μg(M组),巴氯芬0.5μg(B组)和巴氯芬0.5μg+吗啡10 μg(BM组).每天9:00和16:00鞘内注射,在9:30行热水浴甩尾潜伏期(TFL)测定,连测3次,间隔5 min,取其均值,将第1天注药后的TFL均值作为基础值,以TFL恢复到基础值作为出现吗啡耐受的标准.第11天晨,取大鼠腰段脊髓行免疫组织化学染色观察脊髓背角GABAB受体的表达.结果 注药后第10天M组大鼠TFL恢复至基础值,出现吗啡耐受现象,B组和BM组未出现吗啡耐受现象(P<0.01).M组GABABR1及GABABR2表达明显低于其它三组(P<0.01).结论 巴氯芬与吗啡联合应用可以减轻吗啡对脊髓背角GABAB受体表达的下调作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of GABAB receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats by using baclofen in combination with morphine. Methods Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups after the success of intrathecal cathetemation (n=12). They included saline group(group NS): 0. 9% saline 10 /μ∣, morphine group(group M). morphine 10 figs baclofen group(group B): baclofen 0. 5 μg, baclofen-morphine group (group BM): baclofen 0. 5 μg +morphine 10 μg. Drugs were given by intrathecal injection on 9:00 am and 16:00 pm for 10 consecutive days. At 9:30 the tail-flick latency (TFL) in rats were measured continued 3 limes with an interval of 5 mm. The mean value of TFL measured on the first day were considered as the baseline, and the return to baseline level of TFL were regarded as the morphine tolerance standard. In the morning of the eleventh day, spinal lumbar enlargement of rats were removed and cut into frozen sections to test GABAB receptors expression by immunohistochemical staining. Results TFL of rats returned to baseline in group M after 10 days

  8. Changes in the expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of bone cancer pain%骨癌痛大鼠脊髓背角神经介素U受体2表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭黎华; 邵东华; 陈正; 王洪

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨骨癌痛大鼠脊髓背角神经介素U受体2(NMUR2)表达的变化.方法 健康雌性未交配SD大鼠32只,体重150~ 180 g,采用随机数字表法,将其分为2组(n=16):假手术组(S组)和骨癌痛组(BCP组).采用左胫骨骨髓腔内注入Walker 256(1×105个)乳腺癌细胞的方法建立胫骨癌痛模型.S组左胫骨骨髓腔内注入等容积的热杀死肿瘤细胞.各组随机取8只大鼠,于术前1d和术后1、3、6、9、12、15 d测定机械痛阈.于术后15 d,行左胫骨X线检查,观察骨质破坏情况.于术前1d和术后15 d,随机取4只大鼠,处死后取脊髓背角,采用real-time PCR及Western blot法分别测定NMUR2 mRNA及其蛋白的表达水平.结果 与S组比较,BCP组术后6~15d机械痛阈降低,术后15d脊髓背角NMUR2 mRNA及蛋白表达上调(P<0.05或0.01).与术前1d比较,BCP组术后6~15d机械痛阈进行性降低,术后15 d脊髓NMUR2 mRNA及蛋白表达上调(P<0.05或0.01).BCP组大鼠左胫骨x摄片显示,有明显的骨小梁缺损及骨皮质破坏,而S组变化不明显.结论 骨癌痛大鼠脊髓NMUR2表达上调,该变化可能参与了骨癌痛的形成和维持.%Objective To investigate the changes in the expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of bone cancer pain (BCP).Methods Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 150-180 g,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =16 each):sham operation group (group S) and BCP group.BCP was induced by inoculating Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells (1 × 105) into the medullary cavity of left tibia.Heat-killed Walker 256 cells (1 × 105) were injected into the medullary cavity of left tibia in S group.Eight rats were chosen from each group and the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to yon Frey filaments was measured at 1 day before operation (baseline) and 1,3,6,9,12 and 15 days after operation.Bone destruction was shown by X-ray at 15 days after operation.At 1 day before operation and

  9. 瑞芬太尼和芬太尼对大鼠脊髓背角神经元NMDA受体通道电流的影响%Effects of remifentanil and fentanyl on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor currents in rat spinal cord dorsal horn neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思思; 郁葱; 罗玉琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of remifentanil and fentanyl on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor currents in rat spinal cord dorsal horn neurons.Methods Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the NMDA receptor currents.The primary cultured E14SD rat spinal cord dorsal horn neurons (DH cells) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =10 each):remifentanil group (group R),fentanyl group (group F) and control group (group C).DH cells were perfused with 4 nmol/L remifentanil (group R) or 10 μmol/L fentanyl (group F) for 60 min followed by washout.NMDA receptor currents were recorded immediately after administration (T0),at 15,30,45 and 60 min of action of drugs (T1-4),and at 15 and 30 min (T5-6) after washout.Results Compared with group C,no significant change in the peak NMDA receptor current was found at each time point in group F and at T0 and T1 in group R (P > 0.05),and the peak NMDA receptor current was significantly increased at T2-6 in group R (P < 0.01).The peak NMDA receptor current was significantly higher at T2-6 than at T0,while lower at T2-4 and T6 than at T5 in group R (P < 0.01).Conclusion Remifentanil can increase NMDA receptor function in rat spinal cord horn neurons,and the peak effect is reached after washout,but fentanyl dose not have the effect.%目的 探讨瑞芬太尼和芬太尼对大鼠脊髓背角神经元NMDA受体通道电流的影响.方法 采用全细胞膜片钳技术记录NMDA受体通道电流.原代培养的E14SD大鼠脊髓背角神经元(DH细胞)30个,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=10):瑞芬太尼组(R组)、芬太尼组(F组)、对照组(C组).4 nmol/L瑞芬太尼(R组)、10 μmol/L芬太尼(F组)灌流DH细胞60 min后洗脱.于给药后即刻(T0)、药物作用15 min(T1)、30 min(T2)、45 min(T3)、60 min(T4)、洗脱后15 min(T5)、30 min(T6)时记录NMDA受体通道电流.结果 与C组比较,F组各时点NMDA受体通道峰电流差异无统计学意义,R组T0、T1时NMDA受体通道

  10. INHIBITIVE EFFECTS OF ELECTROACUPUNCTUROACUPUNCTURE ON LTP OF SYNAPIIC IRRANSMIS-SION TO FACILITATED BY EXCITOMOTOR OF IGLURS INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRA-TION IN SPINAL DORSAL HORN OF RATS%电针抑制iGluRs激动剂鞘内给药易化的大鼠脊髓背角突触传递LTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骋; 冯克辉; 闰丽萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the inhibitive effects of electroacupuncture(EA)on long-term potentia- tion(LTP)of C-fiber evoked potentials in the spinal dorsal horn facilitated by excitomotor of NMDA or AMPA receptors,and explore the analgesia mechanism of acupuncture in neuropathic pain.Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups:control,NMDA(NMDA)IntratheCal administration(i. t.),AMPA([±]-AMPA HBr)i.t.,EA+NMDA i.t.,EA+AMPA i.t.,NMDA i.t.+EA,and AMPA i.t+EA.The rats were fixed on stereotaxic instrument after anesthesia.C-fiber evoked field potentials in the spinal dorsal horn(L4/L5)were recorded by extracellular recording.The test stimulus was given in single pulse with 2mA,0.5ms,100Hz,5min each once on the sciatic nerve.The lower intensity high- frequency train plus stimulus(HFS)wag given in 4 trains of 1 S duration at 10s intervals with 2mA,0. 5ms,lOOHz on same place.The NMDA or[±]-AMPA HBr(40pg)was injected with i.t.,to excite the related receptor.On GB30 and BL40,EA Wag acupunctured with 1mA,2Hz,30min.Results:In the con- trol,the variation rate of evoked potentials showed no significant differences compared with before or after HFS.After excitomotor i.t then lower intensity HFS.the LTP was induced significantly and com- pared with control(P<0.01).The exeitomotor i.t.and HFS after EA,the LTP was inhibited markedly (P<0.01).After the LTP was steady kept lhr induced by the excitomotor i.t.and HFS,the EA was operated.In NMDA i.t.+EA,LTP was inhibited markedly(P<0.01);In AMPA i.t.+EA,the LTP was step down significantly(Pdorsal hom to facilitated by excitomotor of iGluRs WaS inhibited by EA.The results indi- cate that the abnormal excitability of neuron in the spinal dorsal horn with neuropathic pain Was inhibited by EA,which might be the postsynaptic mecharism underlying EA analgesia.%目的:观察电针对离子型谷氨酸受体(iGluRs)激动剂易化脊髓背角神经元

  11. NMDA受体通道参与大鼠脊髓背角C纤维诱发电位LTP的表达%NMDA Receptor Channels Are Involved in The Expression of Long-term Potentiation of C-fiber Evoked Field Potentials in Rat Spinal Dorsal Horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 周利君; 胡能伟; 张彤; 刘先国

    2006-01-01

    以往研究表明,激动NMDA受体是引起海马长时程增强(LTP)的必备条件,而LTP的表达主要与AMPA受体的磷酸化及其受体组装到突触后膜有关.但是,近年来有研究表明NMDA受体通道也参与了LTP的表达.为探讨NMDA受体通道是否参与了脊髓背角C纤维诱发电位LTP的表达,诱导LTP后,分别静脉或脊髓局部给予NMDA受体拮抗剂MK 801或APV,观察其作用.发现静脉注射非竞争性NMDA受体MK 801(0.1 mg/kg)对脊髓LTP无影响,注射0.5 mg/kg显著抑制LTP,但是当剂量增高到1.0mg/kg时,抑制作用并未进一步增大.脊髓局部给予MK 801也能抑制脊髓背角LTP.为验证上述结果,使用了竞争性NMDA受体拮抗剂APV.结果显示,脊髓局部给予50μmol/L APV对LTP无影响,100 μmol/L对LTP有显著的抑制作用,当浓度升至200 μmol/L时,抑制作用并未见进一步增强.因此认为,NMDA受体通道部分地参与了脊髓背角C纤维诱发电位LTP的表达.%In hippocampus, numerous studies have shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are essential for the initiation of long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas the expression of LTP is primarily mediated by the phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and the increased insertion of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, in recent years there is also evidence that NMDA receptor channels contribute to the expression of LTP under physiological conditions. It was examined whether NMDA receptor channels contributed to the expression of LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in rat spinal dorsal horn by intravenous or spinal application of NMDA receptor antagonists after the establishment of LTP. It was found that MK 801 (a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) at dose of 0.1 mg/kg (iv) had no effect on the spinal LTP and at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg depressed the LTP significantly. However, the inhibitory effect of MK 801 at higher dose (1.0 mg/kg)was not

  12. Role of 5-HT5A receptors in activation of astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of neuropathic pain by vincristine%5-HT5A受体在长春新碱致神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角星形胶质细胞活化中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍; 叶茂; 徐颖; 石远; 柏林

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价5-羟色胺5A受体(5-HT5AR)在长春新碱致神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角星形胶质细胞活化中的作用.方法 雄性成年SD大鼠40只,体重180~200 g,随机分为4组(n=10):对照组(C组)、神经病理性痛组(P组)、空载体腺病毒组(B组)和siRNA重组腺病毒载体组(S组).C组腹腔注射生理盐水1 ml;P组、B组和S组第1~5天和第8~12天每天定时腹腔注射0.1 mg/kg长春新碱建立大鼠神经病理性痛模型.腹腔给药结束第2天测定机械痛阈,然后P组、B组和S组分别鞘内注射人工脑脊液、空载体腺病毒和siRNA重组腺病毒载体25μl.鞘内给药后第7天测定机械痛阈,然后处死大鼠,取L4.5脊髓组织,测定脊髓背角5-HT5AR及胶原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的表达.结果 与C组比较,P组、B组和S组各时点机械痛阈降低,脊髓背角5-HT5AR和GFAP的表达均上调(P<0.05);与P组比较,S组鞘内给药后第7天机械痛阈降低,脊髓背角5-HT5AR表达下调,GFAP表达上调(P<0.05),B组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 5-HT5AR参与了星形胶质细胞活化的抑制过程,从而减轻长春新碱致大鼠神经病理性痛.%Objective To evaluate the role of 5-HT5A receptors (5-HT5A R) in activation of astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by vincristine. Methods Forty adult male SD rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 10 each): control group (group C);neuropathic pain group (group P);Ad-X-HK group (group B) and Ad-5-HT5A-siRNA group (group S). Neuropathic pain was induced by repeated intraperitoneal (IP) injection of vincristine 0.1 mg/kg according to the method described by Weng et al in group P, B and S. On the 2nd day after the last IP injection, the animals received artificial cerebrospinal fluid, Ad-X-HK and Ad-5-HT5A-siRNA 25 μl administered intrathecally (IT) in group P, B and S respectively. Paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus

  13. Effect of morphine on synaptic long-term potentiation in spinal dorsal horn evoked by electric stimulation of sciatic nerve in rats%吗啡对电刺激坐骨神经诱发大鼠脊髓背角突触长时程增强的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江; 黄德樱; 程洁; 上官守琴; 胡祁生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of morphine on synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in the spinal dorsal horn evoked by electric stimulation of sciatic nerve in rats. Methods Twenty-seven healthy male SD rats aged 60-90 d weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: group Ⅰ control (group C, n=7), group Ⅱ morphine (group M, n=7), group Ⅲ naloxone (group N, n=6), and group Ⅳ morphine + naloxone (group MN, n=7). The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% urethane 1 g/kg, intubated and then mechanically ventilated. The bipolar insulated stainless steel recording electrode (impedance 0.5-1 MΩ, diameter 0.1 mm) was inserted into the left side of the spinal dorsal horn at T13-L1 to stimulate the left side of the sciatic nerve. Single square pulses (15 V, 0.5 ms, 1/60 Hz for 30 min) was applied to evoke spinal field potentials. Normal saline 10 μl, morphine 10 μl (15 μg/μl), naloxone 10 μl (2.5 μg/μl), and the mixture 10 μl of naloxone 5 μl (2.5 μg/μl) and morphine 5 μl (15 μg/μl) was gradually instilled over 2 rain in the 4 groups respectively. Five minutes later, high-frequency and intensity tetanic stimulation (30-40 V, 0.5 ms, 100 Hz, given in 4 trains of 1-s duration at 10-s intervals) was used to induce LTP. Then single square stimuli (15 V, 5 ms, 1/60 Hz) were applied to the sciatic nerve for 210 min. The amplitude and latency period of the field potential were recorded 30 min before tetanic stimulation, and 0-30, 35-60, 65-120 and 125-210 min after titanic stimulation. Results Compared with group C, the amplitude of the field potential was significantly decreased and the latency period prolonged in group M and MN, but there was no significant difference in the above indices between group N and C. Compared with group M, the amplitude of the field potential was significantly increased and the latency period shortened in group MN. Compared with those 30 min before the tetanic stimulation, the amplitude of the field

  14. 4th International Meeting on Biology of Nitric Oxide Selective blockade by yohimbine of locus coeruleus-induced inhibition of nociceptive reflex but not that of C responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats%育亨宾阻断蓝斑对伤害性屈反射的抑制而不影响其对背角神经元C反应的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯明; 赵志奇

    1994-01-01

    The effect of α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine ( Yoh ) on locus coeruleus (LC)-induced spinal antinociception was investigated in 18 anesthetized Wistar rats. Stimulation of LC markedly inhibited both nociceptive reflex of the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle and C responses of 16 wide-dynamic range (WDR)neurons of the dorsal horn. Application of Yoh (0.2 %, 5-10 μl) to the surface of spinal cord at L3-4 attenuated the LC-induced inhibition of nociceptive reflex without affecting that of C responses of 10 WDR neurons that were tested in 6 rats. The results suggested that LC may exert its inhibitory action on the nociceptive reflex via α2 adrenoceptors somewhere other than the WDR neurons in the spinal dorsal horn.%在18只麻醉大鼠上刺激蓝斑可以抑制强电流刺激后肢引起的后二头半腱肌的屈反射和16个背角神经元的C反应,在脊髓腰3-4节段表面滴注Yoh(0.2%,5-10μl)明显减弱蓝斑对反射的抑制而不影响其对C反应(n=10)的抑制.结果提示,α2受体参与蓝斑对伤害性反射的抑制,而蓝斑对背角神元C反应的抑制可能由其它递质介导.

  15. The homeodomain factor Gbx1 is required for locomotion and cell specification in the dorsal spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Meziane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord integrate and relay sensory information to higher brain centers. These neurons are organized in specific laminae and different transcription factors are involved in their specification. The murine homeodomain Gbx1 protein is expressed in the mantle zone of the spinal cord at E12.5-13.5, correlating with the appearance of a discernable dorsal horn around E14 and eventually defining a narrow layer in the dorsal horn around perinatal stages. At postnatal stages, Gbx1 identifies a specific subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. We have generated a loss of function mutation for Gbx1 and analyzed its consequences during spinal cord development. Gbx1−/− mice are viable and can reproduce as homozygous null mutants. However, the adult mutant mice display an altered gait during forward movement that specifically affects the hindlimbs. This abnormal gait was evaluated by a series of behavioral tests, indicating that locomotion is impaired, but not muscle strength or motor coordination. Molecular analysis showed that the development of the dorsal horn is not profoundly affected in Gbx1−/− mutant mice. However, analysis of terminal neuronal differentiation revealed that the proportion of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn is diminished. Our study unveiled a role for Gbx1 in specifying a subset of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord involved in the control of posterior limb movement.

  16. Research progress of dorsal root entry zone lesioning for the treatment of pain after brachial plexus avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-jun LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA is a clinically common drug-refractory neuropathic pain. Overactive spontaneous potential due to deafferentation in the neurons of spinal dorsal horn is the main pathogenesis of pain after BPA. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ lesioning is one way that damages overactive spontaneous potential neurons in spinal dorsal horn through radio-frequency electrode or bipolar coagulation so as to achieve pain relief. Dorsal root entry zone lesioning is a safe and effective treatment approach for pain after BPA. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.014

  17. The bHLH factor Olig3 coordinates the specification of dorsal neurons in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, T.; Anlag, K.; Wildner, H.; Britsch, S; Treier, M; Birchmeier, C.

    2005-01-01

    Neurons of the dorsal horn integrate and relay sensory information and arise during development in the dorsal spinal cord, the alar plate. Class A and B neurons emerge in the dorsal and ventral alar plate, differ in their dependence on roof plate signals for specification, and settle in the deep and superficial dorsal horn, respectively. We show here that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Olig3 is expressed in progenitor cells that generate class A (dI1-dI3) neurons and that Olig3 is an ...

  18. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  19. Effect of nitric oxide with different doses on Bcl-2/Bax in spinal dorsal horn in rats induced by formalin%不同剂量的一氧化氮对福尔马林炎性痛大鼠脊髓背角Bcl-2/Bax表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    未小明; 李宽; 祁文秀

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of multiple application of different doses of nitric oxide (NO) on Bcl-2/ Bax in spinal dorsal horn induced by formalin. Methods: A succession of 4 d intrathecal injection of NO precursor L-arginine (L-Arg)10 μg/d (low L-Arg group) or 250 μg/d (high L-Arg group) or NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) 2700 μg/d (L-NAME group) in rats, and normal saline (NS group) was applied as a control, and administration once a day. Then rats were subcutaneously injected formalin (2%, 100 μL) into the right hindpaw, four hours later after formalin injection, Bcl-2 or Bax protein expression were detected with immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Results: The immunocytochemistry showed the distributions of Bcl-2 and Bax were in both sides of the dorsal horn,especially in superficial laminae, and the expressions of bcl-2 and bax in the ipsilateral side of formalin injection were significantly increased than that in contralateral side of formalin injection in all four groups; the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax with Western-Blot was increased in low L-Arg group compared with normal saline group and was all decreased in high L-Arg group or L-NAME group compared with normal saline group. bcl-2 and bax are two major genes in the regulation of apoptosis, bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and bax promotes apoptosis. Conclusion: Therefore, in inflammatory pain model, low doses of NO can promote the antiapoptotic gene expression, while high doses of NO and insufficient of NO both can promote pro-apoptotic gene expression, which affect the incidence of inflammatory pain.%目的:探讨多次应用不同剂量的一氧化氮(NO)对福尔马林炎性痛中脊髓背角神经元Bcl-2、Bax表达的影响.方法:连续4 d给大鼠各进行鞘内注射不同剂量的一氧化氮前体左旋精氨酸(L-arginine,L-Arg)10μg/d(低L-Arg组)、250 μg/d(高L-Arg组)或一氧化氮合酶(nitric oxide synthase,NOS)抑制剂Nω-硝基-L

  20. 体视学研究坐骨神经慢性限制性损伤对大鼠脊髓背角内突触数量的可塑性改变及COX-2抑制剂的作用%Stereological investigation on plasticity in synaptic number associated with chronic constriction injury in the rat spinal dorsal horn and effects of COX-2 inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商义; 张才全; 彭彬; 林菁艳; 杨正伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨坐骨神经慢性限制性损伤(CCI)所致神经病理性疼痛是否伴有脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的可塑性变化以及帕瑞昔布干预的作用.方法:正常成年SD大鼠随机分为假手术组、CCI组及帕瑞昔布组.术后28d取第5腰段脊髓作石蜡包埋切片,分别用尼氏染色和突触素的免疫组织化学显色显示神经元和突触,采用体视学新技术--光学体视框估计脊髓背角内神经元和突触的数量.结果:与对侧未手术侧相比,CCI组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了86%、98%;帕瑞昔布组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了78%、68%.与假手术组手术侧相比,CCI组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了78%、73%;帕瑞昔布组则分别增加了81%、71%.结论:CCI所致神经病理性疼痛伴有脊髓背角内突触数量增加的可塑性变化,COX-2抑制剂帕瑞昔布对CCI致突触数量的增加无作用.%Objective: To determine whether neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is associated with a plasticity change in the number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn and the effects of COX-2 inhibitor on it. Methods: 17 normal adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group, CCI group and parecoxib group. 28 days after operation, L5 segment of the spinal cord was removed, and paraffin-embedded sections were prepared and stained with Nissl's method and synaptophysin immunohistochemistry. The numbers of neurons and synapses in the spinal dorsal horn were estimated using a contemporary stereological technique - the optical disector. Results: In the CCI group, the number of synapses and the ratio between the numbers of synapses and neurons on the operated side increased significantly by 86%and 98%, respectively, compared to the non-operated side

  1. The Ram's Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassias, John A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The summer-fall and winter-spring numbers of the journal, "The Ram's Horn," contain these articles: "The Text as Dramatic Departure"; "The Dartmouth Language Outreach Approach to Spanish for Police Action"; "The Dartmouth Intensive Language Model (DILM) in Florida: John Rassias with High School Teachers"; "The Flexibility of Using Drama Techniques…

  2. 大鼠初级传入纤维与脊髓背角神经元间的动作电序列的突触传递%SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION OF VARIOUS SPIKE TRAINS BETWEEN PRIMARY AFFERENT FIBER AND SPINAL DORSAL HORN NEURON IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万业宏; 菅忠; 文治洪; 王玉英; 胡三觉

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral sensory neurons encode continuous, time-varying signals into spike trains, which are finally relayed to the brain through synaptic transmission. But how various types of spike trains are transmitted across chemical synapses between neurons is still an open question. Here the synaptic transmission of various spike trains between primary Aδ afferent fiber and spinal dorsal horn neuron was investigated. Regular, periodic and stochastic stimulus trains were composed of either brief bursts or single pulses. "Events" were defined as the longest sequences of spikes with all interspike intervals less than or equal to a certain threshold and the interevent intervals (IEIs) were extracted from spike trains. The IEI analysis by time-IEI graphs and return maps showed that the main temporal structure of presynaptic input trains could be detected in postsynaptic output trains, especially under brief-burst stimulation. By calculating the mutual information between input and output trains, it was found that brief bursts could more reliably transmit the information carried by input trains across synapses.These results suggested that the main temporal characters of peripheral input trains can be transmitted across synapses, and that brief-burst firing is more effective during synapse transmission of neural information. The present research takes a step forward to exploring the mystery of neural coding from the aspect of synaptic transmission.%外周感觉神经元通过动作电位序列对信号进行编码,这些动作电位序列经过突触传递最终到达脑部.但是各种脉冲序列如何通过神经元之间的化学突触进行传递依然是一个悬而未决的问题.研究了初级传入Aδ纤维与背角神经元之间各种动作电位序列的突触传递过程.用于刺激的规则、周期、随机脉冲序列由短簇脉冲或单个脉冲构成.定义"事件"(event)为峰峰间期(interspike interval)小于或等于规定阈值的最长动作电位

  3. Effect of activation of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on glutamate release in spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸递质释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 吴川; 郭跃先; 王秋筠; 刘飞飞; 曹倩倩; 张兆龙

    2012-01-01

    release in spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with diabetic neuropathyic pain(DNP). Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley(SD) male rats(aged 4 weeks,weighing 150 g-170 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=15):Normal rats group (N group),DN rats group (D group).DNP were induced by single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ,50 mg/kg),and rats in C group received the equal volume saline injection.At 3-4 weeks after STZ or saline intraperitoneal injection,blood glucose level and paw withdraw threshold (PWT) were measured,and the rats were then killed,the lumbar segment of spinal cord (L1-5) was removed for slices preparations.Monosynaptic glutamatergic evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) of lamina Ⅱ neurons were recorded by using whole-cell voltage-clamp patch.Bath baclofen (1,10,20,50 μmol/L) was applicated,monosynaptic eEPSCs was recorded before application of baclofen,at 1,10,20,50 μmol/L and wash out 5 min,the inhibitory rate (%) of eEPSCs was compared between two groups (n=15),the effect of CGP55845 (1 pmol/L) on eEPSCs of 50 μmol/L baclofen was analyzed in two groups (n=12). Results The mean blood glucose level was significantly higher in D group than in N group,while PWT in D group was significantly lower than that in N group (P<0.05).eEPSCs in totally 30 glutamatergic neurons was recorded by electrophysiological recording. (1, 10,20,50 μmol/L) baclofen dose-dependently decreased the amplitude of eEPSCs both in two groups,the significant decrease of the amplitude inhibitory rate (%) of eEPSCs was observed at 1,10,20,50 μmol/L baclofen both in two groups(P<0.05),its in D group were significantly decreased compared with N group at above times(P<0.05) respectively:(47±7) vs (21 ±7 ),(55 ±6) vs (50±6),(92±6) vs (72±9),(95 ±8) vs (88±8).CGP55845 was completely abolished the inhibitory effect of 50 μmol/L baclofen on the amplitude of monosynaptic eEPSCs in lamina Ⅱ neurons both two groups. Conclusions Activation of

  4. Fuzzy reasoning on Horn Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study in fuzzy reasoning on Horn Set is presented in this paper. The authors first introduce the concepts of λ-Horn Set of clauses and λ-Input Half Lock deduction. They then use the λ-resolution method to discuss fuzzy reasoning on λ-Horn set of clauses. It is proved that the proposed λ-Input Half Lock resolution method is complete with the rules in certain format

  5. Cervical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your provider. Make sure to get the HPV vaccine when it is offered to you. This vaccine prevents many cervical cancers. ... Early diagnosis and prompt treatment cures most cases of cervical ... severe cervical dysplasia may change into cervical cancer.

  6. 脊髓刺激术对神经病理性痛模型大鼠痛行为和脊髓背角内小胶质细胞激活的影响%The effect of spinal cord stimulation on pain behavior and activition of microglia in spinal dorsal horn of rats with neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春奎; 李志红; 方相春; 唐君; 齐建国; 李金莲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on pain behavior and activition of microglia in spinal dorsal hom of rate with neuropathic pain (NP). Methods; 20 adult rats were randomly divided into 4groups: (1) control group; (2) SCS group: normal rats with SCS; (3) SNL + shamSCS group;the SCS device was implanted but without SCS; (4) SNL + SCS group: SNL rate with SCS. Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was detected for 3 consecutive days pre-operation and on the 5 d post-operation. Rats in SCS and SNL + SCS groups received SCS during 2-5 d after the operation, 8 hours each day. Besides, both of SCS group and SNL + SCS group were given a 90 min test before 8 hours SCS, which meant that SCS was applied for 30 rain and the withdrawl thresholds of the ipsi lateral hind paw were assessed at time of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 rain. After SCS on the 5 d of post-operation, rats were sacrificed. Immunohistochemistry combined with average optical density ( AOD) analysis was performed to examine the expression of OX- 42 (marker of microglia) in the L5 segment spinal dorsal horn of rats of all 4 groups. Result; (1) The behavior results showed that the MWT in SNL + shamSCS group and SNL + SCS group reduced significantly from 26.00 ± 0.0 g pre-operation to 5.50 ± 0.96 g and 6.40 ± 0.40 g respectively on the 5 d of post-operation (P <0.05). What's more, 30 min after cessation of SCS, the MWT decreased obviously to the pre-SCS level. ( 2) Immunohistochemical results demonstrated that on the 5 d of postoperation, the expression of OX- 42-immunoreactivi-ty in SNL + SCS group was more lower than SNL + shamSCS group, but both of them showed more immunoreactivity than control group and SCS group. The results of AOD analysis also showed that the spinal dorsl hom AOD of SNL + SCS group (1.29 ± 0.28) was remarkably lower than SNL + shamSCS group ( 2.66 ± 0.38, P < 0.05 ) , but still higher than control group(0.14±0.21)and SCS group(0. 24 ±0

  7. Antiproton Focus Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  8. 氯胺酮对N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸诱导大鼠脊髓背角星形胶质细胞损伤的作用%Influence of ketamine on astrocyte damage in spinal dorsal horn of rats induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 刘菊英; 周青山; 朱涛; 秦成名

    2006-01-01

    组,差异显著[分别为(25.26±6.13)%,(5.66±2.24)%,P<0.01],100μmol/LN-甲基-D-天冬氨酸+1 mmol/L氯胺酮组低于100 μmol/L N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸组,差异显著[分别为(24.41±4.82)%,(25.26±6.13)%,P<0.01].③丙二醛含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性变化:100 μmol/L N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸使星形胶质细胞内丙二醛含量显著升高,而超氧化物歧化酶活性明显降低;1 mmol/L氯胺酮明显降低丙二醛含量,显著增强超氧化物歧化酶活性,该效应在临床镇痛剂量以内有明显量效关系,与N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸组相比差异显著(P<0.01).1 mmol/L氯胺酮组与对照组相比、100μmol/L N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸+0.1 mmol/L氯胺酮组与N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸组相比差异均无显著性.结论:N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体过度激活可诱导大鼠脊髓背角星形胶质细胞大量凋亡,适量氯胺酮显著抑制细胞凋亡,其机制可能增强星形胶质细胞Bcl-2蛋白表达,同时抑制自由基的产生和增强超氧化物歧化酶活性.%BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a kind of frequently used general venous anesthesia drug in clinic, and the medication in vein or epidural cavum has analgesic effect. It is N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor noncompetitive antagonist, which can inhibit toxic effect of excitatory amino acids.OBJECTIVE: To observe effect of ketamine on apoptosis of dorsal horn astrocytes of spinal cord of rats induced by NMDA receptor over activation and explore its possible mechanism of action.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted at Cell Biology Laboratory,Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Yunyang Medical College between September 2003 and January 2005. Neonatal Wistar rats of two or three days were provided by Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University. METHODS: Primary astrocytes in dorsal horn of T11-L6 spinal cord of Wistar rats were purified and

  9. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  10. 切口痛大鼠脊髓背角GluR1-AMPA受体和GluR2-AMPA受体胞浆至胞膜转运的变化%Changes in trafficking of GluR1-containing AMPA receptor and GluR2-containing AMPA receptor from cytoplasm to cell membrane in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of incisional pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞娟; 王云; 时蓉; 吴安石; 岳云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in trafficking of GluRl-containing AMPA (GluR1-AMPA) receptor and GluR2-AMPA receptor from cytoplasm to cell membrane in the spinal cord dorsal horn in a rat model of incisional pain.Methods Thirty-two adult male SD rats aged 6-8 weeks weighing 280-300 g were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group (group C,n =8) and incisional pain group (group Ⅰ,n =24).An 1 cm long incision was made in the plautar surface of right hindpaw according to Brennan et al.in group Ⅰ.Cumulative pain score (CPS) and paw-withdrawal threshold to yon Frey stimuli (PWT) were measured at 3 h and day 1 and 3 afar incision ( T1,2,3 ).The animals were sacrificed after pain behavior assessment.Their lumbar segments of the spinal cord (L3-6) were removed.The expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in cell membrane and cytoplasm in spinal cord dorsal horn was determined by Western blot analysis.The co-expression of Stargazing with GluR1 and GluR2 in the spinal cord dorsal horn was examined by co-immuno-precipitation.Results The CPS was increased and PWT decreased; the GluR1 expression in cytoplasm was decreased while the expression of GluR1 in cell membrane and the co-expression of Stargazing with GluR1 were up-regulated in group Ⅰ as compared with group C.There was no significant change in the expression of GluR2 in cytoplasm and cell membrane and the co-expression of Stargazing with GluR2 in group Ⅰ as compared with group C.Conclusion GluR1-AMPA receptor transfers from cytoplasm to cell membrane but GluR2-AMPA receptor does not in rats with incisional pain.%目的 探讨切口痛大鼠脊髓背角含谷氨酸受体1亚基的使君子酸(GluR1-AMPA)受体和含谷氨酸受体2亚基的使君子酸(GluR2-AMPA)受体胞浆至胞膜转运的变化.方法 成年雄性清洁级SD大鼠32只,体重280~ 300 g,6~8周龄,采用随机数表法,将其随机分为2组:正常对照组(C组,n=8)和切口痛组(Ⅰ组,n=24).Ⅰ组大鼠制作右足底

  11. A Game of Horns: Transnational Flows of Rhino Horn

    OpenAIRE

    Hübschle, A.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-sectorial regime of protection including international treaties, conservation and security measures, demand reduction campaigns and quasi-military interventions has been established to protect rhinos. Despite these efforts, the poaching of rhinos and trafficking of rhino horn continue unabated. This dissertation asks why the illegal market in rhinoceros horn is so resilient in spite of the myriad measures employed to disrupt it. A theoretical approach grounded in the sociology of mark...

  12. Oscillatory interaction between dorsal root excitability and dorsal root potentials in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Lezama, R; Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The response to dorsal root stimulation, at one to two times threshold, was investigated in the isolated cervical enlargement of the turtle spinal cord. At frequencies near 10 Hz the synaptic response in motoneurons and the cord dorsum potential, after an initial lag time, oscillated in amplitude...

  13. Conservation, Innovation, and Bias: Embryonic Segment Boundaries Position Posterior, but Not Anterior, Head Horns in Adult Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Hannah A; Zattara, Eduardo E; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-01

    The integration of form and function of novel traits is a fundamental process during the developmental evolution of complex organisms, yet how novel traits and trait functions integrate into preexisting contexts remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the adult insect head has been able to integrate novel traits and features during its ontogeny, focusing on the cephalic horns of Onthophagus beetles. Specifically, using a microablation approach we investigate how different regions of the dorsal head of adult horned beetles relate to their larval and embryonic counterparts and test whether deeply conserved regional boundaries that establish the embryonic head might also facilitate or bias the positioning of cephalic horns along the dorsal adult head. We find that paired posterior horns-the most widespread horn type within the genus-are positioned along a border homologous to the embryonic clypeolabral (CL)-ocular boundary, and that this placement constitutes the ancestral form of horn positioning. In contrast, we observed that the phylogenetically much rarer anterior horns are positioned by larval head regions contained firmly within the CL segment and away from any major preexisting larval head landmarks or boundaries. Lastly, we describe the unexpected finding that ablations at medial head regions can result in ectopic outgrowths bearing terminal structures resembling the more anterior clypeal ridge. We discuss our results in the light of the developmental genetic mechanisms of head formation in holometabolous insects and the role of co-option in innovation and bias in developmental evolution.

  14. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  15. UTERINE INVERSION OF ONE HORN OF BICORNUATE, UNICOLLIS UTERUS. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooplekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerperal uterine inversion is rare; inversion of one horn of bicornute unicollis uterus is even rarer. Uterine malformations can make the diagnosis difficult , challenging emergency treatment and could prove potentially life threatening too. In our case the patient after two months of delivery had continuous vaginal bleeding , speculum examination revealed a mass at vaginal vault , reddish colored , about 5 cm in size and cervical rim was felt all around it , but for the colour which was red , it was suspected to be a fibroid polyp as the ultrasound reports had shown a normal uterus. When polypectomy was attempted it was discovered that the mass was probably an inverted uterus. Consequently laparotomy was done which revealed a bicornuate uterus with inversion of one rig ht horn. The inverted horn was reposited with great difficulty but was unsuitable to sustain future pregnancy hence a hemihyterectomy had to be performed. Patient recovered well.

  16. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  17. Cervical neural foramina: Correlation of microtomy and CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT appearance of the cervical neural foramina and contents is described in detail. Nineteen cervical spine specimens were studied with CT and corresponding cryomicrotomy in direct axial, sagittal, coronal, and oblique planes. Both ventra and dorsal nerve roots can be identified in the foramen's lower portion at or below the disk level. The dorsal nerve roots and ganglion contact the superior facet. The ventral nerve roots contact the uncinate process and bottom of the neural foramen. The ventral nerve roots, dorsal nerve roots and ganglion, and vertebral artery are resolved with current high-resolution CT

  18. Multifrequency broadband polarized horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K. A.

    1981-03-01

    A corrugated conical horn antenna is simultaneously fed a multiplicity of signals, two for each of five frequencies, with each of a pair of signals fed in each of two orthogonal planes for excitation of a desired spherical hybrid mode. The lowest frequency is fed into the horn through orthogonal pairs of colinear slots, each pair being fed by coaxial tee power dividers. Other signals are fed through a circular waveguide connected to the vertex. The highest frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports near the far end of the circular waveguide. The intermediate frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports spaced along the waveguide. Filtering is incorporated for each to maintain isolation and low insertion loss.

  19. Transcriptional control of GABAergic neuron development in the dorsal spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jing; Wu Shengxi

    2008-01-01

    GABAergic neurons are the major inhibitory interneurons that powerfully control the function of spinal neuronalnet works. In recent years, tremendous progresses have been made in understanding the transcriptional control of GABAergic neuron development in the dorsal spinal cord. New experimental approaches provide a relatively high throughput way to study the molecular regulation of subgroup fate determination. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms on GABAergic neuron development in the dorsal spinal cord is rapidly expanding. Recent studies have defined several transcription factors that play essential roles in GABAergic neuron development in the spinal dorsal horn. Here, we review results of very recent analyses of the mechanisms that specify the GABAergic neuron development in the dorsal spinal cord, especially the progresses in the homeodomain (HD) and basic-helix-loop-helix(bHLH) containing transcription factors.

  20. Dorsal metakarpal arter flepleri

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Arslan; Ozerkan, Fuat; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Ada, Sait; Ademoglu, Yalcin

    2004-01-01

    We present dorsal metacarpal artery flaps applied to 10 cases with the aim of reconstruction of the skin defects at the dorsum of the fingers and hand and whole thumb. The main aim was to obtain the skin coverage. Average age of our patients was 25,7, and the average follow up period was 25.7 months (2 years and 2 months). 6 out of 10 were island flaps. 3 axial flaps and one was reverse flow (distally based) flap. Seven were to cover the defects on thumb, cne was dorsum of the index finger, o...

  1. RUPTURED RUDIMENTARY HORN PREGNANCY OF UNICORNUATE UTERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus can sometimes be associated with rudimentary horn. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and usually ends up in rupture. Diagnosis is difficult and can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and is usually detected after rupture. We report a case of G1P1 with rudimentary horn pregnancy which raised suspicion on ultr asound and was later diagnosed by MR imaging. Patient refused termination and presented next day with shock. Laparotomy revealed ruptured right rudimentary horn pregnancy.

  2. Cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sravisht; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common clinical scenario. Patients with radiculopathy typically present with neck pain, arm pain, or both. We review the epidemiology of cervical radiculopathy and discuss the diagnosis of this condition. This includes an overview of the pertinent findings on the patient history and physical examination. We also discuss relevant clinical syndromes that must be considered in the differential diagnosis including peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes and shoulder pathology. The natural history of cervical radiculopathy is reviewed and options for management are discussed. These options include conservative management, non-operative modalities such as physical therapy, steroid injections, and operative intervention. While the exact indications for surgical intervention have not yet been elucidated, we provide an overview of the available literature regarding indications and discuss the timing of intervention. The surgical outcomes of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), and posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) are discussed. PMID:27250042

  3. [Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Keegan (1965) reported a patient who presented with "dissociated motor loss," an acute paralysis of the upper extremity with minimal sensory signs and no long tract signs, and documented an anterior root lesion following autopsy. Sobue et al. (1975) reported similar cases using the term "cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA)," but postulated pathology of the anterior horn. Although Keegan's "dissociated motor loss" surely referred to isolated motor paresis with no or minimal sensory signs, contrary to existing criticism, a more general term, CSA, should be preferred. CSA is divided into proximal and distal types. Distal CSA often presents with a drop finger, and thus may be misdiagnosed as posterior interosseous nerve palsy. Documentation of the involvement of ulnar muscles by clinical signs and EMG would lead to the diagnosis of distal CSA. Proximal CSA may be confused with neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), although the sparing of the serratus anterior and the stereotypic involvement of deltoid, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, and brachioradialis suggest CSA. Cervical MRI is not diagnostic in around half of CSA cases, and denervation in paraspinal EMG is a more sensitive test that can exclude NA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is another important differential diagnosis for CSA. PMID:27156504

  4. Miniaturization of planar horn motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-04-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of a stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2×2×2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of 3 × 3 × 0.2 cm.

  5. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  6. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale Pasaoglu; Murat Vural; Hatice Gul Hatipoglu; Gokce Tereklioglu; Suha Koparal

    2008-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the pancreas have been reported but dorsal pancreatic agenesis is an extremely rare entity. We report an asymptomatic 62-year-old woman with complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas.Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal pancreatic head, but pancreatic body and tail were not visualized. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)findings were similar to CT. At magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), the major pancreatic duct was short and the dorsal pancreatic duct was not visualized. The final diagnosis was dorsal pancreatic agenesis.

  7. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Holstege, Jan; de Graaff, Wim; Hossaini, Mehdi; Cano, S.C.; Jaarsma, Dick; Deschamps, Jacqueline; Akker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive grooming and hairless lesions on the lower back. Applying local anesthesia underneath the hairless skin suppressed excessive grooming, indicating that this behavior depends on peripheral...

  8. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...

  9. Spherical Horn Array for Wideband Propagation Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    A spherical array of horn antennas designed to obtain directional channel information and characteristics is introduced. A dual-polarized quad-ridged horn antenna with open flared boundaries and coaxial feeding for the frequency band 600 MHz–6 GHz is used as the element of the array. Matching...

  10. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  13. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  14. Cervical Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accumulation of pus in the uterus is called pyometra. Symptoms Before menopause, cervical stenosis may cause menstrual ... present but not cause symptoms. A hematometra or pyometra can cause pain or cause the uterus to ...

  15. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past neck injury (often several years before) Past spine surgery Ruptured or slipped disk Severe arthritis Small fractures ... Kshettry VR. Cervical spondylosis. In: Benzel EC, ed. Spine Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  16. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The virus spreads through sexual contact. Most women's bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You're at higher risk ...

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  18. Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Detloff, Megan R; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J

    2016-01-01

    While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush. Additionally, we posited that if we combined that approach with digestion of upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) at the DREZ with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we would promote regeneration of sensory axons across the DREZ into the spinal cord. We first assessed if this strategy promotes neuritic growth in an in vitro model of the glial scar containing CSPG. ChABC allowed for some regeneration across the once potently inhibitory substrate. Combining ChABC treatment with expression of caRheb in DRG significantly improved this growth. We then determined if this combination strategy also enhanced regeneration through the DREZ after dorsal root crush in adult rats in vivo. After unilaterally crushing C4-T1 dorsal roots, we injected AAV5-caRheb or AAV5-GFP into the ipsilateral C5-C8 DRGs. ChABC or PBS was injected into the ipsilateral dorsal horn at C5-C8 to digest CSPG, for a total of four animal groups (caRheb + ChABC, caRheb + PBS, GFP + ChABC, GFP + PBS). Regeneration was rarely observed in PBS-treated animals, whereas short-distance regrowth across the DREZ was observed in ChABC-treated animals. No difference in axon number or length between the ChABC groups was observed, which may be related to intraganglionic inflammation induced by the

  19. A Horn-to-Horn Power Transmission System at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Kuroiwa, K.

    2011-11-01

    A horn-to-horn power transmission system at Terahertz frequencies has been designed and tested. Power is generated at microwave frequencies and then frequency multiplied to the band 799-938 GHz. The resultant signal is radiated by a diagonal horn and redirected by two identical elliptical mirrors to another diagonal horn located far away. Useful design equations have been derived for the proposed system. The concept has been proven by careful measurements and utilized for the local oscillator injection in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band-10 receiver.

  20. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metres.

  1. Micromachined Horn Antenna Operating at 75 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Zurcher, Jean-François; Renaud, Philippe; Mosig, Juan R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose in this paper an integrated cavity-backed horn antenna, generalizing the well-known SSFIP (Strip-Slot-Foam-Inverted Patch) design, operating at 75 GHz. The antenna was optimized using a full-wave software and realized using micromachining technologies. The proposed structure can be used for high radiation ef-ficiency antennas and arrays in the millimeter-wave band, since surface waves are inherently suppressed by the use of a metallic horn and a cavity configuration.

  2. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  3. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  4. Minocycline enhances inhibitory transmission to substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H-Z; Ma, L-X; Lv, M-H; Hu, T; Liu, T

    2016-04-01

    Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, is well known for its antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. Modulation of synaptic transmission is one of the analgesic mechanisms of minocycline. Although it has been reported that minocycline may suppress excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, it remains unclear whether it could affect inhibitory synaptic transmission, which also plays a key role in modulating pain signaling. To examine the effect of minocycline on synaptic transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recording at a holding potential of 0 mV. Bath application of minocycline significantly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of sIPSCs in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85. The enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission produced by minocycline was not affected by the glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX and D-APV or by the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the potency of minocycline for facilitating sIPSC frequency was the same in both glycinergic and GABAergic sIPSCs without changing their decay phases. However, the facilitatory effect of minocycline on sIPSCs was eliminated in a Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution or by co-administration with calcium channel blockers. In summary, our data demonstrate that baseline inhibitory synaptic transmission in SG neurons is markedly enhanced by minocycline. This may function to decrease the excitability of SG neurons, thus leading to a modulation of nociceptive transmission. PMID:26826332

  5. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

    OpenAIRE

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair fo...

  6. Effect of activating γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B型受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白和N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体2B亚基表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 郭闻亚; 赵晓南; 吕艳霞; 魏淑明; 王秀丽

    2013-01-01

    binding protein (p-CREB) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) by using GABAB receptors agonist (baclofen) and atagonist (CGP55845).Methods Sixty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups:normal control group (C group) and DNP nodel group (D group),which were intraperitonealy injected with saline and streptozocin (STZ) respectively.Fifty rats were intraperitonealy injected with STZ (60 mg/kg),and 4weeks later,DNP models were successfully established in 36 rats which were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 12 each) according to the injected medicines:saline 10 μ1 + saline 10 μl were injected intrathecally in D1 group,saline 10 μl + baclofen 0.5 μg in D2 group,CGP55845 10 μg + baclofen 0.5 μg in D3 group.Saline 10 μl + saline 10 μl were injected intrathecally in 12 normal rats as C group.There was an interval of 15 min between twice intrathecal injections in four groups.The PWT was measured at 30 min before and after intrathecal injection for 4 days,and the time points were as follows:T1,T2,T3and T4.The spinal cord dorsal horns of rats were removed after measurement of PWT for detection of the expression of p-CREB,cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and NR2B receptor.Results As compared with C group,the expression levels of NR2B and p-CREB protein were significantly increased,while PWT was significantly decreased at each time point (T1-T4) in D1 and D3 groups (P<0.05).As compared with D1 group [p-CREB protein (0.76 ±0.13),NR2B protein (1.28 ±0.14),and NR2B mRNA (0.83 ± 0.10)],the protein expression levels of NR2B (0.88 ±0.13) and p-CREB (0.45 ± 0.08) and NR2B mRNA expression (0.53 ± 0.08) were significantly decreased,and PWT was significantly increased at each time point (T1-T4) in D2 group (P < 0.05).The expression levels of CREB had no significant diffierence among the four groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion

  7. Laminoplasty Techniques for the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance K. Mitsunaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation and to preserve postoperative cervical stability and alignment. With the right surgical indications, reliable results can be expected with laminoplasty in treating patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy.

  8. Horn River geoscience and operations geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, D. [Imperial Oil and Gas Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The objectives for the Horn River integrated plan are to efficiently commercialize the shale gas resource in the area and to establish a business case for development. The integrated Horn River strategy involves exploration and initial pad development; leveraging the industry and global results/best practices; and phased development based on results, costs and economic environment. This presentation discussed the Horn River geoscience and operations geology. Background information on the project and on the northeastern British Columbia climate were presented. The successes and learnings of the 2008-2009 program were discussed along with the rig schedule and data acquisition program. Other topics that were discussed included the 2008-2009 drilling lease; 2008-2009 completion; 2008-2009 operating performance; 2009-2010 operating program; 2009-2010 operating performance; and the 2009-2010 IOL/EMC operated Horn River program. The presentation revealed that the Imperial Oil operated Horn River safety program has been successful without any recordable incidents. Data acquisition was based on learnings and optimization for reservoir characterization. Core analysis including TRA, geochemistry, and geomechanical data has contributed to the IOR/XOM global shale gas knowledge database. figs.

  9. The rams horn in western history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  10. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  11. Computed tomography of the temporal horns at Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the literature there are different opinions referring to the involvement of the temporal lobes or horns at Alzheimer's disease. Conventionally computed tomogram of the head does not include the temporal horn in its full length. A simple method to demonstrate the temporal horns after cranial computer tomography is described. It allows the evaluation of temporal lobe and temporal horn if questionable alterations at Alzheimer's disease are to be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Laminoplasty for Cervical Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Manabu; Nagahama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews cervical laminoplasty. The origin of cervical laminoplasty dates back to cervical laminectomy performed in Japan ~50 years ago. To overcome poor surgical outcomes of cervical laminectomy, many Japanese orthopedic spine surgeons devoted their lives to developing better posterior decompression procedures for the cervical spine. Thanks to the development of a high-speed surgical burr, posterior decompression procedures for the cervical spine showed vast improvement from the ...

  13. [Cervical radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, B

    2014-10-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common cause of pain in the arm. It is caused by nerve root compression in the neck, as a consequence of a herniated disc, or spondyliotic foraminal stenosis. It causes severe pain, especially during the first few weeks, and paraesthesias in the forearm and hand. Patients also suffer from neck pain and loss of strength in the relevant arm. The arm pain can be exacerbated by certain movements of the head; these should be avoided as much as possible. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and physical examination. The pain generally disappears without active patient treatment. A semi-rigid cervical collar is recommended to accelerate pain relief. In cases of persistent pain, surgery will be considered. In such cases an MRI should be performed to show the cause and level of nerve root compression. PMID:26185991

  14. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    One of the key components of the CNGS facility is the system of magnetic lenses, known as horns, which are to point the pions and kaons that will decay into muons and muon-neutrinos in the direction of the Gran Sasso Laboratory. Positioned at the end of the target, which produces the pions and kaons, the system comprises two of these horns. The first focuses the positively charged pions and kaons, which have an energy of approximately 35 GeV, and defocuses the negative particles. Unfortunately, it has a tendency to cause excessive deflection of particles that have energies of less than 35 GeV and insufficient deflection of those with energies of more than 35 GeV. These negative effects are corrected by the second horn (also known as the reflector), which is positioned 40 metres from the first. Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metre...

  15. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... horn that was replaced and the mounting location and type of mounting are the same. (c) Testing of the..., such as barriers, hills, billboards, tractor trailers or other large vehicles, locomotives or rail...

  16. The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This commentary addresses the Arizona Supreme Court's legal reasoning in "Cain v. Horne," which struck down two voucher programs for special needs children pursuant to one of Arizona's Blaine Amendments and explains that the court both failed to apply a straightforward textual analysis and ignored the analytical framework its prior precedents had…

  17. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  18. Penile cutaneous horn: An enigma-newer insights and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn refers to unusually cohesive keratinized material and not a true pathologic diagnosis. Though cutaneous horn has been described at various sites, horn over the penis is very rare and represents the most unusual site. The role of chronic irritation, phimosis, surgical trauma and radiotherapy have been implicated in penile horn formation. Penile horns present as elongated, keratinous, white or yellowish projections that range from a few millimeters to centimeters in size arising from the glans penis. Histopathology of the keratotic mass reveals nothing but keratin. The underlying mass may vary from verruca vulgaris to squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment is based on the pathology.

  19. Current status of thoracic dorsal sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, E; Geary, J

    1984-01-01

    This article summarizes over 20 years of experience (1962 to 1982) with cervical sympathectomy (thoracic dorsal sympathectomy) in 46 patients undergoing 68 sympathectomies. All operations were performed through an anterior supraclavicular approach. Indications for surgery were intractable Raynaud's disease (26 patients), atherosclerotic obliterative arterial disease (five), causalgia (five), posttraumatic sympathetic dystrophy (seven), collagen vascular disorders (eight), hyperhidrosis (12), occupational-related digital thrombosis (four), and thrombosis secondary to intra-arterial injection (one). The incidence of complications and side effects, both temporary and permanent, including Horner's syndrome, is reviewed in detail. Particular reference is made to the various surgical techniques of managing the stellate ganglion; four patients had two-third to three-fourth resection of the stellate ganglion down to and including the T-3 thoracic ganglion, two had preservation of the stellate ganglion and resection of the T-2 through T-4 ganglia, seven had excision of the entire stellate ganglion down to and including the T-4 ganglion, seven had resection of the lower third of the stellate ganglion down to and including the T-4 ganglion, and 48 had removal of the lower half of the stellate ganglion down to and including the T-3 ganglion. The study reviews the literature germane to anatomic considerations and suggests revisions in current texts and atlases. By retrospective analysis of the records and a follow-up questionnaire, which provided an 86% follow-up (average 8.4 years), the paper points to the distinctive clinical characteristics of the different groups within the population undergoing the operation and provides guidelines for patient selection and conclusions on the place for this operation in the management of vascular diseases involving the upper extremity. PMID:6481864

  20. Feed for a four-horn monopulse tracking radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marc; Louza, Samya; Audeh, N. F.

    A pyramidal horn for a 4-horn feed and a perfectly conducting parabolic reflector of circular aperture so that the angular tracking error is minimized has been considered. A nominal frequency of 10 GHz and a focal length to distance ratio of unity were chosen for purposes of numerical evaluation. The analysis of the pyramidal horn is approached from the sectoral horn approximation which is usually employed in practice. Following the analysis of the horn, the aperture distribution is decomposed into the horn eigenfunctions and the waveguide aperture excitations are found. The monopulse sum and difference signals are then defined, and the variance of their ratio is calculated. From this variance, the rms angular tracking error is calculated which provides the criterion for the design of the pyramidal horn aperture dimensions.

  1. Aberrant Dual Origin of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve and Its Communication with Long Thoracic Nerve: An Unusual Variation of the Brachial Plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilal, Poonam; Sarda, Rohit Kumar; Chhetri, Kalpana; Lama, Polly; Tamang, Binod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Pre and post-fixed variations at roots of the brachial plexus have been well documented, however little is known about the variations that exist in the branches which arise from the brachial plexus. In this paper, we describe about one such rare variation related to the dorsal scapular and the long thoracic nerve, which are the branches arising from the roots of the brachial plexus. The variation was found during routine dissection. The dorsal scapular nerve, which routinely arises from the fifth cervical nerve root (C5), was seen to receive contributions from C5 as well as sixth cervical nerve (C6), while the long thoracic nerve arose from C6 and seventh cervical nerves (C7) only. Furthermore along with variations in origin of the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerves, the brachial plexus was seen to exist as a prefixed plexus receiving a contribution from C4 nerve root. An aberrant communicating branch between the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerve was also identified. Knowledge about the course and anatomy of such variations can be vital for understanding the aetiology of various conditions such as winging of scapula, interscapular pain, administration of cervical nerve blocks, surgeries and for effective management of regions and muscles supplied by dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerve.

  2. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  3. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  4. LS1 Report: Thank you magnetic horn!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Antimatter Decelerator (AD) have been receiving beams since the beginning of this week. There is a crucial element at the heart of the chain that prepares the antiproton beam: the so-called magnetic horn, a delicate piece of equipment that had to be refurbished during LS1 and that is now showing just how well it can perform.   View from the top of the target and horn trolley, along the direction of the beam. Antiprotons for the AD are produced by smashing a beam of protons from the PS onto an iridium target. However, the particles produced by the nuclear interactions are emitted at very wide angles; without a focussing element, all these precious particles would be lost. “A magnetic horn is placed at the exit of the target to focus back a large fraction of the negative particles, including antiprotons, parallel to the beam line and with the right momentum,” explains Marco Calviani, physicist in the EN Department and the expert in charge of the AD targe...

  5. Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Degenerating Proprioceptive Sensory Neurons of Transgenic Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sábado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs. Although the motor phenotype is a hallmark for ALS, there is increasing evidence that systems other than the efferent MN system can be involved. Mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene cause a proportion of familial forms of this disease. Misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 exert neurotoxicity in a noncell autonomous manner, as evidenced in studies using transgenic mouse models. Here, we used the SOD1G93A mouse model for ALS to detect, by means of conformational-specific anti-SOD1 antibodies, whether misfolded SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity extended to neuronal types other than MNs. We report that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG proprioceptive neurons accumulate misfolded SOD1 and suffer a degenerative process involving the inflammatory recruitment of macrophagic cells. Degenerating sensory axons were also detected in association with activated microglial cells in the spinal cord dorsal horn of diseased animals. As large proprioceptive DRG neurons project monosynaptically to ventral horn MNs, we hypothesise that a prion-like mechanism may be responsible for the transsynaptic propagation of SOD1 misfolding from ventral horn MNs to DRG sensory neurons.

  6. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang J Schnedl; Claudia Piswanger-Soelkner; Sandra J Wallner; Robert Krause; Rainer W Lipp

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al ( World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal panc reas in humans . Agenes i s of the dor sal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation,is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation,hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families,more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease.

  7. The ventrolateral upper cervical cell group in cat projects to all rostrocaudal levels of the periaqueductal gray matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; Eggens-Meijer, Ellie; Klop, Esther Marije

    2009-01-01

    The lateral ventral horn. of the upper cervical (C(1-3vl)) cord in rat, cat and monkey contains many cells that project to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Until now it was assumed that these cells only project to the ventrolateral part of the caudal PAG. Because the ventrolateral caudal PAG is

  8. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  9. Rudimentary horn pregnancy mimicking as a case of placenta accreta

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Manju Puri; Shubha Sagar Trivedi; Pikee Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare condition and it generally culminates in rupture, in second trimester with torrential haemorrhage. The accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing rudimentary horn pregnancy at an advanced gestation still remains elusive. We report a case of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy which progressed to 38 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis was missed at 24, 30 and 38 weeks of gestation on obstetric sonogram. The diagnosis was made at laparotomy when the patien...

  10. When ontogeny reveals what phylogeny hides: gain and loss of horns during development and evolution of horned beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczek, Armin P; Cruickshank, Tami E; Shelby, Andrew

    2006-11-01

    How ecological, developmental and genetic mechanisms interact in the genesis and subsequent diversification of morphological novelties is unknown for the vast majority of traits and organisms. Here we explore the ecological, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse: beetle horns. Specifically, we focus on the origin and diversification of a particular horn type, those protruding from the pronotum, in the genus Onthophagus, a particularly speciose and morphologically diverse genus of horned beetles. We begin by documenting immature development of nine Onthophagus species and show that all of these species express pronotal horns in a developmentally transient fashion in at least one or both sexes. Similar to species that retain their horns to adulthood, transient horns grow during late larval development and are clearly visible in pupae. However, unlike species that express horns as adults, transient horns are resorbed during pupal development. In a large number of species this mechanisms allows fully horned pupae to molt into entirely hornless adults. Consequently, far more Onthophagus species appear to possess the ability to develop pronotal horns than is indicated by their adult phenotypes. We use our data to expand a recent phylogeny of the genus Onthophagus to explore how the widespread existence of developmentally transient horns alters our understanding of the origin and dynamics of morphological innovation and diversification in this genus. We find that including transient horn development into the phylogeny dramatically reduces the number of independent origins required to explain extant diversity patters and suggest that pronotal horns may have originated only a few times, or possibly only once, during early Onthophagus evolution. We then propose a new and previously undescribed function for pronotal horns during immature development. We provide histological as well as experimental data that

  11. A CUTANEOUS HORN MIMICKING POLYDACTYLY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tamer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A cutaneous horn is a general name for cornified material protruding from skin. On the other hand, polydactyly is a common congenital anomaly of the hand and foot which is characterized by extra finger or toe. A cutaneous horn might mimick polydactyly by resembling an extra toe. Hereby, we present a 72-year-old white Caucasian male with an extra toe-like projection on his fourth toe. Initially, polydactyly was suspected, however a cutaneous horn was also considered. The lesion was surgically removed. The histopathological examination of the specimen revealed hyperkeratosis, and thus confirmed the  lesion to be a cutaneous horn

  12. Intense selective hunting leads to artificial evolution in horn size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Gabriel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-04-01

    The potential for selective harvests to induce rapid evolutionary change is an important question for conservation and evolutionary biology, with numerous biological, social and economic implications. We analyze 39 years of phenotypic data on horn size in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) subject to intense trophy hunting for 23 years, after which harvests nearly ceased. Our analyses revealed a significant decline in genetic value for horn length of rams, consistent with an evolutionary response to artificial selection on this trait. The probability that the observed change in male horn length was due solely to drift is 9.9%. Female horn length and male horn base, traits genetically correlated to the trait under selection, showed weak declining trends. There was no temporal trend in genetic value for female horn base circumference, a trait not directly targeted by selective hunting and not genetically correlated with male horn length. The decline in genetic value for male horn length stopped, but was not reversed, when hunting pressure was drastically reduced. Our analysis provides support for the contention that selective hunting led to a reduction in horn length through evolutionary change. It also confirms that after artificial selection stops, recovery through natural selection is slow. PMID:27099619

  13. Localization of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 mRNA in the dorsal root ganglion of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoji, Y; Islam, M R

    2009-11-01

    Our previous study showed localization of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) mRNA in neurons of the pigeon spinal cord, suggesting glutamatergic input from intrinsic and extrinsic origins. The present study examined localization of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) mRNA to confirm an extrinsic origin of glutamatergic neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). GluR1 and GluR2 mRNAs were examined in DRG and spinal cord to seek projection regions from VGLUT2 mRNA-expressing neurons. VGLUT2 mRNA was expressed in most DRG neurons and labelling intensity varied from weakly to intensely. Intense VGLUT2 mRNA expression was mainly seen in medium to large neurons. GluR1 and GluR2 mRNAs were expressed in the dorsal horn and GluR2 mRNA signal was also seen in the marginal nucleus. The results suggest that the pigeon DRG has an extrinsic glutamatergic origin that project to the dorsal horn and marginal nucleus of the spinal cord. PMID:19821818

  14. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  15. Gemelligraviditet i et horn af bicorn uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Bicornuate uterus is associated with early foetal loss and extremely preterm delivery. A patient with dichorionic twins in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus was admitted in week 24 + 6 with preterm labour. Long-term treatment with a combination of tocolytics, atosiban and diclofenac inhibited ...... labour until week 26 + 3 where both babies were born. Both babies are still alive. Longterm tocolytic treatment may be successful in specific cases, but there is no evidence for a general use of long-term tocolysis in preterm labour. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Mar-9...

  16. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  19. Laminoplasty Techniques for the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsunaga, Lance K.; Klineberg, Eric O.; Gupta, Munish C.

    2012-01-01

    Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation ...

  20. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  1. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  2. Giant cutaneous horn in an African woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A cutaneous horn is a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Though grossly resembling an animal horn, it lacks a bony core. These lesions have been well described in Caucasian patients, as well as in a number of Arabic and Asian patients. Case presentation A young female presented with a large 'horn' of five-year duration, arising from a burn scar. Excision and scalp reconstruction were performed. Histology was reported as verrucoid epidermal hyperplasia with cutaneous horn. Conclusion This may be the first documentation of this lesion in a black African. Although likely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dermatologic lesions. Up to 40% of cutaneous horns occur as part of a premalignant or malignant lesion, and surgical extirpation with histological examination is thus more important than the curiosity surrounding these lesions.

  3. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  4. Rudimentary horn pregnancy mimicking as a case of placenta accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Nigam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare condition and it generally culminates in rupture, in second trimester with torrential haemorrhage. The accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing rudimentary horn pregnancy at an advanced gestation still remains elusive. We report a case of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy which progressed to 38 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis was missed at 24, 30 and 38 weeks of gestation on obstetric sonogram. The diagnosis was made at laparotomy when the patient was planned for caesarean section in view of placenta accreta.

  5. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  6. Excitement tem-horn antenna by impulsive relativistic electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Balakirev, V A; Egorov, A M; Lonin, Y F

    2000-01-01

    In the given operation the opportunity of reception powerful electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) is observationally explored by excitation by a impulsive relativistic electronic beam (IREB) of a TEM-horn antenna. It is revealed, that at such expedient of excitation of the TEM-horn antenna, the signal of radiation of the antenna contains three various components caused by oscillation of radiation by forward front IREB, high-voltage discharge between plates irradiation of TEM-horn antenna a and resonant properties of the antenna devices.

  7. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview ... be cured. How often should I get screened (tested)? How often you should get screened for cervical ...

  8. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  10. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  11. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  12. Sigma-1 receptor expression in the dorsal root ganglion: Reexamination using a highly specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, Timur A; Duellman, Tyler; Kim, Hung Tae; Epstein, Miles L; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek A; Yang, Jay

    2016-09-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a unique pluripotent modulator of living systems and has been reported to be associated with a number of neurological diseases including pathological pain. Intrathecal administration of S1R antagonists attenuates the pain behavior of rodents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. However, the S1R localization in the spinal cord shows a selective ventral horn motor neuron distribution, suggesting the high likelihood of S1R in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mediating the pain relief by intrathecally administered drugs. Since primary afferents are the major component in the pain pathway, we examined the mouse and rat DRGs for the presence of the S1R. At both mRNA and protein levels, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western confirmed that the DRG contains greater S1R expression in comparison to spinal cord, cortex, or lung but less than liver. Using a custom-made highly specific antibody, we demonstrated the presence of a strong S1R immuno-fluorescence in all rat and mouse DRG neurons co-localizing with the Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) marker, but not in neural processes or GFAP-positive glial satellite cells. In addition, S1R was absent in afferent terminals in the skin and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Using immuno-electron microscopy, we showed that S1R is detected in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of DRG cells. In contrast to other cells, S1R is also located directly at the plasma membrane of the DRG neurons. The presence of S1R in the nuclear envelope of all DRG neurons suggests an exciting potential role of S1R as a regulator of neuronal nuclear activities and/or gene expression, which may provide insight toward new molecular targets for modulating nociception at the level of primary afferent neurons. PMID:27339730

  13. Variant attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Marian; Ratajczak, Wojciech; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of variants of anomalous insertions of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in human knee joints. The study was carried out on 78 human lower limbs of both sexes (42 males and 36 females). Out of 78 knee joints, 10 knee joints (12.82%) presented atypical attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In 9 cases we found that the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the transverse ligament of the knee and in 1 case it was attached to the coronary ligament. In the remaining cases the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.

  14. A comparative study of corrugated horn design by evolutionary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorfar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Here an evolutionary programming algorithm is used to optimize the pattern of a corrugated circular horn subject to various constraints on return loss, antenna beamwidth, pattern circularity, and low cross polarization.

  15. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnostic: difficulties and therapeutic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Ghazal, Nabil; Erraghay, Sanaa; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of rudimentary horn pregnancy is an extremely rare and potentially serious obstetric entity, threatening maternal and fetal outcome. The authors report five cases of rudimentary horn pregnancy, the difficulties in making a proper diagnosis and the therapeutic management of this pathological entity, stressing the importance of transvaginal ultrasound, of pelvic MRI and laparoscopy in the early diagnosis of this type of uterine malformation. PMID:27583078

  16. Quantum Information Measurements for Garfinkle-Horne Dilaton Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xian-Hui; SHEN You-Gen

    2004-01-01

    @@ The quantum non-cloning theorem is discussed for Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black holes. It is found that if the black hole complementarity principle is correct, then it will be questioned whether the quantum non-cloning theorem is well established inside the inner horizon. It is also found that another complementarity principle may be needed inside the inner horizon of the Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black hole.

  17. Plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    . The decline in threshold gradually subsided over 3-10 s after repolarization. 5. Frequency potentiation of the plateau potential contributed to wind-up of the response to depolarizing current pulses and primary afferent stimuli repeated at frequencies higher than 0.1-0.3 Hz. 6. The sustained after...

  18. Burst-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    . In these cells the burst following a hyperpolarizing current pulse, applied from the resting membrane potential, facilitated the activation of the plateau potential. Wind-up of the plateau potential was produced when the hyperpolarizing pulse generating the burst was repeated at 0.1-0.3 Hz or faster. 5...

  19. Radiological case: cervical teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a third trimester fetus with a cervical mass. Fetal MRI was performed to better evaluate the extension of the mass and the risk of obstruction of the airway in the neonatal period. MRI is very useful in the evaluation of fetal cervical masses.

  20. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... year. As part of CDC’s Cervical Cancer (Cx3) Study, we surveyed a sample of both health care ...

  1. Wave power plant at Horns Rev. Screening[Denmark]; Boelgekraftanlaeg ved Horns Rev. Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Hans C.; Nielsen, Kim; Steenstrup, P.R.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Wigant, L.

    2005-12-15

    The objective for the analysis has been to establish data for the sea at Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea in order to assess the opportunity for using the site as test site for demonstration of wave energy devices exemplified by three different devices under development in Denmark. For comparison alternative sites like Hanstholm, Samsoe and Nissum Bredning are also assessed as well as the test centre EMEC at the Orkney Islands and the proposed test site Wave Hub at the north coast of Cornwall. The analysis shows that it is possible without major technical problems to connect 2-4 MW power generated by 3 different wave energy devices (AquaBuOY, Wave Star Energy and Wave Dragon) to the wind farm at Horns Rev (www.hornsrev.dk). The expenses for connection and regulation within the wind farm is about 200,000 DKK (30,00 EURO). On top of this comes the cost for individual sub sea cable connection to the wave devices, pull in of the sub sea cable through the existing J-tube in turbine T04 and the necessary regulation/control system in the individual wave devices to avoid damaging the power system in case of too high production. The analysis of the co-production of wind and wave power is dealt with in a separate report which shows that over a time period of half to one hour the time variation for wind generated electricity is 3 times as large as for wave energy generated power based on the actual measurement at Horns Rev. Further on the analysis shows that the wave generated power is more predictable than wind energy generated power as the power from the waves first is present about 2 hours after the wind is acting and last for 3 to 6 hours after the wind dies out; 6 to 12 hours with wind from west. The time is off course strongly depending of the direction of the wind i.e. the fetch. As this special report has a more general scope than the analysis as such it is reported in English (Annex Report II). The analysis shows that it is up to the individual device developer

  2. Piracy around the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracy around the Horn of Africa has risen to a level serious enough for the international community to take concerted action to secure an international sea lane. However, the efforts so far have been initiated mainly by the international community while regional efforts are only just beginning. In the short term, more action will have to be taken at the operational level like dispatching more ships and integrating the operations of ships already deployed to the area. In the longer term, the root causes of piracy and the grievances of the Somali people have to be addressed. In particular, there is a need to restore law and order in Somalia by supporting moderate leaders in their attempts to create a representative government.La piraterie au large de la Corne de l’Afrique a augmenté à un degré tel que la communauté internationale a décidé d’agir de concert pour sécuriser cette voie maritime. Néanmoins, si les efforts entrepris sont principalement ceux de la communauté internationale, les démarches régionales ne sont qu’à leur commencement. Dans le court terme, davantage d’initiatives devront être prises au niveau opérationnel, comme l’envoi de bateaux supplémentaires et la coordination des actions menées. Dans le plus long terme, il faudra s’attaquer aux racines de la piraterie et aux difficultés auxquelles doivent faire face les Somaliens. Il s’agit en particulier de restaurer l’état de droit en supportant les chefs de file modérés dans leur tentative de créer un gouvernement représentatif.

  3. Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α2 subunit in the dorsal root ganglion of rats with sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lian; Yang Wang; Ketao Ma; Lei Zhao; Zhongshuang Zhang; Yuanyuan Shang; Junqiang Si; Li Li

    2012-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter in the spinal cord dorsal horn plays an important role in pain modulation through primary afferent-mediated presynaptic inhibition. The weakening of γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated presynaptic inhibition may be an important cause of neuropathic pain. Γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated presynaptic inhibition is related to the current strength of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation. In view of this, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used here to record the change in muscimol activated current of dorsal root ganglion neurons in a chronic constriction injury model. Results found that damage in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons following application of muscimol caused concentration-dependent activation of current, and compared with the sham group, its current strength and γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor protein expression decreased. Immunofluorescence revealed that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α2 subunit protein expression decreased and was most obvious at 12 and 15 days after modeling. Our experimental findings confirmed that the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α2 subunit in the chronic constriction injury model rat dorsal root ganglion was downregulated, which may be one of the reasons for the reduction of injury in dorsal root ganglion neurons following muscimol-activated currents.

  4. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Galbavy

    Full Text Available Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC, and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days, or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3; whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however

  6. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  7. A rare case of term viable secondary abdominal pregnancy following rupture of a rudimentary horn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritha Bhandary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal pregnancy is a rare event, but one that represents a grave risk to the health of the pregnant woman. An abdominal pregnancy is defined as an ectopic pregnancy that implants in the peritoneal cavity. Early abdominal pregnancy is self-limited by hemorrhage from trophoblastic invasion with complete abortion of the gestational sac that leaves a discrete crater. Advanced abdominal pregnancy is a rare event, with high fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Case presentation This is a case report of a 22-year-old primigravida with an abdominal pregnancy from a ruptured rudimentary horn. She was diagnosed as a case of term pregnancy with placenta previa with a transverse fetal lie and cervical fibroid and was prepared for an elective cesarean section. Intra-operatively, a live term female baby was extracted from the peritoneal cavity and it turned out to be an abdominal pregnancy from a ruptured rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus, which is a very rare condition. Mother and baby were in good condition after such a catastrophic event. Conclusion This case illustrates a rare obstetric condition which can be a severe catastrophic condition leading to maternal mortality and morbidity. It is imperative for every obstetrician to have in mind the possibility of abdominal pregnancy, although rare, especially in pregnant patients with persistent abdominal pain and painful fetal movements.

  8. Corrugated horn of HE/11/ and HE/21/ mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.-H.; Ke, S.-R.; Peng, G.-Z.

    A corrugated, monopulse feed conical horn is described which uses HE(11) as the sum mode and HE(21) as the difference mode. It is shown that when the horn aperture radius-to-free space wavelength ratio is large, the balanced hybrid condition can be met for both modes in order to yield rotational symmetry beams and low sidelobe levels. A discussion is given of the mode selection method which uses special points on trace charts, and that which uses a ringloaded, corrugated taper section as the transformation section from the smooth-wall waveguide to the corrugated horn. The input voltage standing wave ratio measured in the sum channel is less than 1.05 in 20% bandwidth.

  9. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses foreign aid complexities and understanding the war on terrorism. In the past decade the US strategically integrated foreign aid with the fight against extremism, particularly in war torn regions like the Horn of Africa. In analysing the Somali case the paper contends the 911...... terror attacks inaugurated new form of foreign aid explicitly focusing on security. The “statelessness” condition in Somalia intensified intermingling of foreign aid with terrorism combatting programs in the Horn of Africa. In addition the collapse of the Somali military regime in 1991 empowered non...... claiming suspicious allegiance to the US gained momentum. In response extremists mobilized alternative partners and platforms. Consequently the declared war on terror had serious implications for the Horn of Africa. Foreign aid, external actors and extremism- the legacy of 911- made people in the region...

  10. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  11. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  12. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  13. Cervical motion segment replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Vincent E.

    2002-01-01

    When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as well. The design requirements for a cervical disc pro...

  14. Preliminary AD-Horn Thermomechanical and Electrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez Sola, Edmundo; Calviani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) target area consolidation activities planned for LS2, it has been necessary to perform a comprehensive study of the thermo-structural behaviour of the AD magnetic horn during operation, in order to detail specific requirements for the upgrade projects and testing procedures. The present work illustrates the preliminary results of the finite element analysis carried out to evaluate the thermal and structural behaviour of the device, as well as the methodology used to model and solve the thermomechanical and electrodynamic simulations performed in the AD magnetic horn.

  15. [Recurrence of a rudimentary uterine horn rupture at 25 weeks of gestation: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, R; Sentilhes, L; Baron, M; Grzegorczyk, V; Resch, B; Marpeau, L

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event which can be revealed by uterine rupture. Following the fetal extraction, some authors recommend the ablation of the rudimentary horn, in order to limit the risk of uterine rupture in case of subsequent pregnancy in the same horn. We report the obstetrical outcome of a patient with a history of rudimentary uterine horn rupture the treatment of which was conservative. PMID:18308608

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of horns derived from three domestic bovines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of horns derived from three domestic bovines (buffalo, cattle and sheep) were examined. The effects of water content, sampling position and orientation of three bovid horns on mechanical properties were systematically investigated by uniaxial tension and micron indentation tests. Meanwhile, the material composition and metal element contents were determined by Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis respectively, and the microstructures of the horns were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the mechanical properties of horns have negative correlation with water contents and depend on sampling position and orientation. The spatial variations of the mechanical properties in horns are attributed to the different keratinization degrees in the proximal, middle and distal parts. And the mechanical properties of horns in the longitudinal direction are better than those in transverse. Among the three kinds of horns, the mechanical properties of buffalo horn are the best, followed by cattle horn, and those in sheep horn are the worst. This is due to the differences in material composition, metal element, and the microstructures of the horns. But the mechanical properties of buffalo horns are not dependent on the source of the buffalo. Therefore, regular engineered buffalo keratinous materials with standard mechanical properties can be obtained from different buffalo horns by using proper preparation methods. - Highlights: • Effects of water, sampling position and orientation of bovid horns were studied. • Differences in microhardness of horns are owing to the content of metal elements. • Mechanical property of buffalo horn is not dependent on the source of buffalo

  17. Deep dorsal vein arterialisation in vascular impotence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespes, E; Corbusier, A; Delcour, C; Vandenbosch, G; Struyven, J; Schulman, C C

    1989-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with vasculogenic impotence (4 arterial lesions; 8 arterial and venous lesions) underwent deep dorsal vein arterialisation after pre-operative assessment by a multidisciplinary approach. Cumulative graft patency was 58% (7 of 12 patients) up to 21 months but only 4 patients developed almost normal erections. Digital angiography, with and without the intracavernous injection of papaverine, was performed during follow-up to determine the vascular physiological status. At flaccidity, the corpora cavernosa were never opacified in the absence of a venocorporeal shunt. The penile glans was always visualised. Opacification of the deep dorsal vein and the circumflex system decreased with penile rigidity, resulting from their compression between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Intracavernous pressure recorded before and after the surgical procedure showed a marked increase when a caverno-venous shunt was performed. Hypervascularisation of the glans occurred in 2 cases. The relevance of this new surgical technique and its functional mechanism are discussed.

  18. First description of cervical intradural thymoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Landi, Alessandro; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-11-16

    Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors, which originate from the thymus gland. According to the World Health Organization there are "organotypic" (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and "non-organotypic" (thymic carcinomas) thymomas. Type B3 thymomas are aggressive tumors, which can metastasize. Due to the rarity of these lesions, only 7 cases of extradural metastasis are described in the literature. We report the first and unique case of a man with cervical intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. A 46-year-old man underwent thymoma surgical removal. The year after the procedure he was treated for a parietal pleura metastasis. In 2006 he underwent cervical-dorsal extradural metastasis removal and C5-Th1 stabilization. Seven years after he came to our observation complaining left cervicobrachialgia and a reduction of strength of the left arm. He underwent a cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a new lesion at the C5-C7 level. The patient underwent a surgery for the intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. Neurological symptoms improved although the removal was subtotal. He went through postoperative radiation therapy with further mass reduction. Spinal metastases are extremely rare. To date, only 7 cases of spinal extradural metastasis have been described in the literature. This is the first case of spinal intradural metastasis. Early individuation of these tumors and surgical treatment improve neurological outcome in patients with spinal cord compression. A multimodal treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy seems to improve survival in patients with metastatic thymoma.

  19. [Endovascular treatment of spinal dorsal intradural arteriovenous fistulas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Collado-Arce, María Griselda Lizbeth; Dávila-Romero, Julio César; Saavedra-Andrade, Rafael; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: las fístulas arteriovenosas intradurales dorsales espinales (FAVIDE) son lesiones poco frecuentes y complejas que son subdiagnósticadas y condicionan discapacidad. El objetivo es presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo endovascular. Métodos: estudio ambispectivo de pacientes con FAVIDE, tratados mediante terapia endovascular (TEV) con n-butil-cianoacrilato en el periodo de 2007 a 2013. Resultados: se incluyeron 15 pacientes con edad media de 37 años. En 12 casos la presentación fue progresiva e insidiosa en un lapso de entre 6 meses y un año, mientras que 3 presentaron hemorragia. La lesión tuvo localización torácica en 73 % de los casos, lumbar en 20 % y cervical en 7 %. Previo al tratamiento observamos discapacidad de grados 5 y 4 en 73 %, y 67 % tenían alteraciones de la micción de grado 3. Como complicaciones, solo una paciente tuvo deterioro del estado de alerta transitorio 6 horas después del procedimiento. Se encontró una mejoría hacia los grados 1 y 2 de discapacidad, a las 48 horas, 3 y 6 meses, de 53 %, 73 % y 87 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones: con la TEV se tiene un tiempo quirúrgico corto, el volumen de hemorragia es bajo y la estancia hospitalaria es corta, respecto de otras técnicas quirúrgicas. La TEV es un procedimiento seguro y con efectividad significativa en el tratamiento de FAVIDE. Esta es la primera serie de casos tratados con TEV en México.

  20. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or...

  1. Cervical chondroid chordoma in a standard dachshund: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigen Øyvind

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old male standard dachshund was presented with a history of neck pain and progressive gait disturbances. Following a neurological examination and diagnostic imaging, including CT, a neoplastic lesion involving the third and fourth cervical vertebrae was suspected. The lesion included an extradural mass on the right side of the spinal canal causing a local compression of the cervical cord. Surgery, using a modified dorsal laminectomy procedure, was performed in order to decompress the cervical spinal cord. Histopathological examination of the extradural mass indicated that the tumour was a chondroid chordoma. Following discharge, the quality of life for the dog was very good for a sustained period, but clinical signs recurred at 22 months. The dog was euthanased 25 months post-surgery. On post-mortem examination, a regrowth of neoplastic tissue was found to have infiltrated the bone and spinal cord at C3-C4. This is the first report to show that palliative surgery can offer successful long-lasting treatment of chondroid chordoma of the cervical spine in the dog.

  2. Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Ju Huang; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Po-Liang Lai; Wen-Jer Chen

    2004-01-01

    Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, surgeonsface the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy orlaminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompressionsor corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered bysome clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexityof multilevel anterior cervical surgery.Methods: In this retrospective study, 14 patients with multilevel cervical sp...

  3. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  4. Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a control the expression of distinct sets of transmitter and peptide receptor genes in the developing dorsal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Zhao, Congling; Huang, Menggui; Huang, Tianwen; Fan, Mingran; Xie, Zhiqin; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Xiaolin; Xia, Guannan; Geng, Junlan; Cheng, Leping

    2012-06-20

    Establishing the pattern of expression of transmitters and peptides as well as their receptors in different neuronal types is crucial for understanding the circuitry in various regions of the brain. Previous studies have demonstrated that the transmitter and peptide phenotypes in mouse dorsal spinal cord neurons are determined by the transcription factors Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a. Here we show that these transcription factors also determine the expression of two distinct sets of transmitter and peptide receptor genes in this region. We have screened the expression of 78 receptor genes in the spinal dorsal horn by in situ hybridization. We found that receptor genes Gabra1, Gabra5, Gabrb2, Gria3, Grin3a, Grin3b, Galr1, and Npy1r were preferentially expressed in Tlx3-expressing glutamatergic neurons and their derivatives, and deletion of Tlx1 and Tlx3 resulted in the loss of expression of these receptor genes. Furthermore, we obtained genetic evidence that Tlx3 uses distinct pathways to control the expression of receptor genes. We also found that receptor genes Grm3, Grm4, Grm5, Grik1, Grik2, Grik3, and Sstr2 were mainly expressed in Pax2-expressing GABAergic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, and their expression in this region was abolished or markedly reduced in Ptf1a and Pax2 deletion mutant mice. Together, our studies indicate that Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a, the key transcription factors for fate determination of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal spinal cord, are also responsible for controlling the expression of two distinct sets of transmitter and peptide receptor genes. PMID:22723691

  5. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V. “

  6. Modeling and Compensation of Nonlinear Distortion in Horn Loudspeakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurer, Hans; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Herrmann, Otto E.

    1994-01-01

    Horn loaded compression drivers are widely used in the area where high sound pressure levels together with good directivity characteristics are needed. Major disadvantage of this kind of drivers is the considerable amount of nonlinear distortion. Due to the quite high air pressures in the driver the

  7. Compactly generating all satisfying truth assignments of a Horn formula

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    As instance of an overarching principle of exclusion an algorithm is presented that compactly (thus not one by one) generates all models of a Horn formula. The principle of exclusion can be adapted to generate only the models of weight $k$. We compare and contrast it with constraint programming, $0,1$ integer programming, and binary decision diagrams.

  8. Algebraicity of the Appell-Lauricella and Horn hypergeometric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bod, Esther

    2010-01-01

    We extend Schwarz' list of irreducible algebraic Gauss functions to the four classes of Appell-Lauricella functions in several variables and the 14 complete Horn functions in two variables. This gives an example of a family of functions such that for any number of variables there are infinitely many algebraic functions, namely the Lauricella $F_C$ functions.

  9. Brain, memory and development : the imprint of Gabriel Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Malcolm W; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is dedicated to the memory of Sir Gabriel Horn, who died on 2nd August 2012. In his impressive career that spanned more than 50 years (Bolhuis and Johnson, 2012; Brown, 2013), Horn’s contributions to cognitive neuroscience consistently pione

  10. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  11. Phrenic nerve afferents elicited cord dorsum potential in the cat cervical spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Paul W

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diaphragm has sensory innervation from mechanoreceptors with myelinated axons entering the spinal cord via the phrenic nerve that project to the thalamus and somatosensory cortex. It was hypothesized that phrenic nerve afferent (PnA projection to the central nervous system is via the spinal dorsal column pathway. Results A single N1 peak of the CDP was found in the C4 and C7 spinal segments. Three peaks (N1, N2, and N3 were found in the C5 and C6 segments. No CDP was recorded at C8 dorsal spinal cord surface in cats. Conclusion These results demonstrate PnA activation of neurons in the cervical spinal cord. Three populations of myelinated PnA (Group I, Group II, and Group III enter the cat's cervical spinal segments that supply the phrenic nerve

  12. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Ident...

  13. Deep cervical infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammatory cervical swelling may have several causes. The jugular vein thrombosis is a rare entity, often forgotten. Most frequently arises due to a cervical sepsis by the use of a central venous catheter or intravenous drug abuse (drug addicts. Rarely, is secondary to a hypercoagulability state associated with a visceral carcinoma (Trousseau Syndrome. Material and Methods: The authors present the case of a 65 years old male, who used the ENT Emergency Service due to a painful left cervical swelling with local and systemic inflammatory signs of 3 days duration. Results: An cervical ultrasound suggested a neck abscess. CT was performed and confirmed the ultrasound results. Because of its location in the path of the internal jugular vein, we requested re-evaluation by CT with intravenous contrast and doppler ultrasound, obtaining the diagnosis of thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Further studies were conduct to clarify the hypercoagulability state, since the patient had no known predisposing factor. Finally the diagnosis of unresectable gastric carcinoma was made. Discussion and Conclusion: The ENT must be aware and be able to understand any cervical imagiologic studies. A deep knowledge of the anatomical imagiología is important for the diagnosis of jugular thrombosis. When we have a case of spontaneous jugular thrombosis, we must look for possible visceral carcinoma.

  14. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  15. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  16. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  17. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  18. Cutaneous vasodilation during dorsal column stimulation is mediated by dorsal roots and CGRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, J E; Foreman, R D; Chandler, M J; Barron, K W

    1997-02-01

    Dorsal column stimulation (DCS) is used clinically to provide pain relief from peripheral vascular disease and has the benefit of increasing cutaneous blood flow to the affected lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dorsal roots, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P in the cutaneous vasodilation induced by DCS. Male rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (60 mg/kg ip). A unipolar ball electrode was placed unilaterally on the spinal cord at the L1-L2 spinal segment. Blood flow was recorded in each hindpaw foot pad with laser Doppler flowmeters. Blood flow responses were assessed during 1 min of DCS (either 0.2 mA subdural or 0.6 mA epidural at 50 Hz, 0.2-ms pulse duration). Dorsal rhizotomy of L3-L5 (n = 5) abolished the cutaneous vasodilation to subdural DCS, whereas removal of T10-T12 (n = 5) and T13-L2 dorsal roots (n = 5) did not attenuate the DCS-induced vasodilation. The CGRP antagonist, CGRP-(8-37) (2.6 mg/kg iv, n = 7), eliminated the epidural DCS-induced vasodilation, whereas the substance P receptor antagonist, CP-96345 (1 mg/kg iv, n = 6), had no effect. In summary, L3-L5 dorsal roots and CGRP are essential for the DCS-induced vasodilation. We propose that DCS antidromically activates afferent fibers in the dorsal roots, thus causing peripheral release of CGRP, which produces cutaneous vasodilation. PMID:9124459

  19. Radial tear of posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relation between a radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee. Thirty-eight knees of 37 patients were diagnosed as medial meniscus tear and received arthroscopic knee surgery. We divided them into two groups: knees having radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (posterior horn group) and knees containing radial tear except for posterior horn, horizontal tear, degenerative tear, and flap tear of the medial meniscus (non-posterior horn group). The posterior horn group consisted of 14 knees (average age: 65.1 years old) and the non-posterior horn group consisted of 24 knees (average age: 59.6 years old). All cases underwent MRI before arthroscopy. MRI findings were classified into three types (typical osteonecrosis, small osteonecrosis, and non-osteonecrosis). In the posterior horn group, typical osteonecrosis were five knees and small osteonecrosis were five knees, while in the non-posterior horn group only three knees were small osteonecrosis. These findings suggest the relevance between radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and osteonecrosis of the knee (Mann-Whitney test p<0.01). The etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee joint is unknown, however one etiology could be the radial tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  20. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  1. Changes in horn size of Stone's sheep over four decades correlate with trophy hunting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Bonenfanti, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Selective harvest may lead to rapid evolutionary change. For large herbivores, trophy hunting removes males with large horns. That artificial selection, operating in opposition to sexual selection, can lead to undesirable consequences for management and conservation. There have been no comparisons of long-term changes in trophy size under contrasting harvest pressures. We analyzed horn measurements of Stone's rams (Ovis dalli stonei) harvested over 37 years in two large regions of British Columbia, Canada, with marked differences in hunting pressure to identify when selective hunting may cause a long-term decrease in horn growth. Under strong selective harvest, horn growth early in life and the number of males harvested declined by 12% and 45%, respectively, over the study period. Horn shape also changed over time: horn length became shorter for a given base circumference, likely because horn base is not a direct target of hunter selection. In contrast, under relatively lower hunting pressure, there were no detectable temporal trends in early horn growth, number of males harvested, or horn length relative to base circumference. Trophy hunting is an important recreational activity and can generate substantial revenues for conservation. By providing a reproductive advantage to males with smaller horns and reducing the availability of desirable trophies, however, excessive harvest may have the undesirable long-term consequences of reducing both the harvest and the horn size of rams. These consequences can be avoided by limiting offtake. PMID:27039527

  2. The degenerative cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, E; Belloch, E; León, J P; Higueras, V; Piquer, J

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques provide excellent anatomical images of the cervical spine. The choice to use one technique or another will depend on the clinical scenario and on the treatment options. Plain-film X-rays continue to be fundamental, because they make it possible to evaluate the alignment and bone changes; they are also useful for follow-up after treatment. The better contrast resolution provided by magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to evaluate the soft tissues, including the intervertebral discs, ligaments, bone marrow, and spinal cord. The role of computed tomography in the study of degenerative disease has changed in recent years owing to its great spatial resolution and its capacity to depict osseous components. In this article, we will review the anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of the cervical spine, and then we provide a more detailed discussion of the degenerative diseases that can affect the cervical spine and their clinical management. PMID:26878769

  3. Ruptured Noncommunicating Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 19 Weeks with Previous Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with noncommunicating rudimentary horn occurs due to incomplete fusion of mullerian ducts. Pregnancy in this horn is a rare phenomenon usually resulting in rupture during second trimester of pregnancy. Prerupture diagnosis of pregnancy in rudimentary horn with ultrasonography is technically difficult, with sensitivity of 30%. We report a case of ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn at 19 weeks in a woman with previous Cesarean delivery. She had a routine malformation scan in which diagnosis was missed. Later she presented to emergency in shock, with massive hemoperitoneum and ruptured horn. So a high index of suspicion is required to save this catastrophic event and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. In our opinion, routine excision of rudimentary horn should be undertaken during nonpregnant state laparoscopically. However, those women who refuse should be adequately counseled regarding potential complications and if pregnancy occurs in rudimentary horn, first trimester laparoscopic excision should be done.

  4. Micro-Horn Arrays for Ultrasonic Impedance Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Thin-layered structures containing arrays of micromachined horns, denoted solid micro-horn arrays (SMIHAs), have been conceived as improved means of matching acoustic impedances between ultrasonic transducers and the media with which the transducers are required to exchange acoustic energy. Typically, ultrasonic transducers (e.g., those used in medical imaging) are piezoelectric or similar devices, which produce small displacements at large stresses. However, larger displacements at smaller stresses are required in the target media (e.g., human tissues) with which acoustic energy is to be exchanged. Heretofore, efficiencies in transmission of acoustic energy between ultrasonic transducers and target media have been severely limited because substantial mismatches of acoustic impedances have remained, even when coupling material layers have been interposed between the transducers and the target media. In contrast, SMIHAs can, in principle, be designed to effect more nearly complete acoustic impedance matching, leading to power transmission efficiencies of 90 percent or even greater. The SMIHA concept is based on extension, into the higher-frequency/ lower-wavelength ultrasonic range, of the use of horns to match acoustic impedances in the audible and lower-frequency ultrasonic ranges. In matching acoustic impedance in transmission from a higher-impedance acoustic source (e.g., a piezoelectric transducer) and a lowerimpedance target medium (e.g., air or human tissue), a horn acts as a mechanical amplifier. The shape and size of the horn can be optimized for matching acoustic impedance in a specified frequency range. A typical SMIHA would consist of a base plate, a face plate, and an array of horns that would constitute pillars that connect the two plates (see figure). In use, the base plate would be connected to an ultrasonic transducer and the face plate would be placed in contact with the target medium. As at lower frequencies, the sizes and shapes of the pillars

  5. Cervical spine chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez-González L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are neoplasms that arise from notochord embryonic remnants, been the sacrococcygeal spine the main site of involvement; the cervical spine site is uncommon and it account for less than 10% of chordomas. Because of their slow growth, the diagnosis is delayed until they reach a large size, despite which they are locally aggressive tumours due to their relation to critical neurovascular structures and present a high rate of local recurrence. Radical surgery is the elective treatment and proton radiotherapy is used when residual tumour tissue and recurrences.Because of the uncommonness of this pathology, we report a case of a patient with cervical chordoma.

  6. CERVICAL NECROTIZING FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dimofte

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an unusual encounter in the general surgical practice, but is a life-threatening condition requiring early recognition and adequate surgical treatment. We present the case of a 65 year old male patient referred to our department from a General Hospital. Large excisions of both superficial and deep cervical fascia were required together with necrotic skin on a very large surface. Rapid recovery with early sterilization allowed adequate skin grafting with good results. We advocate for aggressive debridment with excision in viable healthy tissue, with no concern for the future reconstruction followe by early grafting of the skin defect.

  7. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  8. Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn

  9. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  10. Syringomyelia secondary to "occult" dorsal arachnoid webs: Report of two cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag P Sayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a certain group of patients with syringomyelia, even with the advent of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, no associated abnormality or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF block is easily identified. This type of syringomyelia is often termed idiopathic. Current literature has less than 10 reports of arachnoid webs to be the causative factor. We present our experience in the management of two cases of syringomyelia secondary to arachnoid webs. Both our patients presented with progressive neurological deterioration with MRI scans demonstrating cervical/thoracic syrinx without Chiari malformation or low-lying cord. There was no history of previous meningitis or trauma. Both patients underwent myelography that demonstrated dorsal flow block implying CSF obstruction. Cord displacement/change in caliber was also noted and this was not evident on MRI scans. Both patients underwent thoracic laminectomy. After opening the dura, thickened/abnormal arachnoid tissue was found that was resected thus widely communicating the dorsal subarachnoid space. Postoperatively at 6 months, both patients had significant symptomatic improvement with follow-up MRI scans demonstrating significant resolution of the syrinx. In patients with presumed idiopathic syringomyelia, imaging studies should be closely inspected for the presence of a transverse arachnoid web. We believe that all patients with idiopathic symptomatic syringomyelia should have MRI CSF flow studies and/or computed tomography (CT myelography to identify such arachnoid abnormalities that are often underdiagnosed. Subsequent surgery should be directed at the establishment of normal CSF flow by laminectomy and excision of the offending arachnoid tissue.

  11. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  13. Cervical silicone lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Latoni Kaysha; Thiruchelvam, Janavikulam

    2016-07-01

    A patient presented to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery with a rare case of cervical silicone lymphadenopathy. She had a painless ovoid mass in the left side of her neck and had had cosmetic breast augmentation 10 years before. Radiological imaging and core biopsy examination were consistent with silicone lymphadenopathy. PMID:26830068

  14. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Afridi, Adeel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  15. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures. PMID:23830781

  16. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures.

  17. The magnetic horn being installed in the CNGS target chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic system that focuses the beam of particles arising from the graphite target of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso project (CNGS) has been installed in its final position in the tunnel.The CNGS secondary beam magnetic system consists of two elements: the horn and the reflector, both acting as focusing lenses for the positively-charged pions and kaons produced by proton interactions in the target.

  18. Security stakes and challenges in the Horn of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ferras, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Horn of Africa continues to illustrate a paradox. Even when numerous regional actors are committed to peacekeeping or support operations, the region remains the most conflictive in the continent. It alone includes a large part of problems related to forms of war - interstate, intra-state, by proxy. The implementation of the African Peace and Security Architecture and thus the increase in power of the Eastern Africa Standby Force Coordination Mechanism (EASFCOM) are of interest to the memb...

  19. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  20. Calibration of the SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report documents the measurement of the linearly polarized SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn. The measurement comprises on-axis gain, on-axis polarization characteristics, and reflection coefficient at 111 frequencies in the frequency range from 22-33 GHz. The measurement was carried out at the DT......-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in December 2012 for SE Laboratories, Santa Clara, CA, USA....

  1. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Judith Wiener

    Full Text Available Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  2. Ultrasonic Heat Transfer Enhancement Using a Horn-Type Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Yamamoto, Akira; Murakami, Koichi

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify experimentally the influence of streaming induced by ultrasonic vibration on heat transfer using a horn-type ultrasonic vibrator. A horn tip of 6 mm diameter and 60.7 kHz resonant frequency was used as the ultrasonic transducer. Heat transfer experiments for a downward-facing horizontal heating surface with ultrasonic vibration from below were carried out in a natural convection region. The acoustic jet in the water from the horn tip of the transducer regarded as a nozzle exit was induced by this transducer, and as a result, up to a ten-fold increase in heat transfer coefficient was obtained by application of 20 W in both tap water and degassed water. It was found that the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by ultrasonic vibration in tap water can be classified into four categories. In degassed water, heat transfer enhancement is influenced not by the acoustic jet, but by small-scale perturbations by cavitation microjets.

  3. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Bin; Wang, Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; Liu, Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, ...

  4. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  6. Theories of the dorsal bundle extinction effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S T; Iversen, S D

    1979-07-01

    Selective destruction of the noradrenaline systems in the rat brain using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine has been found to cause resistance to extinction in a number of behavioural situations. Several theories concerning the behavioural mechanism altered by the lesion, and hence about the role of noradrenaline in normal brain functioning, are proposed and evaluated. Theories suggesting a role for noradrenaline in activity, perseveration, internal inhibition, frustrative non-reward, motivation, or secondary reinforcement, fail to explain all the available evidence and direct tests of each theory fails to support its predictions. A model which suggests that noreadrenaline is involved in attentional behaviour, specifically in filtering out or learning to ignore irrelevant environmental stimuli, is successful in explaining all available data and direct tests of the lesioned rats' attentional capacity serve to confirm many of the predictions of an attentional theory of the dorsal bundle extinction effect.

  7. Coursing with Coils: The Only Orchestral Instrument Harder Than the French Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Plumley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Playing the horn has become not only more sophisticated and accurate, but simpler and more efficient for the horn player. The natural horn, used in a variety ways in early history, demanded an incredible level of skill and precision, more than our valved horn today in some ways because it required a more accurate ear, more embouchure dexterity, and the necessity of wrangling crooks for different keys. Thus, it required many practiced skills of the player that are no longer as necessary as they once were. This paper discusses each of these demands along with the history of the horn, its uses and popularity, and how it compares in construction to the valved horn.

  8. Dynamics of a prominence-horn structure during its evaporation in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bing; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The physical connection among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues to the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ~150 minutes and an amplitude of ~30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (~3 Mm) and shorter period (~10-15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separa...

  9. Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Prakasan, K; Rudramoorthy, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding horn is half wavelength section or tool used to focus the ultrasonic vibrations to the components being welded. The horn is designed in such a way that it maximizes the amplitude of the sound wave passing through it. The ends of the horn represent the displacement anti-nodes and the center the 'node' of the wave. As the horns perform 20,000 cycles of expansion and contraction per second, they are highly stressed at the nodes and are heated owing to thermo-elastic effects. Considerable temperature rise may be observed in the horn, at the nodal region when working at high amplitudes indicating high stress levels leading to failure of horns due to cyclic loading. The limits for amplitude must therefore be evaluated for the safe working of the horn. Horns made of different materials have different thermo-elastic behaviors and hence different temperatures at the nodes and antinodes. This temperature field can be used as a control mechanism for setting the amplitude/weld parameters. Safe stress levels can be predicted using modal and harmonic analyses followed by a stress analysis to study the effect of cyclic loads. These are achieved using 'Ansys'. The maximum amplitude level obtained from the stress analysis is used as input for 'Comsol' to predict the temperature field. The actual temperature developed in the horn during operation is measured using infrared camera and compared with the simulated temperature. From experiments, it is observed that horn made of titanium had the lowest temperature rise at the critical region and can be expected to operate at amplitudes up to 77 μm without suffering failure due to cyclic loading. The method of predicting thermo-elastic stresses and temperature may be adopted by the industry for operating the horn within the safe stress limits thereby extending the life of the horn. PMID:25087474

  10. Uterine horn aplasia with complications in two mixed-breed bitches : case report

    OpenAIRE

    M.L. Schulman; L.A. Bolton

    1997-01-01

    Unilateral segmental uterine horn aplasia was found in 2 mixed-breed bitches. The 1st bitch was presented with clinical signs of acute abdominal pain, and pyometra was suspected. Pyometra was confirmed surgically with rupture of a blind-ending cranial portion of the anomalous right uterine horn, which had resulted in peritonitis. The 2nd bitch was presented for routine ovariohysterectomy. The right uterine horn was affected by segmental aplasia, with mucometra of the cranial portion of the af...

  11. Application of impedance boundary conditions to numerical solution of corrugated circular horns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskander, K; Shafai, L; Frandsen, Aksel;

    1982-01-01

    An integral equation method is used to formulate the problem of scattering by rotationally symmetric horn antennas. The excitation is assumed to be due to an infinitesimal dipole antenna, while the secondary field is obtained by assuming anisotropic impedance boundary conditions on the horn surface...... surface at the inner-end wall of the horn antenna, which is illuminated by an axially incident plane wave....

  12. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    OpenAIRE

    Azhahianambi Palavesam; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Ju Wang; Scot E. Dowd; Yan Sun; Foil, Lane D.; PÉREZ DE LEÓN, ADALBERTO A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livest...

  13. Unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting with acute haemoperitoneum with combined intrauterine pregnancy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi Lallar; Rajesh Nandal; Deepak Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of rudimentary heterotopic uterine horn pregnancy varies from 1:76,000 to 1:140,000. However the incidence of twin pregnancy i.e. intrauterine pregnancy in unicornuate uterus and its associated rudimentary horn pregnancy is estimated to be around 1 in 10 million gestations. Case: Here, we present 19 year old pramigravida women with acute haemoperitoneum with diagnosis of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy combined by intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was mana...

  14. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L L M Boumans

    Full Text Available Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola, and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  15. Sunscreen Use on the Dorsal Hands at the Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Warren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate respondent understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49% applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, . Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (. Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  16. Sunscreen use on the dorsal hands at the beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Donald B; Riahi, Ryan R; Hobbs, Jason B; Wagner, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Background. Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate respondent understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49%) applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, P = 0.04). Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (P = 0.001). Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  17. An Optimized Culture Method of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYin; CHENJing-Hong; GONGZe-Hui

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a primary culture technique of acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and provide a simple & useful in vitro model for study of analgesia. Methods: Acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were planted and cultured; the configuration and growth characters of DRG neurons were observed through inverted microscope.

  18. Degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, So; Fehlings, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Cervical myelopathy is the most common cause of acquired spinal cord compromise. The concept of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), defined as symptomatic myelopathy associated with degenerative arthropathic changes in the spine axis, is being introduced. Given its progressive nature, treatment options have to be chosen in a timely manner. Surgical options include anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF), anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), arthroplasty (in highly select cases), posterior laminectomy with/without fusion, and laminoplasty. Indications for each should be carefully considered in individual patients. Riluzole, a sodium-glutamate antagonist, is a promising option to optimize neurologic outcomes post-surgery and is being examined in the CSM-Protect Randomized Controlled Trial. Preoperative risk assessment is mandatory for prognostication. Sagittal alignment is known to play an important role to optimize surgical outcome. Guidelines for optimal management of DCM are in process. In principle, all but the mildest cases of DCM should be offered surgery for optimal outcome. PMID:27250040

  19. Operations for cervical incompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, D W

    1986-06-01

    At present, cervical cerclage is indicated in those patients with a classic history of cervical incompetence. For the majority of these patients, a postconceptional cerclage procedure is better suited because it is done after the fetus has been evaluated ultrasonographically for obvious abnormalities and after the risk for spontaneous abortion is past. The greatest experience is with the Shirodkar and the McDonald procedures; allowing for operator differences, neither appears to have an important advantage. The transabdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage may be a useful postconceptional procedure in the selected patient whose cervix is either markedly foreshortened, deeply lacerated, or infected. Preconceptional cerclages are best reserved for those rare patients in whom a markedly foreshortened incompetent cervix is associated with early second-trimester pregnancy losses (preconceptional isthmic cerclage) or in whom the cervix has a single, identifiable scar or deep laceration extending through the internal os (Lash procedure). PMID:3522005

  20. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  1. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  2. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. [Pediatric orthopedic cervical spine problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-requiring diseases of the cervical spine in children are rare. The most common cases requiring medical assessment and treatment are acute torticollis and various accidents. A torticollis having lasted for more than a week should be recognized, because it can be treated by skull traction. Cervical spine fractures in children under school age are very rare, the most common being a fracture of the base of the dens of the second cervical vertebra. Cervical spine instability is almost always associated with an underlying disease. PMID:27400588

  5. Transcription profiling provides insights into gene pathways involved in horn and scurs development in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Sigrid A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of horns are evident in cattle - fixed horns attached to the skull and a variation called scurs, which refers to small loosely attached horns. Cattle lacking horns are referred to as polled. Although both the Poll and Scurs loci have been mapped to BTA1 and 19 respectively, the underlying genetic basis of these phenotypes is unknown, and so far, no candidate genes regulating these developmental processes have been described. This study is the first reported attempt at transcript profiling to identify genes and pathways contributing to horn and scurs development in Brahman cattle, relative to polled counterparts. Results Expression patterns in polled, horned and scurs tissues were obtained using the Agilent 44 k bovine array. The most notable feature when comparing transcriptional profiles of developing horn tissues against polled was the down regulation of genes coding for elements of the cadherin junction as well as those involved in epidermal development. We hypothesize this as a key event involved in keratinocyte migration and subsequent horn development. In the polled-scurs comparison, the most prevalent differentially expressed transcripts code for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, which were up regulated in scurs tissues relative to polled. Conclusion For this first time we describe networks of genes involved in horn and scurs development. Interestingly, we did not observe differential expression in any of the genes present on the fine mapped region of BTA1 known to contain the Poll locus.

  6. Research on swimming by undulatory long dorsal fin propulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gnangming; SHEN Lincheng; WU Yonghui

    2007-01-01

    The kinematics of steady forward swimming of Gymnarchus niloticus is described. The geometric features of the body and locomotive characteristic and parameters of the flexible dorsal fin are discussed. On the basis of observation and experimental data, a simplified kinematic model on loco- motion of the undulatory long dorsal fin propulsion is pro- moted. The hydromechanical performances of the undulatory long dorsal fin propeller of G. Niloticus are estimated with the large-amplitude elongated-body theory. The hydromechani- cal efficiency of the undulatory long dorsal fin system ranged from 81.664% to 86.420% over a speed range of 0.728- 0.985 length·s-1. It is suggested that the undulatory long dorsal fin propulsion is an adaptation to swimming with high hydromechanical efficiency.

  7. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines.

  8. Significance of cervical length and cervical gland area in cervical maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaveeregowda Savitha

    2016-08-01

    Results: Amongst 160 pregnant women who were induced (20 women were excluded has they underwent LSCS for some other reasons during latent phase cervical length by sonography 4. Cervical length 4. Conclusions: Sonographically detected cervical gland area and cervical length was evaluated in predicting response to induction. Absent CGA and CL < 2cm was associated with greater incidence of successful labor induction. This results show the CL and CGA has significant role in predicting outcome of labor. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2634-2639

  9. Hardness Results for Approximate Pure Horn CNF Formulae Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, Endre

    2012-01-01

    For a pure Horn Boolean function on $n$ variables, we show that unless P=NP, it is not possible to approximate in polynomial time (in $n$) the minimum numbers of clauses and literals to within factors of $2^{O(\\log^{1-o(1)} n)}$ even when the inputs are restricted to 3-CNFs with $O(n^{1+\\varepsilon})$ clauses, for some small $\\varepsilon>0$. Furthermore, we show that unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis is false, it is not possible to obtain constant factor approximations for these problems even having sub-exponential time (in $n$) available.

  10. A quantitative witness for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Along with the vast progress in experimental quantum technologies there is an increasing demand for the quantification of entanglement between three or more quantum systems. Theory still does not provide adequate tools for this purpose. We provide a simple procedure to quantify Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type multipartite entanglement in arbitrary three-qubit states. The method is based on the recently introduced GHZ symmetry and exact results for the states which are invariant under this symmetry, and generally gives a good lower bound to the three-tangle. A generalization both to more parties and to higher-dimensional systems is possible.

  11. File list: Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  19. Cervical Cord Compression as Initial Presentation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cord compression secondary to extension of a long standing papillary thyroid carcinoma as well as multiple cases of distal cord compression from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported. But cervical cord compression from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma has not been reported so far. Forty eight year old lady presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration. MRI of the cervical spine showed destructive lesion with soft tissue component in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of C4-C6 vertebrae with cord compression along with a large thyroid mass extending to retrosternal region likely malignant. USG guided FNAC & Biopsy of thyroid lesion was inconclusive. She underwent Preoperative Selective angioembolisation for vertebral metastasis followed by total thyroidectomy with cervical cord decompression, bone grafting and plating. HPE reported follicular variant of Papillary Thyroid carcinoma. Four weeks postoperatively she underwent radioiodine ablation by 263 mci of I 131. She then received palliative EBRT to cervical and dorsal spine 30 Gy/10 fractions. She is alive and neurologically stable at 6 months follow up. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has an excellent prognosis. Hence a prompt management of primary disease and aggressive approach to metastatic lesion may prolong survival and allow favorable prognosis. PMID:27651699

  20. Uterine didelphys with cervical incompetence

    OpenAIRE

    Aher Gautam S, Gavali Urmila G, Kulkarni Meghana

    2013-01-01

    Uterine didelphys represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ. There is presence of double uterine bodies with two separate cervices, and often a double or septate vagina as well. We report a case of single pregnancy in the right sided uterine body of a didelphic uterus with cervical incompetence.

  1. Uterine didelphys with cervical incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aher Gautam S, Gavali Urmila G, Kulkarni Meghana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine didelphys represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ. There is presence of double uterine bodies with two separate cervices, and often a double or septate vagina as well. We report a case of single pregnancy in the right sided uterine body of a didelphic uterus with cervical incompetence.

  2. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  3. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  4. 'What' Is Happening in the Dorsal Visual Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-10-01

    The cortical visual system is almost universally thought to be segregated into two anatomically and functionally distinct pathways: a ventral occipitotemporal pathway that subserves object perception, and a dorsal occipitoparietal pathway that subserves object localization and visually guided action. Accumulating evidence from both human and non-human primate studies, however, challenges this binary distinction and suggests that regions in the dorsal pathway contain object representations that are independent of those in ventral cortex and that play a functional role in object perception. We review here the evidence implicating dorsal object representations, and we propose an account of the anatomical organization, functional contributions, and origins of these representations in the service of perception.

  5. Longitudinally slotted conical horn antenna with small flare angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharten, T.; Nellen, J.; van den Bogaart, F.

    1981-06-01

    The radiation and cross polarization characteristics of a longitudinally slotted, conical horn antenna with small flare angle, excited in the modified TE(11) mode, are investigated. To this end the electromagnetic wave propagation in a longitudinally slotted circular waveguide is studied first, using a wall reactance model. Because of the need to introduce mode-dependent wall reactances in the present structure, conditions for orthogonality are given. Propagation characteristics and field line patterns are presented. It turns out that the modified TE(11) mode in this guide, used as an aperture antenna, produces a main radiation lobe which can be made nearly symmetrical around the axis over a wide frequency range by a proper choice of the slot depth. As a typical example, the maximum cross polarization level in the main lobe is lower than -30 to -45 dB, dependent on slot depth and frequency range. Experiments carried out with a slotted conical horn antenna with small flare angle confirm the theoretical results.

  6. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  7. 活犀角与犀角解热作用的比较研究%Comparison of the Antipyretic Effects between Living Rhino Horn and Rhino Horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润东; 曹蕾; 刘蕊; 宋冰雪; 刘静; 曹永孝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the difference in antipyretic effects between living rhino horn and rhino horn by the comparative research method. Methods The antipyretic effect of the living rhino horn was evaluated in rabbit fever model by subcutaneous injection of bacterial endotoxin, and in rat fever model by subcutaneous injection of dried yeast. Results The living rhino horn of 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg -1 significantly reduced the temperature of fever rabbits. The living rhino horn of 220 and 440 mg·kg-1 significantly prevented the body temperature from rising in rats. There was no significant difference in antipyretic effects between the traditional rhino horn and the living rhino horn at the same dose. Conclusion The antipyretic effect of living rhino horn is equal to that of the traditional rhino horn, and the living rhino horn can be used as a substitute of rhino horn.%目的:比较活犀角与犀角的解热作用有无明显差异,判断活犀角是否可以作为犀角的代用品。方法采用细菌内毒素家兔致热模型,研究活犀牛角对家兔发热的预防作用;采用干酵母致大鼠发热模型,研究活犀牛角对发热大鼠的解热作用。结果活犀角50、100、200 mg·kg-1能明显预防细菌内毒素致热家兔的发热体温,活犀角220、440 mg·kg-1能明显降低干酵母引起的大鼠体温升高,相同剂量的犀角和活犀角比较,降温作用无明显差异。结论活犀角的解热作用与犀角相同,在解热作用方面可以作为犀角的代用品使用。

  8. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the economically important pests of cattle. Use of insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns of insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticid...

  9. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, August 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-21958... Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Presidential Determination No. 2011-13... Determination No. 2011-12 of August 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn...

  10. Rahft: A Tool for Verifying Horn Clauses Using Abstract Interpretation and Finite Tree Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Morales, José F.

    2016-01-01

    We present Rahft (Refinement of Abstraction in Horn clauses using Finite Tree automata), an abstraction refinement tool for verifying safety properties of programs expressed as Horn clauses. The paper describes the architecture, strength and weakness, implementation and usage aspects of the tool...

  11. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  12. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  13. Rdl-containing Fragment of GABA(A) from the Horn Fly, Haematobia Irritans, Susceptible Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a significant economic pest of cattle found throughout Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Americas. The major means of controlling the horn fly is through applications of chemicals with insecticidal activity. A cyclodiene-containing ear tag product h...

  14. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  15. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  16. Exploring the Sensitivity of Horn's Parallel Analysis to the Distributional Form of Random Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Horn's parallel analysis (PA) is the method of consensus in the literature on empirical methods for deciding how many components/factors to retain. Different authors have proposed various implementations of PA. Horn's seminal 1965 article, a 1996 article by Thompson and Daniel, and a 2004 article by Hayton, Allen, and Scarpello all make assertions…

  17. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Streaked Horned Lark Occupancy and Abundance Survey Protocols and Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The streaked horned lark is a subspecies of horned lark that breeds on sparsely vegetated and transitional habitats in the Pacific Northwest. On the L&C many of...

  18. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  19. Electrodiagnosis of cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Kevin; Spanier, David

    2013-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common diagnosis with a peak onset in the fifth decade. The most commonly affected nerve root is C7, C6, and C8. The etiology is often compressive, but may arise from noncompressive sources. Patients commonly complain of pain, weakness, numbness, and/or tingling. Examination may reveal sensory or motor disturbance in a dermatomal/myotomal distribution. Neural compression and tension signs may be positive. Diagnostic tests include imaging and electrodiagnostic study. Electrodiagnostic study serves as an extension of the neurologic examination. Electrodiagnostic findings can be useful for patients with atypical symptoms, potential pain-mediated weakness, and nonfocal imaging findings.

  20. Sensory and sympathetic innervation of cervical facet joint in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai-yu; CHEN An-min; GUO Feng-jing; LIAO Guang-jun; XIAO Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the patterns of innervation of cervical facet joints and determine the pathways from facet joints to dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) in order to clarify the causes of diffuse neck pain, headache, and shoulder pain.Methods: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 250-300 g, were randomly divided into three groups: Group A ( n = 18), Group B ( n = 18), and Group C (n = 6 ). Under anesthesia with intraperitoneal pentobarbital sodium (45 mg/kg body weight), a midline dorsal longitudinal incision was made over the cervical spine to expose the left cervical facet joint capsule of all the rats under a microscope. The rats in Group A underwent sympathectomy, but the rats in Group B and Group C did not undergo sympathectomy. Then 0.6 μl 5 % bisbenzimide (Bb) were injected into the C1-2, C3-4 and C5-6 facet joints of 6 rats respectively in Group A and Group B. The holes were immediately sealed with mineral wax to prevent leakage of Bb and the fascia and skin were closed. But in Group C, 0.9% normal saline was injected into the corresponding joint capsules. Then under deep reanesthesia with intraperitoneal pentobarbital sodium (45 mg/kg body weight), C1-C8 left DRGs in all rats and the sympathetic ganglions in Group B were obtained and the number of the labeled neurons was determined.Results: Neurons labeled with Bb were present in C1-C8 DRGs in both Group A and Group B, and sympathetic ganglions in Group B. In the C1-2 and C3-4 subgroups,labeled neurons were present from C1 to C8 DRGs, while in C5-6 subgroups they were from C, to C8. The number of Bb ( + ) neurons after sympathectomy was not significantly different in the injected level from that without sympathectomy. But in the other levels, the number of Bb ( + ) neurons after sympathectomy was significantly less than that without sympathectomy.Conclusions: The innervation of the cervical facet joints is derived from both sensory and sympathetic nervous system, and DRGs are associated with

  1. Uterine horn aplasia with complications in two mixed-breed bitches : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Schulman

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral segmental uterine horn aplasia was found in 2 mixed-breed bitches. The 1st bitch was presented with clinical signs of acute abdominal pain, and pyometra was suspected. Pyometra was confirmed surgically with rupture of a blind-ending cranial portion of the anomalous right uterine horn, which had resulted in peritonitis. The 2nd bitch was presented for routine ovariohysterectomy. The right uterine horn was affected by segmental aplasia, with mucometra of the cranial portion of the affected horn. Histopathology demonstrated both uteri to have diffuse cystic endometrial hyperplasia. It is postulated that cystic endometrial hyperplasia, together with the congenital anomaly, resulted in pyometra in one case and in mucometra in the other case. This is believed to be the 1st report of uterine horn aplasia in the bitch in association with clinical signs and lesions other than infertility.

  2. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-04-03

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

  3. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive dorsal midbrain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyoun; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Park, Sang Min; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) can cause various ocular motor disorders in addition to optic neuritis. Ocular motor findings associated with NMOSD include spontaneous vertical and gaze-evoked nystagmus, wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and trochlear nerve palsy. The association between dorsal midbrain syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity has not been reported. Here, we report a patient displaying typical dorsal midbrain syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity.

  4. Involvement of dorsal root ganglia in Fabry's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadoth, N; Sandbank, U.

    1983-01-01

    Bouts of shooting pain along the extremities are common in the early stages of Fabry's disease. No pathological explanation has been advanced to clarify the mechanism of such pain. In the present case neuronal storage of glycolipid was confined to dorsal root ganglia neurones only. It is suggested that this may explain the shooting pain in Fabry's disease. In hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy, familial dysautonomia, and tabes dorsalis, changes in dorsal root ganglia cells cause similar ...

  5. GENETIC INSTABILITY IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旻; 伍欣星; 邱小萍; 李晖; 戴天力; 谭云

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical carcinoma has been clearly established but other factors could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic instability in cervical carcinoma tissues and provide evidence for discoveringnew tumor suppressor genes and screening diagnostic molecular marker of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Fifty primary cervical carcinoma samples from high-incidence area were analyzed by PCR for HPV16 infection, LOH and microsatellite instability. Results: HPV16 was detected in 88% of the cases. Sixty-six percent of total cases showed LOH with no more than 3 different loci per case. The highest frequency of the allelic loss was found in D18S474 (18q21, 40.5%). MI was detected in 4 cases (8%) only. Conclusion: Different percentages of LOH on specific chromosomal regions were found and MI was very infrequent in cervical carcinoma. The putative suppressor gene(s) could be located on specific chromosome regions such as 18q, and genetic instability could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis.

  6. Dorsal Column Degeneration after Bortezomib Therapy in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Joh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of dorsal column degeneration in a female patient with multiple myeloma following exposure to bortezomib. Two days after intravenous administration of a first course of bortezomib 1 mg/m2, the patient developed rapidly-progressive numbness, pain and muscle weakness in the bilateral upper and lower limbs. Following gancyclovir treatment of subsequent cytomegalovirus viremia, the patient went on to receive a course of EPOCH (etoposide 50 mg/m2/day on days 1–4, vincristine 0.4 mg/m2/day on days 1–4, doxorubicin 10 mg/m2/day on days 1–4, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2/day on day 6, and prednisolone 60 mg/m2/day on days 1–6. Shortly thereafter, the patient developed bilateral Aspergillus pneumonia. Despite treatment with appropriate antifungal agents, the patient died from respiratory failure due to bilateral diffuse alveolar damage of the lungs and without recovery of severe sensory and motor neuropathy prior to her death. Post mortem examination revealed spongy degeneration of the dorsal column from the medulla oblongata to the cervical spinal cord. Bortezomib-associated peripheral neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma has been commonly reported but appears to resolve in a majority of these patients after dose reduction or discontinuation. We believe this to be the first report of spinal cord abnormalities in a patient with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib. Further investigation is required to ascertain the exact mechanism of this central neurotoxic effect and to identify appropriate neuroprotective strategies.

  7. Direct communication of the spinal subarachnoid space with the rat dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukal, Marek; Klusáková, Ilona; Dubový, Petr

    2016-05-01

    The anatomical position of the subarachnoid space (SAS) in relation to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and penetration of tracer from the SAS into DRG were investigated. We used intrathecal injection of methylene blue to visualize the anatomical position of the SAS in relation to DRG and immunostaining of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for detecting arachnoid limiting the SAS. Intrathecal administration of fluorescent-conjugated dextran (fluoro-emerald; FE) was used to demonstrate direct communication between the SAS and DRG. Intrathecal injection of methylene blue and DPP-IV immunostaining revealed that SAS delimited by the arachnoid was extended up to the capsule of DRG in a fold-like recess that may reach approximately half of the DRG length. The arachnoid was found in direct contact to the neuronal body-rich area in the angle between dorsal root and DRG as well as between spinal nerve roots at DRG. Particles of FE were found in the cells of DRG capsule, satellite glial cells, interstitial space, as well as in small and medium-sized neurons after intrathecal injection. Penetration of FE from the SAS into the DRG induced an immune reaction expressed by colocalization of FE and immunofluorescence indicating antigen-presenting cells (MHC-II+), activated (ED1+) and resident (ED2+) macrophages, and activation of satellite glial cells (GFAP+). Penetration of lumbar-injected FE into the cervical DRG was greater than that into the lumbar DRG after intrathecal injection of FE into the cisterna magna. Our results demonstrate direct communication between DRG and cerebrospinal fluid in the SAS that can create another pathway for possible propagation of inflammatory and signaling molecules from DRG primary affected by peripheral nerve injury into DRG of remote spinal segments. PMID:26844624

  8. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Striatum in Female Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretical analysis. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum (FO) and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degrees, which represent the numbers of connections, of the bilateral putamen were significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers, suggesting that long-term musical training reshapes the functional network of the dorsal striatum to be less extensive or selective. PMID:27148025

  9. Dorsal Augmentation in Rhinoplasty: A Survey and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Melanie; Pearlman, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the nuanced practices and grafting options of dorsal augmentation will improve outcomes and results in rhinoplasty. To better understand the practices of dorsal augmentation among our colleagues. To review the current literature regarding the indications, safety profiles, and outcomes of different materials used in dorsal augmentation. A PubMed search was performed to capture current articles containing reviews or large series regarding the safety and efficacy of various grafting materials used for dorsal augmentation. Of the many options available, autologous cartilage grafts maintain widespread use for dorsal augmentation and other techniques in rhinoplasty. Homologous cartilage grafts, namely irradiated rib, are a preferred alternative. Irradiated costal cartilage has been shown to have low complication rates and is unique in its abundance of supply, particularly in the revision rhinoplasty. Alloplastic implants, particularly silicone, are prevalent in Asian countries where they are a popular first-line choice. ePTFE has a favorable complication profile in primary rhinoplasty; however, caution is recommended when using ePTFE in revision cases. Porous polyethylene has a higher risk of associated complications than the other alloplastic implants listed, and therefore should be considered thoughtfully. Although cartilage is often the preferred graft for dorsal augmentation, there are many other autogenous, homologous, and alloplastic materials that have been shown to be safe and effective choices when applied in the proper setting. PMID:26126225

  10. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  11. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  12. Geology of outer Horns Rev, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Joern B.; Gravesen, P.; Lomholt, S. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In 2006, Dong Energy initiated the development of the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the North Sea. In order to evaluate and map the characteristics of the surface features of the sea bed and to characterise the subsurface in the wind farm area, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) conducted a geophysical survey of the area. The survey utilised a variety of instruments: sparker, side-scan sonar, marine caesium magnetometer and a multibeam echo-sounder. In addition, information on the subsurface sediments was obtained by cone penetration tests (CPT) and by drilling to 30-50 m below the sea bottom. Geological correlation of the CPT results with the other survey results was extremely complicated but was required in order to understand the architecture of the ice marginal glaciotectonic complex. Information on the geology is crucial for evaluation of the geotechnical problems of the region. (au)

  13. Ensemble-based Probabilistic Forecasting at Horns Rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of probabilistic forecasts, the resolution of which may be maximized by using meteorological ensemble predictions as input. The paper concentrates on the test case of the Horns Rev wind form over a period of approximately 1 year, in order to describe, apply and discuss a complete ensemble-based probabilistic...... forecasting methodology. In a first stage, ensemble forecasts of meteorological variables are converted to power through a suitable power curve model. This modelemploys local polynomial regression, and is adoptively estimated with an orthogonal fitting method. The obtained ensemble forecasts of wind power...... the benefit of yielding predictive distributions that are of increased reliability (in a probabilistic sense) in comparison with the raw ensemble forecasts, at the some time taking advantage of their high resolution. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from......Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work...... abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components....

  15. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ_4 State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.El Allati; M.B.Ould Medeni; Y.Hassouni

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information.Moreover,the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information.Then,the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ4 states between the legitimate users.After insuring the security of the quantum channel,they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message.Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies,capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good.The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed.

  16. Measurements of very low-sidelobe conical horn antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, Marco A.; Ratliff, Roger B.; Lecha, Maria C.; Maruschak, John G.; Bennett, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of conical corrugated-horn antennas that were designed for millimeter-wave radiometers with a 7 degree field of view, namely the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) that will measure the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation that is generally thought to be the remnant of the primeval explosion, the Big Bang. The DMRs will be part of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. Measured test results for three radiometers at 31.4, 53, and 90 GHz are reported along with those of a circular polarization orthomode transducer designed and characterized at 31.4 GHz. The measurement techniques and facilities are described, including an outdoor far-field facility where measurements down to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum were achieved. The goal of achieving very low-sidelobe antennas with good symmetry has been demonstrated.

  17. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  18. Past and Future Rainfall in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, J. E.; Ummenhofer, C.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    While the interannual response of rainfall in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region to internal climatic forcings is generally well understood, it is unclear how external climate forcing from rising greenhouse gases will affect hydroclimate in the region. 20th century observations in the GHA are limited in number, giving us only a hint at recent trends. Here, we present the first high-resolution record of temperature and hydroclimate from the GHA spanning the last 2000 years. These data, consisting of biomarker proxies measured in a high-accumulation rate marine sediment core from the Gulf of Aden, provide a detailed view of both 20th century and last millennium GHA climate. Measurements of TEX86 show that the recent warming in upper ocean temperatures is unprecedented in the context of the last 2000 years. Paired measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes show that the 20th century warming in the region is associated with a drying trend that is also unprecedented in the last 2000 years. These data suggest that rising greenhouse gases drive drying in the Horn of Africa region, but the majority of climate model simulations from the CMIP5 archive (RCP 8.5 scenario) imply that the region will get wetter. We address this discrepancy by investigating both the ability of climate models to simulate the seasonal cycle in rainfall in the GHA region and the mechanisms driving model response. If the models are incorrect, and the GHA will indeed get drier as a consequence of global warming, this has major implications for projections of food security in the region.

  19. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ˜150 minutes and an amplitude of ˜30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (˜3 Mm) and a shorter period (˜10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  20. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  1. Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra V Ramdasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented.

  2. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Epicritic sensation in cervical spinal cord injury: diagnostic gains beyond testing light touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Baumberger, Michael; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, Armin

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Applied as a bedside test of gross dorsal column function, the testing of light touch (LT) sensation is of high clinical value in the diagnosis of human spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the assessment of overall dorsal column deficit by testing only LT may be limited, because the dorsal column pathway conveys several large diameter afferent modalities (e.g., sensation of touch, two-point discrimination, and proprioception). Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the epicritic sensation assessed by LT, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), and electrical perception threshold (EPT) across cervical dermatomes (C3-C8) in individuals with cervical SCI. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed at 6 months after cervical SCI, applying combined measures of LT, SWM, and EPT, bilaterally over predefined key sensory points (C3-C8). A total of 300 left- and right-sided dermatomes were tested for each outcome measure in 25 participants. The percentage agreement between classifications according to LT and SWM/EPT testing for all dermatomes between C3 and C8 ranged from 95.5% to 36.2%. The degree of agreement showed considerably variable κ coefficients (-0.1≥kw≤0.7) for each dermatome between C3 and C8. The additional measurements of epicritic sensation by SWM and EPT increased sensitivity by detecting and quantifying differences in sensory thresholds above, at, and below the LT level of injury. This is relevant for early clinical trials (phase 1/2), in which disclosing any biological activity of an intervention may be revealed by subtle sensory changes that might gain a clinical relevance.

  4. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhahianambi Palavesam

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  5. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael; Cho, Samuel Kang-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential c...

  6. Cervical Disc Disease: Biomechanical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Frode

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease in the cervical spine may cause significant pain and disability. Patients present themselves with neck pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. When the symptoms do not improve with conservative treatment, surgical treatment is considered. The goal of surgical treatment is to decompress nervous structures and to restore the normal anatomical conditions of disc height, alignment, and stability.The present thesis concerns four studies involving the treatment of cervical...

  7. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles. PMID:23259979

  8. Differentiation of the nuclear groups in the posterior horn of the human embryonic spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, A; Bruska, M; Woźniak, W

    2011-11-01

    The formation of nuclear groups in the posterior horns of the human embryonic spinal cord was traced in serial sections of embryos of developmental stages 13 to 23 (32 to 56 postovulatory days). The following observations, new for the human, are presented: 1. The differentiation of the neural tube into 3 zones (germinal, mantle and marginal) is detected in the middle of the 5(th) week. 2. The primordia of the posterior horns are marked at stage 14 (33 days). 3. In the middle of the 7(th) week the nucleus proprius and substantia gelatinosa are discerned. 4. Differentiation of the nuclei within the posterior horns proceeds in the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal gradients.

  9. Cross polarization caused by perturbed circular cross sections of waveguides and horn antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, Erik

    1987-03-01

    The cross polarization caused by a perturbed cross section of the conical hybrid-mode horn is analyzed. The perturbed cross section is assumed to be slightly elliptical. The theory of Lier and Bergh (1986) for cross polarization in a smooth-walled waveguide supporting the TE11-mode is referred and applied to the HE11 mode as well. Simple analytical formulas which are sufficiently accurate for small ellipticites of the cross-section ellipse are presented. These show that the tolerances on the waveguide diameter are extremely strong, typically on the order of 0.02-0.04 mm in the horn throat for typical horn geometries at 12 GHz.

  10. A RARE CASE OF A FUNCTIONAL NON COMMUNICATING HORN IN UNICORNUATE UTERUS IN POSTMENARCHEAL ADOLESCENT GIRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl presented with acute abdomen. On exploratory laparotomy she was found to have a right functional rudimentary horn of the uterus. We report a case of unicornuate uterus with functioning rudimentary horn. We here in highlight that mullerian duct anomalies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen even in normally menstruating girls. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is susceptible to many gynecologic and obstetric complications. Hematometra, chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis, infertility are some of the complaints in women with unicornuate uterus.

  11. Development and operational experience of magnetic horn system for T2K experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiguchi, T; Fujii, Y; Hagiwara, M; Hasegawa, T; Hayashi, K; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, T; Koike, S; Koseki, K; Maruyama, T; Matsumoto, H; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayoshi, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Shibata, M; Suzuki, Y; Tada, M; Takahashi, K; Tsukamoto, T; Yamada, Y; Yamanoi, Y; Yamaoka, H; Ichikawa, A K; Kubo, H; Butcher, Z; Coleman, S; Missert, A; Spitz, J; Zimmerman, E D; Tzanov, M; Bartoszek, L

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic horn system to be operated at a pulsed current of 320 kA and to survive high-power proton beam operation at 750 kW was developed for the T2K experiment. The first set of T2K magnetic horns was operated for over 12 million pulses during the four years of operation from 2010 to 2013, under a maximum beam power of 230 kW, and $6.63\\times10^{20}$ protons were exposed to the production target. No significant damage was observed throughout this period. This successful operation of the T2K magnetic horns led to the discovery of the $\

  12. The transfer of symbols and meanings: the case of the ‘horns of consecration’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Milićević Bradač

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir Arthur Evans first used the term “horns of consecration” in 1901. Since then they have been interpreted in various ways as Moon idols (Mondidole, boat models, pot stands, loom stands, spit supports, and fire supports. Most, however, can be seen as abstracted bull’s horns. Abstraction should have taken place in Anatolia or northern Mesopotamia, and “horns of consecration” spread very early, appearing, as already defined symbols in various cultural settings. The question is whether they stood for the same set of ideas wherever they appeared, or if meaning varied from one cultural setting to another.

  13. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  14. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the horn fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Guerrero, Felix D; Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is a serious pest of cattle in North America. The control of horn flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance in horn flies. Novel methods to control horn flies are greatly needed. Transgenic technology is an effective tool to genetically modify insects and may lead to novel methods of pest control based on genomic approaches. Here we report a piggyBac-mediated transformation of the horn fly via electroporation. Transformation with a DsRed fluorescent marker protein coding region was verified by PCR analysis of individual fly bodies and pupal cases and sequencing of PCR products. However, Southern blot analysis failed to indicate the DsRed gene was integrated into the horn fly genome. Thus, the electroporation protocol may have caused the DsRed gene to be integrated into bacterial symbionts of the horn fly. PMID:25645001

  15. Remarkable recovery in an infant presenting with extensive perinatal cervical cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Israr; Gururaj, A K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical-cord damage is a complication of a difficult delivery, and results in spinal shock with flaccidity progressing to spastic paralysis. Conventionally, outlook for such patients is extremely poor and most will recover only slightly from quadriplegia and autonomic dysfunction. Here, we report a case in which the extent of damage considerably contrasted with the outcome and recovery. A full-term baby girl born by difficult vaginal delivery displayed bilateral flaccid paralysis of the lower limbs with absent spontaneous movements, weakness of both upper limbs, hyporeflexia in all limbs and axial hypotonia. MRI of cervicothoracic spine exhibited raised signal intensity in the dorsal aspects of C7 to T1 signifying myelopathy. MRI at 4 months revealed a near-total transection of the cervical cord. However, at 6 months, the child could move all lower limbs independently with a marked increase in power. There was no spasticity, wasting or incontinence. Reflexes had also returned. PMID:23230249

  16. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morov, Arseniy R.; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  17. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morov, Arseniy R; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-06-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  18. Dorsal and ventral language pathways in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that affects an individual's ability to fluently produce speech. While the disorder mainly manifests in situations that require language production, it is still unclear whether persistent developmental stuttering is indeed a language impairment, and if so, which language stream is implicated in people who stutter. In this study, we take a neuroanatomical approach to this question by examining the structural properties of the dorsal and ventral language pathways in adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. We use diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and individualized tract identification to extract white matter volumes and diffusion properties of these tracts in samples of adults who do and do not stutter. We further quantify diffusion properties at multiple points along the tract and examine group differences within these diffusivity profiles. Our results show differences in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, language-related tracts. Specifically, AWS show reduced volume of the left dorsal stream, as well as lower anisotropy in the right dorsal stream. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the view that stuttering involves an impairment in the bidirectional mapping between auditory and articulatory cortices supported by the dorsal pathways, not in lexical access and semantic aspects of language processing which are thought to rely more heavily on the left ventral pathways. PMID:27179916

  19. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  20. [Therapy of cervical rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, R; Wiesner, L; Rüther, W

    2004-08-01

    The rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine can be divided into three phases. In the early stage of the disease there is an isolated atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), followed by vertical instability and subaxial instability. If patients show clear symptoms of cervical myelopathy, which can occur during any stage of the disease, the progression cannot be stopped by conservative treatment, which is of great importance at the beginning of the cervical manifestation. Patient education, physiotherapy and immobilization with a stiff collar can significantly reduce pain. Early and effective DMARD therapy can have a positive effect on the natural history of the disease. In case of progressive instability, cervical myelopathy or severe pain operative treatment is indicated. If there is an isolated AAS, fusion can be restricted to the C1/C2 segment. The Magerl transarticular screw fixation is the preferred technique for stabilization. If there is evidence for vertical instability or severe destruction of the C0/C1 joints, occipital cervical fusion has to be performed. Durin the preoperative planning it is necessary to look for signs of subaxial instability. If this is the case, fusion should include the entire cervical spine. Transoral decompression may be necessary when there is persistent anterior compression of the myelon, typically seen in fixed AAS. Non-ambulatory myelopathic patients are more likely to develop severe surgical complications. Therefore, it is important to avoid the development of severe cervical instability by early surgical intervention. The right timing for surgery is still a matter of controversy. Future prospective randomized trials should address this topic to improve the treatment concept for the rheumatoid patient.

  1. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Streaked Horned Lark Density and Reproductive Success

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The streaked horned lark subspecies represents a small endemic population that breeds and winters in only a few locations in Oregon and Washington. It is perhaps...

  2. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated...

  3. Inventory and Monitoring of Streaked Horned Larks on Agricultural Lands: Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an effort to refine knowledge of nest success of streaked horned larks in the southern Willamette Valley, field personnel found and monitored nests at William L....

  4. A rare case of intact rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting as hemoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Jain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of technological advances like ultrasonography (USG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has made the diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy possible at an early gestation. However, in advanced pregnancy, such cases can sometimes pose a diagnostic dilemma and are recognized only when patient presents with abdominal pain and collapse and is taken for laparotomy. We report one such rare case of a nulliparous female who was carrying on well with her pregnancy till she developed symptoms of acute abdomen at 28 weeks of gestation. She underwent USG and MRI but it was only after laparotomy that a final diagnosis of a pregnancy in a rudimentary horn with placenta percreta perforating through the fundus could be made. There was a significant amount of hemoperitoneum; however, the horn was intact and the fetus could be salvaged. We excised the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral tube and ovary. Post operatively, both the mother and the baby were discharged in healthy condition.

  5. Segmental aplasia of the uterine horn with ipsilateral renal agenesis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joo-hyun; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Min-cheol; Park, Jae Hak; Seo, Kang-Moon; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2008-06-01

    A nine-month-old domestic short haired cat was admitted with the history of acute vomiting, depression and shivering. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed minimum enlargement of the right uterine horn filled with anechoic fluid. On excretory urography, functionally and anatomically normal, enlarged left kidney was found, but right kidney was absent. It was preliminary diagnosed as hydrometra with right renal agenesis. Aiming at the correction of hydrometra, we performed ovariohysterectomy. During spaying, we found a missing segment of distal part of the right uterine horn and absence of ipsilateral kidney and ureter. Compressed uterine structure and segmental aplasia of right uterine horn were found in histopathological investigation. Taken together, it was diagnosed as a segmental aplasia of uterine horn with ipsilateral renal agenesis. PMID:18628611

  6. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated...

  7. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  8. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Streaked Horned Lark Monitoring - Habitat Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endemic subspecies of the Pacific coastal form of horned lark is found only in western Oregon and Washington. As its population and distribution has decreased...

  9. Anterior horn syndrome: A rare manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlane, Safaa; Louhab, Nissrine; El Mellakh, Meriem; Kissani, Najib

    2016-07-01

    The authors report an exceptional case of an anterior horn syndrome associated with Sjögren's syndrome in a 58-year-old patient with a flaccid tetraparesis revealed by asymmetric atrophy and diffuse fasciculations associated with xerostomia and xerophthalmia. The electroneuromyography objectified a diffuse anterior horn syndrome. The brain MRI and spinal cord were normal. Laboratory tests revealed positive anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody. The salivary glands biopsy objectified lymphocytic sialadenitis grade 3 of Chisholm. The Schirmer's test was abnormally low. Diagnosis of anterior horn syndrome as part of Sjögren's syndrome was retained. The methylprednisolone bolus allowed partial clinical improvement after 12 months of evolution. Therefore, in patients with isolated anterior horn involvement, a correct diagnosis of the underlying SS is often delayed or overlooked entirely; in these instances, standard clinicoserological assessment is recommendable. PMID:27118221

  10. Multiple observations of cavitation cluster dynamics close to an ultrasonic horn tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkin, Peter R; Offin, Douglas G; Vian, Christopher J B; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-11-01

    Bubble dynamics in water close to the tip of an ultrasonic horn (∼23 kHz, 3 mm diameter) have been studied using electrochemistry, luminescence, acoustics, light scattering, and high-speed imaging. It is found that, under the conditions employed, a large bubble cluster (∼1.5 mm radius) exists at the tip of the horn. This cluster collapses periodically every three to four cycles of the fundamental frequency of the horn. Following the collapse of the cluster, a short-lived cloud of small bubbles (each tens of microns in diameter) was observed in the solution. Large amplitude pressure emissions are also recorded, which correlate temporally with the cluster collapse. Bursts of surface erosion (measured in real time using an electrochemical technique) and multibubble sonoluminescence emission both also occur at a subharmonic of the fundamental frequency of the horn and are temporally correlated with the bubble cluster collapse and the associated pressure wave emission.

  11. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Horn Island, Mississippi (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 254 polygon shapefiles...

  12. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  13. Two cases of cervical disc disease with intramedullary pathological changes, which are responsible for their neurological syndromes, on delayed CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of cervical disc disease with myelopathy classified as of motor system syndrome type showing small contrast accumulation within the spinal cord on delayed CT myelography. In our two cases, high density spots on delayed CT myelography were bilaterally localized within the spinal cord, and believed represent pathological changes of the spinal cord, such as collection of microcavities or cystic necrosis. In case 1, the high density areas seemed to be localized in the anterior horn and corticospinal tract, and in case 2, they seemed to be localized in the corticospinal tract. The patient in case 1 produced signs and symptoms resembling motor neurone disease and lesion could not be differentiated from the latter. Delayed CT myelography showed that the cause of the upper limb amyotrophy was attributed to an anterior horn disorder and that of pyramidal tract sign to a corticospinal tract disorder. Therefore, we could differentiate the lesion from motor neurone disease on delayed CT myelography in case 1. In conclusion, we emphasize that delayed CT myelography can demonstrate the intramedullary pathological changes in the cervical disc disease and is useful in distinguishing between cervical disc disease simulating motor neurone disease and the latter. (author)

  14. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  15. A Combined Therapy for Cervical Spondylopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cervical spondylopathy is a common disease frequently encountered in the middle-aged and old people. It is a consequence of degeneration, strain or deformation of the physiological curvature of the cervical vertebral body.

  16. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  17. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  18. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Dugoni

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability.

  19. TRENDS AND DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY IN THE HORN OF AFRICA - SOME IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    The poverty problem is chronic in the Horn of Africa. Majority of the people in the region are suffering from this problem. There are numerous factors that cause poverty in the region. The challenge of poverty reduction in the Horn should therefore address the poverty reduction issues at national, provincial and local levels. A brief survey of literature has been made to enable us understand some theories and models that are related to poverty reduction in the developing economies. This paper...

  20. A Rare Case of Heterotopic Pregnancy with Ruptured Left Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy(HP) occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies coexist. We report a case of HP at 14 wk of gestation presenting as ruptured left rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation and was managed with emergency laparotomy followed by resection of left rudimentary non communicating horn of uterus. The intrauterine pregnancy continued uneventfully. A female baby was delivered vaginally at 41 wk following induction of labour.

  1. Detached Anterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus Mimicking a Parameniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Fukuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a detached anterior horn of the medial meniscus with anterior knee pain. Preoperative magnetic resonance images of the knee were initially interpreted as a parameniscal cyst. Arthroscopic examination revealed subluxation of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus due to detachment from its anterior tibial insertion. Arthroscopic fixation with a suture anchor was successful and the cystic lesion was no longer visible on postoperative images.

  2. VALACHIAN CORKSCREW HORNS SHEEP BREED (“RATSCA”) - A HISTORICAL DOCUMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    Corkscrew horns Valachian sheep is a breed from the Early Egyptian (Ovis paleoegiptica) phileic group, located in Serbia, Montenegro, Panonia, and Romanian border with Serbia. The tribe was named by Buffon (1780), Darwin (1865) Valachian, by Serbs Corkscrew Horns Valachian (Valaska vitorogta), by Hungarian Racka (=Serbian), by Linnaeus O.a.strpsiceros. The translation of strepsiceros into German=Zackel (Nathusius 1890), produced a confusion with the Valachian philetic group descending from th...

  3. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Exponential Horn for Measuring Ultrasonic Attributes of Agricultural Produce

    OpenAIRE

    R Meamar Dastjerdi; S Minaiee; M. H Khoshtaghaza

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing is one of the methods utilized to evaluate quality of agricultural produce. Transducers used in this method are made for basically industrial applications. Since ultrasonic attenuation of waves in agricultural produce is very high, industrial transducers cannot be used in agriculture and needs to be modified. This is done with horns that concentrate energy on a small area at a certain distance from the transducer. In this paper, an exponential horn was desig...

  4. High Energy Pulsed Power System for AGS Super Neutrino Focusing Horn

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Weng, Wu-Tsung

    2005-01-01

    This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

  5. Bulleyaconitine A depresses neuropathic pain and potentiation at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn induced by paclitaxel in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He-Quan; Xu, Jing; Shen, Kai-Feng; Pang, Rui-Ping; Wei, Xu-Hong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, often induces painful peripheral neuropathy and at present no effective drug is available for treatment of the serious side effect. Here, we tested if intragastrical application of bulleyaconitine A (BLA), which has been approved for clinical treatment of chronic pain in China since 1985, could relieve the paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. A single dose of BLA attenuated the mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia induced by paclitaxel dose-dependently. Repetitive administration of the drug (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d. for 7 d) during or after paclitaxel treatment produced a long-lasting inhibitory effect on thermal hyperalgesia, but not on mechanical allodynia. In consistency with the behavioral results, in vivo electrophysiological experiments revealed that spinal synaptic transmission mediated by C-fiber but not A fiber was potentiated, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses induced by the same high frequency stimulation was ~50% higher in paclitaxel-treated rats, compared to the naïve rats. Spinal or intravenous application of BLA depressed the spinal LTP, dose-dependently. Furthermore, patch clamp recordings in spinal cord slices revealed that the frequency but not amplitude of both spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in lamina II neurons was increased in paclitaxel-treated rats, and the superfusion of BLA reduced the frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats but not in naïve ones. Taken together, we provide novel evidence that BLA attenuates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain and that depression of spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses via inhibiting presynaptic transmitter release may contribute to the effect. PMID:26376216

  6. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anith Chacko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small bowel obstruction (confirmed on imaging as well as acute pancreatitis. At laparotomy, he was found to have no dorsal mesentery, without small bowel atresia, and the duodenum was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well and remained symptom-free.

  7. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille;

    2003-01-01

    serratus fascia flap, the connective tissue over the serratus muscle, for dorsal hand coverage. The flap consists of thin and well-vascularized pliable tissue, with gliding properties excellent for covering exposed tendons. It is based on the branches of the thoracodorsal artery, which are raised...... in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  8. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Facchini; Giuseppina Rapacchia; Giulia Montanari; Paolo Casadio; Gianluigi Pilu; Renato Seracchioli

    2014-01-01

    Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery ...

  9. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least ri...

  10. Cervical incompetence: preliminary evaluation with MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricak, H; Chang, Y C; Cann, C E; Parer, J T

    1990-03-01

    The ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to demonstrate cervical incompetence in nonpregnant women was investigated in a prospective study of 41 volunteers referred in random order. These included 20 patients with normal cervices, 11 with cervical incompetence of traumatic or congenital origin, and 10 with clinically small cervices due to in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. On MR images of the normal patients, cervical length was 33.0 mm +/- 1.0 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) and the width of the internal cervical os was 3.3 mm +/- 0.1. In patients with cervical incompetence, the cervical length did not significantly differ from those in the normal group. However, the internal cervical os was significantly wider (4.5 mm +/- 0.3, P less than .001), and localized irregularity of the endocervical canal was demonstrated in two patients. The MR appearance of the cervical stroma varied from normal, uniformly low signal intensity (n = 4) to uniformly (n = 3) or partially (n = 4) medium-to-high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In the patients with in utero DES exposure, the mean length of the cervical canal (22.9 mm +/- 1.7) was significantly shorter than that of the normal group. The width of the internal cervical os and the MR signal intensity of the cervical stroma were normal. In summary, MR findings of a cervical length shorter than 3.1 mm (95% confidence limit), an internal cervical os wider than 4.2 mm (95% confidence limit), or abnormal signal intensity in the cervical stroma are highly suggestive of incompetent cervix and should assist in planning further therapeutic decisions. PMID:2305065

  11. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Silja A; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  12. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja A. Pillai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingooophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management.

  13. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Silja A.; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  14. Estimation of the energy deposited on the CNGS magnetic horn and reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Sarchiapone, L; Lorenzo-Sentis, M

    2006-01-01

    In the CNGS (Cern Neutrino to Gran Sasso) installation two magnetic lenses, namely the horn and the reflector, focus the secondary beam generated in the target station. The gap between the horn and reflector is chosen to optimize a wide-band high-energy muon-neutrino beam. These two focusing elements are two coaxial lenses: the outer conductor has a cylindrical shape whereas the inner conductor consists of a sequence of conical shapes to optimize the focusing capacity. The evaluation of the heat load on the support structures is crucial since modifications in the elements around the horn and reflector are under way and the support structures can be adapted to the heat load found. Furthermore, the heat load in the whole horn area has been evaluated to optimize the cooling-ventilation system. The energy deposited on the horn and reflector as well as on their adjacent elements has been estimated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package and results are presented in this paper. The FLUKA geometry input of the horn and ...

  15. Course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov V.N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Today we can state that in spite of a considerable number of cervical osteochondrosis studies, there is a lack of research devoted to analysis of its course. There is no correlation between initial expert evaluations of cervical osteo-chondrosis cases and further course of pathological process. Goal of the research is to develop system of course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis taking into account environmental infuence, heredity, living conditions, psychological profle of patient’s personality. Materials and methods. Dynamics of degenerative-dystrophic changes progressing of cervical vertebrae in 236 patients was analyzed. Results. Received data demonstrated that probability of stage I changing to stage II, III and IV depended on patients’ sex, age and type of labour activity, frequent supercooling and stress. Probability of fast progression of cervical osteochondrosis (5-year cycle of stage I changing to stage III and IV was to a great extent associated with heredity, urban living, presence of endocrine system diseases, syndrome of nonspecifc dysplasia of connective tissue and low indices of quality of life. Conclusion. Proposed system allows making prognosis of morphologic changes in spinal cord, and is based on radiation methods of verifcation without taking into consideration dynamics of neurological symptomatology.

  16. Developmentally Regulated Expression of HDNF/NT-3 mRNA in Rat Spinal Cord Motoneurons and Expression of BDNF mRNA in Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernfors, Patrik; Persson, Håkan

    1991-01-01

    Northern blot analysis was used to demonstrate high levels of hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) mRNA in the embryonic day (E) 13 - 14 and 15 - 16 spinal cord. The level decreased at E18 - 19 and remained the same until postnatal day (P) 1, after which it decreased further to a level below the detection limit in the adult. In situ hybridization revealed that the NT-3 mRNA detected in the developing spinal cord was derived from motoneurons and the decrease seen at E18 - 19 was caused by a reduction in the number of motoneurons expressing NT-3 mRNA. The distribution of NT-3 mRNA-expressing cells in the E15 spinal cord was very similar to the distribution of cells expressing choline acetyltransferase or nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) mRNA. Moreover, a striking similarity between the developmentally regulated expression of NT-3 and NGFR mRNA was noted in spinal cord motoneurons. A subpopulation of all neurons in the dorsal root ganglia expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA from E13, the earliest time examined, to adulthood. These results are consistent with a trophic role of NT-3 for proprioceptive sensory neurons innervating the ventral horn, and imply a local action of BDNF for developing sensory neurons within the dorsal root ganglia. PMID:12106253

  17. Fusion around cervical disc prosthesis: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Donk, R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cervical arthroplasty is a relatively new method to maintain motion after cervical anterior discectomy. Two cases are presented in which bony fusion occurred around a cervical disc prosthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman underwent a righ

  18. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Elouan Réthoré

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surface temperature as well as ground-based information at and near the wind farm, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The SCADA data reveal that the case of fog formation occurred 12 February 2008 on the 10:10 UTC. The fog formation is due to very special atmospheric conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog.

  19. Simple Solution to the Strangeness Horn Description Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Bugaev, K A; Sorin, A S; Zinovjev, G M

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use the thermal model with the multi-component hard-core radii to describe the hadron yield ratios from the low AGS to the highest RHIC energies. It is demonstrated that the variation of the hard-core radii of pions and kaons enable us to drastically improve the fit quality of the measured mid-rapidity data and for the first time to completely describe the Strangeness Horn behavior as the function of the energy of collision without spoiling the fit quality of other ratios. The best global fit is found for the vanishing hard-core radius of pions and for the hard-core radius of kaons being equal to 0.35 fm, whereas the hard-core radius of all other mesons is fixed to 0.3 fm and that one of baryons is fixed to 0.5 fm. It is argued that the multi-component hadron resonance gas model opens us a principal possibility to determine the second virial coefficients of hadron-hadron interaction.

  20. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J. [Nat. Enviromenal Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH-Consulting, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  1. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Mooney

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  2. Histomorphological Pattern of Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mannan Sikder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enlarged palpable cervical lymph nodes as a primary presenting sign are very common and may be due to inflammatory lesions and tumors. Correlation between clinical findings and laboratory data is essential in arriving at a diagnosis. In patients presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, excision biopsy provides material to establish an early diagnosis. We designed this study in our population for histological evaluation of cervical lymph node biopsies that might be important in the management of these patients. Objective: Histopathological evaluation of different diseases involving the cervical lymph nodes in relation to age and sex of the study population. Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in the department of Pathology, Enam Medical College & Hospital, Savar, Dhaka during the period from January 2006 to December 2010. A total of 107 patients were evaluated for specific cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in relation to age and sex. Lymph node biopsies of all patients of both sexes and all age groups were included in the study. Results: Among the 107 subjects 58 (54.2% were males and 49 (45.8% were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 85 years with a mean age of 32.68 ± 18.01 years. Of the 107 lymph node biopsies, 34 cases (31.8% were reactive lymphadenitis, 41 cases (38.3% were tuberculosis, 2 cases (1.9% were non-caseous granuloma, 6 cases (5.6% were Hodgkin lymphoma, 8 cases (7.5% were non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 12 cases (11.2% were metastatic neoplasm and 4 cases (3.7% were other specific lesions. Conclusion: The commonest cause of cervical lymphadenopathy was tuberculosis, followed by reactive lymphadenitis, lymphoma and metastatic neoplasm.

  3. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended.

  4. Compresión medular dorsal extradural por condroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Srota

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in Argentine bibliography a chondroma of the vertebra with extradural dorsal medular compression, is described. The clinical characteristics of the onset by intermitent medular claudication of Dejerine and the painless evolution until surgical intervention, are stressed. The bibliography is put up to date and the radiographics signs and the pathologic anatomy of the chondromas, are studied.

  5. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  6. Clinical study of dorsal ulnar artery flap in hand reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Manal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue defects of hand with exposed tendons, joints, nerves and bone represent a challenge to plastic surgeons. Such defects necessitate early flap coverage to protect underlying vital structures, preserve hand functions and to allow for early rehabilitation. Becker and Gilbert described flap based on the dorsal branch of the ulnar artery for defects around the wrist. We evaluated the use of a dorsal ulnar artery island flap in patients with soft tissue defects of hand. Twelve patients of soft tissue defects of hand underwent dorsal ulnar artery island flap between August 2006 and May 2008. In 10 male and 2 female patients this flap was used to reconstruct defects of the palm, dorsum of hand and first web space. Ten flaps survived completely. Marginal necrosis occurred in two flaps. In one patient suturing was required after debridement and in other patient wound healed by secondary intention. The final outcome was satisfactory. Donor areas which were skin grafted, healed with acceptable cosmetic results. The dorsal ulnar artery island flap is convenient, reliable, and easy to manage and is a single-stage technique for reconstructing soft tissue defects of the palm, dorsum of hand and first web space. Donor site morbidity is minimal, either closed primarily or covered with split thickness skin graft.

  7. Treatment of cervical dislocation with locked facets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ze-sheng; James J.Yue; WEI Feng; LIU Zhong-jun; CHEN Zhong-qiang; DANG Geng-ting

    2007-01-01

    Background Lower cervical dislocation with locked facets is common in cervical injury. The locked facets include unilateral and bilateral types. Different successful closed reduction rates has been achieved between unilateral and bilateral types by using rapid skull traction, which was commonly used to reduce the cervical dislocation. It is important to investigate a suitable management specific to patients with different types of cervical locked facets.Methods A total of 38 patients with cervical dislocation with locked facet due to cervical injury treated by rapid skull traction and operation from 1988 to 2005 were reviewed. Rapid skull traction was used in all the patients. Successful closed reduction rate was 88.0% in patients with bilateral cervical locked facets and that was 15.4% in those with unilateral cervical locked facets. These data were then statistically compared by Chi-square test. Patients who were reduced successfully underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the injured level, and those who failed in closed reduction received posterior open reduction and fixation.Results In this series, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the rate of successful closed skull traction reduction between unilateral and bilateral locked facets dislocation. Unilateral cervical locked facets dislocation was not easily reduced by skull traction which was suitable for reduction of bilateral cervical locked facets dislocation. However,unilateral cervical locked facets dislocation can be reduced by posterior open reduction.Conclusions Unilateral cervical locked facets dislocation should be treated immediately with posterior open reduction and instrumentation. Bilateral cervical locked facets dislocation can be reduced by rapid skull traction firstly and anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion later.

  8. Radiculopatía cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Murillo Calderón

    2012-01-01

    La patología cervical traumática y su relación con el quehacer de la medicina legal tiene gran importancia y vigencia, principalmente cuando se hace necesario realizar valoraciones a pacientes con alteraciones cervicales y se debe definir si estas están en relación a un trauma determinado o repetitivo en el tiempo como puede ocurrir en algunos casos de riesgos de trabajo. El médico forense debe estar muy bien preparado, conocer la anatomía cervical y de los miembros superiores, realizar un in...

  9. Offshore wind farms in the local environment - an examination at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. Background report; Havvindmoeller i lokalomraadet - en undersoegelse ved Horns Rev Havmoellepark. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm was built in 2002. A presentation is made of a sociological, qualitative survey on the local community's reception of the offshore wind farm. The survey aims at identifying attitudes towards the farm before and after the construction, with a view to identifying possible changes in attitudes, and explain the reasons for these (ml)

  10. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  11. Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

    2012-05-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton.

  12. Effects of intrathecal injection of glial cell inhibitor on spinal cord astrocytes following chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhong Zhang; Wen Shen; Mingde Wang; Yinming Zeng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are considered to provide nutritional support in the central nervous system. However, recent studies have confirmed that astrocytes also play an important role in chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intrathecal injection of fluorocitrate, minocycline or both on astrocyte activation and proliferation in the spinal dorsal horn of compressed dorsal root ganglion in rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neurology randomized controlled animal study was performed at the Jiangsu Institute of Anesthesia Medicine, from September 2006 to April 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 96 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6-8 weeks, were selected for this study. Following intrathecal catheterization, 80 rats underwent steel bar insertion into the L4-5 intervertebral foramina to make a stable compression on the L4-5 posterior root ganglion. Thus rat models of ganglion compression were established. Minocycline and fluorocitrate were purchased from Sigma, USA. METHODS: A total of 96 rats were randomly and equally divided into six groups. Rat L4, L5 transverse process and intervertebral foramina were exposed in the sham operation group, but without steel bar insertion. The model group did not receive any manipulations. Rats in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group were intrathecally injected with 0.01 mmol/L PBS (20 μL). Rats in the fluorocitrate group were subjected to 1 μmol/L fluorocitrate (20 μL). Rats in the minocycline group were intrathecally injected with 5 g/L minocycline (20 μL). Rats in the minocycline and fluorocitrate group received a mixture (20 μL) of 5 g/L minocycline and 1 μmol/L fluorocitrate. Following model establishment, drugs were administered once a day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 7 and 14 days following model induction, glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn was measured by immunofluorescence microscopy. Six sections with significant glial fibrillary acidic protein -positive expression were

  13. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yan, Deng-lu; Zhang, Zai-Heng

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors' clinic and treated by PCN. The patients' gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 +/- 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3-4, 30 cases at C4-5, 40 cases at C5-6, and 35 cases at C6-7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) > or =11 degrees or horizontal displacement (HD) > or =3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or

  14. Pupal remodeling and the evolution and development of alternative male morphologies in horned beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moczek Armin P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How novel morphological traits originate and diversify represents a major frontier in evolutionary biology. Horned beetles are emerging as an increasingly popular model system to explore the genetic, developmental, and ecological mechanisms, as well as the interplay between them, in the genesis of novelty and diversity. The horns of beetles originate during a rapid growth phase during the prepupal stage of larval development. Differential growth during this period is either implicitly or explicitly assumed to be the sole mechanism underlying differences in horn expression within and between species. Here I focus on male horn dimorphisms, a phenomenon at the center of many studies in behavioral ecology and evolutionary development, and quantify the relative contributions of a previously ignored developmental process, pupal remodeling, to the expression of male dimorphism in three horned beetle species. Results Prepupal growth is not the only determinant of differences in male horn expression. Instead, following their initial prepupal growth phase, beetles may be extensively remodeled during the subsequent pupal stage in a sex and size-dependent manner. Specifically, male dimorphism in the three Onthophagus species studied here was shaped not at all, partly or entirely by such pupal remodeling rather than differential growth, suggesting that pupal remodeling is phylogenetically widespread, evolutionarily labile, and developmentally flexible. Conclusion This study is the first to document that male dimorphism in horned beetles is the product of two developmentaly dissociated processes: prepupal growth and pupal remodeling. More generally, adult morphology alone appears to provide few clues, if any, as to the relative contributions of both processes to the expression of alternative male morphs, underscoring the importance of developmental studies in efforts aimed at understanding the evolution of adult diversity patterns.

  15. Dual transplantation of human neural stem cells into cervical and lumbar cord ameliorates motor neuron disease in SOD1 transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Leyan; Shen, Peilin; Hazel, Thomas; Johe, Karl; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells provide novel sources of cell therapies for motor neuron disease that have recently entered clinical trials. In the present study, we transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs) into the ventral horn of both the lumbar (L4–L5) and cervical (C4–C5) protuberance of SOD G93A rats, in an effort to test the feasibility and general efficacy of a dual grafting paradigm addressing several muscle groups in the front limbs, hind limbs and the respiratory apparatus. Transplantation was done p...

  16. C5 Nerve root palsies following cervical spine surgery: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical C5 nerve root palsies may occur in between 0% and 30% of routine anterior or posterior cervical spine operations. They are largely attributed to traction injuries/increased cord migration following anterior/posterior decompressions. Of interest, almost all studies cite spontaneous resolution of these deficits without surgery with 3-24 postoperative months. Methods: Different studies cite various frequencies for C5 root palsies following anterior or posterior cervical spine surgery. In their combined anterior/posterior series involving C4-C5 level  decompressions, Libelski et al. cited up to a 12% incidence of C5 palsies. In Gu et al. series, C5 root palsies occurred in 3.1% of double-door laminoplasty, 4.5% of open-door laminoplasty, and 11.3% of laminectomy. Miller et al. observed an intermediate 6.9% frequency of C5 palsies followed by posterior cervical decompressions and fusions (PCDF. Results: Gu et al. also identified multiple risk factors for developing C5 palsies following posterior surgery; male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL, narrower foramina, laminectomy, and marked dorsal spinal cord drift. Miller et al. also identified an average $1918 increased cost for physical/occupational therapy for patients with C5 palsies. Conclusions: The incidence of C5 root deficits for anterior/posterior cervical surgery at C4-C5 was 12% in one series, and ranged up to 11.3% for laminectomies, while others cited 0-30%. Although identification of preoperative risk factors for C5 root deficits may help educate patients regarding these risks, there is no clear method for their avoidance at this time.

  17. Seminal plasma enhances cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Sutherland

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2, cytokines interleukin (IL -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway.

  18. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Primary adenocarcinoma of cervical esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawi, S J; Winston, J; Tan, D; Gibbs, J; Loree, T R; Hicks, W; Rigual, N; Lorè, J M

    2005-06-01

    Most upper esophageal malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas, rarely adenocarcinomas arising from Barrett's esophagus and very rarely adenocarcinomas from heterotopic gastric mucosa without evidence of Barrett's especially in the cervical part of the esophagus. We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the polypoid type in the upper esophagus (cervical esophagus) arising from ectopic gastric mucosa, in a 60 year-old man who presented with progressive dysphagia. Accurate diagnosis by esophagogram revealed a large mass in the cervical esophagus; CAT scan showed intraluminal mass at the level of thoracic inlet, esophagogastroscopy showed a fleshy polyp (3.2cm x 3.0cm) at 20 cm from the incisors with a biopsy confirming moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with no evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Through a left cervical approach and resection of medial third of clavicle, the tumor was removed by partial esophagectomy followed by lymph node dissection, and proved to be T1NOMO, stage I (AJCC staging 6th ed.). Post operatively, the patient received chemoradiation with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis in six years of follow up. It seems this tumor has a much better prognosis than adenocarcinomas arising from Barrett's. To our knowledge only 19 cases have been reported in literature so far. PMID:16110768

  20. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  1. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery. PMID:27175952

  2. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Is posterior fusion necessary with laminectomy in the cervical spine?

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Beck D.; Rebholz, Brandon J.; Wang, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical decompressive laminectomy is a common procedure for addressing multilevel cervical spine pathology. The most common reasons for performing simultaneous posterior cervical fusion include the prevention of progressive postlaminectomy kyphotic deformity or other types of instability which can contribute to late neurological deterioration. Methods: The medical literature (Pub Med with MeSH) concerning cervical laminectomy, posterior cervical fusion, and complications of lamin...

  4. Target and Horn Cooling for the Very Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bellavia, Steven; Kirk, Harold G; Ludewig, Hans; Raparia, Deepak; Simos, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    Thermodynamic studies have been performed for the beam target and focusing horn system to be used in a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A 2mm rms beam spot with power deposition of over 18 KW presents challenging material and engineering solutions to this project. Given that the amount of heat transferred by radiation alone from the target to the horn is quite small, the primary mechanism is heat removal by forced convection in the annular space between the target and the horn. The key elements are the operating temperature of the target, the temperature of the cooling fluid and the heat generation rate in the volume of the target that needs to be removed. These working parameters establish the mass flow rate and velocity of the coolant necessary to remove the generated heat. Several cooling options were explored using a carbon-carbon target and aluminum horn. Detailed analysis, trade studies and simulations were performed for cooling the horn and target with gaseous helium as well as water...

  5. Value of preoperative cervical discography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this study was to describe the method and the value of cervical discography as correlated with the MR findings. Twenty-one discs in 11 consecutive patients who underwent cervical discography were analyzed. MR and CT discography (CTD) were performed in all patients. Discography was performed after swallowing barium for visualizing the pharynx and the esophagus to prevent penetration. We also analyzed the preceding causes of the subjects' cervical pain. The results of the pain provocation test were classified into concordant pain, discordant pain and a negative test. MRI was analyzed according to the T2-signal intensity (SI) of the disc, disc height, annular bulging and disc herniation. The CTD was analyzed for degeneration or radial tear of the disc, epidural leakage of the contrast agent and pooling of the contrast agent at the periphery of the disc. The pain provocation tests were correlated with the MR and CTD findings. We used the chi-square test to analyze the results. Concordant pain was observed in 14 cases, discordant pain in 3 cases and there were negative tests in 4 cases. There were no complications related to the procedure. Four patients had undergone anterior cervical fusion and four patients that developed after traffic injuries. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI, disc degeneration and peripheral pooling of the contrast agent on CT were significantly correlated with pain provocation. When the diagnosis of disc disease is difficult with performing MRI, cervical discography with using swallowed barium solution to reduce the penetration of the esophagus or hypopharynx may play be helpful. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI correlated significantly with a positive result on the pain provocation test.

  6. The integrator complex subunit 6 (Ints6 confines the dorsal organizer in vertebrate embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D Kapp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dorsoventral patterning of the embryonic axis relies upon the mutual antagonism of competing signaling pathways to establish a balance between ventralizing BMP signaling and dorsal cell fate specification mediated by the organizer. In zebrafish, the initial embryo-wide domain of BMP signaling is refined into a morphogenetic gradient following activation dorsally of a maternal Wnt pathway. The accumulation of β-catenin in nuclei on the dorsal side of the embryo then leads to repression of BMP signaling dorsally and the induction of dorsal cell fates mediated by Nodal and FGF signaling. A separate Wnt pathway operates zygotically via Wnt8a to limit dorsal cell fate specification and maintain the expression of ventralizing genes in ventrolateral domains. We have isolated a recessive dorsalizing maternal-effect mutation disrupting the gene encoding Integrator Complex Subunit 6 (Ints6. Due to widespread de-repression of dorsal organizer genes, embryos from mutant mothers fail to maintain expression of BMP ligands, fail to fully express vox and ved, two mediators of Wnt8a, display delayed cell movements during gastrulation, and severe dorsalization. Consistent with radial dorsalization, affected embryos display multiple independent axial domains along with ectopic dorsal forerunner cells. Limiting Nodal signaling or restoring BMP signaling restores wild-type patterning to affected embryos. Our results are consistent with a novel role for Ints6 in restricting the vertebrate organizer to a dorsal domain in embryonic patterning.

  7. File list: Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Dorsal mesothor...acic disc SRX151958,SRX151957,SRX151959,SRX151956 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic ...disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic ...disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Dorsal mesothor...acic disc SRX151957,SRX151959,SRX151958,SRX151956 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Dorsal mesothor...acic disc SRX151957,SRX151958,SRX151959,SRX151956 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...ic disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...ic disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic di...sc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 TFs and others Larvae Dorsal mesothor...acic disc SRX151957,SRX151958,SRX151959,SRX151956 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...ic disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Unclassified Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...ic disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic di...sc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic ...disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 Histone Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic di...sc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 DNase-seq Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic ...disc http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/DNS.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  2. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  3. Dorsal approaches to intradural extramedullary tumors of the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Refai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ pose significant challenges to cranial and spine surgeons. Familiarity with the complex anatomy and avoidance of injury to neurologic and vascular structures are essential to success. Multiple surgical approaches to address lesions at the CVJ have been promoted, including ventral and dorsal-based trajectories. However, optimal selection of the surgical vector to manage the pathology requires a firm understanding of the limitations and advantages of each approach. The selection of the best surgical trajectory must include several factors, such as obtaining the optimal exposure of the region of interest, avoiding injury to critical neurologic or vascular structures, identification of normal anatomical landmarks, the familiarity and comfort level of the surgeon to the approach, and the need for fixation. This review article focuses on dorsal approaches to the CVJ and the advantages and limitations in managing intradural extramedullary tumors.

  4. [Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealing Behcet's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddouche, Ali; Ouaziz, Hicham; Zougaghi, Sinane; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Dergamoun, Hamza; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis (DDPVT)is a rare and little known urologic emergency. It requires an early etiological and symptomatic approach to preserve erectile function and prevent recurrences. This study reports a case of dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealed by spontaneous priapism that didn't resolve adequately and confirmed by penile Doppler ultrasound. After management of priapism and DDPVT, the etiological investigation revealed Behcet's disease whose diagnosis was based on the association of a major criteria, such as oral aphthous ulcers with 3 minor criteria such as: genital aphthous ulcers, ocular involvement, and a positive skin pathergy test within 24h. The patient underwent etiological treatment with good clinical evolution and preservation of erectile function. PMID:27583081

  5. The dorsal stream in speech processing: Model and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Keidel JJ, Welbourne SR, Lambon Ralph MA.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to produce and comprehend spoken language requires an internal understanding of the complex relations between articulatory gestures and their acoustic consequences. Recent theories of speech processing propose a division between the ventral stream, which involves the mapping of acoustic signals to lexical/semantic representations, and the dorsal stream, which mediates the mapping between incoming auditory signals and articulatory output. We present a connectionist model of the dor...

  6. Preparation of teaser bulls by dorsal scrotal penile deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillella, D; Baker, A A; Eaton, R J

    1978-07-01

    A simple, quick and reliable technique of preparing teaser bulls has been developed. Four Bos indicus aged between 1 year 6 months and 2 years were subjected to this method by deflecting their penes backwards about 2 to 3 cm posterior and dorsal to the attachment of the scrotum. No serious postoperative complications were recorded. The sexual behaviour and libido of the bulls did not change after subjecting them to this technique. PMID:708335

  7. Is visual processing in the dorsal stream accessible to consciousness?

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, A D

    2012-01-01

    There are two highly interconnected clusters of visually responsive areas in the primate cortex. These two clusters have relatively few interconnections with each other, though those interconnections are undoubtedly important. One of the two main clusters (the dorsal stream) links the primary visual cortex (V1) to superior regions of the occipito-parietal cortex, while the other (the ventral stream) links V1 to inferior regions of the occipito-temporal cortex. According to our current underst...

  8. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute ...

  9. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  10. Cellular effects of swim stress in the dorsal raphe nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Lynn G.; Pan, Yu-Zhen; Freeman-Daniels, Emily; Rani, Shobha; Nunan, John D.; Akanwa, Adaure; Beck, Sheryl G

    2007-01-01

    Swim stress regulates forebrain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in a complex manner and its effects are initiated in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of swim stress on the physiology of DRN neurons in conjunction with 5-HT immunohistochemistry. Basic membrane properties, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor-mediated responses and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were measured using whole-cell patch clamp technique...

  11. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarrick, H., E-mail: hlm2124@columbia.edu; Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Araujo, D.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Miller, A. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10025 (United States); Ade, P.; Doyle, S.; Tucker, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bradford, K.; Che, G. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Cantor, R. [STAR Cryoelectronics, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States); Day, P.; Leduc, H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Mauskopf, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mroczkowski, T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Department of Physics, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√(s)

  12. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, H; Flanigan, D; Jones, G; Johnson, B R; Ade, P; Araujo, D; Bradford, K; Cantor, R; Che, G; Day, P; Doyle, S; Leduc, H; Limon, M; Luu, V; Mauskopf, P; Miller, A; Mroczkowski, T; Tucker, C; Zmuidzinas, J

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√s.

  13. Ectopic pregnancy within a rudimentary horn in a case of unicornuate uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the MRI features of two cases of unicornuate uterus and occluded rudimentary horn. In one patient pregnancy had occurred in the occluded horn, prompting to urgent resection. The second patient illustrates more conventional findings in occluded rudimentary horn. In both cases MRI was able to correctly characterise the nature of the developmental anomaly. Furthermore, on the basis of signal intensities, differentiation between distended lumen due to blood accumulation and amniotic sac in the case of pregnancy could be made. Because of its high accuracy in determining the type of anomaly present, the lack of ionizing radiation, and the ability to evaluate, with the exception of the fallopian tubes, the entire genitourinary tract, MR imaging is essential and plays a key role in the evaluation of women who are consulting for infertility. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between Horn Pressure and Welding Time in Ultrasonic Welding of Plastic Pipes Using Torsional Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1999-05-01

    Application of ultrasonic welding to plastics has become common. Recently, an ultrasonic welding method for long plastic pipes using torsional vibrations was developed. Optimal welding conditions for this new method have not yet been clarified. This paper reports the results of an investigation made in order to clarify the conditions, focusing on the welding time and both horn pressure, static force that horns pinch pipe, and static pressure which is added to welding surface. Experiments were performed on the welding of acrylic resin and ABS resin pipes. It was found that welding time decreases exponentially with increasing horn pressure and that increasing the static pressure reduces the welding time. It was also found there is an optimum range ofhorn pressures.

  15. Primary lymphoma of the uterine horn in a Lhasa Apso dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Primary lymphomas of the canine female genital tract are uncommon tumours. A 9-year-old intact female Lhasa Apso dog presenting with a closed pyometra underwent an ovariohysterectomy (OHE), and the hyperplastic uterine horn along with multiple follicular cysts on the right ovary was examined by histological analysis. Severe infiltration of medium-sized lymphocytes with strong positive immunoreactivity for CD79a and numerous anaplastic features was detected in the unilateral uterine horn, and the dog was diagnosed as having extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL). The present case reports an extremely rare occurrence of primary lymphoma involving the uterine horn in a dog and describes histological characteristics of the tumour for definite diagnosis. PMID:24325894

  16. Effect of horn fly and internal parasite control on growth of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, D W; DeRosa, A A; Oremus, G R; Foil, L D

    2003-11-28

    The effects of horn fly and gastrointestinal nematode control on body weight gain of yearling Angus-Brangus cross heifers were evaluated in three separate studies during the years 1999, 2000 and 2002. In each year, the studies started in late May and lasted for 150, 148 and 123 days, respectively. In all three studies, the tag treatment (10% lambdacyhalothrin+13% piperonyl butoxide impregnated ear tags) provided excellent horn fly control. In the three studies, the average weekly horn fly counts for tagged heifers were 1, 3, and 0 flies per side while the average on untreated heifers was 52, 163 and 90 flies per side. In studies 1 and 2, there was no difference (P>0.1) in weight gain between tagged and untreated heifers, but in study 3, tagged heifers gained 50% more weight (P0.1) between the main treatment effects of fly control and gastrointestinal nematode control. PMID:14637031

  17. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae, in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 µg/cm², and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6. Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations.

  18. Is visual processing in the dorsal stream accessible to consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A D

    2012-06-22

    There are two highly interconnected clusters of visually responsive areas in the primate cortex. These two clusters have relatively few interconnections with each other, though those interconnections are undoubtedly important. One of the two main clusters (the dorsal stream) links the primary visual cortex (V1) to superior regions of the occipito-parietal cortex, while the other (the ventral stream) links V1 to inferior regions of the occipito-temporal cortex. According to our current understanding of the functional anatomy of these two systems, the dorsal stream's principal role is to provide real-time 'bottom-up' visual guidance of our movements online. In contrast, the ventral stream, in conjunction with top-down information from visual and semantic memory, provides perceptual representations that can serve recognition, visual thought, planning and memory offline. In recent years, this interpretation, initially based chiefly on studies of non-human primates and human neurological patients, has been well supported by functional MRI studies in humans. This perspective presents empirical evidence for the contention that the dorsal stream governs the visual control of movement without the intervention of visual awareness. PMID:22456882

  19. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Diagnotic Radiology; Ip, W.Y. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1999-08-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Spinal Deformity, Dorsal Kyphosis and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kuran

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been show that spine deformity index is a better indicator of the functional capacity of the osteoporotic patient than the number of vertebral fractures. In order to investigate the relation between spinal deformity, dorsal kyphosis and the bone mineral density, we undertook the following study. In 40 postmenopausal women (age 59,1±7 spine deformity index (SDI was calculated by lateral roentgenograms of the dorsal and lumbar spine. 25 subjects at premenopausal age were also x-rayed to find the normal limits. Dorsal kyphosis (DK was measured by Cobb’s angle. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by DEXA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Student’s t-test were used as statistical analysis. The results show that there was a significant correlation between DK and SDI. BMD's at femoral neck and lumbar spine were not correlated with DK and SDI (p>0,05. In patients with 40 degrees. The difference was not significant. We conclude that as the spinal deformity increases, DK is expected to increase and BMD is expected to decrease.

  1. Neurotransmitter map of the asymmetric dorsal habenular nuclei of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCarvalho, Tagide N.; Subedi, Abhignya; Rock, Jason; Harfe, Brian D.; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Halpern, Marnie E.; Hong, Elim

    2014-01-01

    The role of the habenular nuclei in modulating fear and reward pathways has sparked a renewed interest in this conserved forebrain region. The bilaterally paired habenular nuclei, each consisting of a medial/dorsal and lateral/ventral nucleus, can be further divided into discrete subdomains whose neuronal populations, precise connectivity and specific functions are not well understood. An added complexity is that the left and right habenulae show pronounced morphological differences in many non-mammalian species. Notably, the dorsal habenulae of larval zebrafish provide a vertebrate genetic model to probe the development and functional significance of brain asymmetry. Previous reports have described a number of genes that are expressed in the zebrafish habenulae, either in bilaterally symmetric patterns or more extensively on one side of the brain than the other. The goal of our study was to generate a comprehensive map of the zebrafish dorsal habenular nuclei, by delineating the relationship between gene expression domains, comparing the extent of left-right asymmetry at larval and adult stages, and identifying potentially functional subnuclear regions as defined by neurotransmitter phenotype. While many aspects of habenular organization appear conserved with rodents, the zebrafish habenulae also possess unique properties that may underlie lateralization of their functions. PMID:24753112

  2. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  3. Dorsal inlay inner preputial graft for primary hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B. Nerli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most commonly performed operation to repair distal hypospadias is the Tubularised incised plate (TIP repair. The key step is midline incision of the urethral plate, which widens a narrow plate and converts a flat into a deep plate groove, ensuring a vertical, slit neomeatus and a normal-calibre neourethra. At times in cases of proximal hypospadias, the urethral plate is very narrow and needs to be augmented or substituted for further tubularisation. We report our experience with primary single stage dorsal inlay urethroplasty using preputial skin grafts. Patients and Methods: Children with proximal hypospadias with a narrow urethral plate formed the study group. Children needing transection of the urethral plate, having undergone circumcision/hypospadias repair previously or having an inadequate prepuce was excluded. Results: Twelve children with a mean age of 48.83 months underwent primary dorsal inlay preputial graft urethroplasty for proximal hypospadias with a very narrow urethral plate. At an average follow-up of 42.16 months, 2 (16.66% children had a breakdown of ventral shaft skin. None of the children had meatal stenosis, and none of these 12 children developed urethrocutaneous fistula. Conclusion: Primary dorsal inlay inner preputial graft urethroplasty successfully fulfills all traditional hypospadias repair criteria. It offers a viable, safe, rapid and easy option in the management of proximal hypospadias with a narrow urethral plate.

  4. Retrospective cost analysis of cervical laminectomy and fusion versus cervical laminoplasty in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Daniel T.; Ricart-Hoffiz, Pedro A.; Andres, Tate M.; Hoelscher, Christian M.; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S.; Goldstein, Jeffrey A; Bendo, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical laminoplasty (CLP) and posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (CLF) are well-established surgical procedures used in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In situations of clinical equipoise, an influential factor in procedural decision making could be the economic effect of the chosen procedure. The object of this study is to compare and analyze the total hospital costs and charges pertaining to patients undergoing CLP or CLF for the treatment of CSM....

  5. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  6. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qizhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a special degenerative disease because of the intermediate normal level or levels between supra and infraabnormal levels. Some controversy exists over the optimal procedure for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. The study was to evaluate the outcomes of the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF with zero-profile devices for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. Materials and Methods: 17 consecutive patients with two noncontiguous levels of CSM operated between December 2009 and August 2012 were included in the study. There were 12 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60.7 years (range 45-75 years. Involved disc levels were C3/4 and C5/6 in 11 patients and C4/5 and C6/7 in six patients. Preoperative plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT with 3-D reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine were taken in all patients. All radiographs were independently evaluated by 2 spine surgeons and 1 radiologist. The outcomes were assessed by the average operative time, blood loss, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, improvement rate, neck dysfunction index (NDI, swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL score, the cervical lordosis and complications. Results: The mean followup was 48.59 months (range 24-56 months. The average operative time and blood loss was 105.29 min and 136.47 ml, respectively. The preoperative JOA score was 8.35, which significantly increased to 13.7 at the final followup ( P 0.05. Cerebrospinal fluid leak, dysphagia and radiological adjacent segment degeneration occurred in one patient, respectively. Conclusion: The ACDF with zero-profile devices is generally effective and safe in treating two noncontiguous levels of CSM.

  7. An Inquiry into Acupuncture Treatment on Cervical Vertebral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The cervical vertebral diseases are the diseases of cervical osteoarticular and ligament hypertrophy that cause stenosis of vertebral canals and intervertebral foraminae and compression of nerve roots or cervical segments.

  8. Visualization of Cervical Nerve Roots and Their Distal Nerve Fibers by Diffusion-Weighted Scanning Using Parallel Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Fujikawa, A.; Tateishi, H.; Nitatori, T. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To report a technique developed for visualizing cervical nerve roots and distal nerve fibers using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging employing parallel imaging. Material and Methods: We performed maximum intensity projection for a stack of isotropic axial diffusion-weighted images obtained with parallel imaging applying a motion-probing gradient in six directions with a b-value of 500 s/mm{sup 2} in a preliminary series of 13 subjects. Results: This method worked well for visualizing the spinal cord and most of the nerve roots, the dorsal root ganglia, and proximal peripheral nerves. Conclusion: Although the technique remains limited in depicting the brachial plexus and distal nerves, the ability to visualize the proximal peripheral nervous system at the cervical level is promising.

  9. Everybody is the Good One! Living History and Monuments at the Little Big Horn Battlefield Site

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Busatta

    2007-01-01

    Two re-enactments are performed by Crow Indians and white re-enactors near and on the Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, as the Custer Battlefield was renamed after President G.W. Bush signed a bill in 1991, which approved the change of the name and the building of an Indian Memorial close to the monument on the mass grave on the Last Stand Hill. Little Big Horn has become a symbol for much more than a small stream near which a mere skirmish by military standards took place in sou...

  10. Rupture of the gravid horn of bicornuate uterus following induction of labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Indira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a Primi gravida with preeclampsia and intrauterine foetal death. As she failed to respond to induction of labour she was taken up for caesarian section. On opening the abdomen, uterus was bicornuate with fundal rupture of left horn. Dead foetus presenting as breech was found in the left horn. After delivering the foetus and placenta the rent was sutured in two layers. In this case, induction of labour in patient with undiagnosed uterine anomaly has led to rupture. This case stresses the importance of early ultrasound in diagnosing uterine anomalies.

  11. A Novel CP Horn Antenna with Switchable Polarization by Single Port Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yangzhen Huang; Junping Geng; Xianling Liang; Ronghong Jin; Xudong Bai

    2015-01-01

    A novel CP horn antenna with switchable polarization by single port feeding is presented. The antenna is composed of a coaxial-waveguide converter and a balance-cavity, a horn, a square-to-circular waveguide transition, and a stepped-septum polarizer, which simplify the feeding and can work on the left-hand or right-hand circular polarizations by manual exchanging the mounting position of the coaxial-waveguide converter and the balance-cavity. The antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth (3.88...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Angiography for the Prerupture Diagnosis of Rudimentary Uterine Horn Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography were used for the differential diagnosis and preoperative planning of a 17 weeks of age rudimentary horn pregnancy. A 26-year-old primigravida was referred to our hospital with a preliminary diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy. After an inconclusive ultrasound evaluation we were able to identify a rudimentary horn pregnancy, extent of the placental invasion, and the vascular supply via MR imaging and time of flight sequence MR angiography. The obtained data were also used for preoperative planning, which resulted in an uncomplicated, prerupture laparotomy for pregnancy termination and a healthy female

  13. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  14. Design and analysis of a multimode feed horn for a monopulse feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Min; Chu, Ruey-Shi

    1988-02-01

    The design of a multimode feed horn for use in a monopulse feed system is summarized. Both amplitude and phase patterns have been obtained and compared with measurements. The far-field amplitude and phase patterns are computed in consideration of achieving the desired aperture distributions for the sum and diffference beams. The phase center of the horn is discussed in relation to the multimode excitation and frequency dispersion. It is shown that the phase center location moves as the mode content changes, and proper adjustment of the mode content will result in design optimization. Some tradeoff curves are also presented for design optimization.

  15. Empirical investigation of wind farm blockage effects in Horn Rev 1 offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitraszewski, Karol; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Nygaard, Nicolai;

    We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds and stabi......We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds...

  16. Near field of corrugated horns and its influence on dual reflector antenna radiation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, V.; Kuehn, E.

    1985-05-01

    The existing procedures for calculating the near field of the corrugated horns of dual reflector antennas are briefly reviewed, and their disadvantages are pointed out. A new approach to calculating the near field of circular corrugated feed horns is then discussed with specific reference to a Ku-band offset Gregorian antenna developed for the German Telecommunication Satellite DFS scheduled for launch in 1987. The approach, which is based on a physical-optics solution, is shown to provide an accurate description of the actual radiation characteristics. The effect of the near field on the gain, side-lobe level, and cross-polar performance of the antenna is discussed.

  17. The hydrodynamics of the Big Horn Basin: a study of the role of faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Belitz, K.; Sharp-Hansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model simulates groundwater flow in the Big Horn basin, Wyoming. The hydraulic head at depth over much of the Big Horn basin is near the land surface elevation, a condition usually defined as hydrostatic. This condition indicates a high, regional-scale, vertical conductivity for the sediments in the basin. Our hypothesis to explain the high conductivity is that the faults act as vertical conduits for fluid flow. These same faults can act as either horizontal barriers to flow or nonbarriers, depending upon whether the fault zones are more permeable or less permeable than the adjoining aquifers. -from Authors

  18. Analysis and Design of a New Shaped Spherical Reflector Antenna with a Horn Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yan; HUANG Bin; ZHU Quan-fu; YUAN Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A design method of a new shaped spherical reflector antenna with a horn feed for wide-angle scanning is presented, in which the horn's phase center need not be found out and its optimal position can be determined. It is found from numerical calculation that the shaped spherical reflector antenna has better electrical performance than that of the spherical reflector antenna, at the maximum gain value under the conditions of the same feed and reflector aperture, and can be used as a wide angle searching antenna.

  19. Switching studies for the Horns Rev 2 wind farm main cable

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a method of constructing a PSCAD model suitable for switching studies in a system containing long HVAC cables. The transmission network connection to the 215 MW offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 is used as a case study. The connection to Horns Rev 2 consists of two land cable sections with a total length of 57.7 km and a 42 km long submarine cable. The submarine cable is a three phase type of cable, and three single conductor cables are used for the land cable. Methods of r...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Angiography for the Prerupture Diagnosis of Rudimentary Uterine Horn Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeren, S.; Caliskan, E.; Corakci, A.; Ozkan, S.; Demirci, A. [Kocaeli Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli (Turkey). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography were used for the differential diagnosis and preoperative planning of a 17 weeks of age rudimentary horn pregnancy. A 26-year-old primigravida was referred to our hospital with a preliminary diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy. After an inconclusive ultrasound evaluation we were able to identify a rudimentary horn pregnancy, extent of the placental invasion, and the vascular supply via MR imaging and time of flight sequence MR angiography. The obtained data were also used for preoperative planning, which resulted in an uncomplicated, prerupture laparotomy for pregnancy termination and a healthy female.

  1. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  2. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  3. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  4. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn flies are serious pests of cattle in North America and control of these flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of resistance in horn flies and novel methods of fly control are greatly needed. The use of transformation techno...

  5. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  6. Transcervical catheterization and cervical patency during the oestrous cycle in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, K; Lohachit, C; Ponglowhapan, S; Linde-Forsberg, C

    2001-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop a device for vaginal and transcervical catheterization in domestic cats, and to study cervical patency during the various stages of the oestrous cycle. Seventeen queens submitted for routine spaying were included in the study. A vaginal catheter was designed from a urinary catheter for dogs, to fit into the ventral vaginal fornix, and a 3.5 French tomcat catheter was used as an inner transcervical catheter. Cervical patency was studied by infusing 0.5 ml Urografin into the cranial vagina and taking X-rays of the queens after 5 min. The Urografin did not enter the uterus, even in the oestrous queens. Transcervical catheterization was then attempted. The correct placement of the intrauterine catheter was confirmed by injecting green food colour mixed with penicillin G and observing the presence of stain in the uterine horns during surgery. Catheterization was successful in 13 of 17 queens: six of nine in interoestrus, three of three in oestrus, one of two in metoestrus and three of three in the postpartum period. Transcervical catheterization is a non-invasive technique that is likely to improve the success rate of assisted feline reproduction, and is potentially a useful non-surgical technique for diagnosis and therapy of uterine diseases. PMID:11787175

  7. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifa E. W. Puteh; Paul Ng; Aljunid, Syed M

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An acti...

  8. Cervical screening: Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) as triage and test of cure was introduced into the Northern Ireland Cervical Screening Programme on Monday 28 January 2013. This policy change will significantly alter the screening pathway for women with a mild dyskaryosis or borderline smear result. The link between HR-HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer has now been clearly established, with almost 100% of cervical cancers containing HPV DNA. Women with no evidence of HR-...

  9. Telomerase activity in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑珍; 孙建衡; 张伟; 金顺钱; 王洪平; 金玉生; 曲萍; 刘毅; 李茉

    2004-01-01

    Background It was reported that telomerase expression is closely associated with cellular immortality and cancer. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between telomerase expression and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer, the possible use of telomerase as a marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression or regression, and the natural history of CIN. Methods Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay was used to measure telomerase activity in cervical scrapings and biopsy samples obtained from 105 cases affected with various cervical conditions, including chronic cervicitis (n=20), CIN (n=64, 16 cases of CIN Ⅰ , 20 cases of CIN Ⅱ, and 28 cases of CIN Ⅲ ), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (n =21 ).Results In exfoliated cell samples, telomerase activity was detected in 5 of 20 (25. 0% ) cases of cervicitis, 10 of 16 (62.5%) cases of CIN Ⅰ , 11 of 20 (55.0%) cases of CIN Ⅱ, 23 of 28 (82.1%) cases of CIN Ⅲ, and 13 of 21 (61.9%) cases of carcinoma. In cervical biopsy samples, telomerase activity was detected in 6 of 20 (30. 0%) cases of cervicitis, 8 of 16 (50. 0%) cases of CIN Ⅰ , 9 of 20 (45.0%) cases of (CIN Ⅱ, 27 of 28 (96. 4%) cases of CIN Ⅲ, and 20 of 21 (95. 2%) cases of carcinoma. Telomerase activation was significantly higher in CIN samples than in cervicitis samples. Telomerase activity was detected at similar frequency in samples from cervical scrapings and cervical biopsies.Conclusion These results seem to suggest that telomerase expression may be associated with carcinogenesis of the cervix. TRAP assay of cervical scraping samples could be used to monitor and predict the development of CIN in clinical practice.

  10. Cervical Spine Instrumentation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedequist, Daniel J; Emans, John B

    2016-06-01

    Instrumentation of the cervical spine enhances stability and improves arthrodesis rates in children undergoing surgery for deformity or instability. Various morphologic and clinical studies have been conducted in children, confirming the feasibility of anterior or posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine with modern implants. Knowledge of the relevant spine anatomy and preoperative imaging studies can aid the clinician in understanding the pitfalls of instrumentation for each patient. Preoperative planning, intraoperative positioning, and adherence to strict surgical techniques are required given the small size of children. Instrumentation options include anterior plating, occipital plating, and a variety of posterior screw techniques. Complications related to screw malposition include injury to the vertebral artery, neurologic injury, and instrumentation failure. PMID:27097300

  11. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路平; 梁秋冬; 魏磊; 郑全庆

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate factors for prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Expressions of mn23- HI, erbB3 and erbB4 were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis was detected in situ by the TdT mediated duip-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. Mitotic cell were counted by HE dyeing. Results: FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis were the most important factors for evaluating prognosis in adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. AI/MI was positively correlated with 5-year survival of cervical carcinoma. Positive expression of nm23-H1 combed with negative expression of erbB4 [nm23-H1(+)/erbB4(-)] predicted good prognosis for adeno-carcinoma. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, only FIGO stage and AI/MI were into equation. Conclusion: FIGO stage and AI/MI were independent evaluating parameter for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    ) demonstrated that HPV testing provides better protection against cervical cancer than cytology, but it requires extra repeated testing. HPV vaccination RCTs, furthermore, have proved that HPV vaccination protects against vaccine-type high-grade CIN in women vaccinated prior to sexual activity, but less so...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...... in women vaccinated later. The challenge now is therefore to find an algorithm for screening of a heterogeneous population including non-vaccinated women; women vaccinated prior to start of sexual activity; and women vaccinated later....

  13. [Hpv cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alvaro P; Tulio, Siumara; Cruz, Olívia Russo

    2002-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a central rule in uterine cervix carcinogenesis. Other factors direct or indirectly influence the installation of this mechanism in cervical squamous epithelium. Investigations regarding mechanisms of interaction of these factors with viral elements are found in the literature of the last 20 years. The present review article discusses possible co-factors of HPV in the genesis of the squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix, taking into account only the factors whose association with the virus or cervical cancer has been documented by experimental studies, and not based just on clinical or epidemiological data. Among the approached parameters are immunological factors (local and humoral immune response), the association with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, genetic factors as protein p53 polymorphism, tabagism and the use of oral contraceptives. All these factors interact in variable intensity with oncoproteins and other HPV elements, increasing and facilitating the virus action in host cells, leading to the development of immortalization and carcinogenesis. PMID:12185639

  14. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  15. Ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn of unicornuate uterus at 14 weeks of pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of the uterus is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy of which most of the patients present in second trimester in haemorrhagic shock and severe anaemia due to rupture. We report a case of ruptured rudimentary horn at 14 weeks of pregnancy with shock and severe anaemia. A 30 yr old G2P1L1 with last child birth 4 yrs back reported to casualty with acute abdominal pain since 3 hrs, bleeding PV and vomiting since one hr. Ultrasound done showed haemoperitoneum with fetus of 14 weeks. Emergency laparotomy was done with excision of the rudimentary horn was done.

  16. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  17. ISASS Policy Statement - Cervical Interbody

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kern; Qureshi, Sheeraz

    2014-01-01

    Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement In 2011, CPT code 22551 was revised to combine or bundle CPT codes 63075 and 22554 when both procedures were performed at the same site/same surgical session. The add on code +22552 is used to report each additional interspace. 2014 heralded a downward pressure on this now prime target code (for non-coverage?) 22551 through an egregious insurer attempt to redefine cervical arthrodesis, effectively removing spine surgeon...

  18. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie A Robson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:520–522.

  19. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facchini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosa, Hirofumi; Yamano, Kouichirou; Ihara, Fumitoshi; Ueda, Yoshiaki; Maekawa, Masayuki; Tokuhisa, Ginichirou; Kuwano, Tadashi; Kamo, Yoshi; Nomura, Shigeharu (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    Forty-three patients operated for cervical myelopathy were examined with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Cord compression was demonstrated directly on the sagittal image in cases of cervical disc herniation, cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. Herniated disc material was seen positive on axial image. But factors of cord compression in cases of cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. were not clearly confirmed, so additional examinations such as myelogram, tomogram and CT was needed. (author).